Puma

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Binomial name
Puma concolor
(Linnaeus, 1771)

The puma (Puma concolor since 1993, previously Felis concolor) is a type of predator-feline found in North, Central, and South America. Though large in size this cat cannot roar, but instead purrs and has even been said to make eerily humanlike screams when courting. It is more closely related to the common house cat than to the African lion. It is also known by the regional names of cougar, mountain lion, panther, catamount, and painted cat. The word puma comes from the Quechua language. In Brazil it is known an suçuarana, from the Tupi language, but also has other names. In fact in the English language the puma has over 40 different names.

In North America, particularly the United States, panther by itself refers to a puma, although the term black panther is correctly associated only with the melanistic variants of leopards or jaguars rather than pumas. In Europe and Asia, panther means leopard and can refer to either the spotted or black leopard. In South America, panther refers to the jaguar and can refer to either the spotted or black jaguar. The melanistic gene can be seen in a variety of cats, including the Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Caracal, Jaguarundi, Serval, Ocelot, Margay, Bobcat, Geoffrey's Cat; however, melanism has never been documented in Puma concolor, though urban legends of "black panthers" persist. Such anecdotal accounts are particularly prominent in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, a region where P. concolor is accepted as having been wholly extirpated by the late 1800's, and where breeding populations have not been documented as re-established by 2005.

Recent DNA analysis has established that the puma is supposedly quite closely related to the jaguarundi and North American cheetah (Miracinonyx, now extinct), but not to true cheetahs. The puma is not closely related to other large felines, such as leopards and lions.

There is a considerable variation in color and size of these animals across their large range of habitats.

Subspecies

Hybrids

Hybrids between subspecies of puma have occurred where new blood has been introduced into the Florida panther. Although a controversial move, the hybrids are more vigorous than pure Florida panthers and excessive inbreeding is averted.

In spite of not being closely related to the pantherine big cats, hybrids between pumas and leopards have been bred and are called pumapards. Hybrids between a puma and an ocelot have also been bred. Hybrids between pumas and jaguars have been reported, but none have been proven.

Population and distribution

The range of the puma

Pumas have one of the largest ranges of any wild cat, holding competition with only the Eurasian Lynx, Wild Cat and greatly spread Leopard. Before the modern human population explosion in the Americas, the puma ranged across most of the Americas. Even now, it has the widest range of any New World land animal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory (in Canada) to the southern Andes (on both the Chilean and Argentinian sides). One of the only locations where the puma is in great danger is within the United States, mainly Florida and other parts of the East Coast. This is mostly due to human infringement, clashing with cities and other urban "advancements" or because of the loss of territories that urbanization brings. When pumas are found and relocated to more "wild" parts of the state, they are put into competition with already existing cats.

Puma populations of the United States and Canada

Hunted almost to extinction in the United States, the puma has made a dramatic comeback, with an estimated 30,000 individuals in the western United States. In Canada, pumas are found west of the prairies, in Alberta, British Columbia and the southern Yukon. The densest concentration of pumas in North America is found on Vancouver Island in British Columbia

Pumas are gradually extending their range to the east, following creeks and riverbeds, and have reached Missouri and Michigan. Pumas have been seen along the northern shore of Lake Superior with an attack on a horse in Ely, Minnesota in 2004. It is anticipated that they will soon expand their range over the entire eastern and southern United States. There are continuing reports of the survival of a remnant population of the Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, Ontario, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec.

Due to urbanization in the urban-wildland interface, pumas often come into contact with people, especially in areas with a large population of deer, their natural prey. They have also begun preying on pets, such as dogs and cats, and livestock, but have rarely turned to people as a source of food.

There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,000 pumas in California (est. circa 1990) and an estimated 4,500 to 5,000 in Colorado.

Puma, photographed in the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona

Physical characteristics

Pumas are tawny-colored with black-tipped ears and tail. The puma can run as fast as 50 km/h (30 mph), jump 6 m (20 ft) from a standing position, vertically leap 2.5 m (8 ft), and often weigh more than 70 kg (150 lb). Their bite strength is more powerful than that of any domestic dog. Puma claws are retractable and they have four toes. Adult males may be more than eight feet long (nose to tail), and have a mass of about 70 kg (weigh approx 150 lb). In exceptional cases males may reach as much as 90 kg. Adult females can be 2 m (7 ft) long and have a mass of about 35 kg (weigh approx 75 lb). Puma kittens have brownish-blackish spots and rings on their tails. Their life span is about a decade in the wild and 25 years or more in captivity.

Pumas that live closest to the equator are the smallest, and increase in size in populations closer to the poles.

Color Morphs

The normal coloration of the puma is tawny or sandy, mimicking their principal prey, the deer. Kittens have irregular blotches of darker brown which can sometimes persist into adolescence but disappear by the time the cat is a year old. Abnormally pale and even white (leucistic but not albino) pumas exist. Abnormally dark brown pumas with paler bellies have been described, primarily from South and Central America and were described as couguar noire in Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. There are no authenticated reports of truly melanistic pumas.

Behavior

Pumas can kill and drag prey about 7 times their own weight. They normally hunt large mammals, such as deer and elk, but will eat small animals, such as beavers, porcupines or even mice, if the need arises. They hunt alone and ambush their prey, often from behind. They usually kill with a bite at the base of the skull to break the neck of their target. The carcass of the kill is usually then buried or partially covered to protect it for several days, while the puma continues to roam and comes back for nourishment as needed. Pumas do not enjoy being scavengers, however, and will generally hunt for their own food and not eat from a carcass. Pumas will catch and kill their prey 98% of the time, so perhaps they can afford to be a bit choosey. Like other cats, they will also move to certain areas for feeding. Adult males tend to claim a 250 km² (100 mile²) stretch for their territory; adult females take (50 to 150 km² (20 to 60 mile²) on average; however their ranges can vary from as much as 1,000 km² (370 mile²) to as little as 25 km² (10 mile²).

A male may breed with several females. Female pumas usually have 3 or 4 kittens in a den in a rocky location. If a male puma invades the territory of another male, he may kill the kittens of resident females so that they will become receptive to mating.

Attacks on humans

Attacks on humans are rare, but do occur — especially as humans encroach on wildlands and impact the availability of the puma's traditional prey. There were around 100 puma attacks on humans in the USA and Canada during the period from 1890 to January 2004, with 16 fatalities; figures for California were 14 attacks and 6 fatalities. Attacks by puma on humans and pets are associated with urban areas situated in the wildland urban intermix such as the Boulder, Colorado area which have encouraged the traditional prey of the puma, the mule deer, to habituate to urban areas and the presence of people and pets. Pumas in such circumstances may come to lose their fear of both people and dogs and come to see them as prey.

On January 8, 2004 a puma killed and partly ate a mountain biker in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park in Orange County, California; what is assumed to be the same animal attacked another mountain biker in the park the following day, but was fought off by other bikers. A young male puma was shot nearby by rangers later in the day.

Pumas cannot be hunted in California except under very specific circumstances. This, as well as the extinction in California of the wolf and brown bear, has allowed the puma to greatly increase its numbers, as there are usually no longer any competing predators able to steal a puma's kill, though a few black bears may be strong enough to do so. California law requires that wild animals who have attacked a human must be killed if they can be located.

Puma safety tips

Jogging, running, and biking on wildland trails can be particularly hazardous since such runners are likely to be less attentive to the surroundings and the motion can trigger a "chase and kill" reflex in the animal. Talk to local authorities or park rangers to see if it is advisable before taking such a risk.

Further reading


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Talk to local authorities or park rangers to see if it is advisable before taking such a risk. To become a Champion of the Realm the player must defeat the demonic evil behind the unrest and return peace to the land. Jogging, running, and biking on wildland trails can be particularly hazardous since such runners are likely to be less attentive to the surroundings and the motion can trigger a "chase and kill" reflex in the animal. Further investigations will reveal a conspiracy with a dark power behind the rebellion. California law requires that wild animals who have attacked a human must be killed if they can be located. Darkness Rising - The King of the realm has returned to fight back a growing rebellion. This, as well as the extinction in California of the wolf and brown bear, has allowed the puma to greatly increase its numbers, as there are usually no longer any competing predators able to steal a puma's kill, though a few black bears may be strong enough to do so. The Kobolds have been forced to open the secrets of the undercity to outsiders in a desperate bid for survival.

Pumas cannot be hunted in California except under very specific circumstances. The Shar are only able to hold their ground at the gates of their Otherworld citadel. A young male puma was shot nearby by rangers later in the day. Arawn, previously referenced as an ally of the Avalonians and patron of the Inconnu, has had his realm overrun by revolting dead and enslaved Inconnu. On January 8, 2004 a puma killed and partly ate a mountain biker in Whiting Ranch Wilderness Park in Orange County, California; what is assumed to be the same animal attacked another mountain biker in the park the following day, but was fought off by other bikers. Catacombs- A nemesis has taken control of the power within the Darkspire, gaining control of most of the denizens of an underground realm's race. Pumas in such circumstances may come to lose their fear of both people and dogs and come to see them as prey. Familiar figures from Greek and Egyptian mythology make their appearance in a new land waiting to be discovered.

Attacks by puma on humans and pets are associated with urban areas situated in the wildland urban intermix such as the Boulder, Colorado area which have encouraged the traditional prey of the puma, the mule deer, to habituate to urban areas and the presence of people and pets. Ancient artifacts wait to be discovered and have their power and secrets revealed by learned scholars. There were around 100 puma attacks on humans in the USA and Canada during the period from 1890 to January 2004, with 16 fatalities; figures for California were 14 attacks and 6 fatalities. How did Atlantis come to its end and what powers were left behind? The Trials remain in a form twisted by the passage of time and the departure of the denizens of Atlantis. Attacks on humans are rare, but do occur — especially as humans encroach on wildlands and impact the availability of the puma's traditional prey. Trials of Atlantis - The ruins of Atlantis have been discovered, as well as a portal to another Plane where the ancient Atlanteans underwent their trials. If a male puma invades the territory of another male, he may kill the kittens of resident females so that they will become receptive to mating. Midgards ancestral home at Aegir has seen the Last of the troll fathers hunted down by the Morvalt.

Female pumas usually have 3 or 4 kittens in a den in a rocky location. Hibernia has come to the aid of Hybrasil, where the Sylvans face extinction at the hands of the Fomorians. A male may breed with several females. In Albion, the Drakoran have besieged the final stongholds of Lady Lile's Avalonians. Adult males tend to claim a 250 km² (100 mile²) stretch for their territory; adult females take (50 to 150 km² (20 to 60 mile²) on average; however their ranges can vary from as much as 1,000 km² (370 mile²) to as little as 25 km² (10 mile²). Shrouded Isles- Each realm is called to assist a smaller allied realm against a large enemy. Like other cats, they will also move to certain areas for feeding. In particular, Albion is menaced by undead raised by Moragnna and Hibernia is torn apart by the Unseelie court and Siabra.

Pumas will catch and kill their prey 98% of the time, so perhaps they can afford to be a bit choosey. In the original Realm zones, smaller cities in the realm need protection against monsters common to many other RPGs. Pumas do not enjoy being scavengers, however, and will generally hunt for their own food and not eat from a carcass. The European distributors occasionally add writings about the realms and their inhabitants in detail. The carcass of the kill is usually then buried or partially covered to protect it for several days, while the puma continues to roam and comes back for nourishment as needed. Each realm has a unique but parallel storyline, which is expanded with retail expansions. They usually kill with a bite at the base of the skull to break the neck of their target. Lag is still a bit of a problem on it as well.

They hunt alone and ambush their prey, often from behind. Some however (especially on the classic servers) feel that Agramon isn't quite what they had hoped for; consequently, it isn't used much at all. They normally hunt large mammals, such as deer and elk, but will eat small animals, such as beavers, porcupines or even mice, if the need arises. The zone still exists but due to the nature of New Frontiers, it is no longer the hub of combat. Pumas can kill and drag prey about 7 times their own weight. Agramon is supposed to imitate the zone Emain Macha, which before New Frontiers was the main area for level 50 RvR. There are no authenticated reports of truly melanistic pumas. Unlike the rest of the Frontiers zones, there are no keeps and any player from any realm can open gates.

Abnormally dark brown pumas with paler bellies have been described, primarily from South and Central America and were described as couguar noire in Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. Mythic also introduced a new island, called Agramon, which acts as a central island that connected the frontiers of the three realms. Abnormally pale and even white (leucistic but not albino) pumas exist. The new servers are meant for those players who rejected the special equipment and abilities in Atlantis, and their potential use in RVR combat. Kittens have irregular blotches of darker brown which can sometimes persist into adolescence but disappear by the time the cat is a year old. In July, 2005 Mythic started three new servers, Lamorak, Gareth, and Ector, which do not include the Trials of Atlantis zones and restrict the use of buff bots by limiting the range at which the caster's buffs will affect a player, and by allowing buffers to only cast buffs on players in a group with them. The normal coloration of the puma is tawny or sandy, mimicking their principal prey, the deer. How much these changes have 'fixed' things remains to be seen.

Pumas that live closest to the equator are the smallest, and increase in size in populations closer to the poles. In more recent versions of the game, many changes have been made to Atlantean areas in order to make encounters easier, as well as making the artifacts and scrolls easier to come by. Their life span is about a decade in the wild and 25 years or more in captivity. Once this has occurred, artifacts become some of the most mighty items in the entire game. Puma kittens have brownish-blackish spots and rings on their tails. Furthermore, artifacts must gain experince in order to reach their full potential. Adult females can be 2 m (7 ft) long and have a mass of about 35 kg (weigh approx 75 lb). Artifacts, obtained by hidden encounters only become useful when the player finds the three scrolls hoarded by Atlantean monsters.

In exceptional cases males may reach as much as 90 kg. The expansion featured extremely powerful items known as artifacts, and extra abilities known as "Master Levels" which are very difficult for the casual player to receive and are considered by many to be too powerful. Adult males may be more than eight feet long (nose to tail), and have a mass of about 70 kg (weigh approx 150 lb). Many players rejected it because of the high difficulty, organization, and time required in Atlantis's epic raids. Puma claws are retractable and they have four toes. The Trials of Atlantis expansion remains very controversial. Their bite strength is more powerful than that of any domestic dog. Mythic has produced six expansions (3 retail, 3 free) for DAoC:.

The puma can run as fast as 50 km/h (30 mph), jump 6 m (20 ft) from a standing position, vertically leap 2.5 m (8 ft), and often weigh more than 70 kg (150 lb). Midgard: Dwarf, Frostalf (Trials of Atlantis), Kobold, Norseman, Troll, Valkyn (Shrouded Isles). Pumas are tawny-colored with black-tipped ears and tail. Hibernia: Celt, Elf, Firbolg, Lurikeen, Shar (Trials of Atlantis), Sylvan (Shrouded Isles). circa 1990) and an estimated 4,500 to 5,000 in Colorado. Albion: Avalonian, Briton, Half-Ogre (Trials of Atlantis), Highlander, Inconnu (Shrouded Isles), Saracen. There are an estimated 4,000 to 6,000 pumas in California (est. The races in the game are:.

They have also begun preying on pets, such as dogs and cats, and livestock, but have rarely turned to people as a source of food. Midgard: Berserker, Bonedancer (Shrouded Isles), Healer, Hunter, Runemaster, Savage (Shrouded Isles), Shadowblade, Shaman, Skald, Spiritmaster, Thane, Valkyrie (Catacombs), Warlock (Catacombs), Warrior. Due to urbanization in the urban-wildland interface, pumas often come into contact with people, especially in areas with a large population of deer, their natural prey. Hibernia: Animist (Shrouded Isles), Bainshee (Catacombs), Bard, Blademaster, Champion, Druid, Eldritch, Enchanter, Hero, Mentalist, Nightshade, Ranger, Valewalker (Shrouded Isles), Vampiir (Catacombs). There are continuing reports of the survival of a remnant population of the Eastern Cougar in New Brunswick, Ontario, and the Gaspé Peninsula of Quebec. Albion: Armsman, Cabalist, Cleric, Friar, Heretic (Catacombs), Infiltrator, Mercenary, Minstrel, Necromancer (Shrouded Isles), Paladin, Reaver (Shrouded Isles), Scout, Sorcerer, Theurgist, Wizard. It is anticipated that they will soon expand their range over the entire eastern and southern United States. The classes in the game are:.

Pumas have been seen along the northern shore of Lake Superior with an attack on a horse in Ely, Minnesota in 2004. . Pumas are gradually extending their range to the east, following creeks and riverbeds, and have reached Missouri and Michigan. As of December 13, 2005 there are 22 North American servers, four of which are outside of a cluster, and the rest are spread out among five clusters. The densest concentration of pumas in North America is found on Vancouver Island in British Columbia. This new server type was launched after extensive player feedback and irritation with the ToA expansion and the issue of buffbots. In Canada, pumas are found west of the prairies, in Alberta, British Columbia and the southern Yukon. They are similar to standard servers except there is no content from the Trials of Atlantis expansion, other than the three races introduced with that expansion, and all stat-enhancement spells (buffs) can only be cast on players with whom you are grouped and within a certain distance.

Hunted almost to extinction in the United States, the puma has made a dramatic comeback, with an estimated 30,000 individuals in the western United States. These are officially called the "Alternate Rules Servers", but players like to call them the "Classic" servers. When pumas are found and relocated to more "wild" parts of the state, they are put into competition with already existing cats. A new server type has recently been released. This is mostly due to human infringement, clashing with cities and other urban "advancements" or because of the loss of territories that urbanization brings. Recently, Mythic Entertainment has introduced "server clustering" - where certain locations (Frontiers, Capital cities) from multiple servers essentially become one location, and players can interact with players from and travel to other servers. One of the only locations where the puma is in great danger is within the United States, mainly Florida and other parts of the East Coast. Each server can support up to 3500 online players at the same time.

Even now, it has the widest range of any New World land animal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude, from the northern Yukon Territory (in Canada) to the southern Andes (on both the Chilean and Argentinian sides). There are three role-playing servers, which act as normal servers except you must follow proper role-playing guidelines, a player versus player server, in which everyone is free to attack anyone at any time, and a co-op server, in which there is no RvR. Before the modern human population explosion in the Americas, the puma ranged across most of the Americas. Most of the DAoC population focuses on RvR, mainly because PvE (player versus environment) can be rather unstimulating or too challenging on many classes (there are, however, some classes who excel at PvE combat, such as the necromancer). Pumas have one of the largest ranges of any wild cat, holding competition with only the Eurasian Lynx, Wild Cat and greatly spread Leopard. They can travel to special areas called Frontiers and fight players from other realms. Hybrids between pumas and jaguars have been reported, but none have been proven. On normal servers, players cannot harm other members of their realm.

Hybrids between a puma and an ocelot have also been bred. realm combat (RvR). In spite of not being closely related to the pantherine big cats, hybrids between pumas and leopards have been bred and are called pumapards. For the majority of players, the most interesting part of the game is realm vs. Although a controversial move, the hybrids are more vigorous than pure Florida panthers and excessive inbreeding is averted. The game was developed by Mythic Entertainment and released on October 10, 2001. Hybrids between subspecies of puma have occurred where new blood has been introduced into the Florida panther. Dark Age of Camelot is a 3D medieval fantasy MMORPG that revolves around the war between three realms at the end of King Arthur's rule: Great Britain's Albion, Scandinavia's Midgard and Ireland's Hibernia.

. A trailer has been created by Mythic Entertainment to showcase this expansion. There is a considerable variation in color and size of these animals across their large range of habitats. Many players have largely accepted this expansion, feeling that this is what the Trials of Atlantis expansion should've been in the first place, giving them new abilities without significantly affecting RvR. The puma is not closely related to other large felines, such as leopards and lions. Darkness Rising was also the first downloadable paid expansion to Dark Age of Camelot. Recent DNA analysis has established that the puma is supposedly quite closely related to the jaguarundi and North American cheetah (Miracinonyx, now extinct), but not to true cheetahs. Darkness Rising (October 11, 2005) ( February 1st 2006 in Europe) - Introduced Champion weapons (much like epic armor), player mounts (horses), Champion Levels and subclassing (small abilities from another class), new dungeons and instanced zones for the new Champion Quests and new graphics for the game world's models (such as barns, haystacks and forts, this includes the Darkness Falls dungeon and the capital cities) which are following the design ideas presented in Mythic's new graphics for the starting cities.

concolor is accepted as having been wholly extirpated by the late 1800's, and where breeding populations have not been documented as re-established by 2005. The Catacombs graphic engine is now free for download off of Mythic's website, however, it does not allow access to Catacombs specific zones. Such anecdotal accounts are particularly prominent in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States, a region where P. Also includes new player model graphics and new graphics for all the games' dungeons (except Darkness Falls). The melanistic gene can be seen in a variety of cats, including the Lion, Tiger, Leopard, Jaguar, Caracal, Jaguarundi, Serval, Ocelot, Margay, Bobcat, Geoffrey's Cat; however, melanism has never been documented in Puma concolor, though urban legends of "black panthers" persist. Catacombs (December 7, 2004) - Added 5 new classes (Heretic; Vampiir, Bainshee; Warlock, Valkyrie), instanced dungeons (where players entering certain areas get their own private dungeon to hunt in), and new zones and quests with an emphasis on faster and easier leveling. In South America, panther refers to the jaguar and can refer to either the spotted or black jaguar. realm warfare (free expansion, required expansion).

In Europe and Asia, panther means leopard and can refer to either the spotted or black leopard. New Frontiers (June 22, 2004) - Remake of the game's realm vs. In North America, particularly the United States, panther by itself refers to a puma, although the term black panther is correctly associated only with the melanistic variants of leopards or jaguars rather than pumas. This expansion pack is now a free download, as of October 31, 2005. In fact in the English language the puma has over 40 different names. Trials of Atlantis (October 28, 2003) - Added 3 new races (Half-Ogre, Frostalf, Shar) and high level content and zones (which are the same for each realm), also includes new terrain graphics for all areas of the game (including trees). In Brazil it is known an suçuarana, from the Tupi language, but also has other names. Foundations (June 18, 2003) - Free expansion which added player housing.

The word puma comes from the Quechua language. This expansion pack is now a free download. It is also known by the regional names of cougar, mountain lion, panther, catamount, and painted cat. Shrouded Isles (November 12, 2002) - Added 6 new classes (Neromancer, Reaver; Savage, Bonedancer; Valewalker, Animist), 3 races (Valkyn, Inconnu, Sylvan) and a brand new land for each realm near the size of the old world (in addition to the old world), which also includes epic dungeons. It is more closely related to the common house cat than to the African lion. Though large in size this cat cannot roar, but instead purrs and has even been said to make eerily humanlike screams when courting.

The puma (Puma concolor since 1993, previously Felis concolor) is a type of predator-feline found in North, Central, and South America. Norton, November, 2003, hardcover, 320 pages, ISBN 0393058077. W. David Baron, Beast in the Garden: A Modern Parable of Man and Nature, W.

Do not climb a tree as pumas can climb just as well (if not much better) than humans. Be wary when leaving pets outside, particularly at dawn and dusk. Keep pets from roaming and never feed pets outside. Install motion-sensitive outdoor lighting.

Remove dense and low-lying vegetation that provide good hiding places for pumas. The best place to hit a puma is on the nose. Pumas have been repelled with rocks, sticks, garden tools, kicks, and bare hands; a well placed kick to the face has been known to work. Fight back if attacked.

Do not crouch down or bend over; this may create the appearance of an ordinary quadriped prey rather than a typically non-prey biped. Do everything possible to appear larger or intimidating, including raising arms wildly, opening up jacket, and throwing stones and branches. Pick up young children without bending or turning from the puma (if possible). Instead, stand and face the animal, making eye contact.

If confronted by a puma, do not run; that might stimulate its instinct to chase. Do not hike alone; go in groups with adults supervising children. Andes Puma (Puma concolor araucanus). Argentine Puma (Puma concolor pearsoni).

Chilean Puma (Puma concolor puma). Mato Grosso Cougar (Puma concolor acrocodia). Bolivian Cougar (Puma concolor osgoodi). Incan Cougar (Puma concolor incarum).

Amazon Cougar (Puma concolor discolor). Ecuador Cougar (Puma concolor soderstromi). Colombian Cougar (Puma concolor bangsi). Mayan Cougar (Puma concolor mayensis).

Texas Cougar (Puma concolor stanleyana. Yuma Puma (Puma concolor browni). Kaibab Cougar (Puma concolor kaibabensis). California Cougar (Puma concolor californica).

Vancouver Island Cougar (Puma concolor vancouverensis). Oregon Cougar (Puma concolor oregonensis). Colorado Cougar (Puma concolor hippolestes). Missoula Cougar (Puma concolor missoulensis).

Patagonian Puma (Puma concolor patagonica). Baja Californian Cougar (Puma concolor improcera). Brazilian Cougar (Puma concolor concolor). Costa Rican Cougar (Puma concolor costaricensis).

Mexican Cougar (Puma concolor azteca). Eastern Cougar (Puma concolor cougar). Wisconsin Cougar (Puma concolor shorgeri) (extinct, but numerous sightings have been reported). Florida Panther (Puma concolor coryi).

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