Dolphin

For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation).
Genera
See article below.

Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises. The name is from Ancient Greek δελφίς delphis meaning "with a womb", viz. "a 'fish' with a womb".

The word is used in a few different ways. It can mean:

  1. Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),
  2. Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),
  3. Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),
  4. Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin.

In this article, the second definition is used.

Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in our sense. Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language.

There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera. They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and all are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about 10 million years ago, during the Miocene.

Taxonomy

Six animals in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. They are sometimes called "blackfish":

Hybrid Dolphins

In 1933, three strange dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin. This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-Toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring. In the wild, Spinner Dolphins have sometimes hybridised with Spotted Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins. In the wild, bands of males of one dolphin species have been observed to mate with lone female Spinners. Blue Whales, Fin Whales and Humpback Whales all hybridize in the wild. Dall's Porpoises and Harbour Porpoises have hybridized in the wild. There has also been a reported hybrid between a beluga and a narwhal. See also wolphin.

Evolution and anatomy of dolphins

Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. Modern dolphin skeletons have two small rod shaped pelvic bones thought to be left-over hind legs. They entered the water roughly 50 million years ago. See evolution of cetaceans for the details.

Dolphins have a fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth that looks like a fixed smile. Teeth can be very numerous (up to 250) in several species. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their high intelligence.

Their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an array or antenna focusing the incoming sound, making it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object.

The basic coloration patterns are shades of gray with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast. See individual species articles for details.

Dolphin behavior

Dolphins in balance.

Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals. A typical statement would be that dolphins are roughly as intelligent as a two-year-old human. However, experts in comparative psychology or animal cognition would be reluctant to make any such estimate, as quantitative comparisons of intelligence between species are notoriously difficult to make in principle. Straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition; furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with a large marine animal mean that even such tests as can meaningfully be done have still not been done, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. See the Dolphin intelligence article for more details.

Dolphins often leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. the spinner dolphin). Scientists aren't quite certain about the purpose of this behavior, but it may be to locate schools of fish by looking at above water signs, like feeding birds. They could also be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, or attempting to dislodge parasites. Perhaps they just do it for fun. Play is a very important part of dolphins' lives and they can often be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins. They have even been seen harassing other creatures, like seabirds and turtles. Frequently dolphins will accompany boats, riding the bow waves.

They are also famous for their willingness to occasionally approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. In return, in some cultures like in Ancient Greece they were treated with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage. There are many stories of dolphins protecting shipwrecked sailors against sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers.

Dolphins are social animals, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen animals. In places with a high abundance of food, schools can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1000 dolphins. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation.

Dolphin leaping in the air.

Membership in schools is not rigid; interchange is common. However, the animals can establish strong bonds between each other. This leads to them staying with injured or ill fellows for support.

Because of their high capacity for learning, dolphins have been employed by humans for any number of purposes. Dolphins trained to perform in front of an audience have become a favorite attraction in dolphinaria, for example SeaWorld. Dolphin/Human interaction is also employed in a curative sense at places where dolphins work with autistic or otherwise disabled children. The military has employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped persons. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese Skin Divers.

In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their offspring to use a tool. The animals break off sponges and put them onto their mouths thus protecting the delicate body part during their hunt for fish on the seabed. Other than with primate simians, the knowledge to use a tool is mostly handed over only from mothers to daughters. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught cultural behaviour.

In captivity, many dolphins seem to have committed suicide. They either do so by repeatedly slamming their head against the pool walls or other solid objects or simply by not coming up for air anymore. Probably one of the best known cases of dolphin suicide is that of a dolphin named Cathy, one of the bottlenose dolphins that performed in the television series Flipper. She most likely died of self induced asphyxiation in the presence of her trainer Richard O'Barry.[1]

Compare also: whale behavior

Senses

Most dolphins have acute eyesight both in and out of the water and their sense of hearing is far above our own. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head it is believed hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the vibrations to the middle ear via a fat filled cavity in the lower jaw bone. Hearing is also used for echolocation which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed.

However, they seem to lack a well-developed sense of smell, but they most likely can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface in the wild, just tasting the water could act as a sense of smell.

Feeding

Dolphins are predators, chasing their prey at high speed. The dentition is adapted to the animals they hunt: Species with long beaks and many teeth forage on fish, whereas short beaks and lesser tooth count are linked to catching squid. Some dolphins may take crustaceans. Usually, the prey is swallowed whole. The larger species, especially the orca, are capable of eating marine mammals, even large whales. There are no known reports of cannibalism amongst dolphins.

Individual species may employ a number of methods of hunting:

Dolphin lore


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Individual species may employ a number of methods of hunting:. It must be proven that causality, or a 'sufficient causal link' relates the defendant's actions to the criminal event or damage in question. There are no known reports of cannibalism amongst dolphins. a civil wrong such as negligence or trespass). The larger species, especially the orca, are capable of eating marine mammals, even large whales. According to law and jurisprudence, legal cause must be demonstrated in order to hold a defendant liable for a crime or a tort (ie. Usually, the prey is swallowed whole. In the field of history, the term cause has at least two meanings, often mistakenly conflated.

Some dolphins may take crustaceans. A system that has some dependence on input values from the future (in addition to possible past or current input values) is termed an acausal system, and a system that depends solely on future input values is an anticausal system. The dentition is adapted to the animals they hunt: Species with long beaks and many teeth forage on fish, whereas short beaks and lesser tooth count are linked to catching squid. A causal system is a system with output and internal states that depends only on the current and previous input values. Dolphins are predators, chasing their prey at high speed. Another important implication of Causality in physics is its intimate connection to the Second Law of Thermodynamics - see the fluctuation theorem. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface in the wild, just tasting the water could act as a sense of smell. Interpreting gravity causally is even more complicated in general relativity.

However, they seem to lack a well-developed sense of smell, but they most likely can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. There are no discrete events or "pulls" that can be said to precede the rising of tides. The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed. It isn't accurate to say, "the moon exerts a gravitic pull and then the tides rise." In Newtonian mechanics gravity, rather, is a law expressing a constant observable relationship among masses, and the movement of the tides is an example of that relationship. Hearing is also used for echolocation which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. One problem is typified by the moon's gravity. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head it is believed hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the vibrations to the middle ear via a fat filled cavity in the lower jaw bone. Causality is hard to interpret in many different physical theories.

Most dolphins have acute eyesight both in and out of the water and their sense of hearing is far above our own. Rather than providing a theory of causality in toto, they opt to provide a theory of causality in biology or causality in physics. Compare also: whale behavior. In addition, many philosophers are beginning to turn to more relativized notions of causality. She most likely died of self induced asphyxiation in the presence of her trainer Richard O'Barry.[1]. This view has been controversial. Probably one of the best known cases of dolphin suicide is that of a dolphin named Cathy, one of the bottlenose dolphins that performed in the television series Flipper. For example, the link between smoking and lung cancer is considered proven by health agencies of the United States government, but experimental methods (for example, randomized controlled trials) were not used to establish that link.

They either do so by repeatedly slamming their head against the pool walls or other solid objects or simply by not coming up for air anymore. In addition, many scientists in a variety of fields disagree that experiments are necessary to determine causality. In captivity, many dolphins seem to have committed suicide. The fact that no experiment is entirely replicable questions some core assumptions in science. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught cultural behaviour. However, the issue of to which degree a scientific experiment is replicable has been often raised but rarely addressed. Other than with primate simians, the knowledge to use a tool is mostly handed over only from mothers to daughters. Certain elemental forces such as gravity, the strong and weak nuclear forces, and electromagnetism are said to be the four fundamental forces which are the causes of all other events in the universe.

The animals break off sponges and put them onto their mouths thus protecting the delicate body part during their hunt for fish on the seabed. Using the Scientific method, scientists set up experiments to determine causality in the physical world. In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their offspring to use a tool. ' I found a twenty dollar bill on the ground because later I would need it. '. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese Skin Divers. Destiny might be considered reverse causality in that a cause is predated by an effect, i.e. The military has employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped persons. These groups have accordingly developed new causality principles such as the doctrine of responsibility assumption.

Dolphin/Human interaction is also employed in a curative sense at places where dolphins work with autistic or otherwise disabled children. According to these groups, causality does not proceed inward, from external random causes toward effects on a perceiving individual, but rather outward, from a perceiving individual's causative mental requests toward responsive external physical effects that only seem to be independent causes. Dolphins trained to perform in front of an audience have become a favorite attraction in dolphinaria, for example SeaWorld. Some modern religious movements have postulated along the lines of philosophical idealism that causality is actually reversed from the direction normally presumed. Because of their high capacity for learning, dolphins have been employed by humans for any number of purposes. Karma is the belief held by some major religions that a person's actions cause certain effects in future incarnations, positively or negatively. This leads to them staying with injured or ill fellows for support. A question related to this argument is which came first, The chicken or the egg?.

However, the animals can establish strong bonds between each other. Critics of this argument point out problems with it. Membership in schools is not rigid; interchange is common. Two questions that can help to focus the argument are:. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation. The chain doesn't go back in time, it goes downward into the ever-more enduring facts, and thus toward the timeless. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations. Sometimes the argument is made in non-temporal terms.

In places with a high abundance of food, schools can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1000 dolphins. a creation by God. Dolphins are social animals, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen animals. If the chain does end, it must end with a non-natural or supernatural cause at the start of the natural world -- e.g. There are many stories of dolphins protecting shipwrecked sailors against sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers. If the chain never ends, then one must uphold the hypothesis of an "actual infinite", which is often regarded as problematic, see Hilbert's paradox of the Grand Hotel. In return, in some cultures like in Ancient Greece they were treated with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage. If this is so, then the events that caused today's events must have had causes themselves, which must have had causes, and so forth.

They are also famous for their willingness to occasionally approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. It works from the premise that every natural event is the effect of a cause. Frequently dolphins will accompany boats, riding the bow waves. One of the classic arguments for the existence of God is known as the "Cosmological argument" or "First cause" argument. They have even been seen harassing other creatures, like seabirds and turtles. More Info. Play is a very important part of dolphins' lives and they can often be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins. David Sobel and Alison Gopnik from the Psychology Department of UC Berkeley designed a device known as the blicket detector which suggests that "when causal property and perceptual features are equally evident, children are equally as likely to use causal powers as they are to use perceptual properties when naming objects".

Perhaps they just do it for fun. While the names we give objects often refer to their appearance, they can also refer to an object's causal powers - what that object can do, the effects it has on other objects or people. They could also be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, or attempting to dislodge parasites. Another way to view the statement, "Lightning causes thunder" is to see both lightning and thunder as two perceptions of the same event, viz., an electric discharge that we perceive first visually and then aurally. Scientists aren't quite certain about the purpose of this behavior, but it may be to locate schools of fish by looking at above water signs, like feeding birds. Our view of causation depends on what we consider to be the relevant events. the spinner dolphin). See also accident; blame; intent; and responsibility.

Dolphins often leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. The intention behind the cause or the effect can be covered by the subject of action (philosophy). See the Dolphin intelligence article for more details. Taking causation one step further, the type of attribution a person provides influences their future behavior. Straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition; furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with a large marine animal mean that even such tests as can meaningfully be done have still not been done, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. Attribution can be external (assigning causality to an outside agent or force - claiming that some outside thing motivated the event) or internal (assigning causality to factors within the person - taking personal responsibility or accountability for one's actions and claiming that the person was directly responsible for the event). However, experts in comparative psychology or animal cognition would be reluctant to make any such estimate, as quantitative comparisons of intelligence between species are notoriously difficult to make in principle. Attribution theory is the theory concerning how people explain individual occurrences of causation.

A typical statement would be that dolphins are roughly as intelligent as a two-year-old human. This is often studied in psychology. Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals. Another avenue of research is to discover how ordinary causal talk is employed by everyday people without challenging them. See individual species articles for details. This process uses our standard causal intuitions to develop a theory that we would find satisfactory in identifying causes. It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast. The above theories are attempts to define a reflectively stable notion of causality.

The basic coloration patterns are shades of gray with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. The former notions can then be defined in terms of causal processes. Their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an array or antenna focusing the incoming sound, making it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object. These theorists claim that the important concept for understanding causality is not causal relationships or causal interactions, but rather identifying causal processes. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their high intelligence. On the other hand an alteration of the shadow (insofar as it is possible) will not be transmitted by the shadow as it moves along. Teeth can be very numerous (up to 250) in several species. An alteration of the ball (a mark by a pen, perhaps) is carried with it as the ball goes through the air.

In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth that looks like a fixed smile. Salmon (1984) claims that causal processes can be identified by their ability to transmit an alteration over space and time. The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. The former is causal in nature while the second is not. Dolphins have a fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. As an example, a ball moving through the air (a process) is contrasted with the motion of a shadow (a pseudo-process). See evolution of cetaceans for the details. These theorist often want to distinguish between a process and a pseudo-process.

They entered the water roughly 50 million years ago. Some theorists are interested in distinguishing between causal processes and non-causal processes (Russell 1948; Salmon 1984). Modern dolphin skeletons have two small rod shaped pelvic bones thought to be left-over hind legs. These account use manipulation as a sign or feature in causation without claiming that manipulation is more fundamental than causation (Pearl 2000; Woodward 2003). Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. Some attempts to save manipulability theories are recent accounts that don't claim to reduce causality to manipulation. See also wolphin. In this sense, it makes humans overly central to interactions in the world.

There has also been a reported hybrid between a beluga and a narwhal. If causality is identified with our manipulation, then this inituition is lost. Dall's Porpoises and Harbour Porpoises have hybridized in the wild. It seems to many people that causality is some existing relationship in the world that we can harness for our desires. Blue Whales, Fin Whales and Humpback Whales all hybridize in the wild. The second criticism centers around concerns of anthropocentrism. In the wild, bands of males of one dolphin species have been observed to mate with lone female Spinners. But describing manipulations in non-causal terms has provided a substantial difficulty.

In the wild, Spinner Dolphins have sometimes hybridised with Spotted Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins. Attempting to reduce causal claims to manipulation requires that manipulation is more basic than causal interaction. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-Toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring. First, theorists complain that these accounts are circular. This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. These theories have been criticized on two primary grounds. In 1933, three strange dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin. For instance, we are interested in knowing the causes of crime so that we might find ways of reducing it.

They are sometimes called "blackfish":. This coincides with commonsense notions of causations, since often we ask causal questions in order to change some feature of the world. Six animals in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. Under these theories, x causes y just in case one can change x in order to change y. . Some theorists have equated causality with manipulability (Collingwood 1940; Gasking 1955; Menzies and Price 1993; von Wright 1971). The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about 10 million years ago, during the Miocene. They postulate the inherent serialization of such a system of equations may correctly capture causation in all empirical fields, including physics and economics.

They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and all are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. The system of equations must have certain properties, most importantly, if some values are chosen arbitrarily, the remaining values will be determined uniquely through a path of serial discovery that is perfectly causal. Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). So, given a system of equations, and a set of variables appearing in these equations, we can introduce an asymmetric relation among individual equations and variables that corresponds perfectly to our commonsense notion of a causal ordering. They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). Rather, a causal relation is not a relation between values of variables, but a function of one variable (the cause) on to another (the effect) (Simon and Rescher, 1966). There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera. The Nobel Prize holder Herbert Simon and Philosopher Nicholas Rescher claim that the asymmetry of the causal relation is unrelated to the asymmetry of any mode of implication that contraposes.

Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language. For instance, our degree of confidence in the direction and nature of causality is much clearer with a longitudinal epidemiologic study than with a cross-sectional one. Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in our sense. The addition of time as a variable, though not proving causality, is a big help in supporting a pre-existing theory of causal direction. In this article, the second definition is used. This can be set up by simple linear regression models, for instance, with an analysis of covariance in which baseline and follow up values are known for a theorized cause and effect. It can mean:. This is because causes must precede their effects temporally.

The word is used in a few different ways. For nonexperimental data, causal direction can be hinted if information about time is available. "a 'fish' with a womb". In contrast with Bayesian Networks, path analysis and its generalization, structural equation modeling, serve better to estimate a known causal effect or test a causal model than to generate causal hypotheses. The name is from Ancient Greek δελφίς delphis meaning "with a womb", viz. If experimental data is already available, the algorithms can take advantage of that as well. Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises. In general this leaves a set of possible causal relations, which should then be tested by designing appropriate experiments.

In the William Gibson short story Johnny Mnemonic and the film by the same name (starring Keanu Reeves), cyborg dolphins were used in war-time by the military to find submarines and, after the war, by a group of revolutionaries to decode encrypted information. Generally these inference algorithms search through the many possible causal structures among the variables, and remove ones which are strongly incompatible with the observed correlations. One of the mates of the ship is named Akeakamai, in honor of the real-life dolphin from Louis Herman's animal language research. That said, under certain assumptions, parts of the causal structure among several variables can be learned from full covariance or case data by the techniques of path analysis and more generally, Bayesian networks. In the book Startide Rising by author David Brin, the spaceship Streaker is manned by neo-dolphins (dolphins genetically engineered to match human intelligence). (This is a common criticism of studies of safety of food additives that use doses much higher than people consuming the product would actually ingest.). In one scene, the dolphins' misbehavior elicits the following quote from Zissou: "Son of a bitch, I'm sick of these dolphins.". One limitation of experiments, however, is that whereas they do a good job of testing for the presence of some causal effect they do less well at estimating the size of that effect in a population of interest.

In The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, marine researcher Zissou (played by Bill Murray) has trained reconaissance dolphins which apparently are temperamental and rarely follow their instructions. Obviously, for ethical reasons this experiment cannot be performed, but the method is widely applicable for less damaging experiments. In seaQuest, Darwin the dolphin could communicate with English speakers using a vocoder, an invention that translated the clicks and whistles to English and back. Random assignment plays a crucial role in the inference to causation because, in the long run, it renders the two groups equivalent in terms of the outcome (cancer) so that any changes will reflect only the manipulation (smoking). Mike and the 'Bots then quickly apoligize. The gold standard for causation here is the randomized experiment: take a large number of people, randomly divide them into two groups, force one group to smoke and prohibit the other group from smoking (ideally in a double-blind setup), then determine whether one group develops a significantly higher lung cancer rate. While doing so, the SOL gets blasted by a ship that turns out to be piloted by dolphins. In statistics, it is generally accepted that observational studies (like counting cancer cases among smokers and among non-smokers and then comparing the two) can give hints, but can never establish cause and effect.

In the Mystery Science Theater 3000 episode "Devil Fish," Mike and the 'Bots mock dolphins. For instance, the observation that smokers have a dramatically increased lung cancer rate does not establish that smoking must be a cause of that increased cancer rate: maybe there exists a certain genetic defect which both causes cancer and a yearning for nicotine. Their logo depicts an aqua-colored bottlenose dolphin wearing an American football helmet and jumping in front of a coral-colored sunburst. The establishing of cause and effect, even with this relaxed reading, is notoriously difficult, expressed by the widely accepted statement "correlation does not imply causation". An American National Football League (NFL) team is named the Miami Dolphins. This is sometimes interpreted to reflect imperfect knowledge of a deterministic system but other times interpreted to mean that the causal system under study has an inherently chancy nature. A book called The Music of Dolphins was written by Karen Hesse, about a girl who had lived with dolphins since the age of four. Informally, A probabilistically causes B iff A's occurrence increases the probability of B.

Ecco the Dolphin stars in a series of games for the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, Game Gear, Sega Dreamcast and PlayStation 2. As a result, many turn to a notion of probabilistic causation. After study at the Dolphins Plus research center in Key Largo, Florida, fantasy author Ken Grimwood wrote dolphins into his 1995 novel Into the Deep, including entire chapters written from the viewpoint of his dolphin characters. In this sense, war does not cause deaths, nor does smoking cause cancer. See Races from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Interpreting causation as a deterministic relation means that if A causes B, then A must always be followed by B. Their story is told in So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish. Bunzl 1980; Ganeri, Noordhof, and Ramachandran 1996; Paul 1998).

However, their behavior was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. (cf. In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, dolphins are the second most intelligent creatures on Earth (after mice) and tried in vain to warn humans of the impending destruction of the planet. Lewis himself discusses this example, and it has received substantial discussion. The television show was based on a 1963 film, and remade as a feature film in 1996 starring Elijah Wood and Paul Hogan (actor), as well as a television series running from 1995-2000 starring Jessica Alba. This presents a problem for Lewis' theory since, had John not smoked, he still would have died prematurely. The popular television show Flipper, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a dolphin in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud; a kind of sea going Lassie, Flipper understood English unusually well and was a marked hero: "Go tell Dad we're in trouble, Flipper! Hurry!" The show's theme song contains the lyric no one you see / is smarter than he. Here we still want to say that smoking caused John's death.

Foraging - A recent study reported that wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops) in Western Australia use sponges to forage in the sea bed for food.[2]. However, there was a murderer who was bent on killing John, and would have killed him a second later had he not first died from smoking. Stunning - using the echolocation melon, very loud clicks are directed at prey, stunning them. Suppose that John did smoke and did in fact die as a result of that smoking. Fish Wacking - where the dolphin uses its fluke to strike the fish, stunning it and sometimes sending it clear out of the water. One problem Lewis' theory confronts is causal preemption. Corralling - where fish are chased to shallow water where they are more easily captured. (In addition, it need also be true that John did smoke and did prematurely die, although this requirement is not unique to Lewis' theory.).

Herding - where a superpod will control a school of fish while individual members take turns plowing through the herd, feeding. So, for instance, the statement that John's smoking caused his premature death is equivalent to saying that had John not smoked he would not have prematurely died. Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus. The philosopher David Lewis notably suggested that all statements about causality can be understood as counterfactual statements (Lewis 1973, 1979, and 2000). Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. Most sophisticated accounts of causation find some way to deal with this distinction. False Killer Whale, Psudoorca crassidens. Nonetheless, even interpreted counterfactually, the first statement is true.

Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. In the first case it would not be correct to say that A's being a triangle caused it to have three sides, since the relationship between triangularity and three-sidedness is one of definition. Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. Consider the following two statements:. Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. However, not even all counterfactual statements count as examples of causality. La Plata Dolphin (Franciscana), Pontoporia blainvillei. Another sort of logical implication, known as counterfactual implication has a stronger connection with causality.

Genus Pontoporia

    . Of course, none of these statements express a causal connection between the antecedent and consequent. Indus River Dolphin, Platanista minor. The second and third are both true because the antecedent is false. Ganges River Dolphin, Platanista gangetica. The first is true since both the antecedent and the consequent are true. Genus Platanista
      . then..." as the logical conditional):.

      Chinese River Dolphin (Baiji), Lipotes vexillife. For example all of the following statements are true (interpreting "If.. Genus Lipotes

        . The standard conditional statement expresses a fact about the actual world, while causal statements imply something more. Boto (Amazon River Dolphin), Inia geoffrensis. Since logical conditional statements and causal statements are both presented using "If...then..." in English they are commonly confused; they are distinct, however. Genus Inia
          . Logical conditional statements are not statements of causality.

          Family Platanistoidea, River Dolphins

            . So the short circuit is an INUS cause of the house burning down. Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus. Within this collection, the short circuit is an insufficient but non-redundant part (since the short circuit by itself would not cause the fire, but the fire will not happen without it). Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. Considered together these are unnecessary but sufficient to the house's destruction (since many other collection of events certainly could have destroyed the house). Genus Globicephala
              . Consider the collection of events, the short circuit, the proximity of flammable material, and the absence of firefighters.

              False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens. For example, consider the short circuit as a cause of the house burning down. Genus Pseudorca

                . Mackie argues that usual talk of "cause" in fact refers to INUS conditions (insufficient and non-redundant parts of unneccessary but sufficient causes). Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. J.L. Genus Feresa
                  . However, other events may also cause y, and thus y's presence does not ensure the presence of x.

                  Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. So if x is a sufficient cause of y, the presence x guarantees y. Genus Orcinus

                    . On the other hand, sufficient causes guarantee the effect. Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. In this case the presence of x does not ensure that y will occur, but the presence of y ensures that x must have occurred. Genus Peponocephalia
                      . If x is a necessary cause of y, then y will only occur if preceded by x.

                      Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris. Causes are often distinguished into two types: necessary and sufficient. Australian Snubfin Dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni. If this is so, then our concept of causation would not prevent seeing ourselves as moral agents. Genus Orcaella

                        . In light of the difficulty philosophers have pointed out in establishing the validity of causal relations, it might seem that the clearest plausible example of causation we have left is our own ability to be the cause of events. White-Beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. Existentialists have suggested that people have the courage to accept that while no meaning has been designed in the universe, we each can provide a meaning for ourselves.

                        Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis. Learning to bear the burden of a meaningless universe, and justify one's own existence, is the first step toward becoming the "Übermensch" (English: "overman") that Nietzsche speaks of extensively in his philosophical writings. Pacific White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. According to some holding this worldview there is no such thing as "free will", and therefore, no such thing as morality. Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger. The deterministic world-view is one in which the universe is nothing but a chain of events following one after another according to the law of cause and effect. Dusky Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus. 25—Cause.

                        Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. From Samuel Shirley's "Baruch Spinoza; The Ethics: Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect and Selected Letters"; ISBN: 0872201309; p. Genus Lagenorhyncus

                          . Ayer and Karl Popper both claimed that their respective principles of verification and falsifiability fitted Hume's ideas on causality. Fraser's Dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei. A.J. Genus Lagenodelphis
                            . This was used as an argument against metaphysics, ideology and attempts to find theories for everything.

                            Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus. However, it is impossible to go about one's life without assuming such connections and the best that we can do is to maintain an open mind and never presume that we know any laws of causality for certain. Genus Grampus

                              . Just because the sun has risen every day since the beginning of the Earth does not mean that it will rise again tomorrow. Hector's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori. He asserted that it was impossible to know that certain laws of cause and effect always apply - no matter how many times one observes them occurring. Heaviside's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii. The philosopher who produced the most striking analysis of causality was David Hume.

                              Commerson's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii. All further investigations of causality would be consisting in imposing a favorite hierarchy on the order causes, like final > efficient > material > formal (Aquinas), or in restricting all causality to the material and efficient causes or to the efficient causality (deterministic or chance) or just to regular sequences and correlations of natural phenomena (the natural sciences describing how things happen instead of explaining the whys and wherefores). Chilean Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia. It is also essential that ontological causality does not suggest the temporal relation of before and after between the cause and the effect, that spontaneity (in nature) and chance (in the sphere of moral actions) are among the causes of effects belonging to the efficient causation, and that no incidental, spontaneous, or chance cause can be prior to a proper, real, or underlying cause per se. Genus Cephalorynchus

                                . The same language refers to the effects of causes, so that generic effects assigned to generic causes, particular effects to particular causes, operating causes to actual effects. Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis. All causes, proper and incidental, can be spoken as potential or as actual, particular or generic.

                                Genus Steno

                                  . Besides, Aristotle marked two modes of causation: proper (prior) causation and accidental (chance) causation. Striped Dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. [Thus Aristotle first suggested a reciprocal or circular causality as a relation of mutual dependence or action or influence of cause and effect.] Also, Aristotle indicated that the same thing can be the cause of contrary effects, its presence and absent may result in different outcomes. Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris. Additionally, things can be causes of one another, causing each other reciprocally, as hard work causes fitness and vice versa, although not in the same way or function, the one is as the beginning of change, the other as the goal. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin, Stenella attenuata. This also covers modern ideas of mental causation involving such psychological causes as volition, need, motivation, or motives, rational, irrational, ethical, all that gives purpose to behavior.

                                  Clymene Dolphin, Stenella clymene. The final cause or telos is the purpose or end that something is supposed to serve, or it is that from which and that to which the change is. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin, Stenella frontalis. The Final Cause is that for the sake of which a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. Genus Stenella

                                    . Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. Atlantic Humpbacked Dolphin, Sousa teuszii. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest.

                                    Chinese White Dolphin (the Chinese variant), Sousa chinensis chinensis. The Efficient Cause is that from which the change or the ending of the change first starts. Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin, Sousa chinensis

                                      . It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (macrostructure) is the cause of its parts (the whole-part causation). Genus Sousa
                                        . The Formal Cause tells us what a thing is, that any thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis, or archetype. Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis. This reduces the explanation of causes to the parts (factors, elements, constituents, ingredients) forming the whole (system, structure, compound, complex, composite, or combination) (the part-whole causation).

                                        Genus Sotalia

                                          . The Material Cause is that from which a thing comes into existence as from its parts, constituents, substratum or materials. Southern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissiodelphis peronii. Consequently, the major kinds of causes come under the following divisions:. Northern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis. According to Aristotle's theory, all the causes fall into several senses, the total number of which amounts to the ways the question 'why' may be answered; namely, by reference to the matter or the substratum; the essence, the pattern, the form, or the structure; to the primary moving change or the agent and its action; and to the goal, the plan; the end, or the good. Genus Lissodelphis
                                            . Setting the guidelines for all the subsequent causal theories, by specifying its number, nature, principles, elements, varieties, order, and modes of causation, Aristotle's account of the causes of things is the most comprehensive theory up to now.

                                            Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Aristole is the first who saw that All causes of things are beginnings; that we have scientific knowledge when we know the cause; that to know a thing's existence is to know the reason why it is. Genus Tursiops

                                              . . Short-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus delphis.
                                              . Long-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus capensis. In natural languages, causal relationships can be expressed by the following causative expressions: i) a set of causative verbs [cause, make, create, do, effect, produce, occasion, perform, determine, influence; construct, compose, constitute; provoke, motivate, force, facilitate, induce, get, stimulate; begin, commence, initiate, institute, originate, start; prevent, keep, restrain, preclude, forbid, stop, cease]; ii) a set of causative names [actor, agent, author, creator, designer, former, originator; antecedent, causality, causation, condition, fountain, occasion, origin, power, precedent, reason, source, spring; reason, grounds, motive, need, impulse]; iii) a set of effective names [consequence, creation, development, effect, end, event, fruit, impact, influence, issue, outcome, outgrowth, product, result, upshot].

                                              Genus Delphinus

                                                . Finally, the existence of a causal relationship generally suggests that - all other things being equal - if the cause occurs the effect will as well (or at least the probability of the effect occurring will increase). Family Delphinidae, oceanic Dolphins
                                                  . It is usually presumed that the cause chronologically precedes the effect. Suborder Odontoceti, toothed whales
                                                    . Most generally, causation is a relationship that holds between events, objects, variables, or states of affairs. Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. A neutral definition is notoriously hard to provide since every aspect of causation has received substantial debate.

                                                    Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),. The philosophical concept of causality, the principles of causes, or causation, the working of causes, refers to the set of all particular "causal" or "cause-and-effect" relations. Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),. In Aristotelian terminology, this use of the term cause is closest to his efficient cause. Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),. In this view, slavery is often said to have inevitably produced the American Civil War as a result. This is a somewhat Platonic and Hegelian view that reifies causes as ontological entities and the term causality is used sometimes in this manner.

                                                    Another meaning treats historic events as agents that bring about other historic events. This meaning is not what is meant by the term causality. For example, the abolition of slavery became a Union goal or intended outcome for the American Civil War following the Emancipation Proclamations and so was a cause or reason to continue the war. One meaning conforms to Aristotle's final cause -- as a goal or purpose.

                                                    How does an event without a cause occur?. What is an event without cause?. If switch S is thrown, then bulb B will light.. If A is a triangle, then A has three sides..

                                                    If George Washington was president of the United States in 2004, then Germany is not in Europe.. If George Washington was president of the United States in 2004, then Germany is in Europe.. If George Bush was president of the United States in 2004, then Germany is in Europe..

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