Corset

It has been suggested that Waist cincher be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Hourglass corset from around 1880. It features a busk fastening at the front and lacing at the back.

A corset is a garment worn to mold and shape the torso into a desired shape for aesthetic or orthopaedic purposes (either for the duration of wearing it, or with a more lasting effect).

Both men and women have worn – and still wear – corsets.

Corsetry

The skill of making corsets is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them. Someone who makes corsets is a corsetier (for a man) or corsetière (for a woman), or sometimes simply a corsetmaker. The word corsetry is sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset.

Uses

The most common use of corsets is to slim the body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women this most frequently emphasises a curvy figure, by reducing the waist, and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. However, in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular straight-up-and-down shape, which involves minimising the bust and hips.

For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However, there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 when an hourglass figure (a small, nipped-in look to the waist) was also desirable for men; this was sometimes achieved by wearing a corset.

Woman having her corset laced tight, from an 1899 stereoscope card. Original caption: Reducing the Surplus. "Now, Pull Hard!" A small waist between a full bust and ample hips, such is the shibboleth of fashion, and the poor girl that relies on her figure to make a good impression, is sorely put to it, if nature has denied her the shape of a wasp or if she has not learned to rely on physical exercise to model her frame. A vigorous walk of ten miles a day, supplemented by ten minutes of lung gymnastics, would do wonders for her.

An overbust corset encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms to the hips. An underbust corset begins just under the breasts and extends down to the hips. Some corsets extend over the hips and, in very rare instances, reach the knees. A shorter kind of corset, which covers the waist area (from low on the ribs to just above the hips), is called a 'waist cincher'. A corset may also include garters to hold up stockings (alternatively a separate garter belt may be worn for that).

Normally a corset supports the visible dress, and spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the crinoline and bustle. Sometimes the corset has been supported by a corset cover.

Construction

Corsets are typically constructed of a flexible material (like cloth or leather) stiffened with boning (also called ribs or stays) inserted into channels in the cloth or leather. In the Victorian period, steel and whalebone were favored. Plastic is now the most commonly used material; spring or spiral steel is preferred for high-quality corsets. Other materials used for boning include ivory, wood, and cane. (By contrast, a girdle is usually made of elasticized fabric, without boning.)

Corsets are held together by lacing, usually at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset. It is difficult — although not impossible — for a back-laced corset-wearer to do his or her own lacing. In the Victorian heyday of corsets, a well-to-do woman would be laced by her maid, a gentleman by his valet. However, many corsets also had a buttoned or hooked front opening called a busk. Once the lacing was adjusted comfortably, it was possible to leave the lacing as adjusted and take the corset on and off using the front opening (This removal method does not work if the corset is not sufficiently loose, and can potentially damage the busk). Self-lacing is also incompatible with tightlacing, which strives for the utmost possible reduction of the waist. Current tightlacers, lacking servants, are usually laced by spouses and partners..

Waist reduction

By wearing a tightly-laced corset for extended periods, known as tightlacing, men and women can learn to tolerate extreme waist constriction and reduce their natural waist size. Tightlacers usually aim for 40 to 43 centimeter (16 to 17 inch) waists. Until 1998, the Guinness Book of World Records listed Ethel Granger as having the smallest waist on record at 13". After 1998, the category changed to "smallest waist on a living person" and Cathie Jung took the title with a 15" waist. Other women, such as Polaire and Spook, also have achieved such reductions.

These are extreme cases. Corsets were and are usually designed for support, with freedom of body movement an important consideration in their design. Present day corset-wearers usually tighten the corset just enough to reduce their waists by 5 to 10 centimeters (2 to 4 inches); it is very difficult for a slender woman to achieve as much as 15 centimeters (6 inches), although larger women can do so more easily.

Corset comfort

A woman putting a corset on. She is wearing a chemise underneath, and the corset has bosom pads.

In the past, a woman's corset was usually worn over a garment called a chemise or shift, a sleeveless low-necked gown made of washable material (usually cotton or linen). It absorbed perspiration and kept the corset and the gown clean. In modern times, an undershirt or corset liner may be worn.

Moderate lacing is not incompatible with vigorous activity. Indeed, during the second half of the nineteenth century, when corset wearing was common, there were sport corsets specifically designed to wear while bicycling, playing tennis, or horseback riding, as well as for maternity wear.

Many people now believe that all corsets are uncomfortable and that wearing them restricted women's lives, citing Victorian literature devoted to sensible or hygienic dress. However, these writings were most apt to protest against the misuse of corsets for tightlacing; they were less vehement against corsets per se. Many reformers recommended "Emancipation bodices", which were essentially tightly-fitted vests, like full-torso corsets without boning. See Victorian dress reform.

Some modern day corset-wearers will testify that corsets can be comfortable, once one is accustomed to wearing them. A properly fitted corset should be comfortable. Women active in the Society for Creative Anachronism and historical reenactment groups commonly wear corsets as part of period costume, without complaint.

Modern history

Book cover for Fetish Fashion: Undressing the Corset Woman in a corset

The corset fell from fashion in the 1920s in Europe and America, replaced by girdles and elastic brassieres, but survived as an article of costume. Originally an item of lingerie, the corset has become a popular item of outerwear in the fetish, BDSM and goth subcultures.

In the fetish and BDSM literature, there is often much emphasis on tightlacing. In this case, the corset may still be underwear rather than outerwear. Another angle is the wearing of a corset while having an enema; the theory is that the corset prevents the belly distending, enhancing the effects of the enema. (Putting on the corset after giving the enema will almost certainly cause the enema to be expelled.)

There was a brief revival of the corset in the late 1940s and early 1950s, in the form of the waist cincher. This was used to give the hourglass figure dictated by Christian Dior's 'New Look'. However, use of the waist cincher was restricted to haute couture, and most women continued to use girdles. This revival was brief, as the New Look gave way to a less dramatically-shaped silhouette.

Since the late 1980s, the corset has experienced periodic revivals, which have usually originated in haute couture and which have occasionally trickled through to mainstream fashion. These revivals focus on the corset as an item of outerwear rather than underwear. The strongest of these revivals was seen in the Autumn 2001 fashion collections and coincided with the release of the film Moulin Rouge!, the costumes for which featured many corsets.

The majority of garments sold as corsets during these recent revivals cannot really be counted as corsets at all. While they often feature lacing and boning, and generally mimic a historical style of corset, they have very little effect on the shape of the wearer's body.

Advantages and disadvantages of corsets

  • Corsets can reduce pain and improve function for people with back problems or other muscular/skeletal disorders.
  • Some large-breasted women find corsets more comfortable than brassieres, because the weight of the breasts is carried by the whole corset rather than the brassiere's shoulder straps. (Straps can chafe or cut the skin.)
  • Corsets can instantly improve the figure without dieting, slimming drugs, or cosmetic surgery.
  • Due to their tightness and close proximity to the body, corsets can make the wearer feel very warm. They have been most often worn in cool climates.
  • The best corsets are custom made and personally-fitted. The more closely clothing or lingerie clings to the body, the more carefully it must be fitted to look and feel right. In modern times, when labour costs much more than materials, custom clothing can be extremely expensive. Even finding a competent corsetiere can be difficult.
  • A badly-fitting corset can chafe, impede digestion, damage ribs and pinch nerves.

Types and styles

The various types of corsets include:

  • Bondage corset or discipline corset
  • Hourglass corset
  • Redresseur corset
  • Training corset
  • Waist cincher

Styles include:

  • Wasp waist

Media


References and further reading


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. Many oxen are still in use worldwide, especially in developing nations. Styles include:. Though not as fast as horses, they are less prone to injury because they are more sure-footed and do not try to jerk the load. The various types of corsets include:. This is one of the reasons that teams were dragging logs from forests long after horses had taken over most other draught uses in Europe and the New World. While they often feature lacing and boning, and generally mimic a historical style of corset, they have very little effect on the shape of the wearer's body. Oxen can pull harder and longer than horses, particularly on obstinate or almost un-movable loads.

The majority of garments sold as corsets during these recent revivals cannot really be counted as corsets at all. Ox teams are steered by commands or noise (whip cracks) and many teamsters were known for their voices and language. The strongest of these revivals was seen in the Autumn 2001 fashion collections and coincided with the release of the film Moulin Rouge!, the costumes for which featured many corsets. Their teamster must make or buy as many as a dozen yokes of different sizes as the animals grow. These revivals focus on the corset as an item of outerwear rather than underwear. Oxen must be painstakingly trained from a young age. Since the late 1980s, the corset has experienced periodic revivals, which have usually originated in haute couture and which have occasionally trickled through to mainstream fashion. Yoked oxen cannot slow a load like harnessed horses can, the load has to be controlled downhill by other means.

This revival was brief, as the New Look gave way to a less dramatically-shaped silhouette. Oxen are chosen, from calves, with horns since the horns hold the yoke in place when the oxen lower their heads, back up or slow down (particularly with a wheeled vehicle going downhill). However, use of the waist cincher was restricted to haute couture, and most women continued to use girdles. A wooden yoke is fastened about the neck of each pair so that the force of draft is distributed across their shoulders. This was used to give the hourglass figure dictated by Christian Dior's 'New Look'. In past days some teams were about fourteen, and even over twenty for logging. There was a brief revival of the corset in the late 1940s and early 1950s, in the form of the waist cincher. Oxen are most often used in teams of two, paired, for light work such as carting.

(Putting on the corset after giving the enema will almost certainly cause the enema to be expelled.). Also, the gait of the ox is often important to ox trainers, since the speed the animal walks should roughly match the gait of the ox driver who must work with it. Another angle is the wearing of a corset while having an enema; the theory is that the corset prevents the belly distending, enhancing the effects of the enema. American ox trainers favored larger breeds for their ability to do more work in addition to their intelligence (the ability to learn); for the same reason, the typical ox is the male of a breed, rather than the smaller female. In this case, the corset may still be underwear rather than outerwear. The education consists of the animal's learning to respond appropriately to the teamster's (ox driver's) commands: in North America such as (1) get up, (2) whoa, (3) back up, (4) gee (turn to the right) and (5) haw (turn to the left). In the fetish and BDSM literature, there is often much emphasis on tightlacing. An ox is nothing more than a mature bovine with an "education".

Originally an item of lingerie, the corset has become a popular item of outerwear in the fetish, BDSM and goth subcultures. Contrary to popular American lore, an "ox" is not a unique breed of bovine, nor have any "blue" oxen lived outside the folk tales surrounding Paul Bunyan, the mythical American logger. The corset fell from fashion in the 1920s in Europe and America, replaced by girdles and elastic brassieres, but survived as an article of costume. Oxen were commonly used to skid logs, and sometimes are still in low-impact select-cut logging, in forests. Women active in the Society for Creative Anachronism and historical reenactment groups commonly wear corsets as part of period costume, without complaint. Oxen are used for plowing, transport, hauling cargo, grain-grinding by trampling or by powering machines, irrigation by powering pumps, and wagon drawing. A properly fitted corset should be comfortable. Usually an ox is over four years old due to the need for training and for time to grow to full size.

Some modern day corset-wearers will testify that corsets can be comfortable, once one is accustomed to wearing them. Often they are adult, castrated males. See Victorian dress reform. Oxen (plural of ox) are cattle trained as draft animals. Many reformers recommended "Emancipation bodices", which were essentially tightly-fitted vests, like full-torso corsets without boning. The outbreaks of mad cow disease have reduced or prevented some traditional uses of cattle for food, for example the eating of brains or spinal cords. However, these writings were most apt to protest against the misuse of corsets for tightlacing; they were less vehement against corsets per se. Other sports like Bull riding are seen as part of a Rodeo, especially in North America.

Many people now believe that all corsets are uncomfortable and that wearing them restricted women's lives, citing Victorian literature devoted to sensible or hygienic dress. In Portugal, Spain and some Latin American countries, bulls are used in the sport of bullfighting while a similar sport Jallikattu is seen in South India; in many other countries this is illegal. Indeed, during the second half of the nineteenth century, when corset wearing was common, there were sport corsets specifically designed to wear while bicycling, playing tennis, or horseback riding, as well as for maternity wear. In Latin America, Australia and the western North America cattle are grazed on large tracts of rangeland called ranchos, ranches or Stations (Australia). Moderate lacing is not incompatible with vigorous activity. It is common to see loose cattle walking the streets, because the holiness it holds in India and other countries that practice Hinduism. In modern times, an undershirt or corset liner may be worn. In fact a divine cow named Kamadhenu is considered to be the mother of all Hindu Gods.

It absorbed perspiration and kept the corset and the gown clean. [2] The importance of the cow is highlighted by the fact that a regional holiday called Mattu Pongal (literally Cow Pongal in Tamil) exists which is akin to a bovine thanksgiving day. In the past, a woman's corset was usually worn over a garment called a chemise or shift, a sleeveless low-necked gown made of washable material (usually cotton or linen). The bull is my sire.". Present day corset-wearers usually tighten the corset just enough to reduce their waists by 5 to 10 centimeters (2 to 4 inches); it is very difficult for a slender woman to achieve as much as 15 centimeters (6 inches), although larger women can do so more easily. In Hinduism, the cow is said to be holy (and thus should not be eaten); "The cow is my mother. Corsets were and are usually designed for support, with freedom of body movement an important consideration in their design. Their ability to provide meat, dairy and draft while reproducing themselves and eating nothing but grass has furthered human interests dramatically through the millennia.

These are extreme cases. Some consider them the oldest form of wealth. Other women, such as Polaire and Spook, also have achieved such reductions. Cattle occupy a unique role in human history. After 1998, the category changed to "smallest waist on a living person" and Cathie Jung took the title with a 15" waist. The red color is merely traditional, as the movement of the cape is the attractant. Until 1998, the Guinness Book of World Records listed Ethel Granger as having the smallest waist on record at 13". This rumour derives from bullfighting, where Matadors traditionally use red-coloured capes to provoke bulls into attacking.

Tightlacers usually aim for 40 to 43 centimeter (16 to 17 inch) waists. This is incorrect, as cattle are mostly colour-blind. By wearing a tightly-laced corset for extended periods, known as tightlacing, men and women can learn to tolerate extreme waist constriction and reduce their natural waist size. A popular misconception about cattle (primarily bulls) is that they are enraged by the colour red. Current tightlacers, lacking servants, are usually laced by spouses and partners.. Breeders have attempted to recreate the original gene pool of the aurochs by careful crossing of commercial breeds, creating the Heck cattle breed. Self-lacing is also incompatible with tightlacing, which strives for the utmost possible reduction of the waist. In historical times, their range was restricted to Europe, and the last animals were killed by poachers in Masovia, Poland, in 1627.

Once the lacing was adjusted comfortably, it was possible to leave the lacing as adjusted and take the corset on and off using the front opening (This removal method does not work if the corset is not sufficiently loose, and can potentially damage the busk). The aurochs was originally spread throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, many corsets also had a buttoned or hooked front opening called a busk. The omasum is known as the "Many Plies." The abomasum is most like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the "True Stomach.". In the Victorian heyday of corsets, a well-to-do woman would be laced by her maid, a gentleman by his valet. The reticulum is known as the "Honeycomb." The omasum's main function is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible feed. It is difficult — although not impossible — for a back-laced corset-wearer to do his or her own lacing. Cattle sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum, and this is where hardware disease occurs.

Tightening or loosening the lacing produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset. The rumen is the largest compartment and the reticulum is the smallest compartment. Corsets are held together by lacing, usually at the back. They are the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. (By contrast, a girdle is usually made of elasticized fabric, without boning.). Cattle have one stomach, with four compartments. Other materials used for boning include ivory, wood, and cane. These features allow them to thrive on grasses and other vegetation.

Plastic is now the most commonly used material; spring or spiral steel is preferred for high-quality corsets. The microbes that live inside of the rumen are also able to synthesize amino acids from non-protein nitrogenous sources such as urea and ammonia. In the Victorian period, steel and whalebone were favored. These microbes are primarily responsible for generating the volatile fatty acids (VGAs) that cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel. Corsets are typically constructed of a flexible material (like cloth or leather) stiffened with boning (also called ribs or stays) inserted into channels in the cloth or leather. Cattle are ruminants, meaning that they have a unique digestive system that allows them to digest otherwise unpalatable foods by repeatedly regurgitating and rechewing them as "cud." The cud is then reswallowed and further digested by specialized bacterial, protozoal and fungal microbes that live in the rumen. Sometimes the corset has been supported by a corset cover. The word "heifer" is sometimes used in a similar fashion, the implication being that the target of the term is overweight.

Normally a corset supports the visible dress, and spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the crinoline and bustle. In some countries, such as the UK, this slur is used exclusively for women whereas in others it may be used for both genders. A corset may also include garters to hold up stockings (alternatively a separate garter belt may be worn for that). The word "cow" can also be used derogatively, when describing a person, whom one expresses a dislike for. A shorter kind of corset, which covers the waist area (from low on the ribs to just above the hips), is called a 'waist cincher'. Cows of certain breeds that are kept for the milk they give are called dairy cows. Some corsets extend over the hips and, in very rare instances, reach the knees. Within the beef cattle industry in parts of the United States, the older term beef (plural beeves) is still used to refer to an animal of either gender.

An underbust corset begins just under the breasts and extends down to the hips. Cattle raised for human consumption are called beef cattle. An overbust corset encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms to the hips. Obsolete terms for cattle include "neat" (horned oxen, from which "neatsfoot oil" is derived), "beef" (young ox) and "beefing" (young animal fit for slaughtering). However, there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 when an hourglass figure (a small, nipped-in look to the waist) was also desirable for men; this was sometimes achieved by wearing a corset. Some Australian, Canadian, New Zealand and Scottish farmers use the term "cattlebeast". For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. To refer to a specific number of these animals without specifying their gender, it must be stated as (for example) "ten head of cattle.".

However, in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular straight-up-and-down shape, which involves minimising the bust and hips. Today "cow" is probably the closest to being gender-neutral, although it is usually understood to mean female (females of other animals, such as whales or elephants, are also called cows). For women this most frequently emphasises a curvy figure, by reducing the waist, and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. But "ox" is no longer used in this general sense, being restricted to the sense given above. The most common use of corsets is to slim the body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. That this was once the standard name for domestic bovines is shown in placenames such as Oxford. The word corsetry is sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset. Strictly speaking, the singular noun for the domestic bovine is ox: a bull is a male ox and a cow is a female ox.

Someone who makes corsets is a corsetier (for a man) or corsetière (for a woman), or sometimes simply a corsetmaker. There is no singular equivalent in modern English to cattle other than the various gender and age-specific terms (though "catron" is occasionally seen as a half-serious proposal). The skill of making corsets is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them. Thus one may refer to some cattle, but not three cattle. . The term cattle itself is not a plural, but a mass noun. Both men and women have worn – and still wear – corsets. The adjective applying to cattle is bovine.

A corset is a garment worn to mold and shape the torso into a desired shape for aesthetic or orthopaedic purposes (either for the duration of wearing it, or with a more lasting effect). An adult female over two years of age (approximately) is called a cow. Website containing information and photographs about corsets & corseting through the ages, including celebrity photographs. An intact male is called a bull. Ann Beaumont has published the series "Corseting the Human Body". If castrated as an adult, it is called a stag. At the same site, Dr. The castrated male is then called a bullock or steer, unless kept for draft purposes, in which case it is called an ox (plural oxen), not to be confused with the related wild musk ox.

Two doctors' opinions and advice on corset wearing can be found at the website of the Long Island Staylace Association. Male cattle bred for meat are castrated unless needed for breeding. Routledge (December 1, 1990), ISBN 0878305262. A young male is called a bull-calf; a young female before she has calved is called a heifer (pronounced "heffer"). Norah Waugh, Corsets and Crinolines. Young cattle are called calves. ISBN 1931160066. This article refers to the common modern meaning of "cattle", the European domestic bovine.

Larry Utley, Autumn Carey-Adamme, Fetish Fashion: Undressing the Corset Green Candy Press, 2002. Additionally other species of the genus Bos are often called cattle or wild cattle. Yale University Press, 2001, ISBN 0300099533. Older English sources like King James Version of the Bible refer to livestock in general as cattle, or sometimes the archaic kine (which comes from the same English stem as cow). Valerie Steele, The Corset: A Cultural History. The word is closely related to "chattel" (a unit of property) and to "capital" in the sense of "property.". Wasp waist. It derives from the Latin caput, head, and thus originally meant "unit of livestock" or "one head".

Waist cincher. The word "cattle" did not originate as a name for bovine animals. Training corset. . Redresseur corset. (See aurochs for the history of domestication, and zebu for peculiarities of that group.). Hourglass corset. Cattle cannot successfully be bred with water buffalo or African buffalo.

Bondage corset or discipline corset. For example, genetic testing of the Dwarf Lulu breed, the only humpless "Bos taurus-type" cattle in Nepal, found them to be a mix of European cattle, zebu and yak. A badly-fitting corset can chafe, impede digestion, damage ribs and pinch nerves. Hybrid individuals and even breeds exist, not only between European cattle and zebu but also with yaks, banteng, gaur, and bison, a cross-genera hybrid. Even finding a competent corsetiere can be difficult. Complicating the matter is the ability of cattle to interbreed with other closely related species. In modern times, when labour costs much more than materials, custom clothing can be extremely expensive. More recently these three have increasingly been grouped as one species, sometimes using the names Bos primigenius taurus, Bos primigenius indicus and Bos primigenius primigenius.

The more closely clothing or lingerie clings to the body, the more carefully it must be fitted to look and feel right. The aurochs is ancestral to both zebu and European cattle. The best corsets are custom made and personally-fitted. These were Bos taurus, the European cattle, including similar types from Africa and Asia; Bos indicus, the zebu; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs. They have been most often worn in cool climates. Cattle were originally identified by Carolus Linnaeus as three separate species. Due to their tightness and close proximity to the body, corsets can make the wearer feel very warm. It is estimated that there are 1.3 billion head of cattle in the world today [1].

Corsets can instantly improve the figure without dieting, slimming drugs, or cosmetic surgery. In some countries, such as India, they are subject to religious ceremonies and respect. (Straps can chafe or cut the skin.). They are raised as livestock for meat (called beef and veal), dairy products (milk), leather and as draught animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). Some large-breasted women find corsets more comfortable than brassieres, because the weight of the breasts is carried by the whole corset rather than the brassiere's shoulder straps. Cattle (called cows in vernacular usage) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. Corsets can reduce pain and improve function for people with back problems or other muscular/skeletal disorders. The cow is a photograph that the animators manipulate in such a way as to suggest that the cow is performing all kinds of unusual feats when obviously, it is just a photograph being moved around.

The Drawn Together episode "A Tale of Two Cows" features a character called Live Action Cow. Later the cow is mangled and run over several times by a semi truck and some bikers while the man begs for Shiva's forgivness. In the movie Bubble Boy an Indian ice cream man is threatened by the Indian god Shiva because he accidentally ran over a cow. The popular nursery rhyme 'Hey, diddle-diddle' features a cow jumping over the moon.

A Texas Longhorn with burnt orange coloring named Bevo is the mascot of the sports teams at the University of Texas at Austin. In Kung Pow: Enter the Fist, a famous scene parodying The Matrix bullet time scene involves a 3D animated cow being fought by the hero. In the Computer Game Starcraft and Starcraft:Broodwar the cheat code "there is no cow level" will immediately take the player to the next level. In the Computer Game Diablo II there is an area called the "Secret Cow Level" in which players can gain experience more quickly than usual by fighting an army of bipedal cows.

In a Grape-Nuts television commercial and in the movie Kingpin with Woody Harrelson, in which he pretends to be Amish, there are scenes of men "milking" a bull, thinking it is a cow. These cows will sometimes say "Moo, I say!". In the game Fallout and Fallout 2, cows mutate into Brahman. In the movie Twister, cows are flung about, mooing, by tornadoes.

In Monty Python and the Holy Grail, the French shoot cows out of catapults. The sound a cow makes is often used to create comedic effect. Since 1995, advertisements for Chick-fil-A restaurants have featured cows encouraging people to "Eat Mor Chikin.". The lilac-colored "Milka Cow" is a well-known symbol of the Milka brand of chocolate.

Gary Larson's famous comic strip The Far Side frequently included cows in humorous situations. (Kane, 5). It said that all cattle and pigs have to have a registered brand or earmark by May 1, 1644. The first known law requiring branding in North America was enacted on February 5, 1644 by Connecticut.

The joke is apparent to anyone knowing that a cow possesses no such teeth. A humourous anecdote among farmers suggests that instant death will come to anyone bitten by a cattle's upper front teeth. On February 18, 1930 Elm Farm Ollie became the first cow to fly in an airplane and also the first cow to be milked in an airplane. Bulls in particular are seen as a symbolic emblem of duty and religion.

They appear in numerous stories from the Purana's and Veda's, for example the deity Sri Krishna takes birth in a family of cowherders and Lord Shiva is said to ride on the back of a Bull. Cows are venerated within the Hindu religion of India: According to Vedic scripture they are to be treated with the same respect 'as one's mother' because of the milk they provide. In the popular kids show The Fairly Odd Parents A cow tips over a kerosene lamp and the town mascott, a goat named "Chompy", saves the day by pushing the cow on to the fire, hence putting it out. Michael Ahern, the reporter who created the cow story, admitted in 1893 that he had made it up because he thought it would make colorful copy.

An apocryphal story has it that a cow started the Great Chicago Fire by kicking over a kerosene lamp. The constellation Taurus represents a bull. See: Ox (Zodiac). The ox is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.

For the mythology and lore connected with the bull, see Bull (mythology).

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