Dolphin

For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation).
Genera
See article below.

Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises. The name is from Ancient Greek δελφίς delphis meaning "with a womb", viz. "a 'fish' with a womb".

The word is used in a few different ways. It can mean:

  1. Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),
  2. Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),
  3. Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),
  4. Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin.

In this article, the second definition is used.

Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in our sense. Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language.

There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera. They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and all are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about 10 million years ago, during the Miocene.

Taxonomy

Six animals in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. They are sometimes called "blackfish":

Hybrid Dolphins

In 1933, three strange dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin. This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-Toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring. In the wild, Spinner Dolphins have sometimes hybridised with Spotted Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins. In the wild, bands of males of one dolphin species have been observed to mate with lone female Spinners. Blue Whales, Fin Whales and Humpback Whales all hybridize in the wild. Dall's Porpoises and Harbour Porpoises have hybridized in the wild. There has also been a reported hybrid between a beluga and a narwhal. See also wolphin.

Evolution and anatomy of dolphins

Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. Modern dolphin skeletons have two small rod shaped pelvic bones thought to be left-over hind legs. They entered the water roughly 50 million years ago. See evolution of cetaceans for the details.

Dolphins have a fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth that looks like a fixed smile. Teeth can be very numerous (up to 250) in several species. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their high intelligence.

Their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an array or antenna focusing the incoming sound, making it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object.

The basic coloration patterns are shades of gray with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast. See individual species articles for details.

Dolphin behavior

Dolphins in balance.

Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals. A typical statement would be that dolphins are roughly as intelligent as a two-year-old human. However, experts in comparative psychology or animal cognition would be reluctant to make any such estimate, as quantitative comparisons of intelligence between species are notoriously difficult to make in principle. Straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition; furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with a large marine animal mean that even such tests as can meaningfully be done have still not been done, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. See the Dolphin intelligence article for more details.

Dolphins often leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. the spinner dolphin). Scientists aren't quite certain about the purpose of this behavior, but it may be to locate schools of fish by looking at above water signs, like feeding birds. They could also be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, or attempting to dislodge parasites. Perhaps they just do it for fun. Play is a very important part of dolphins' lives and they can often be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins. They have even been seen harassing other creatures, like seabirds and turtles. Frequently dolphins will accompany boats, riding the bow waves.

They are also famous for their willingness to occasionally approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. In return, in some cultures like in Ancient Greece they were treated with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage. There are many stories of dolphins protecting shipwrecked sailors against sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers.

Dolphins are social animals, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen animals. In places with a high abundance of food, schools can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1000 dolphins. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation.

Dolphin leaping in the air.

Membership in schools is not rigid; interchange is common. However, the animals can establish strong bonds between each other. This leads to them staying with injured or ill fellows for support.

Because of their high capacity for learning, dolphins have been employed by humans for any number of purposes. Dolphins trained to perform in front of an audience have become a favorite attraction in dolphinaria, for example SeaWorld. Dolphin/Human interaction is also employed in a curative sense at places where dolphins work with autistic or otherwise disabled children. The military has employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped persons. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese Skin Divers.

In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their offspring to use a tool. The animals break off sponges and put them onto their mouths thus protecting the delicate body part during their hunt for fish on the seabed. Other than with primate simians, the knowledge to use a tool is mostly handed over only from mothers to daughters. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught cultural behaviour.

In captivity, many dolphins seem to have committed suicide. They either do so by repeatedly slamming their head against the pool walls or other solid objects or simply by not coming up for air anymore. Probably one of the best known cases of dolphin suicide is that of a dolphin named Cathy, one of the bottlenose dolphins that performed in the television series Flipper. She most likely died of self induced asphyxiation in the presence of her trainer Richard O'Barry.[1]

Compare also: whale behavior

Senses

Most dolphins have acute eyesight both in and out of the water and their sense of hearing is far above our own. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head it is believed hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the vibrations to the middle ear via a fat filled cavity in the lower jaw bone. Hearing is also used for echolocation which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed.

However, they seem to lack a well-developed sense of smell, but they most likely can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface in the wild, just tasting the water could act as a sense of smell.

Feeding

Dolphins are predators, chasing their prey at high speed. The dentition is adapted to the animals they hunt: Species with long beaks and many teeth forage on fish, whereas short beaks and lesser tooth count are linked to catching squid. Some dolphins may take crustaceans. Usually, the prey is swallowed whole. The larger species, especially the orca, are capable of eating marine mammals, even large whales. There are no known reports of cannibalism amongst dolphins.

Individual species may employ a number of methods of hunting:

Dolphin lore


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Individual species may employ a number of methods of hunting:. Air-breathing engines include:. There are no known reports of cannibalism amongst dolphins. Theoretically, this should result in a better specific impulse than for rocket engines. The larger species, especially the orca, are capable of eating marine mammals, even large whales. Air-breathing engines use atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried, rather than carrying an oxidiser, as in a rocket. Usually, the prey is swallowed whole. The 1970s and '80s saw an increased interest in improved fuel economy which brought in a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per cylinder to improve efficiency.

Some dolphins may take crustaceans. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled and located at the rear of the vehicle; compression ratios were relatively low. The dentition is adapted to the animals they hunt: Species with long beaks and many teeth forage on fish, whereas short beaks and lesser tooth count are linked to catching squid. Overhead camshafts were frequently employed. Dolphins are predators, chasing their prey at high speed. There were several V-type models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes too. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface in the wild, just tasting the water could act as a sense of smell. Several three-cylinder, two-stroke-cycle models were built while most engines had straight or in-line cylinders.

However, they seem to lack a well-developed sense of smell, but they most likely can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. Four cylinders and power ratings from 19 to 120 hp (14 to 90 kW) was followed in a majority of the models. The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed. The automobile motor from Europe had a bigger range, varying from 1to12 cylinders with corresponding differences in overall size, weight, piston displacement, and cylinder bores. Hearing is also used for echolocation which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. Smaller cars brought about a return a to smaller engines, the four- and six-cylinder designs rated as low as 80 horsepower (60 kW), compared with the standard-size V-8 of large cylinder bore and relatively short piston stroke with power ratings in the range from 250 to 350 hp (190 to 260 kW). Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head it is believed hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the vibrations to the middle ear via a fat filled cavity in the lower jaw bone. In passenger cars, V-8 layouts were adopted for all piston displacements greater than 250 cubic inches (4 litres).

Most dolphins have acute eyesight both in and out of the water and their sense of hearing is far above our own. The higher forces and pressures created by these changes created engine vibration and size problems that led to stiffer, more compact engines with V and opposed cylinder layouts replacing longer straight-line arrangements. Compare also: whale behavior. Design changes incorporated all known methods of raising engine capacity, including increasing the pressure in the cylinders to improve efficiency, increasing the size of the engine, and increasing the speed at which power is generated. She most likely died of self induced asphyxiation in the presence of her trainer Richard O'Barry.[1]. The first half of the twentieth century saw a trend to increase engine power, particularly in the American models. Probably one of the best known cases of dolphin suicide is that of a dolphin named Cathy, one of the bottlenose dolphins that performed in the television series Flipper. However, the gasoline engine, with its new emission-control devices to improve emission performance, has not yet been challenged significantly.

They either do so by repeatedly slamming their head against the pool walls or other solid objects or simply by not coming up for air anymore. Although a few limited-production battery-powered electric vehicles have appeared from time to time, they have not proved to be competitive owing to costs and operating characteristics. In captivity, many dolphins seem to have committed suicide. This has created new interest in alternate power sources and internal-combustion engine refinements that were not economically feasible in prior years. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught cultural behaviour. In today’s world, there has been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing features of automotive power systems. Other than with primate simians, the knowledge to use a tool is mostly handed over only from mothers to daughters. Also, the power developed for a given weight engine was reasonable; it could be produced by economical mass-production methods; and it used a readily available, moderately priced fuel--gasoline.

The animals break off sponges and put them onto their mouths thus protecting the delicate body part during their hunt for fish on the seabed. The internal combustion engine was originally selected for the automobile due to its flexibility over a wide range of speeds. In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their offspring to use a tool. This is especially evident with the popularity of diesel engines in Europe. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese Skin Divers. This is partially due to the improvement of engine control systems (computers) and forced induction (turbos and superchargers), giving modern diesel engines the same power characteristics as gasoline engines. The military has employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped persons. However, in the twenty first century the diesel engine has been increasing in popularity with automobile owners.

Dolphin/Human interaction is also employed in a curative sense at places where dolphins work with autistic or otherwise disabled children. The gasoline internal combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has traditionally been the most successful for automobiles, while diesel engines are widely used for trucks and buses. Dolphins trained to perform in front of an audience have become a favorite attraction in dolphinaria, for example SeaWorld. These include electric, steam, solar, turbine, rotary, and different types of piston-type internal combustion engines. Because of their high capacity for learning, dolphins have been employed by humans for any number of purposes. Automotive production down the ages has required a wide range of energy-conversion systems. This leads to them staying with injured or ill fellows for support. For more conventional, reciprocating internal combustion engines the fundamental theory for two-stroke engines was established by Sadi Carnot, France, 1824, whilst the American Samuel Morey received a patent on April 1, 1826.

However, the animals can establish strong bonds between each other. English inventor Sir Samuel Morland allegedly used gunpowder to drive water pumps in the 17th century. Membership in schools is not rigid; interchange is common. Hero of Alexandria demonstrated both wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century, although it's not known if these were put to any practical use until much later. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts, dams, and sluices to maintain and channel the water, and systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood with metal, used to regulate the speed of rotation.

In places with a high abundance of food, schools can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1000 dolphins. Use of water wheels in mills slowly spread through Europe over the next few centuries. Dolphins are social animals, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen animals. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia in the kingdom of Mithridates in the 1st century BC. There are many stories of dolphins protecting shipwrecked sailors against sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers. By the 1st century AD, various breeds of cattle and horses were used in mills, using machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. In return, in some cultures like in Ancient Greece they were treated with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius, Frontinus and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be far more ancient.

They are also famous for their willingness to occasionally approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. Early oared warships used human power augmented by the simple engine of the lever -- the oar itself. Frequently dolphins will accompany boats, riding the bow waves. These were commonly used in cranes and aboard ships during Ancient Greece, and in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. They have even been seen harassing other creatures, like seabirds and turtles. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, and with ropes, pulleys, and block and tackle arrangements, this power was transmitted and multiplied. Play is a very important part of dolphins' lives and they can often be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins. Engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and even steam power date back to antiquity.

Perhaps they just do it for fun. While chemical and electrical engines of enormous power dominate the modern world, engines themselves are not new. They could also be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, or attempting to dislodge parasites. Theoretically, this should result in a better specific impulse than for rocket engines. Scientists aren't quite certain about the purpose of this behavior, but it may be to locate schools of fish by looking at above water signs, like feeding birds. In the context of propulsion systems, an air breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried, rather than carrying an oxidiser, as in a rocket. the spinner dolphin). In most cases the work is supplied by exerting a torque, which is used to operate other machinery, generate electricity, pump water or compress gas.

Dolphins often leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. In more recent usage, the term is typically used to describe devices that perform mechanical work, follow-ons to the original steam engine. See the Dolphin intelligence article for more details. The earliest mechanical computing device was called the difference engine; Military devices such as catapults are referred to as siege engines. Straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition; furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with a large marine animal mean that even such tests as can meaningfully be done have still not been done, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. This form of the term has recently come into use once again in computer science, where terms like search engine, "3-D graphics rendering engine" and "text-to-speech engine" are common. However, experts in comparative psychology or animal cognition would be reluctant to make any such estimate, as quantitative comparisons of intelligence between species are notoriously difficult to make in principle. Practically every device from the industrial revolution was referred to as an engine, and this is where the steam engine gained its name.

A typical statement would be that dolphins are roughly as intelligent as a two-year-old human. The term "gin" in cotton gin is a short form of this usage. Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals. In original usage, an engine was any sort of mechanical device. See individual species articles for details. . It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast. There is an overlap in English between two meanings of the word "engineer": 'those who operate engines' and 'those who design and construct new items'.

The basic coloration patterns are shades of gray with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. The origin of engineering was the working of engines. Their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an array or antenna focusing the incoming sound, making it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object. An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their high intelligence. Landels, Engineering in the Ancient World, ISBN 0520041275. Teeth can be very numerous (up to 250) in several species. G.

In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth that looks like a fixed smile. J. The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. Liquid air cycle engine/SABRE. Dolphins have a fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. Pulse jet. See evolution of cetaceans for the details. Pulse detonation engine.

They entered the water roughly 50 million years ago. Scramjet. Modern dolphin skeletons have two small rod shaped pelvic bones thought to be left-over hind legs. Ramjet. Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. Jet engine. See also wolphin. Internal combustion engine.

There has also been a reported hybrid between a beluga and a narwhal. Dall's Porpoises and Harbour Porpoises have hybridized in the wild. Blue Whales, Fin Whales and Humpback Whales all hybridize in the wild. In the wild, bands of males of one dolphin species have been observed to mate with lone female Spinners.

In the wild, Spinner Dolphins have sometimes hybridised with Spotted Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-Toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring. This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. In 1933, three strange dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin.

They are sometimes called "blackfish":. Six animals in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. . The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about 10 million years ago, during the Miocene.

They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and all are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera.

Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language. Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in our sense. In this article, the second definition is used. It can mean:.

The word is used in a few different ways. "a 'fish' with a womb". The name is from Ancient Greek δελφίς delphis meaning "with a womb", viz. Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises.

In the William Gibson short story Johnny Mnemonic and the film by the same name (starring Keanu Reeves), cyborg dolphins were used in war-time by the military to find submarines and, after the war, by a group of revolutionaries to decode encrypted information. One of the mates of the ship is named Akeakamai, in honor of the real-life dolphin from Louis Herman's animal language research. In the book Startide Rising by author David Brin, the spaceship Streaker is manned by neo-dolphins (dolphins genetically engineered to match human intelligence). In one scene, the dolphins' misbehavior elicits the following quote from Zissou: "Son of a bitch, I'm sick of these dolphins.".

In The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, marine researcher Zissou (played by Bill Murray) has trained reconaissance dolphins which apparently are temperamental and rarely follow their instructions. In seaQuest, Darwin the dolphin could communicate with English speakers using a vocoder, an invention that translated the clicks and whistles to English and back. Mike and the 'Bots then quickly apoligize. While doing so, the SOL gets blasted by a ship that turns out to be piloted by dolphins.

In the Mystery Science Theater 3000 episode "Devil Fish," Mike and the 'Bots mock dolphins. Their logo depicts an aqua-colored bottlenose dolphin wearing an American football helmet and jumping in front of a coral-colored sunburst. An American National Football League (NFL) team is named the Miami Dolphins. A book called The Music of Dolphins was written by Karen Hesse, about a girl who had lived with dolphins since the age of four.

Ecco the Dolphin stars in a series of games for the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, Game Gear, Sega Dreamcast and PlayStation 2. After study at the Dolphins Plus research center in Key Largo, Florida, fantasy author Ken Grimwood wrote dolphins into his 1995 novel Into the Deep, including entire chapters written from the viewpoint of his dolphin characters. See Races from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Their story is told in So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish.

However, their behavior was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, dolphins are the second most intelligent creatures on Earth (after mice) and tried in vain to warn humans of the impending destruction of the planet. The television show was based on a 1963 film, and remade as a feature film in 1996 starring Elijah Wood and Paul Hogan (actor), as well as a television series running from 1995-2000 starring Jessica Alba. The popular television show Flipper, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a dolphin in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud; a kind of sea going Lassie, Flipper understood English unusually well and was a marked hero: "Go tell Dad we're in trouble, Flipper! Hurry!" The show's theme song contains the lyric no one you see / is smarter than he.

Foraging - A recent study reported that wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops) in Western Australia use sponges to forage in the sea bed for food.[2]. Stunning - using the echolocation melon, very loud clicks are directed at prey, stunning them. Fish Wacking - where the dolphin uses its fluke to strike the fish, stunning it and sometimes sending it clear out of the water. Corralling - where fish are chased to shallow water where they are more easily captured.

Herding - where a superpod will control a school of fish while individual members take turns plowing through the herd, feeding. Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus. Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. False Killer Whale, Psudoorca crassidens.

Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. La Plata Dolphin (Franciscana), Pontoporia blainvillei.

Genus Pontoporia

    . Indus River Dolphin, Platanista minor. Ganges River Dolphin, Platanista gangetica. Genus Platanista
      .

      Chinese River Dolphin (Baiji), Lipotes vexillife. Genus Lipotes

        . Boto (Amazon River Dolphin), Inia geoffrensis. Genus Inia
          .

          Family Platanistoidea, River Dolphins

            . Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus. Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. Genus Globicephala
              .

              False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens. Genus Pseudorca

                . Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. Genus Feresa
                  .

                  Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. Genus Orcinus

                    . Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. Genus Peponocephalia
                      .

                      Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris. Australian Snubfin Dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni. Genus Orcaella

                        . White-Beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris.

                        Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis. Pacific White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger. Dusky Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus.

                        Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. Genus Lagenorhyncus

                          . Fraser's Dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei. Genus Lagenodelphis
                            .

                            Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus. Genus Grampus

                              . Hector's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori. Heaviside's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii.

                              Commerson's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii. Chilean Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia. Genus Cephalorynchus

                                . Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis.

                                Genus Steno

                                  . Striped Dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin, Stenella attenuata.

                                  Clymene Dolphin, Stenella clymene. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin, Stenella frontalis. Genus Stenella

                                    . Atlantic Humpbacked Dolphin, Sousa teuszii.

                                    Chinese White Dolphin (the Chinese variant), Sousa chinensis chinensis. Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin, Sousa chinensis

                                      . Genus Sousa
                                        . Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis.

                                        Genus Sotalia

                                          . Southern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissiodelphis peronii. Northern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis. Genus Lissodelphis
                                            .

                                            Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Genus Tursiops

                                              . Short-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus delphis. Long-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus capensis.

                                              Genus Delphinus

                                                . Family Delphinidae, oceanic Dolphins
                                                  . Suborder Odontoceti, toothed whales
                                                    . Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin.

                                                    Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),. Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),. Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),.

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