Dodge Dakota

The Dakota is a midsize pickup truck from DaimlerChrysler's Dodge brand. It was introduced in 1987 alongside the redesigned Dodge Ram 50. The Dakota was nominated for the North American Truck of the Year award for 2000.

The Dakota has always been sized above the compact (Ford Ranger, Chevrolet S-10) and below the full-sized (Ford F-150, Chevrolet Silverado) pickups and Dodge's own Ram. It is a conventional design with body-on-frame construction and leaf spring/live axle rear end. The Dakota has also long been the only midsize pickup with an optional V8 engine. One notable feature was the Dakota's rack and pinion steering, a first in work trucks.

1987

The first generation of the Dakota was produced from 1987 through 1996. Straight-4 and V6 engines were offered along with either a 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic transmission. Four wheel drive was available only with the V6. Both 6.5 ft (2 m) and 8 ft (2.4 m) beds were offered. Fuel injection was added to the 3.9 L V6 for 1988 but the output remained the same.

1989 saw the unusual Dakota convertible. The first convertible pickup since the Ford Model T, it featured a fixed roll bar and complicated manual top. Just 2,482 were sold that first year. Another important addition that year was Carroll Shelby's V8-powered Shelby Dakota, his first rear wheel drive vehicle in two decades.

An extended "Club Cab" model was added for 1990, still with two doors. This model allowed the Dakota to boast capacity for six passengers, although the rear seat was best suited for children and shorter adults.

For 1991, the front of the Dakota received a more aerodynamic grille and hood, and Dodge added the 5.2 L V8 as an option, inspired by the earlier Shelby Dakota option. This engine produced 170 hp (127 kW). Both of the V-configuration engines were updated to Magnum specs the next year, providing a tremendous power boost.

In 1996, the first generation's final year, the K-based 2.5 L I4 engine was out of production and had been considered vastly underpowered compared to the competition, so Dodge borrowed the Jeep 2.5 L I4 (rated at 120 hp) and installed it as the base engine in the Dakota. It was the only major change for 1996, and would be carried over as the base engine in the new, larger 1997 model.

Engines:

  • 1987-1988 - 2.2 L K I4, SOHC, 96 hp (72 kW)
  • 1987-1991 - 3.9 L LA V6, 125 hp (93 kW)
  • 1989-1995 - 2.5 L K I4, 99 hp (74 kW)
  • 1991 - 5.2 L LA V8, 170 hp (127 kW)
  • 1992-1993 - 3.9 L Magnum V6, 180 hp (134 kW)
  • 1991-1993 - 5.2 L Magnum V8, 230 hp (172 kW)
  • 1994-1996 - 3.9 L Magnum V6, 175 hp (131 kW)
  • 1994-1996 - 5.2 L Magnum V8, 220 hp (164 kW)
  • 1996 - 2.5 L AMC I4, 120 hp (90 kW)

1997

The second-generation Dakota was built from 1997 through 2004. It inherited the semi truck look of the larger Ram but remained largely the same underneath. 1998 saw the introduction of the R/T model with the big 5.9 L 250 hp (186 kW) Magnum V8.

Four-door "Quad-Cab" models were added for 2000 with a slightly shorter bed, 63.1 in (160.2 cm), but riding on the Club Cab's 130.9 in (332.5 cm) wheelbase. The smaller V8 was replaced by a new high-tech V8 as well.

2002 was the final year for the four-cylinder engine in the Dakota, as Chrysler was ending production of the former AMC design. Most buyers ordered the V6 or V8 engines, which were considerably more powerful and, in the case of the V6, which was made standard for 2003, nearly as fuel-efficient with a manual transmission.

2004 was the end of the old OHV V6 and the big R/T V8.

Engines:

  • 1997-2002 - 2.5 L AMC I4, 120 hp (90 kW)
  • 1997-2003 - 3.9 L Magnum V6, 175 hp (131 kW)
  • 1997-1999 - 5.2 L Magnum V8, 230 hp (172 kW)
  • 1998-2003 - 5.9 L Magnum V8, 250 hp (186 kW)
  • 2000-2004 - 4.7 L PowerTech V8, 230 hp (175 kW)
  • 2004 - 3.7 L PowerTech V6, 210 hp (157 kW)

2005

The redesigned 2005 Dakota shares its platform with the new Dodge Durango SUV. This model is 3.7 in longer and 2.7 in wider, and features a new front and rear suspension, and rack-and-pinion steering. There are one V6 and two V8 engines available: The standard engine is a 3.7 L PowerTech V6 (specs below). Two 4.7 L V8 engines are available as well. The Dakota is built at Warren Truck Assembly in Warren, Michigan.

Engines:
  • 2005 - 3.7 L PowerTech V6, 210 hp (157 kW) at 5200 rpm and 235 ft·lbf (319 N·m) at 4000 rpm
  • 2005 - 4.7 L PowerTech V8, 230 hp (172 kW) at 4400 rpm and 290 ft·lbf (393 N·m) at 3600 rpm
  • 2005 - 4.7 L HO PowerTech V8, 260 hp (194 kW) at 5200 rpm and 310 ft·lbf (420 N·m) at 5200 rpm

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The Dakota is built at Warren Truck Assembly in Warren, Michigan. Purportedly drunk elephants raided yet another Indian village again on December 2002 [5]. Two 4.7 L V8 engines are available as well. An attack on another Indian village occurred in October 1999, and again locals believed the reason was drunkenness, but the theory was not widely accepted [4]. There are one V6 and two V8 engines available: The standard engine is a 3.7 L PowerTech V6 (specs below). Although locals reported that nearby elephants had recently been observed drinking beer which rendered them "unpredictable", officials considered it the least likely explanation for the attack [3]. This model is 3.7 in longer and 2.7 in wider, and features a new front and rear suspension, and rack-and-pinion steering. In December 1998, a herd of elephants overran a village in India.

The redesigned 2005 Dakota shares its platform with the new Dodge Durango SUV. At least a few elephants have been suspected to be drunk during their attacks. Engines:. Since male elephants are ostracized from their herds when they become sexually mature, their sex hormones can lead to aggressive behaviour. 2004 was the end of the old OHV V6 and the big R/T V8. There is also one other cause of elephant rage that is not the result of human activity. Most buyers ordered the V6 or V8 engines, which were considerably more powerful and, in the case of the V6, which was made standard for 2003, nearly as fuel-efficient with a manual transmission. They cite the following reasons:.

2002 was the final year for the four-cylinder engine in the Dakota, as Chrysler was ending production of the former AMC design. Humans have mistreated elephants for the past century, and they are suffering from a kind of Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. The smaller V8 was replaced by a new high-tech V8 as well. So many elephants have been killed just because of human cruelty and greed. Four-door "Quad-Cab" models were added for 2000 with a slightly shorter bed, 63.1 in (160.2 cm), but riding on the Club Cab's 130.9 in (332.5 cm) wheelbase. In the last ten minutes of the episode Explorer: Elephant Rage, the scientists formed this theory:. 1998 saw the introduction of the R/T model with the big 5.9 L 250 hp (186 kW) Magnum V8. To sum up the episode, scientists discover that elephants kill 300-400 humans per year, and they set out to find why.

It inherited the semi truck look of the larger Ram but remained largely the same underneath. The National Geographic Society1 aired a program describing a disturbing trend of elephants killing humans on the National Geographic Channel on Sunday, June 5, 2005. The second-generation Dakota was built from 1997 through 2004. A common adage is that "Elephants never forget", and later scientific evidence seems to support they have good memories. Engines:. To break free all the elephant has to do is erase that limiting thought for in fact he is free to go.". It was the only major change for 1996, and would be carried over as the base engine in the new, larger 1997 model. Abiding to this conditioning the elephant is trapped for life.

In 1996, the first generation's final year, the K-based 2.5 L I4 engine was out of production and had been considered vastly underpowered compared to the competition, so Dodge borrowed the Jeep 2.5 L I4 (rated at 120 hp) and installed it as the base engine in the Dakota. Yet the trainer continues to tie the elephant to the tree with the same rope he’s always used, for the simple reason that the elephant has the concept in his mind that the rope is stronger than him. Both of the V-configuration engines were updated to Magnum specs the next year, providing a tremendous power boost. A couple of years pass and the elephant is now an adult weighing several tons. This engine produced 170 hp (127 kW). Learning that, the elephant doesn’t try to escape and accepts his confinement. For 1991, the front of the Dakota received a more aerodynamic grille and hood, and Dodge added the 5.2 L V8 as an option, inspired by the earlier Shelby Dakota option. The young elephant tries his hardest to escape, he pulls and wriggles and jumps and crawls yet the rope just tightens and to the tree it remains tied.

This model allowed the Dakota to boast capacity for six passengers, although the rear seat was best suited for children and shorter adults. "From when an elephant is a baby they tie him for certain periods with a rope to a tree. An extended "Club Cab" model was added for 1990, still with two doors. The following is taken from a newsletter. Another important addition that year was Carroll Shelby's V8-powered Shelby Dakota, his first rear wheel drive vehicle in two decades. It is called the "elephant trap". Just 2,482 were sold that first year. Another more effective method is practiced in the Indian Subcontinent which is far less physical and brutal and more mental.

The first convertible pickup since the Ford Model T, it featured a fixed roll bar and complicated manual top. Corea's elephants are also used to entertain tourists and haul logs. 1989 saw the unusual Dakota convertible. African elephants are now being used for (photo) safaris. Fuel injection was added to the 3.9 L V6 for 1988 but the output remained the same. Because of their more sensitive temperaments, they require different training methods than Asian elephants and must be trained from infancy hence Corea worked with orphaned elephants. Both 6.5 ft (2 m) and 8 ft (2.4 m) beds were offered. African elephants are more temperamental than Asian elephants, but are easier to train.

Four wheel drive was available only with the V6. In Botswana, Uttum Corea has been working with African elephants and has several young tame elephants near Gaborone. Straight-4 and V6 engines were offered along with either a 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic transmission. African elephants have long been reputed to not be domesticable, but some entrepreneurs have succeeded by bringing Asian mahouts from Sri Lanka to Africa. The first generation of the Dakota was produced from 1987 through 1996. Elephants have also been used as mounts for safari-type hunting, especially Indian shikar (mainly on tigers), and as ceremonial mounts for royal and religious occasions, whilst Asian elephants have been used for transport and entertainment, and are common to circuses around the world. . Throughout Siam, India, and most of South Asia elephants were used in the military for heavy labor, especially for uprooting trees and moving logs, and were also commonly used as executioners to crush the condemned underfoot.

One notable feature was the Dakota's rack and pinion steering, a first in work trucks. A large elephant in full charge could cause tremendous damage to infantry, and cavalry horses would be afraid of them (see Battle of Hydaspes). The Dakota has also long been the only midsize pickup with an optional V8 engine. The Carthaginian general Hannibal took elephants across the Alps when he was fighting the Romans, but brought too few elephants to be of much military use, although his horse cavalry was quite successful; he probably used a now-extinct third African (sub)species, the North African (Forest) elephant, smaller than its two southern cousins, and presumably easier to domesticate. It is a conventional design with body-on-frame construction and leaf spring/live axle rear end. This use was adopted by Hellenistic armies after Alexander the Great experienced their worth against king Poros, notably in the Ptolemaic and Seleucid diadoch empires. The Dakota has always been sized above the compact (Ford Ranger, Chevrolet S-10) and below the full-sized (Ford F-150, Chevrolet Silverado) pickups and Dodge's own Ram. War elephants were used by armies in the Indian sub-continent, and later by the Persian empire.

The Dakota was nominated for the North American Truck of the Year award for 2000. It is generally more economical to capture wild young elephants and tame them than breeding them in captivity. It was introduced in 1987 alongside the redesigned Dodge Ram 50. Therefore elephants used by humans have typically been female, war elephants being an exception, however: as female elephants in battle will run from a male, only males could be used in war. The Dakota is a midsize pickup truck from DaimlerChrysler's Dodge brand. However, elephants have never been truly domesticated: the male elephant in his periodic condition of musth is dangerous and difficult to control. 2005 - 4.7 L HO PowerTech V8, 260 hp (194 kW) at 5200 rpm and 310 ft·lbf (420 N·m) at 5200 rpm. Seals found in the Indus Valley suggest that the elephant was first domesticated in ancient India.

2005 - 4.7 L PowerTech V8, 230 hp (172 kW) at 4400 rpm and 290 ft·lbf (393 N·m) at 3600 rpm. Elephants have been working animals used in various capacities by humans. 2005 - 3.7 L PowerTech V6, 210 hp (157 kW) at 5200 rpm and 235 ft·lbf (319 N·m) at 4000 rpm. [2]. 2004 - 3.7 L PowerTech V6, 210 hp (157 kW). Without tusks, elephant behavior could change dramatically. 2000-2004 - 4.7 L PowerTech V8, 230 hp (175 kW). Elephants use their tusks to root around in the ground for necessary minerals, tear apart vegetation, and spar with one another for mating rights.

1998-2003 - 5.9 L Magnum V8, 250 hp (186 kW). The effect of tuskless elephants on the environment, and on the elephants themselves, could be dramatic. 1997-1999 - 5.2 L Magnum V8, 230 hp (172 kW). [1] It is possible, if unlikely, that continued selection pressure could bring about a complete absence of tusks in African elephants, a development normally requiring thousands of years of evolution. 1997-2003 - 3.9 L Magnum V6, 175 hp (131 kW). Tusklessness, once a very rare genetic abnormality, has become a widespread hereditary trait. 1997-2002 - 2.5 L AMC I4, 120 hp (90 kW). The propagation of the absent-tusk gene has resulted in the birth of large numbers of tuskless elephants, now approaching 30% in some populations (compare with a rate of about 1% in 1930).

1996 - 2.5 L AMC I4, 120 hp (90 kW). African ivory hunters, by killing only tusked elephants, have given a much larger chance of mating to elephants with small tusks or no tusks at all. 1994-1996 - 5.2 L Magnum V8, 220 hp (164 kW). The harvest of elephants, both legal and illegal, has had some unexpected consequences on elephant anatomy as well. 1994-1996 - 3.9 L Magnum V6, 175 hp (131 kW). As scientists learn more about nature and the environment, it becomes very clear that these parks may be the elephant's last hope against the rapidly changing world around them. 1991-1993 - 5.2 L Magnum V8, 230 hp (172 kW). Today there are still many problems associated with these parks and reserves, but there is now little question as to whether or not they are necessary.

1992-1993 - 3.9 L Magnum V6, 180 hp (134 kW). When confined to small territories, elephants can inflict an enormous amount of damge to the local landscapes. 1991 - 5.2 L LA V8, 170 hp (127 kW). The more often an elephant wandered off its reserve, the more trouble it got into, and the more chance it had of being shot by an angry farmer. 1989-1995 - 2.5 L K I4, 99 hp (74 kW). This did little to belie their image as a crop-raiding pest. 1987-1991 - 3.9 L LA V6, 125 hp (93 kW). Some animals died as a result, while some, like the elephants, just trampled through the fences.

1987-1988 - 2.2 L K I4, SOHC, 96 hp (72 kW). Once a fence was erected, many animals found themselves cut off from their winter feeding grounds or spring breeding areas. however, when most parks were created, the boundaries were drawn at the man-made borders of individual countries. For example, elephants range through a wide tract of land with little regard for national borders. Of course, there were many problems in establishing these reserves.

It was to be the first of many. It was deproclaimed and reproclaimed several times before it was renamed and granted national park status in 1926. Kruger National Park in South Africa first became a reserve against great opposition in 1898 (then Sabi Reserve). Africa's first official reserve eventually became one of the world's most famous and successful national parks.

The increased number of herbivores ravage the local trees, shrubs, and grasses. As large predators are hunted, the local small grazer populations (the elephant's food competitors) find themselves on the rise. An elephant needs an average of three hundred pounds of vegetation a day to survive. They cannot hide, and it takes many years for an elephant to grow and reproduce.

Larger, long-lived, slow-breeding animals, like the elephant, are more susceptible to overhunting, than other animals. As forests are reduced to small pockets, elephants become part of the problem, quickly destroying all the vegetation in an area, eliminating all their resources. Elephants need massive tracts of land because, much like the slash-and-burn farmers, they are used to crashing through the forest, tearing down trees and shrubs for food and then cycling back later on, when the area has regrown. Floods and massive erosion are common results of deforestation.

The trees are responsible for anchoring soil and absorbing water runoff. As larger patches of forest disappear, the ecosystem is affected in profound ways. Lacking the massive tusks of its African cousins, the Asian elephant's demise can be attributed mostly to loss of its habitat. Another threat to elephant's survival in general is the ongoing cultivation of their habitats with increasing risk of conflicts of interest with human cohabitants.

The threat to the African elephant presented by the ivory trade is unique to the species. Elephants' foraging activities help to maintain the areas in which they live:. During this season, known as musth, a bull will fight with almost any other male it encounters, and it will spend most of its time hovering around the female herds, trying to find a receptive mate. However, during the breeding season, the battles can get extremely aggressive, and the occasional elephant is injured.

Ordinarily, the smaller, younger, and less confident animal will back off before any real damage can be done. Most of the bouts are in the form of aggressive displays and bluffs. The dominance battles between males can look very fierce, but typically they inflict very little injury. It is usually the older bulls, forty to fifty years old, that do most of the breeding.

The less dominant ones must wait their turn. Only the most dominant males will be permitted to breed with cycling females. The males spend much more time than the females fighting for dominance with each other. These groups are called bachelor herds.

While males do live primarily solitary, lives, they will occasionally form loose associations with other males. Eventually, days become weeks, and somewhere around the age of fourteen, the mature male, or bull, sets out from his natal group for good. As he gets older, he begins to spend more time at the edge of the herd, gradually going off on his own for hours or days at a time. The life of the adult male is very different.

They remain very aware of which local herds are relatives and which are not. When a group gets too big, a few of the elder daughters will break off and form their own small group. Most immediate family groups range from five to fifteen adults, as well as a number of immature males and females. In addition to encountering the local males that live on the fringes of one or more groups, the female's life also involves interaction with other families, clans, and subpopulations.

The social circle of the female elephant does not end with the small family unit. Adult males, on the other hand, live mostly solitary lives. These groups are led by the eldest female, or matriarch. the females spend their entire lives in tightly knit family groups made up of mothers, daughters, sisters, and aunts.

The social lives of male and female elephants are very different. Elephants live in a very structured social order. 60% of that food leaves the elephant's body undigested. An adult elephant can consume 300 to 600 pounds (140 to 270 kg) of food a day.

Because elephants only digest 40% of what they eat, they have to make up for their digestive system's lack of efficiency in volume. Their diet is at least 50% grasses, supplemented with leaves, twigs, bark, roots, and small amounts of fruits, seeds and flowers. Elephants are herbivores, spending 16 hours a day collecting plant food. There are unconfirmed rumours of three other hybrid elephants born in zoos or circuses, all of were said to have been deformed and did not survive.

It is preserved as a mounted specimen at the British Natural History Museum, London. Sadly the calf died of infection 12 days later. The body was African in type, but had an Asian-type centre hump and an African-type rear hump. The forehead was sloping with one dome and two smaller domes behind it.

The wrinkled trunk was like an African elephant. "Motty", the resulting hybrid male calf, had an African elephant's cheek, ears (large with pointed lobes) and legs (longer and slimmer), but the toenail numbers, (5 front, 4 hind) and the single trunk finger of an Asian elephant. The pair had mated several times, but pregnancy was believed to be impossible. Although hybrids between different animal genera are usually impossible, in 1978, an Asian elephant cow gave birth to a hybrid calf sired by an African elephant bull (the old terms are used here as this pre-dates current classifications).

Many captive African elephants are probably generic African elephants as the recognition of separate species has occurred relatively recently. The Forest elephant and the Savannah elephant can hybridise successfully, though their preference for different terrains reduces the opportunities to hybridise. There's also a potential danger in that if the forest elephant isn't explicitly listed as an endangered species, poachers and smugglers might thus be able to evade the law forbidding trade in endangered animals and their body parts. This reclassification has important implications for conservation, because it means where there were thought to be two small populations of a single endangered species, there may in fact be two separate species, each of which is even more severely endangered.

There are two populations of African elephants, Savannah and Forest, and recent genetic studies have led to a reclassification of these as separate species, the forest population now being called Loxodonta cyclotis, and the Savannah (or Bush) population termed Loxodonta africana. African elephants have a dipped back, smooth forehead and two "fingers" at the tip of their trunks, as compared with the Asian species which have an arched back, two humps on the forehead and have only one "finger" at the tip of their trunks. Male and female African elephants have long tusks, while male and female Asian Elephants have shorter tusks, with tusks in females being almost non-existent. African elephants tend to be larger than the Asian species (up to 4 m high and 7500 kg) and have bigger ears.

It has long been known that the African and Asian elephants are separate species. In the past, there was a much wider variety of elephant genera, including the mammoths, stegodons and deinotheria. Modern elephants have retained this ability and are known to swim in that manner for up to 6 hours and 50 km. One theory suggests that these animals spent most of their time under water, using their trunks like snorkels for breathing.

In the distant past, members of the hyrax family grew to large sizes, and it seems likely that the common ancestor of all three modern families was some kind of amphibious hyracoid. Although the fossil evidence is uncertain, some scientists believe there is genetic evidence that the elephant family shares distant ancestry with the Sirenians (sea cows) and the hyraxes. Walking at a normal pace an elephant covers about 2 to 4 miles an hour (3 to 6 km/h) but they can reach 24 miles an hour (40 km/h) at full speed. Joyce Poole, a well-known elephant researcher, has theorized that the males will fan their ears in an effort to help propel this "elephant cologne" great distances.

During the breeding season, males give off an odor from a gland located behind their eyes. If an elephant wants to intimidate a predator or rival, it will spread its ears out wide to make itself look more massive and imposing. The ears are also used in certain displays of aggression and during the males' mating period. Asians live farther north, in slightly cooler climates, and thus have smaller ears.

Therefore, they have bigger ears. Africans originated and stayed near the equator, where it is warmer. Differences in the ear sizes of African and Asian elephants can be explained, in part, by their geographical distribution. The hot blood entering the ears can be cooled as much as ten degrees Fahrenheit before returning to the body.

This breeze cools the surface blood vessels, and then the cooler blood gets circulated to the rest of the animal's body. On hot days, elephants will flap their ears constantly, creating a slight breeze. Elephant ears are made of a very thin layer of skin stretched over cartilage and a rich network of blood vessels. The large flapping ears of an elephant are also very important for temperature regulation.

Since wild elephants live in very hot climates, they must have other means of getting rid of excess heat.The elephants skin is very delicate. Elephants have even been observed lifting up their legs to expose the soles of their feet, presumably in an effort to expose more skin to the air. The ratio of an elephant's mass to the surface area of its skin is many times that of a human. They have a very difficult time releasing heat through the skin because, in proportion to their body size, they have very little of it.

Elephants spend every day fighting an uphill battle to stay cool. Wallowing also aids the skin in regulating body temperatures. As elephants are limited to smaller and smaller areas, there is less water available, and local herds will often come too close over the right to use these limited resources. After bathing, the elephant will usually use its trunk to blow dirt on its body to help dry and bake on its new protective coat.

Without regular mud baths to protect it from burning, as well as from insect bites and moisture loss, an elephant's skin would suffer serious damage. Though tough, an elephant's skin is very sensitive. Not only is it important for socialization, but the mud acts as a sunscreen, protecting their skin from harsh ultraviolet radiation. Wallowing is actually a very important behaviour in elephant society.

Both species of elephants are typically grayish in colour, but the Africans very often appear brown or reddish from wallowing in mud holes of coloured soil. As they get older, this hair darkens and becomes more sparse, but it will always remain on their heads and tails. Asian calves are usually covered with a thick coat of brownish red fuzz. This is most noticeable in the young.

Normally, the skin of an Asian is covered with more hair than its African counterpart. However, the skin around the mouth and inside of the ear is paper thin. An elephant's skin is extremely tough around most parts of its body. Another name for an elephant is pachyderm, which means "thick skin".

However, as more habitat is destroyed, the elephants' living space becomes smaller and smaller; the elderly no longer have the opportunity to roam in search of more appropriate food and will, consequently, die of starvation at an earlier age. Eventually, when the final teeth fall out, the animal will be unable to eat and will die. Very elderly elephants often spend their final years exclusively in marshy areas where they can feed on soft wet grasses. When an elephant becomes very old, the last set of teeth become brittle, and it must rely on softer foods to chew.

New teeth grow in at the back of the mouth, pushing older teeth toward the front, where they become brittle and fall out, making room for more teeth. Instead, they have a horizontal progression, like a conveyor belt. The teeth don't emerge from the jaws vertically like humans' do with new teeth replacing old ones from above or below. After one year the tusks are permanent, but the other teeth are replaced six times in an elephant's life.

Unlike most mammals, which grow baby teeth and then replace them with a permanent set of adult teeth, elephants have cycles of tooth rotation throughout their entire life. Over their lives they have 26 teeth, including two upper incisors (tusks), 12 premolars, and 12 molars. Elephants' teeth are very different from those of most other mammals. The desire for elephant ivory has been one of the major factors in the dramatic decline of the world's elephant population.

As a piece of living tissue, it is relatively soft (compared with other minerals such as rock), and the tusk, also known as ivory, is strongly favoured by artisans for its carvability. the tusk of both species is mostly made of calcium and phosphate. Asian males can have tusks as long as the much larger Africans, but they are usually much slimmer and lighter (the heaviest recorded was only 86 pounds). Female Asians have tusks which are very small or absent altogether.

In the Asian species, only the males have large tusks. Both male and female African elephants have large, impressive tusks that can reach over ten feet in length and weigh over two hundred pounds. The dominant tusk, called the master tusk, is generally shorter and more rounded at the tip from wear. Like humans who are typically right- or left-handed, elephants are usually right- or left-tusked.

In addition, they are used for marking trees to establish territory and occasionally as weapons. They are used primarily to dig for water, salt, and roots; to debark trees, in order to get at the tasty pulp inside; and to move downed trees and branches when clearing a path. Tusks are indispensable to an elephant. An adult male's tusks will grow about seven inches a year.

The tusks of an elephant are upper incisors that are continuously growing. Raising the trunk up in the air and swiveling it from side to side, like a periscope, it can determine the location of friends, enemies, and food sources. An elephant also relies on its trunk for its highly developed sense of smell. Elephants can defend themselves very well by flailing their trunk at unwanted intruders or by grasping and flinging them.

They also use them while play-wrestling, caressing during courtship, and for dominance displays - a raised trunk can be a warning or threat, while a lowered trunk can be a sign of submission. Familiar elephants will greet each other by entwining their trunks, much like a handshake. This appendage also plays a key role in many social interactions. On top of this watery coating, the animal will then spray dirt and mud, which act as a protective sunscreen.

Elephants also inhale water to spray on their body during bathing. Elephants suck water up into the trunk (up to fifteen quarts [14.2 liters] at a time) and then blow it into their mouth. The trunk is also used for drinking. If the desired food item is too high up, the elephant will wrap its trunk around the tree or branch and shake its food loose or sometimes simply knock the tree down altogether.

They will graze on grass or reach up into trees to grasp leaves, fruit, or entire branches. However, except for the very young or infirm, elephants always use their trunks to tear up their food and then place it in their mouth. Most herbivores (plant eaters, like the elephant) are adapted with teeth for cutting and tearing off plant materials. According to biologists, the elephant's trunk is said to have over forty thousand individual muscles in it, making it sensitive enough to pick up a single blade of grass, yet strong enough to rip the branches off a tree.

To facilitate this, African elephants are equipped with two fingerlike projections at the tip of their trunk, while Asians have only one. The trunk is basically used to manipulate objects. It is a fusion of the nose and upper lip, elongated and specialized to become the elephant's most important and versatile appendage. The proboscis, or trunk, is perhaps the elephant's most distinctive feature.

So, the more allomothers, the better the calf's chances of survival. Providing a calf with nutritious milk means the mother has to eat more nutritious food herself. The more allomothers a baby has, the more free time its mother has to feed herself. They walk with the young as the herd travels, helping the calves along if they fall or get stuck in the mud.

According to Cynthia Moss, a well-known researcher, these allomothes will help in all aspects of raising the calf. After the initial excitement dies down, the mother will usually select several full-time baby-sitters, or "allomothers", from her group. The baby is born nearly blind and at first relies, almost completely, on its trunk to discover the world around it. All the adults and most of the other young will gather around the newborn, touching and caressing it with their trunks.

In fact, a new calf is usually the center of attention for all herd members. Since everyone in these herds is related, there is never a shortage of baby-sitters. All members of the tightly knit female group participate in the care and protection of the young. Today, however, the pressures humans have put on the wild elephant populations, from poaching to habitat destruction, mean that the elderly often die at a younger age, leaving fewer teachers for the young.

The ability to pass on information and knowledge to their young has always been a major asset in the elephant's struggle to survive. Instead, they must rely on their elders to teach them the things they need to know. They are born with fewer survival instincts than many other animals. Elephants have a very long childhood.

and stand over 2½ feet tall. After a twenty-two-month pregnancy, the mother will give birth to a calf that will weigh about 250 lbs. In this way, they are assuring that their offspring will have the best possible chance of survival. Females want to breed with the bigger, stronger, and, most importantly, older males.

The word fitness, in an ecological sense, means the animal best suited to survive in its environment and pass on its genes. A female will usually be ready to breed around the age of thirteen, at which time she will seek out the most "fit" male to mate with. Elephant social life, in many ways, revolves around breeding and raising of the calves. An enormous animal nonetheless, it is considerably smaller than its other Asian (and African) cousins and exists only on the island of Sumatra, usually in forested regions and partially wooded habitats.

Mature Sumatrans will usually only measure about 10 feet at the shoulder and weigh less than nine thousand pounds. It is very light gray and has less depigmentation than the other Asians, with pink spots only on the ears. Population estimates for this group range from 33,000 to 53,000 individuals. The smallest of all the elephants is the Sumatran Asian elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus).

It prefers forested areas and transitional zones, between forests and grasslands, where greater food variety is available. The mainland Asian can be found in 12 Asian countries, from india to Indonesia. Large males will ordinarily weigh only about 11,000 pounds but are as tall as the Sri Lankan. Numbering approximately 36,000, these elephants are lighter gray in colour, with depigmentation only on the ears and trunk.

Another subspecies, the mainland Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) makes up the bulk of the Asian elephant population. This program plays a large role to protect the Sri Lankan Elephant from extinction. There is an Orphanage for Elephants in Pinnawala Sri Lanka, which gives shelter to disabled, injured Elephants. typically their ears, face, trunk, and belly have large concentrations of pink-speckled skin.

Sri Lankan males have very large cranial bulges, and both sexes have more areas of depigmentation than are found in the other Asians. Large males can weigh upward to 12,000 pounds and stand over 11 feet tall. There are an estimated total of only 3,000-4,500 members of this subspecies left today in the wild, although no accurate census has been carried out in the recent past. Found only on the island of Sri Lanka, a small country off the southeast coast of India, it is the largest of the Asians.

The first subspecies is the Sri Lankan Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus). An Asian elephant can also be distinguished by the large bulges of depigmentation on the skin. It has smaller ears, shaped like the subcontinent of India, and typically only the males have large external tusks. In general, the Asian elephant is smaller than the African.

As with the Loxodonta, there are distinct subspecies of Elephas maximus. The causes of this decline are much the same as that of the African. Perhaps the Asian elephants' decline has been less noticeable because it has been more gradual. Today scientists estimate the world population of Asian elephants, or Elephas maximus, to be approximately 40,000, less than one-tenth the number of African elephants.

Normally they inhabit the dense forests of central and western Africa, though occasionally they do inhabit the edges of forests and overlap territories with bush elephants. Much less is known about these animals than their savanna cousins because environmental and political obstacles make them very difficult to study. The Forest Elephant can weigh up to 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) and stand about 10 feet (3 m) tall. Compared with the Savanna Elephant, its ears are usually smaller and rounder, and its tusks are also thinner and straighter.

The other, less numerous species is the Forest Elephant, recently reclassified as Loxodonta cyclotis. They range over most of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Most often, Savanna Elephants are found in open grasslands, marshes, and lakeshores. In fact, it is the largest land animal in the world, standing on average 13 feet (4 meters) at the shoulder and weighing approximately 15,400 pounds (7,000 kilograms).

Today, Loxodonta africana refers specifically to the Savanna Elephant, the largest of all the elephants. Recent DNA analysis has led scientists to reclassify the two races as distinct species. Until the late 20th century, scientists recognized one species of African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and two subspecies, or races, within the species. Both males and females have external tusks and are usually less hairy than their Asian cousins.

The African elephant is typically larger than the Asian and has a concave back. Africans' ears are much larger and are shaped like the continent of their origin. The most noticeable difference is the ears. African elephants are distinguished from Asians in several ways.

This decline is attributed primarily to poaching, or illegal hunting, and habitat loss. One decade later, only around 600,000 remain. As recently as 1979 there were an estimated 1.3 million African elephants. Others argue that while elephants are locally overabundant in certain areas, it is impossible to ignore the fact that the overall population has dropped by a staggering amount.

Some believe this represents a stable population and that measures to protect them are unnecessary. Today there are approximately 600,000 African elephants in the world. In recent years, Loxodonta has received the attention of the world because of its dwindling numbers. The mammals of the genus Loxodonta, often known collectively as African elephants, are found in several regions throughout the continent after which they are named.

. The elephant is now a protected animal, and keeping one as a pet is prohibited around the world. Recent findings of animal remains in central China show Prehistoric elephants ate humans. Their scattered skulls, featuring a single large trunk-hole at the front, formed the basis of belief in existence of cyclops, one-eyed giants, which are featured in Homer's Odyssey.

The smallest elephants, about the size of a calf or a large pig, were a pre-historic variant that lived on the island of Crete until 5000 BC, possibly 3000 BC. It was male and weighed 12,000 kilograms (26,400 lb). The largest elephant ever recorded was shot in Angola in 1974. An elephant may live as long as 70 years.

It takes 20 to 22 months for a baby elephant to mature to birth, the longest gestation period of any land animal. At birth it is common for an elephant calf to weigh 120 kg (265 lb). Elephants are the largest land animals and largest land mammals alive today. Other species have become extinct since the last ice age, which ended about 10,000 years ago.

Elephantidae has three living species: the Savannah Elephant and Forest Elephant (which were collectively known as the African Elephant) and the Asian Elephant (formerly known as the Indian Elephant). Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of animals, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea. As a defense against their tusked counterparts, these elephants typically learn to be far more aggressive and sometimes willing to attack unprovoked. Tuskless elephants are becoming increasingly more common, particularly in Asia where they may rank as high as 40%.

Elephants used for work can be pushed too far, and they lash out from the stress at their handlers. When a herd was found eating crops from the farmers crop field, they attempted to drive them away by shooting above their heads and tossing sticks that they lit on fire. Humans are slowly destroying the food source of elephants by human development.

    . If an orphaned baby elephant or several orphaned young are left to fend for themselves, as they grow up, they have no older members to keep their hormones in check and to teach them how to be an elephant, so they gang up and act on their unrestrained aggressiveness.

    In the episode, we see a baby elephant accidentally killed by humans, which triggers an entire herd to attack a town without provocation because that town had the baby elephant's scent, and they were looking for their kin. Humans kill elephants for game and food.

      . After digging into her past, it was found that she was the only survivor of one of these "cullings". In the episode, a female elephant, while in a circus, killed two people and terrorized a crowd.

      Humans "cull" elephant herds when they become too big for nature to contain, and the babies are sold to circuses.

        . See also the Danish royal Order of the Elephant. The elephant is also the symbol for the Republican Party of the United States, originating in an 1874 cartoon by Thomas Nast of Harper's Weekly (Nast also originated the donkey as the symbol of the Democratic Party);. The elephant, and the white elephant in particular, has often been used a symbol of royal power and prestige in Asia;.

        Elephants used for festival, south India. Ganesh, the Hindu god of wisdom, has an elephant's head. A white elephant is considered holy in Thailand. The fictional planet in Terry Pratchett's Discworld novels consists of a flat disc-shaped world carried on the backs of four elephants who ride through space on a space turtle, Great A'Tuin.

        Joseph Merrick, a British man in Victorian England, who suffered from substantial deformities, and was nicknamed "The Elephant Man" due to the nature and extent of his condition;. The Thai Elephant Orchestra, a musical instrument playing group of Elephants from the Thai Elephant Conservation Center in Lampang;. The Elephant's Child is one of Rudyard Kipling's Just So Stories;. The French children's storybook character Babar the Elephant (an elephant king) created by Jean de Brunhoff and also an animated TV series;.

        Dumbo, the flying elephant in Disney movie;. Jumbo, a circus elephant, has entered the English language as a synonym for "large";. For example, termites eat elephant feces and often begin construction of termite mounds under piles of feces. Elephants are a species upon which many other organisms depend.

        These newly dug water holes may become the only source of water in the area. During the dry season elephants use their tusks to dig into dry river beds to reach underground sources of water. The pathways have been used by several generations of elephants, and today people are converting many of them to paved roads. Elephants make pathways through the environment that are used by other animals to access areas normally out of reach.

        By pulling down trees to eat leaves, breaking branches, and pulling out roots they create clearings in which new young trees and other vegetation grow to provide future nutrition for elephants and other organisms. This can be observed as the calf trips over its trunk or as the trunk wiggles like a rubbery object when the calf shakes its head. It takes several months for a calf to control the use of its trunk. For example, a calf learns how to use its trunk by watching older elephants using their trunks.

        Newborn calves learn primarily by observing adults, not from natural instinct. Complete weaning depends on the disposition of the mother, the amount of available milk, and the arrival of another calf. A calf may nurse for up to 2 years of age or older. A newborn calf suckles for only a few minutes at a time but will suckle many times per day, consuming up to 11 litres (3 gallons) of milk in a single day.

        To clear the way to its mouth so it can suckle, the calf will flop its trunk onto its forehead. A calf suckles with its mouth, not its trunk, which has no muscle tone. When born, a calf is about 3 feet (90 cm) high, just tall enough to reach its mother's nipples. Unlike most mammals, female elephants have a single pair of mammary glands located just behind the front legs.

        A newborn calf usually stands within one hour and is strong enough to follow its mother in a slow-moving herd within a few days. For support, it will often lean on its mother's legs. With the help of its mother, a newborn calf usually struggles to its feet within 30 minutes of birth. Whichever happens first, the mother typically responds to her new baby with surprise and excitement.).

        (In the first few minutes after a captive birth, the keepers must monitor the calf closely for the first sound or movement. The first sound a newborn calf usually makes is a sneezing or snorting sound to clear its nasal passages of fluids. In the wild, baby elephants are raised and nurtured by the whole family group, practically from the moment they are born. In the wild, the mother is accompanied by other adult females (aunts) that protect the young.

        At birth, calves weigh around 90-115 kilograms (200-250 pounds), and they gain 1 kilogram (2-2.5 pounds) a day. The average length of labor is 11 hours. Labor ranges in length from 5 minutes to 60 hours. Twins are rare.

        An elephant's gestation period lasts about 22 months (630-660 days), the longest gestation period of any mammal, after which one calf typically is born. Females give birth at intervals of about every 5 years. They can reproduce until ages 55-60. Females (cows) reach sexual maturity at around 9-12 years of age and become pregnant for the first time, on average, around age 13.

        Mammuthus †. Stegodon †. Elephas recki †. Elephas maximus.

        Elephas

          . Loxodonta africana. Loxodonta cyclotis. Loxodonta
            .

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