Puma

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Binomial name
Puma concolor
(Linnaeus, 1771)

The puma (Puma concolor since 1993, previously Felis concolor) is a type of predator-feline found in North, Central, and South America. Though large in size this cat cannot roar, but instead purrs and has even been said to make eerily humanlike screams when courting. It is more closely related to the common house cat than to the African lion. It is also known by the regional names of cougar, mountain lion, panther, catamount, and painted cat. The word puma comes from the Quechua language. In Brazil it is known an suçuarana, from the Tupi language, but also has other names. In fact in the English language the puma has over 40 different names.

In North America, particularly the United States, panther by itself refers to a puma, although the term black panther is correctly associated only with the melanistic variants of leopards or jaguars rather than pumas. In Europe and Asia, panther means leopard and can refer to either the spotted or black leopard. In South America, panther refers to the jaguar and can refer to either the spotted or black jaguar. The melanistic gene can be seen in a variety of cats, including the Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Caracal, Jaguarundi, Serval, Ocelot, Margay, Bobcat, Geoffrey's Cat; however, melanism has never been documented in Puma concolor, though urban legends of "black panthers" persist. Such anecdotal accounts are particularly prominent in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, a region where P. concolor is accepted as having been wholly extirpated by the late 1800's, and where breeding populations have not been documented as re-established by 2005.

Recent DNA analysis has established that the puma is supposedly quite closely related to the jaguarundi and North American cheetah (Miracinonyx, now extinct), but not to true cheetahs. The puma is not closely related to other large felines, such as leopards and lions.

There is a considerable variation in color and size of these animals across their large range of habitats.

Subspecies

Hybrids

Hybrids between subspecies of puma have occurred where new blood has been introduced into the Florida panther. Although a controversial move, the hybrids are more vigorous than pure Florida panthers and excessive inbreeding is averted.

In spite of not being closely related to the pantherine big cats, hybrids between pumas and leopards have been bred and are called pumapards. Hybrids between a puma and an ocelot have also been bred. Hybrids between pumas and jaguars have been reported, but none have been proven.

Population and distribution

The range of the puma

Pumas have one of the largest ranges of any wild cat, holding competition with only the Eurasian Lynx, Wild Cat and greatly spread Leopard. Before the modern human population explosion in the Americas, the puma ranged across most of the Americas. Even now, it has the widest range of any New World land animal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory (in Canada) to the southern Andes (on both the Chilean and Argentinian sides). One of the only locations where the puma is in great danger is within the United States, mainly Florida and other parts of the East Coast. This is mostly due to human infringement, clashing with cities and other urban "advancements" or because of the loss of territories that urbanization brings. When pumas are found and relocated to more "wild" parts of the state, they are put into competition with already existing cats.

Puma populations of the United States and Canada

Hunted almost to extinction in the United States, the puma has made a dramatic comeback, with an estimated 30,000 individuals in the western United States. In Canada, pumas are found west of the prairies, in Alberta, British Columbia and the southern Yukon. The densest concentration of pumas in North America is found on Vancouver Island in British Columbia

Pumas are gradually extending their range to the east, following creeks and riverbeds, and have reached Missouri and Michigan. Pumas have been seen along the northern shore of Lake Superior with an attack on a horse in Ely, Minnesota in 2004. It is anticipated that they will soon expand their range over the entire eastern and southern United States. There are continuing reports of the survival of a remnant population of the Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, Ontario, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec.

Due to urbanization in the urban-wildland interface, pumas often come into contact with people, especially in areas with a large population of deer, their natural prey. They have also begun preying on pets, such as dogs and cats, and livestock, but have rarely turned to people as a source of food.

There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,000 pumas in California (est. circa 1990) and an estimated 4,500 to 5,000 in Colorado.

Puma, photographed in the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona

Physical characteristics

Pumas are tawny-colored with black-tipped ears and tail. The puma can run as fast as 50 km/h (30 mph), jump 6 m (20 ft) from a standing position, vertically leap 2.5 m (8 ft), and often weigh more than 70 kg (150 lb). Their bite strength is more powerful than that of any domestic dog. Puma claws are retractable and they have four toes. Adult males may be more than eight feet long (nose to tail), and have a mass of about 70 kg (weigh approx 150 lb). In exceptional cases males may reach as much as 90 kg. Adult females can be 2 m (7 ft) long and have a mass of about 35 kg (weigh approx 75 lb). Puma kittens have brownish-blackish spots and rings on their tails. Their life span is about a decade in the wild and 25 years or more in captivity.

Pumas that live closest to the equator are the smallest, and increase in size in populations closer to the poles.

Color Morphs

The normal coloration of the puma is tawny or sandy, mimicking their principal prey, the deer. Kittens have irregular blotches of darker brown which can sometimes persist into adolescence but disappear by the time the cat is a year old. Abnormally pale and even white (leucistic but not albino) pumas exist. Abnormally dark brown pumas with paler bellies have been described, primarily from South and Central America and were described as couguar noire in Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. There are no authenticated reports of truly melanistic pumas.

Behavior

Pumas can kill and drag prey about 7 times their own weight. They normally hunt large mammals, such as deer and elk, but will eat small animals, such as beavers, porcupines or even mice, if the need arises. They hunt alone and ambush their prey, often from behind. They usually kill with a bite at the base of the skull to break the neck of their target. The carcass of the kill is usually then buried or partially covered to protect it for several days, while the puma continues to roam and comes back for nourishment as needed. Pumas do not enjoy being scavengers, however, and will generally hunt for their own food and not eat from a carcass. Pumas will catch and kill their prey 98% of the time, so perhaps they can afford to be a bit choosey. Like other cats, they will also move to certain areas for feeding. Adult males tend to claim a 250 km² (100 mile²) stretch for their territory; adult females take (50 to 150 km² (20 to 60 mile²) on average; however their ranges can vary from as much as 1,000 km² (370 mile²) to as little as 25 km² (10 mile²).

A male may breed with several females. Female pumas usually have 3 or 4 kittens in a den in a rocky location. If a male puma invades the territory of another male, he may kill the kittens of resident females so that they will become receptive to mating.

Attacks on humans

Attacks on humans are rare, but do occur — especially as humans encroach on wildlands and impact the availability of the puma's traditional prey. There were around 100 puma attacks on humans in the USA and Canada during the period from 1890 to January 2004, with 16 fatalities; figures for California were 14 attacks and 6 fatalities. Attacks by puma on humans and pets are associated with urban areas situated in the wildland urban intermix such as the Boulder, Colorado area which have encouraged the traditional prey of the puma, the mule deer, to habituate to urban areas and the presence of people and pets. Pumas in such circumstances may come to lose their fear of both people and dogs and come to see them as prey.

On January 8, 2004 a puma killed and partly ate a mountain biker in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park in Orange County, California; what is assumed to be the same animal attacked another mountain biker in the park the following day, but was fought off by other bikers. A young male puma was shot nearby by rangers later in the day.

Pumas cannot be hunted in California except under very specific circumstances. This, as well as the extinction in California of the wolf and brown bear, has allowed the puma to greatly increase its numbers, as there are usually no longer any competing predators able to steal a puma's kill, though a few black bears may be strong enough to do so. California law requires that wild animals who have attacked a human must be killed if they can be located.

Puma safety tips

Jogging, running, and biking on wildland trails can be particularly hazardous since such runners are likely to be less attentive to the surroundings and the motion can trigger a "chase and kill" reflex in the animal. Talk to local authorities or park rangers to see if it is advisable before taking such a risk.

Further reading


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Talk to local authorities or park rangers to see if it is advisable before taking such a risk. Common formats in digital camera images are DCF, DPOF, EXIF, JPEG, RAW, TIFF; formats for movies are AVI, DV, MPEG, MOV, WMV etc. Jogging, running, and biking on wildland trails can be particularly hazardous since such runners are likely to be less attentive to the surroundings and the motion can trigger a "chase and kill" reflex in the animal. Some DVD recorders and television sets can read memory cards too. California law requires that wild animals who have attacked a human must be killed if they can be located. The camera connects to the printer, which then downloads and prints its images. This, as well as the extinction in California of the wolf and brown bear, has allowed the puma to greatly increase its numbers, as there are usually no longer any competing predators able to steal a puma's kill, though a few black bears may be strong enough to do so. An autonomous device, such as a PictBridge printer, operates without need of a computer .

Pumas cannot be hunted in California except under very specific circumstances. Earlier consumer-based digital cameras used floppy disks. A young male puma was shot nearby by rangers later in the day. In common use are Compact Flash (CF) (which includes microdrives, as they use the same format), Secure Digital (SD) cards, xD cards, and for Sony devices, Memory Stick cards. On January 8, 2004 a puma killed and partly ate a mountain biker in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park in Orange County, California; what is assumed to be the same animal attacked another mountain biker in the park the following day, but was fought off by other bikers. Most dedicated cameras, however, use a removable memory card to store data. Pumas in such circumstances may come to lose their fear of both people and dogs and come to see them as prey. Cheap cameras and cameras secondary to the devices main use (such as a camera phone) use onboard memory, such as flash memory.

Attacks by puma on humans and pets are associated with urban areas situated in the wildland urban intermix such as the Boulder, Colorado area which have encouraged the traditional prey of the puma, the mule deer, to habituate to urban areas and the presence of people and pets. Digital cameras need memory to store data. There were around 100 puma attacks on humans in the USA and Canada during the period from 1890 to January 2004, with 16 fatalities; figures for California were 14 attacks and 6 fatalities. Mobile phone cameras are even more common than standalone digital cameras. Attacks on humans are rare, but do occur — especially as humans encroach on wildlands and impact the availability of the puma's traditional prey. Some devices, like mobile phones and PDAs, contain integrated digital cameras. If a male puma invades the territory of another male, he may kill the kittens of resident females so that they will become receptive to mating. Some cameras such as the Kodak EasyShare One are able to connect to computer networks wirelessly via 802.11 Wi-Fi.

Female pumas usually have 3 or 4 kittens in a den in a rocky location. USB is the most widely used method, though some have a FireWire port or use Bluetooth. A male may breed with several females. Early cameras used the PC serial port. Adult males tend to claim a 250 km² (100 mile²) stretch for their territory; adult females take (50 to 150 km² (20 to 60 mile²) on average; however their ranges can vary from as much as 1,000 km² (370 mile²) to as little as 25 km² (10 mile²). Many digital cameras can connect directly to a computer to transfer data. Like other cats, they will also move to certain areas for feeding. In some cases, extra resolution is interpolated into the image by shifting photosites off of a standard grid pattern so that photosites are adjacent to each other at 45 degree angles, and all three values are interpolated for "virtual" photosites which fall into the spaces at 90 degree angles from the actual photosites.

Pumas will catch and kill their prey 98% of the time, so perhaps they can afford to be a bit choosey. The luminous intensity color values not captured for each pixel can be interpolated (or guessed at) from the values of adjacent pixels which represent the color being calculated. Pumas do not enjoy being scavengers, however, and will generally hunt for their own food and not eat from a carcass. This provides a wider color gamut, but requires a slightly more complicated interpolation process. The carcass of the kill is usually then buried or partially covered to protect it for several days, while the puma continues to roam and comes back for nourishment as needed. Sometimes a 4-color filter pattern is used, often involving 2 different hues of green. They usually kill with a bite at the base of the skull to break the neck of their target. The high proportion of green takes advantage of properties of the human visual system, which determines brightness mostly from green and is far more sensitive to brightness than to hue or saturation.

They hunt alone and ambush their prey, often from behind. A Bayer filter pattern is a 2x2 pattern of light filters, with green ones at opposite corners and red and blue elsewhere. They normally hunt large mammals, such as deer and elk, but will eat small animals, such as beavers, porcupines or even mice, if the need arises. The Bayer filter pattern is typically used. Pumas can kill and drag prey about 7 times their own weight. A normal sensor element cannot simultaneously record these three values. There are no authenticated reports of truly melanistic pumas. This is because in digital images, each pixel must have three values for luminous intensity, one each for the red, green, and blue channels.

Abnormally dark brown pumas with paler bellies have been described, primarily from South and Central America and were described as couguar noire in Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. The software specific to the camera interprets the information from the sensor to obtain a full color image. Abnormally pale and even white (leucistic but not albino) pumas exist. Image color or resolution interpolation is used unless the camera uses a beam splitter single-shot approach, three-filter multi-shot approach, or Foveon X3 sensor currently used in Sigma SD10 DSLR and Polaroid x530 point and shoot. Kittens have irregular blotches of darker brown which can sometimes persist into adolescence but disappear by the time the cat is a year old. However, the higher color fidelity and larger file sizes and resolutions available with multi-shot and scan-backs make them attractive for commercial photographers working with stationary subjects and large-format photographs. The normal coloration of the puma is tawny or sandy, mimicking their principal prey, the deer. It is usually inappropriate to attempt to capture a subject which moves (like people or objects in motion) with anything but a single shot system.

Pumas that live closest to the equator are the smallest, and increase in size in populations closer to the poles. The choice of method for a given capture is of course determined largely by the subject matter. Their life span is about a decade in the wild and 25 years or more in captivity. These CCDs are usually referred to as "sticks" rather than "chips" because they utilize only a single row of pixels (more properly "photosites") which are again "stamped" with the Bayer filter. Puma kittens have brownish-blackish spots and rings on their tails. The third method is called "Scan" because the sensor moves across the focus plane much like the sensor of a desktop scanner. Adult females can be 2 m (7 ft) long and have a mass of about 35 kg (weigh approx 75 lb). A third version combined the two methods without stamping a Bayer filter onto the chip.

In exceptional cases males may reach as much as 90 kg. Another multiple shot method utilized a single CCD with a Bayer filter but actually moved the physical location of the sensor chip on the focus plane of the lens to "stitch" together a higher resolution image than the CCD would allow otherwise. Adult males may be more than eight feet long (nose to tail), and have a mass of about 70 kg (weigh approx 150 lb). The most common originally was to use a single CCD with three filters (once again red, green and blue) passed in front of the sensor in sequence to obtain the additive color information. Puma claws are retractable and they have four toes. There are several methods of application of the multi-shot technique. Their bite strength is more powerful than that of any domestic dog. The second method is referred to as "Multi-Shot" because the sensor is exposed to the image in a sequence of three or more openings of the lens aperture.

The puma can run as fast as 50 km/h (30 mph), jump 6 m (20 ft) from a standing position, vertically leap 2.5 m (8 ft), and often weigh more than 70 kg (150 lb). Single Shot capture systems use either one CCD with a Bayer filter stamped onto it or three separate CCDs (one each for the primary additive colors Red, Green and Blue) which are exposed to the same image via a beam splitter. Pumas are tawny-colored with black-tipped ears and tail. The first method is often called "Single Shot," in reference to the number of times the camera's sensor is exposed to the light passing through the camera lens. circa 1990) and an estimated 4,500 to 5,000 in Colorado. the camera body had multiple lenses, viewfinders, winders and backs available for use with it to fit different needs.) Since the first backs were introduced there have been three main methods of "capturing" the image, each based on the hardware configuration of the particular back. There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,000 pumas in California (est. (This is because most of the large- and medium-format camera systems in professional use at the time that digital capture overtook film as the professional's medium of choice were modular in nature, i.e.

They have also begun preying on pets, such as dogs and cats, and livestock, but have rarely turned to people as a source of food. High-end digital camera backs used by professionals are usually separate devices from the camera bodies which they are used with. Due to urbanization in the urban-wildland interface, pumas often come into contact with people, especially in areas with a large population of deer, their natural prey. For our purposes, a chip sensor is a CCD. There are continuing reports of the survival of a remnant population of the Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, Ontario, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) sensors are differentiated from CCDs proper in that it uses less power and a different kind of light sensing material, however the differences are highly technical and many manufacturers still consider the CMOS chip a charged coupled device. It is anticipated that they will soon expand their range over the entire eastern and southern United States. chips comprised of a grid of phototransistors to sense the light intensities across the plane of focus of the camera lens.

Pumas have been seen along the northern shore of Lake Superior with an attack on a horse in Ely, Minnesota in 2004. All use either a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) or a CMOS sensor, i.e. Pumas are gradually extending their range to the east, following creeks and riverbeds, and have reached Missouri and Michigan. The actual transfers to a host computer are commonly carried out using the USB mass storage device class (so that the camera appear as a drive) or using the Picture Transfer Protocol and its derivatives. The densest concentration of pumas in North America is found on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. They are rated in megapixels; that is, the product of their maximum resolution dimensions in millions. In Canada, pumas are found west of the prairies, in Alberta, British Columbia and the southern Yukon. Among digital still cameras, most have a rear LCD for reviewing photographs.

Hunted almost to extinction in the United States, the puma has made a dramatic comeback, with an estimated 30,000 individuals in the western United States. In addition, some newer camcorders record video directly to flash memory and transfer over USB and FireWire. When pumas are found and relocated to more "wild" parts of the state, they are put into competition with already existing cats. However, modern digital photography cameras have a video function, and a growing number of camcorders have a still photography function. This is mostly due to human infringement, clashing with cities and other urban "advancements" or because of the loss of territories that urbanization brings. Initially, a digital camera was characterized by the use of flash memory and USB or FireWire for storage and transfer of still photographs, and this is still the common meaning of the unadorned term. One of the only locations where the puma is in great danger is within the United States, mainly Florida and other parts of the East Coast. Digital still cameras are cameras whose primary purpose is to capture photography in a digital format.

Even now, it has the widest range of any New World land animal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory (in Canada) to the southern Andes (on both the Chilean and Argentinian sides). In addition, many still digital cameras have a "movie" mode, in which images are continuously acquired at a frame rate sufficient for video. Before the modern human population explosion in the Americas, the puma ranged across most of the Americas. Digital cameras can be classified into several groups:. Pumas have one of the largest ranges of any wild cat, holding competition with only the Eurasian Lynx, Wild Cat and greatly spread Leopard. Mavica worked off magnetic disks and was based on television technology that inherently limited image quality. Hybrids between pumas and jaguars have been reported, but none have been proven. Sony marketed Mavica, the first filmless camera in 1981.

Hybrids between a puma and an ocelot have also been bred. components, a Kodak movie-camera lens and the tiny CCD chips introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor in 1973. In spite of not being closely related to the pantherine big cats, hybrids between pumas and leopards have been bred and are called pumapards. For his device, Sasson used an analog-to-digital converter adapted from Motorola Inc. Although a controversial move, the hybrids are more vigorous than pure Florida panthers and excessive inbreeding is averted. No one, however, had attempted a completely solid-state digital-video device. Hybrids between subspecies of puma have occurred where new blood has been introduced into the Florida panther. Before that time television cameras had converted images into analog electrical signals, cameras aboard robot space probes had digitized photographs using vacuum tube components and relayed them back to Earth, and Texas Instruments had designed a filmless but analog-based electronic camera in 1972.

. The question was simply 'Could we build a camera using solid-state imagers?' At that time (1970s) the CCD had just come out, and people were curious about its applications. There is a considerable variation in color and size of these animals across their large range of habitats. Sasson's masters supervisor, Gareth Lloyd, set him an open ended assignment. The puma is not closely related to other large felines, such as leopards and lions. Steven Sasson, an engineer working for Eastman Kodak, is credited with developing the first digital camera, an 8-pound toaster sized box that captured a black-and-white image on a digital cassette tape at a resolution of .01 megapixels. Recent DNA analysis has established that the puma is supposedly quite closely related to the jaguarundi and North American cheetah (Miracinonyx, now extinct), but not to true cheetahs. .

concolor is accepted as having been wholly extirpated by the late 1800's, and where breeding populations have not been documented as re-established by 2005. Modern digital cameras are typically multifunctional and the same device can take photographs, video, and/or sound. Such anecdotal accounts are particularly prominent in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, a region where P. A digital camera, is an electronic device to transform images into electronic data. The melanistic gene can be seen in a variety of cats, including the Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Caracal, Jaguarundi, Serval, Ocelot, Margay, Bobcat, Geoffrey's Cat; however, melanism has never been documented in Puma concolor, though urban legends of "black panthers" persist. They are superb for portraiture and artistic photography because they can be customized for various applications with a comprehensive range of exchangeable lenses. In South America, panther refers to the jaguar and can refer to either the spotted or black jaguar. They are also bulkier and frequently much more expensive than their casual-use oriented counterparts.

In Europe and Asia, panther means leopard and can refer to either the spotted or black leopard. They resemble ordinary professional cameras in most ways, most with replaceable flash and lens components, which give the user maximum control over light, focus and depth of field. In North America, particularly the United States, panther by itself refers to a puma, although the term black panther is correctly associated only with the melanistic variants of leopards or jaguars rather than pumas. Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLR) share the optical layout of single-lens reflex cameras and typically have a sensor many times larger than that of a standard digital camera, and are targeted at professional photographers and enthusiasts. In fact in the English language the puma has over 40 different names. They excel in landscape photography and casual use. In Brazil it is known an suçuarana, from the Tupi language, but also has other names. It is also part of the reason professional photographers find their images flat or artificial-looking.

The word puma comes from the Quechua language. This allows objects at multiple depths to be in focus simultaneously, which accounts for much of their ease of focusing. It is also known by the regional names of cougar, mountain lion, panther, catamount, and painted cat. They have an extended depth of field. It is more closely related to the common house cat than to the African lion. They are characterized by great ease in operation and easy focusing; this design allows for limited motion picture capability. Though large in size this cat cannot roar, but instead purrs and has even been said to make eerily humanlike screams when courting. Standard Digital Cameras (also called compact digital cameras or digicams): This encompasses most digital cameras.

The puma (Puma concolor since 1993, previously Felis concolor) is a type of predator-feline found in North, Central, and South America. Webcams can capture full-motion video as well, and some models include microphones or zoom ability. Norton, November, 2003, hardcover, 320 pages, ISBN 0393058077. Webcams are digital cameras attached to computers, used for video conferencing or other purposes. W. They generally include a microphone to record sound, and feature a small LCD to watch the video during filming and playback. David Baron, Beast in the Garden: A Modern Parable of Man and Nature, W. These are a combination of camera and VCR to create an all-in-one production unit.

Do not climb a tree as pumas can climb just as well (if not much better) than humans. Camcorders used by amateurs. Be wary when leaving pets outside, particularly at dawn and dusk. Professional video cameras usually do not have a built-in VCR or microphone. Keep pets from roaming and never feed pets outside. These typically have multiple image sensors (one per color) to enhance resolution and color gamut. Install motion-sensitive outdoor lighting. Professional video cameras such as those used in television and movie production.

Remove dense and low-lying vegetation that provide good hiding places for pumas. The best place to hit a puma is on the nose. Pumas have been repelled with rocks, sticks, garden tools, kicks, and bare hands; a well placed kick to the face has been known to work. Fight back if attacked.

Do not crouch down or bend over; this may create the appearance of an ordinary quadriped prey rather than a typically non-prey biped. Do everything possible to appear larger or intimidating, including raising arms wildly, opening up jacket, and throwing stones and branches. Pick up young children without bending or turning from the puma (if possible). Instead, stand and face the animal, making eye contact.

If confronted by a puma, do not run; that might stimulate its instinct to chase. Do not hike alone; go in groups with adults supervising children. Andes Puma (Puma concolor araucanus). Argentine Puma (Puma concolor pearsoni).

Chilean Puma (Puma concolor puma). Mato Grosso Cougar (Puma concolor acrocodia). Bolivian Cougar (Puma concolor osgoodi). Incan Cougar (Puma concolor incarum).

Amazon Cougar (Puma concolor discolor). Ecuador Cougar (Puma concolor soderstromi). Colombian Cougar (Puma concolor bangsi). Mayan Cougar (Puma concolor mayensis).

Texas Cougar (Puma concolor stanleyana. Yuma Puma (Puma concolor browni). Kaibab Cougar (Puma concolor kaibabensis). California Cougar (Puma concolor californica).

Vancouver Island Cougar (Puma concolor vancouverensis). Oregon Cougar (Puma concolor oregonensis). Colorado Cougar (Puma concolor hippolestes). Missoula Cougar (Puma concolor missoulensis).

Patagonian Puma (Puma concolor patagonica). Baja Californian Cougar (Puma concolor improcera). Brazilian Cougar (Puma concolor concolor). Costa Rican Cougar (Puma concolor costaricensis).

Mexican Cougar (Puma concolor azteca). Eastern Cougar (Puma concolor cougar). Wisconsin Cougar (Puma concolor shorgeri) (extinct, but numerous sightings have been reported). Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi).

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