Coral

For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation).
Orders
Scleractinia

Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. The group includes the important reef builders known as hermatypic corals, found in tropical oceans, and belonging to the subclass Zoantharia of order Scleractinia (formerly Madreporaria). The latter are also known as stony corals in as much as the living tissue thinly covers a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. A coral "head" is formed of many individual polyps, each polyp only a few millimetres in diameter. The colony of polyps functions essentially as a single organism by sharing nutrients via a well developed gastrovascular network, and the polyps are clones, each having the same genetic structure. Each polyp generation grows on the skeletal remains of previous generations, forming a structure that has a shape characteristic of the species, but subject to environmental influences.

The hermatypic corals obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon growing in sunlight. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface, although in clear waters corals can grow at depths of 60 m (200 ft). Other corals, notably the cold-water genus Lophelia, do not have associated algae, and can live in much deeper water, with recent finds as deep as 3000 m. Corals breed by spawning, with many corals of the same species in a region releasing gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon.

Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of coral reefs that develop only in tropical and subtropical waters. Some corals exist in cold waters, such as off the coast of Norway (north to at least 69° 14.24' N) and the Darwin Mounds off western Scotland. The most extensive development of extant coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Indonesia is home to 581 of the world's 793 known coral reef-building coral species.

Coral types

There are several other types of corals, notably the octocorals (subclass Octocorallia) and corals classified in other orders of subclass Zoantharia: to wit, the black corals (order Antipatharia) and the soft corals (order Zoanthinaria). Extinct corals include rugose corals and tabulate coral. These two groups went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. Most other anthozoans would be treated under the common name of "sea anemone".

Geological history

Fossil coral Heliophyllum halli from the Devonian of Canada.

Although corals first appeared in the Cambrian period, some 570 million years ago, they are extremely rare as fossils until the Ordovician period, when Rugose and Tabulate corals became widespread.

Tabulate corals occur in the limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses alongside Rugose corals. Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period and they finally became extinct at the end of the Permian period. The skeletons of Tabulate corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as calcite.

Rugose corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. The Rugose corals may be either solitary or colonial, and like the Tabulate corals their skeletons are also composed of calcite. The finest details of their skeletal structures are often well preserved, and such fossils may be cut and polished.

Coral skeletons in a zoological display

Scleractinian corals diversified during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and are at the height of their development today. Their fossils may be found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and they are relatively common fossils in rocks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well as the Caenozoic era. The skeletons of Scleractinian corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. Although they are geologically younger than the Tabulate and Rugose corals, the aragonite skeleton Scleractinian corals does not tend to preserve well, so it is often easier to find fossils of the more ancient Tabulate and Rugose corals.

At certain times in the geological past corals were very abundant, just as modern corals are in the warm clear tropical waters of certain parts of the world today. And like modern corals their fossil ancestors built reefs beneath the ancient seas. Some of these reefs now lie as great structures in the midst of sedimentary rocks. Such reefs can be found in the rocks of many parts of the world including those of the Ordovician period of Vermont, the Silurian period of the Michigan Basin and in many parts of Europe, the Devonian period of Canada and the Ardennes in Belgium, and the Cretaceous period of South America and Denmark. Reefs from both the Silurian and Carboniferous periods have been recorded as far north as Siberia, and as far south as Australia.

Brain coral off the coast of Belize

However, these ancient reefs are not composed entirely of corals. Algae and sponges, as well as the fossilized remains of many echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites that lived on the reefs help to build them. These fossil reefs are prime locations to look for fossils of many different types, besides the corals themselves.

Corals are not restricted to just reefs, many solitary corals may be found in rocks where reefs are not present (such as Cyclocyathus which occurs in the Cretaceous period Gault clay formation of England).

As well as being important rock builders, some corals are useful as zone (or index) fossils, enabling geologists to date the age the rocks in which they are found, particularly those found in the limestones of the Carboniferous period.

Environmental effects on coral

A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life.

Coral can be sensitive to environmental changes, and as a result are generally protected through environmental laws. A coral reef can easily be swamped in algae if there are too many nutrients in the water. Coral will also die if the water temperature changes by more than a degree or two beyond its normal range or if the salinity of the water drops. In an early symptom of environmental stress, corals expel their zooxanthellae; without their symbiotic unicellular algae, coral tissues are colorless, revealing the white of their calcium carbonate skeletons, an event known as 'coral bleaching'.

A combination of temperature changes, pollution, and overuse has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. This has increased the importance of coral biology as a subject of study. Climatic variations, such as El Niño, can cause the temperature changes that destroy corals.

Some coral species exhibit banding in their skeletons resulting from annual variations in their growth rate. In fossil and modern corals these bands allow geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a kind of incremental dating, which combined with geochemical analysis of each band, can provide high-resolution records of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironamental change.

Uses

Living corals underwater are more colorful than dead coral

Coral reefs are a great source of tourism for scuba diving or snorkelling, however this has conservational implications due to damage from removal or destruction of coral.

Ancient coral reefs on land are often mined for limestone. An example of this is the quarrying of Portland limestone from the Isle of Portland.

Reddish coral is sometimes used as a gemstone especially in Tibet. Pure red coral is known as 'fire coral' and it is very rare because of the demand for perfect fire coral for jewellery-making purposes.


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Pure red coral is known as 'fire coral' and it is very rare because of the demand for perfect fire coral for jewellery-making purposes. Individual species may employ a number of methods of hunting:. Reddish coral is sometimes used as a gemstone especially in Tibet. There are no known reports of cannibalism amongst dolphins. An example of this is the quarrying of Portland limestone from the Isle of Portland. The larger species, especially the orca, are capable of eating marine mammals, even large whales. Ancient coral reefs on land are often mined for limestone. Usually, the prey is swallowed whole.

Coral reefs are a great source of tourism for scuba diving or snorkelling, however this has conservational implications due to damage from removal or destruction of coral. Some dolphins may take crustaceans. In fossil and modern corals these bands allow geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a kind of incremental dating, which combined with geochemical analysis of each band, can provide high-resolution records of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironamental change. The dentition is adapted to the animals they hunt: Species with long beaks and many teeth forage on fish, whereas short beaks and lesser tooth count are linked to catching squid. Some coral species exhibit banding in their skeletons resulting from annual variations in their growth rate. Dolphins are predators, chasing their prey at high speed. Climatic variations, such as El Niño, can cause the temperature changes that destroy corals. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface in the wild, just tasting the water could act as a sense of smell.

This has increased the importance of coral biology as a subject of study. However, they seem to lack a well-developed sense of smell, but they most likely can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. A combination of temperature changes, pollution, and overuse has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed. In an early symptom of environmental stress, corals expel their zooxanthellae; without their symbiotic unicellular algae, coral tissues are colorless, revealing the white of their calcium carbonate skeletons, an event known as 'coral bleaching'. Hearing is also used for echolocation which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. Coral will also die if the water temperature changes by more than a degree or two beyond its normal range or if the salinity of the water drops. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head it is believed hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the vibrations to the middle ear via a fat filled cavity in the lower jaw bone.

A coral reef can easily be swamped in algae if there are too many nutrients in the water. Most dolphins have acute eyesight both in and out of the water and their sense of hearing is far above our own. Coral can be sensitive to environmental changes, and as a result are generally protected through environmental laws. Compare also: whale behavior. As well as being important rock builders, some corals are useful as zone (or index) fossils, enabling geologists to date the age the rocks in which they are found, particularly those found in the limestones of the Carboniferous period. She most likely died of self induced asphyxiation in the presence of her trainer Richard O'Barry.[1]. Corals are not restricted to just reefs, many solitary corals may be found in rocks where reefs are not present (such as Cyclocyathus which occurs in the Cretaceous period Gault clay formation of England). Probably one of the best known cases of dolphin suicide is that of a dolphin named Cathy, one of the bottlenose dolphins that performed in the television series Flipper.

These fossil reefs are prime locations to look for fossils of many different types, besides the corals themselves. They either do so by repeatedly slamming their head against the pool walls or other solid objects or simply by not coming up for air anymore. Algae and sponges, as well as the fossilized remains of many echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites that lived on the reefs help to build them. In captivity, many dolphins seem to have committed suicide. However, these ancient reefs are not composed entirely of corals. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught cultural behaviour. Reefs from both the Silurian and Carboniferous periods have been recorded as far north as Siberia, and as far south as Australia. Other than with primate simians, the knowledge to use a tool is mostly handed over only from mothers to daughters.

Such reefs can be found in the rocks of many parts of the world including those of the Ordovician period of Vermont, the Silurian period of the Michigan Basin and in many parts of Europe, the Devonian period of Canada and the Ardennes in Belgium, and the Cretaceous period of South America and Denmark. The animals break off sponges and put them onto their mouths thus protecting the delicate body part during their hunt for fish on the seabed. Some of these reefs now lie as great structures in the midst of sedimentary rocks. In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their offspring to use a tool. And like modern corals their fossil ancestors built reefs beneath the ancient seas. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese Skin Divers. At certain times in the geological past corals were very abundant, just as modern corals are in the warm clear tropical waters of certain parts of the world today. The military has employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped persons.

Although they are geologically younger than the Tabulate and Rugose corals, the aragonite skeleton Scleractinian corals does not tend to preserve well, so it is often easier to find fossils of the more ancient Tabulate and Rugose corals. Dolphin/Human interaction is also employed in a curative sense at places where dolphins work with autistic or otherwise disabled children. The skeletons of Scleractinian corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. Dolphins trained to perform in front of an audience have become a favorite attraction in dolphinaria, for example SeaWorld. Their fossils may be found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and they are relatively common fossils in rocks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well as the Caenozoic era. Because of their high capacity for learning, dolphins have been employed by humans for any number of purposes. Scleractinian corals diversified during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and are at the height of their development today. This leads to them staying with injured or ill fellows for support.

The finest details of their skeletal structures are often well preserved, and such fossils may be cut and polished. However, the animals can establish strong bonds between each other. The Rugose corals may be either solitary or colonial, and like the Tabulate corals their skeletons are also composed of calcite. Membership in schools is not rigid; interchange is common. Rugose corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation. The skeletons of Tabulate corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as calcite. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations.

Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period and they finally became extinct at the end of the Permian period. In places with a high abundance of food, schools can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1000 dolphins. Tabulate corals occur in the limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses alongside Rugose corals. Dolphins are social animals, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen animals. Although corals first appeared in the Cambrian period, some 570 million years ago, they are extremely rare as fossils until the Ordovician period, when Rugose and Tabulate corals became widespread. There are many stories of dolphins protecting shipwrecked sailors against sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers. Most other anthozoans would be treated under the common name of "sea anemone". In return, in some cultures like in Ancient Greece they were treated with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage.

These two groups went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. They are also famous for their willingness to occasionally approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. Extinct corals include rugose corals and tabulate coral. Frequently dolphins will accompany boats, riding the bow waves. There are several other types of corals, notably the octocorals (subclass Octocorallia) and corals classified in other orders of subclass Zoantharia: to wit, the black corals (order Antipatharia) and the soft corals (order Zoanthinaria). They have even been seen harassing other creatures, like seabirds and turtles. . Play is a very important part of dolphins' lives and they can often be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins.

Indonesia is home to 581 of the world's 793 known coral reef-building coral species. Perhaps they just do it for fun. The most extensive development of extant coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. They could also be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, or attempting to dislodge parasites. Some corals exist in cold waters, such as off the coast of Norway (north to at least 69° 14.24' N) and the Darwin Mounds off western Scotland. Scientists aren't quite certain about the purpose of this behavior, but it may be to locate schools of fish by looking at above water signs, like feeding birds. Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of coral reefs that develop only in tropical and subtropical waters. the spinner dolphin).

Corals breed by spawning, with many corals of the same species in a region releasing gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon. Dolphins often leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. Other corals, notably the cold-water genus Lophelia, do not have associated algae, and can live in much deeper water, with recent finds as deep as 3000 m. See the Dolphin intelligence article for more details. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface, although in clear waters corals can grow at depths of 60 m (200 ft). Straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition; furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with a large marine animal mean that even such tests as can meaningfully be done have still not been done, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. The hermatypic corals obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon growing in sunlight. However, experts in comparative psychology or animal cognition would be reluctant to make any such estimate, as quantitative comparisons of intelligence between species are notoriously difficult to make in principle.

Each polyp generation grows on the skeletal remains of previous generations, forming a structure that has a shape characteristic of the species, but subject to environmental influences. A typical statement would be that dolphins are roughly as intelligent as a two-year-old human. The colony of polyps functions essentially as a single organism by sharing nutrients via a well developed gastrovascular network, and the polyps are clones, each having the same genetic structure. Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals. A coral "head" is formed of many individual polyps, each polyp only a few millimetres in diameter. See individual species articles for details. The latter are also known as stony corals in as much as the living tissue thinly covers a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast.

The group includes the important reef builders known as hermatypic corals, found in tropical oceans, and belonging to the subclass Zoantharia of order Scleractinia (formerly Madreporaria). The basic coloration patterns are shades of gray with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. Their teeth are arranged in a way that works as an array or antenna focusing the incoming sound, making it easier for them to pinpoint the exact location of an object. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their high intelligence. Teeth can be very numerous (up to 250) in several species.

In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth that looks like a fixed smile. The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. Dolphins have a fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. See evolution of cetaceans for the details.

They entered the water roughly 50 million years ago. Modern dolphin skeletons have two small rod shaped pelvic bones thought to be left-over hind legs. Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. See also wolphin.

There has also been a reported hybrid between a beluga and a narwhal. Dall's Porpoises and Harbour Porpoises have hybridized in the wild. Blue Whales, Fin Whales and Humpback Whales all hybridize in the wild. In the wild, bands of males of one dolphin species have been observed to mate with lone female Spinners.

In the wild, Spinner Dolphins have sometimes hybridised with Spotted Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-Toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring. This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. In 1933, three strange dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin.

They are sometimes called "blackfish":. Six animals in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. . The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about 10 million years ago, during the Miocene.

They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and all are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera.

Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language. Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in our sense. In this article, the second definition is used. It can mean:.

The word is used in a few different ways. "a 'fish' with a womb". The name is from Ancient Greek δελφίς delphis meaning "with a womb", viz. Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises.

In the William Gibson short story Johnny Mnemonic and the film by the same name (starring Keanu Reeves), cyborg dolphins were used in war-time by the military to find submarines and, after the war, by a group of revolutionaries to decode encrypted information. One of the mates of the ship is named Akeakamai, in honor of the real-life dolphin from Louis Herman's animal language research. In the book Startide Rising by author David Brin, the spaceship Streaker is manned by neo-dolphins (dolphins genetically engineered to match human intelligence). In one scene, the dolphins' misbehavior elicits the following quote from Zissou: "Son of a bitch, I'm sick of these dolphins.".

In The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, marine researcher Zissou (played by Bill Murray) has trained reconaissance dolphins which apparently are temperamental and rarely follow their instructions. In seaQuest, Darwin the dolphin could communicate with English speakers using a vocoder, an invention that translated the clicks and whistles to English and back. Mike and the 'Bots then quickly apoligize. While doing so, the SOL gets blasted by a ship that turns out to be piloted by dolphins.

In the Mystery Science Theater 3000 episode "Devil Fish," Mike and the 'Bots mock dolphins. Their logo depicts an aqua-colored bottlenose dolphin wearing an American football helmet and jumping in front of a coral-colored sunburst. An American National Football League (NFL) team is named the Miami Dolphins. A book called The Music of Dolphins was written by Karen Hesse, about a girl who had lived with dolphins since the age of four.

Ecco the Dolphin stars in a series of games for the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, Game Gear, Sega Dreamcast and PlayStation 2. After study at the Dolphins Plus research center in Key Largo, Florida, fantasy author Ken Grimwood wrote dolphins into his 1995 novel Into the Deep, including entire chapters written from the viewpoint of his dolphin characters. See Races from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Their story is told in So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish.

However, their behavior was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, dolphins are the second most intelligent creatures on Earth (after mice) and tried in vain to warn humans of the impending destruction of the planet. The television show was based on a 1963 film, and remade as a feature film in 1996 starring Elijah Wood and Paul Hogan (actor), as well as a television series running from 1995-2000 starring Jessica Alba. The popular television show Flipper, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a dolphin in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud; a kind of sea going Lassie, Flipper understood English unusually well and was a marked hero: "Go tell Dad we're in trouble, Flipper! Hurry!" The show's theme song contains the lyric no one you see / is smarter than he.

Foraging - A recent study reported that wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops) in Western Australia use sponges to forage in the sea bed for food.[2]. Stunning - using the echolocation melon, very loud clicks are directed at prey, stunning them. Fish Wacking - where the dolphin uses its fluke to strike the fish, stunning it and sometimes sending it clear out of the water. Corralling - where fish are chased to shallow water where they are more easily captured.

Herding - where a superpod will control a school of fish while individual members take turns plowing through the herd, feeding. Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus. Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. False Killer Whale, Psudoorca crassidens.

Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. La Plata Dolphin (Franciscana), Pontoporia blainvillei.

Genus Pontoporia

    . Indus River Dolphin, Platanista minor. Ganges River Dolphin, Platanista gangetica. Genus Platanista
      .

      Chinese River Dolphin (Baiji), Lipotes vexillife. Genus Lipotes

        . Boto (Amazon River Dolphin), Inia geoffrensis. Genus Inia
          .

          Family Platanistoidea, River Dolphins

            . Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus. Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. Genus Globicephala
              .

              False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens. Genus Pseudorca

                . Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. Genus Feresa
                  .

                  Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. Genus Orcinus

                    . Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. Genus Peponocephalia
                      .

                      Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris. Australian Snubfin Dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni. Genus Orcaella

                        . White-Beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris.

                        Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis. Pacific White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens. Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger. Dusky Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus.

                        Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. Genus Lagenorhyncus

                          . Fraser's Dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei. Genus Lagenodelphis
                            .

                            Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus. Genus Grampus

                              . Hector's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori. Heaviside's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii.

                              Commerson's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii. Chilean Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia. Genus Cephalorynchus

                                . Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis.

                                Genus Steno

                                  . Striped Dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin, Stenella attenuata.

                                  Clymene Dolphin, Stenella clymene. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin, Stenella frontalis. Genus Stenella

                                    . Atlantic Humpbacked Dolphin, Sousa teuszii.

                                    Chinese White Dolphin (the Chinese variant), Sousa chinensis chinensis. Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin, Sousa chinensis

                                      . Genus Sousa
                                        . Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis.

                                        Genus Sotalia

                                          . Southern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissiodelphis peronii. Northern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis. Genus Lissodelphis
                                            .

                                            Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Genus Tursiops

                                              . Short-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus delphis. Long-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus capensis.

                                              Genus Delphinus

                                                . Family Delphinidae, oceanic Dolphins
                                                  . Suborder Odontoceti, toothed whales
                                                    . Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin.

                                                    Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),. Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),. Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),.

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