Coral

For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation).
Orders
Scleractinia

Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. The group includes the important reef builders known as hermatypic corals, found in tropical oceans, and belonging to the subclass Zoantharia of order Scleractinia (formerly Madreporaria). The latter are also known as stony corals in as much as the living tissue thinly covers a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. A coral "head" is formed of many individual polyps, each polyp only a few millimetres in diameter. The colony of polyps functions essentially as a single organism by sharing nutrients via a well developed gastrovascular network, and the polyps are clones, each having the same genetic structure. Each polyp generation grows on the skeletal remains of previous generations, forming a structure that has a shape characteristic of the species, but subject to environmental influences.

The hermatypic corals obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon growing in sunlight. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface, although in clear waters corals can grow at depths of 60 m (200 ft). Other corals, notably the cold-water genus Lophelia, do not have associated algae, and can live in much deeper water, with recent finds as deep as 3000 m. Corals breed by spawning, with many corals of the same species in a region releasing gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon.

Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of coral reefs that develop only in tropical and subtropical waters. Some corals exist in cold waters, such as off the coast of Norway (north to at least 69° 14.24' N) and the Darwin Mounds off western Scotland. The most extensive development of extant coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Indonesia is home to 581 of the world's 793 known coral reef-building coral species.

Coral types

There are several other types of corals, notably the octocorals (subclass Octocorallia) and corals classified in other orders of subclass Zoantharia: to wit, the black corals (order Antipatharia) and the soft corals (order Zoanthinaria). Extinct corals include rugose corals and tabulate coral. These two groups went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. Most other anthozoans would be treated under the common name of "sea anemone".

Geological history

Fossil coral Heliophyllum halli from the Devonian of Canada.

Although corals first appeared in the Cambrian period, some 570 million years ago, they are extremely rare as fossils until the Ordovician period, when Rugose and Tabulate corals became widespread.

Tabulate corals occur in the limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses alongside Rugose corals. Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period and they finally became extinct at the end of the Permian period. The skeletons of Tabulate corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as calcite.

Rugose corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. The Rugose corals may be either solitary or colonial, and like the Tabulate corals their skeletons are also composed of calcite. The finest details of their skeletal structures are often well preserved, and such fossils may be cut and polished.

Coral skeletons in a zoological display

Scleractinian corals diversified during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and are at the height of their development today. Their fossils may be found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and they are relatively common fossils in rocks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well as the Caenozoic era. The skeletons of Scleractinian corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. Although they are geologically younger than the Tabulate and Rugose corals, the aragonite skeleton Scleractinian corals does not tend to preserve well, so it is often easier to find fossils of the more ancient Tabulate and Rugose corals.

At certain times in the geological past corals were very abundant, just as modern corals are in the warm clear tropical waters of certain parts of the world today. And like modern corals their fossil ancestors built reefs beneath the ancient seas. Some of these reefs now lie as great structures in the midst of sedimentary rocks. Such reefs can be found in the rocks of many parts of the world including those of the Ordovician period of Vermont, the Silurian period of the Michigan Basin and in many parts of Europe, the Devonian period of Canada and the Ardennes in Belgium, and the Cretaceous period of South America and Denmark. Reefs from both the Silurian and Carboniferous periods have been recorded as far north as Siberia, and as far south as Australia.

Brain coral off the coast of Belize

However, these ancient reefs are not composed entirely of corals. Algae and sponges, as well as the fossilized remains of many echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites that lived on the reefs help to build them. These fossil reefs are prime locations to look for fossils of many different types, besides the corals themselves.

Corals are not restricted to just reefs, many solitary corals may be found in rocks where reefs are not present (such as Cyclocyathus which occurs in the Cretaceous period Gault clay formation of England).

As well as being important rock builders, some corals are useful as zone (or index) fossils, enabling geologists to date the age the rocks in which they are found, particularly those found in the limestones of the Carboniferous period.

Environmental effects on coral

A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life.

Coral can be sensitive to environmental changes, and as a result are generally protected through environmental laws. A coral reef can easily be swamped in algae if there are too many nutrients in the water. Coral will also die if the water temperature changes by more than a degree or two beyond its normal range or if the salinity of the water drops. In an early symptom of environmental stress, corals expel their zooxanthellae; without their symbiotic unicellular algae, coral tissues are colorless, revealing the white of their calcium carbonate skeletons, an event known as 'coral bleaching'.

A combination of temperature changes, pollution, and overuse has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. This has increased the importance of coral biology as a subject of study. Climatic variations, such as El Niño, can cause the temperature changes that destroy corals.

Some coral species exhibit banding in their skeletons resulting from annual variations in their growth rate. In fossil and modern corals these bands allow geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a kind of incremental dating, which combined with geochemical analysis of each band, can provide high-resolution records of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironamental change.

Uses

Living corals underwater are more colorful than dead coral

Coral reefs are a great source of tourism for scuba diving or snorkelling, however this has conservational implications due to damage from removal or destruction of coral.

Ancient coral reefs on land are often mined for limestone. An example of this is the quarrying of Portland limestone from the Isle of Portland.

Reddish coral is sometimes used as a gemstone especially in Tibet. Pure red coral is known as 'fire coral' and it is very rare because of the demand for perfect fire coral for jewellery-making purposes.


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Pure red coral is known as 'fire coral' and it is very rare because of the demand for perfect fire coral for jewellery-making purposes. Aside from the many online community forums, there are now annual conventions, regional conferences, and many local seminars for mobile disc jockeys to attend. Reddish coral is sometimes used as a gemstone especially in Tibet. The number of resources available for mobile DJs has also expanded. An example of this is the quarrying of Portland limestone from the Isle of Portland. These responsibilities include emceeing, event coordination, lighting direction, and sound engineering. Ancient coral reefs on land are often mined for limestone. While there are still many conventional, "human jukebox" mobile DJs, many others have assumed more reponsibilities to ensure the success of the events where they perform.

Coral reefs are a great source of tourism for scuba diving or snorkelling, however this has conservational implications due to damage from removal or destruction of coral. In the 21st Century, the role of the mobile disc jockey has expanded. In fossil and modern corals these bands allow geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a kind of incremental dating, which combined with geochemical analysis of each band, can provide high-resolution records of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironamental change. CODJA cofounder Glenn Miller became the first licensed MP3 DJ under new music licensing agreement that was introduced to Canada in 2000 by the AVLA, and had already pioneered online networking for mobile disc jockeys by starting the first bulletin board system for mobile DJs from all over North America (and eventually the world).[1]. Some coral species exhibit banding in their skeletons resulting from annual variations in their growth rate. Professor Jam, a Tampa Bay, Florida disc jockey already known in the industry for having performed for many celebrities and television networks, became one of the first mobile DJs in the United States to regularly use computer technology to play music at his shows, and was the first professionally endorsed computer disc jockey internationally. Climatic variations, such as El Niño, can cause the temperature changes that destroy corals. In the mid-1990s, computers and the Internet had a profound impact on the mobile DJ industry.

This has increased the importance of coral biology as a subject of study. This is also the era when mobile disc jockeys became the top entertainment choice for most private parties including wedding receptions. A combination of temperature changes, pollution, and overuse has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. These publications helped to spread the word about the emerging technologies and published informational articles that were helpful to the mobile disc jockey. In an early symptom of environmental stress, corals expel their zooxanthellae; without their symbiotic unicellular algae, coral tissues are colorless, revealing the white of their calcium carbonate skeletons, an event known as 'coral bleaching'. Dedicated mobile disc jockey trade publications such as DJ Times magazine and Mobile Beat magazine were founded in this era. Coral will also die if the water temperature changes by more than a degree or two beyond its normal range or if the salinity of the water drops. Many equipment manufacturers realized the potential market that existed for mobile DJs and raced to make equipment that was smaller, easier to use, and of better quality.

A coral reef can easily be swamped in algae if there are too many nutrients in the water. Compact disc collections were becoming the standard to play music from. Coral can be sensitive to environmental changes, and as a result are generally protected through environmental laws. As the late 1980s turned into the 1990s, new technologies emerged. As well as being important rock builders, some corals are useful as zone (or index) fossils, enabling geologists to date the age the rocks in which they are found, particularly those found in the limestones of the Carboniferous period. Both associations thrive today, with an estimated 5,000 members combined as of November 2005. Corals are not restricted to just reefs, many solitary corals may be found in rocks where reefs are not present (such as Cyclocyathus which occurs in the Cretaceous period Gault clay formation of England). In 1996, after being removed from the ADJA Board from a financial dispute, Keslar then went on to form the for-profit National Association of Mobile Entertainers (NAME), based in the Philadelphia area.

These fossil reefs are prime locations to look for fossils of many different types, besides the corals themselves. The original Board of Directors were Bruce Keslar, Maureen Keslar, John Roberts, and Lori Jesse. Algae and sponges, as well as the fossilized remains of many echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites that lived on the reefs help to build them. United States Disc Jockeys were reluctant to form anything similar until 1992 when the American Disc Jockey Association (ADJA) was incorporated. However, these ancient reefs are not composed entirely of corals. It was joined by a much broader online association called the Canadian Online Disc Jockey Association (CODJA), founded by Canadian mobile DJs Glenn Miller (not the famous bandleader) and Dennis Hampson. Reefs from both the Silurian and Carboniferous periods have been recorded as far north as Siberia, and as far south as Australia. The Canadian Disc Jockey Association (CDJA) was one of the original associations formed in 1976 as a not-for-profit trade association for disc jockeys across Canada.

Such reefs can be found in the rocks of many parts of the world including those of the Ordovician period of Vermont, the Silurian period of the Michigan Basin and in many parts of Europe, the Devonian period of Canada and the Ardennes in Belgium, and the Cretaceous period of South America and Denmark. Some tried to improve this image by forming professional associations. Some of these reefs now lie as great structures in the midst of sedimentary rocks. These "Weekend Warriors", as they are called by many, helped enhance the negative stereotype of the mobile DJ; many of the same complaints from the earlier era continued. And like modern corals their fossil ancestors built reefs beneath the ancient seas. Because of the high demand for mobile DJs, many people from all facets of life jumped into the industry, hoping to make a few extra dollars on the weekends. At certain times in the geological past corals were very abundant, just as modern corals are in the warm clear tropical waters of certain parts of the world today. The equipment used in this era was enormous and usually required roadies (similar to those who work for bands) to set up.

Although they are geologically younger than the Tabulate and Rugose corals, the aragonite skeleton Scleractinian corals does not tend to preserve well, so it is often easier to find fossils of the more ancient Tabulate and Rugose corals. Top mobile DJs in this era would have hundreds of vinyl records and/or cassette tapes to play from. The skeletons of Scleractinian corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. During the Disco era of the 1970s, demand for mobile DJs (called mobile discos in the UK) soared. Their fossils may be found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and they are relatively common fossils in rocks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well as the Caenozoic era. However, a few companies of this era did establish themselves as competent businesses and thrived; some even still exist today. Scleractinian corals diversified during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and are at the height of their development today. Mobile DJs companies came and went.

The finest details of their skeletal structures are often well preserved, and such fossils may be cut and polished. Even so, in the early years, the mobile DJ industry was seen as a last-resort choice for entertainment, as the DJs were reputed to frequently be unreliable and unprofessional. The Rugose corals may be either solitary or colonial, and like the Tabulate corals their skeletons are also composed of calcite. Bands had long dominated the wedding entertainment industry, but with the advent of the less expensive mobile DJ, the demand for live performers dwindled. Rugose corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. The definition and responsibilities of a mobile disc jockey have changed since Bob Casey's first two-turntable system for continuous playback was utilized for sock-hops in 1955. The skeletons of Tabulate corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as calcite. Unlike many club/rave DJs, mobile DJs often play more mainstream selections of music from multiple genres, they often take requests, and for mobile DJs, producing a continuous, beat-matched mix is rarely a priority.

Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period and they finally became extinct at the end of the Permian period. Mobile DJs tend to work for hire at private functions such as wedding receptions, bar and bat mitzvah receptions, school dances, and so on, but they can occasionally be seen in bars, nightclubs, or even block parties. Tabulate corals occur in the limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses alongside Rugose corals. Mobile DJs travel or tour with their own sound systems and play from an extensive collection of pre-recorded music, on various media, for a targeted audience. Although corals first appeared in the Cambrian period, some 570 million years ago, they are extremely rare as fossils until the Ordovician period, when Rugose and Tabulate corals became widespread. Although it is often perceived this way, there are many mobile DJs around the world that use this as their primary career. Most other anthozoans would be treated under the common name of "sea anemone". Unlike their radio counterparts, mobile DJing is primarily seen as a part-time or second career.

These two groups went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. Mobile disc jockeys are an extension of the original radio disc jockeys. Extinct corals include rugose corals and tabulate coral. See also: Category:Hip hop DJs. There are several other types of corals, notably the octocorals (subclass Octocorallia) and corals classified in other orders of subclass Zoantharia: to wit, the black corals (order Antipatharia) and the soft corals (order Zoanthinaria). A hip hop disc jockey is one that selects, plays and creates music as a hip hop artist and/or performer, often backing up one or more MCs. . See also: Category:Club DJs.

Indonesia is home to 581 of the world's 793 known coral reef-building coral species. The setting can range anywhere from a small club, a neighborhood party, a disco, a rave, or even a stadium. The most extensive development of extant coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. A club/rave disc jockey is one that selects and plays music in a club setting. Some corals exist in cold waters, such as off the coast of Norway (north to at least 69° 14.24' N) and the Darwin Mounds off western Scotland. See also: Category:Radio DJs. Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of coral reefs that develop only in tropical and subtropical waters. A radio disc jockey is one that selects and plays music that is broadcast across radio waves.

Corals breed by spawning, with many corals of the same species in a region releasing gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon. The following is a list of the most common types of disc jockeys, along with notable examples of each, listed in chronological order by birth. Other corals, notably the cold-water genus Lophelia, do not have associated algae, and can live in much deeper water, with recent finds as deep as 3000 m. The selected music, the audience, the setting, the preferred medium, and the level of sophistication of sound manipulation are factors that create a number of different types of deejays. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface, although in clear waters corals can grow at depths of 60 m (200 ft). By definition, the role of selecting and playing prerecorded music for an intended audience is the same for every disc jockey. The hermatypic corals obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon growing in sunlight. College radio stations and other public radio outlets are the most common places for freeform playlists in the U.S.

Each polyp generation grows on the skeletal remains of previous generations, forming a structure that has a shape characteristic of the species, but subject to environmental influences. However, music aficionados look upon such practices with disgust and either seek out freeform stations that put the DJs back in control, or end up dumping terrestrial radio in favor of satellite radio services or portable music players like iPods. The colony of polyps functions essentially as a single organism by sharing nutrients via a well developed gastrovascular network, and the polyps are clones, each having the same genetic structure. Economically, this formula has been successful across the country. A coral "head" is formed of many individual polyps, each polyp only a few millimetres in diameter. Even song requests are sometimes co-opted into this system—a song might be announced as a request by a DJ even though it was already set to appear in the playlist. The latter are also known as stony corals in as much as the living tissue thinly covers a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. The songs to be played are usually determined by computerized algorithms, and automation techniques such as voice tracking have allowed single DJs to send announcements across many stations.

The group includes the important reef builders known as hermatypic corals, found in tropical oceans, and belonging to the subclass Zoantharia of order Scleractinia (formerly Madreporaria). Playlists are very tightly regulated, and the DJ is often not allowed to make any changes or additions. Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. Today, very few DJs in the United States have any control over what is played on the air. The Top 40 format also emerged, where popular songs are played repeatedly. Part of the fallout from that payola scandal was tighter control of the music by station management.

Throughout the 1950s, payola was an ongoing problem.
. These include audio mixing, cueing, slip-cueing, phrasing, cutting, beat juggling, scratching, beatmatching, needle drops, phase shifting, and more. There are several techniques that can be applied by the disc jockey as a means to manipulate the prerecorded music.

Other types of equipment can also be added, including samplers, drum machines, effects processors, slipmats, and Computerized Performance Systems. The addition of a mixer (used to mix the sound of the two playback devices), a microphone (used to amplify the human voice), and headphones (used to listen to one recording while the other is playing, without outputting the sound to the audience) is strongly recommended, but not required. portable audio system, radio wave broadcaster). a sound system for amplification of the recordings (eg.

record players, compact disc players, mp3 players) 3. at least two devices for playback of sound recordings, for the purpose of alternating back and forth to create continuous playback (eg. vinyl records, compact discs, mp3s) 2. sound recordings in preferred medium (eg.

The most basic equipment that is necessary for a standard disc jockey to perform consists of the following: 1. The physical act of selecting and playing sound recordings is called deejaying, or DJing, and ranges in sophistication from simply playing a series of recordings (referred to as programming, or composing a playlist), to the manipulating of recordings, using techniques such as audio mixing, cueing, phrasing, cutting, scratching, and beatmatching, often to the point of creating original musical compositions. Today there are a number of factors, including the selected music, the intended audience, the performance setting, the preferred medium, and the development of sound manipulation, that have led to different types of deejays. These records, also called discs by those in the industry were jockeyed by the radio announcers, hence the name disc jockey and soon to be known as DJs or deejays.

The term was first used to describe radio announcers who would introduce and play popular gramophone records. . A disc jockey (also called DJ, or deejay) is an individual who selects and plays prerecorded music for an intended audience. ISBN 0822331985.

Duke University Press. Love Saves the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970-1979 . Lawrence, Tim (2004). edition).
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ISBN 0-747-26230-6 (U.K. London: Headline. ISBN 0-8021-3688-5 (North American edition). New York: Grove Press.

Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey. Brewster, Bill & Broughton, Frank (2000). ISBN 0-704-38098-6. London: Quartet Books.

DJ Culture. Poschardt, Ulf (1998). Hosted by Professor Jam and originally developed as a social gathering in 2001, it was the first dedicated computer disc jockey industry event. 2005 - Computerized Performance System Disc Jockey Summit is launched.

CPS mixing culture begins to emerge and organize. 2001 - late 2001 - Atlanta, Georgia, The fist Computerized Performance System Disc Jockey gathering was scheduled and organized during the small DJ3 convention. First appearing in certain East London clubs, and spreading to other music scenes, including New York City, this new DJ scene allows the average music fan to bring two iPods to an "iPod Night", plug in to the mixer, and program a playlist without the skill and equipment demanded by a more traditional DJ setup. The convenience and popularity of the iPod spawns a new type of DJ, the self-penned "MP3J".

2001 - Apple Computer's iPod is introduced and quickly becomes the highest selling brand of portable digital mp3 audio player. DJs can now apply for a license giving them the right to burn their own compilation CDs of "useable tracks," instead of having to cart their whole CD collections around to their gigs. Administered by the Canadian Recording Industry Association. 1999 - late 1999 - AVLA (Audio Video Licensing Agency) of Canada announces MP3 DJing license.

1999 - Shawn Fanning releases Napster, the first of the massively popular peer-to-peer file sharing systems. Final Scratch was later bought by Stanton Magnetics, and its software development is now handled by Native Instruments. Pinky, and Mixvibes). This was the first product of it's kind, and later spawned a slew of competing products (including Serato Scratch Live, Ms.

This program "mapped" digital music files onto timecoded vinyl records that were then played on a traditional DJ setup. 1998 - Final Scratch is announced by Amsterdam based N2IT. 1998 - The first MP3 digital audio player is released, the Eiger Labs MPMan F10. late 1990s - Various DJ and Video_jockey VJ_software VJ software programs are developed, allowing personal computer users to deejay or veejay using his or her personal music or video files.

This new subgenre of alternative rock bears some influence from hip-hop, because rhythmic innovation and syncopation are primary, often featuring DJs as bandmembers. late 1990s - Nu metal bands such as KoЯn, Limp Bizkit, and Linkin Park reach the height of popularity. 1995 - The first full-time, Internet-only radio station, Radio HK, begins broadcasting the music of independent bands. This makes it a popular service for both amateur and professional disc jockeys operating from a personal computer.

Because the radio signal is relayed over the Internet, it is possible to access internet radio stations from anywhere in the world. 1993 - The first Internet "radio station", Internet Talk Radio, was developed by Carl Malamud. MPEG-1 Layer-3 popularly known as MP3 (a Lossy format) will revolutionize the digital music domain. 1992 - MPEG which stands for the "Moving Pictures Experts Groups, releases The MPEG-1 standard, designed to produce reasonable sound at low bit rates.

Trance was central to the success of commercial dance music and superstar DJs such as Paul Oakenfold. mid-1990s - Trance music emerges as a result of producers who wanted to transform repetitive, instrumental rave music into commercially accessible pop songs with vocals. early 1990s - The compact disc surpasses the gramophone record in popularity, but gramophone records continue to be made (although in very limited quantities) into the 21st century, particularly for club DJs and for local acts recording on small regional labels. The innovative marketing surrounding the rave scene created the first superstar DJs.

The rave scene forever changed dance music, the image of DJs, and the nature of promoting. The notion of "trainspotting," for example, derives from Northern Soul's emphasis on researching and collecting rare & obscure records; while preventing other DJs from stealing titles via "white labels". Many elements of the rave scene, such as baggy pants and breakdancing, appear to be inherited from the Northern Soul scene of the UK approximately 15 years earlier. early 1990s - The rave scene grows out of the acid-house scene.

Originally called "acid parties" for a select few, the events grew in size and popularity, eventually spreading throughout England, Europe, the United States, and the rest of the world. 1988 - The acid house scene emerges in the UK. This song is the first exposure of hip hop music, as well as the concept of the disc jockey as band member and artist, to many mainstream audiences. 1986 - "Walk This Way", a rap-rock collaboration by Run DMC and Aerosmith, becomes the first hip hop song to reach the Top 10 on the Billboard Hot 100.

1985 - The Winter Music Conference starts in Fort Lauderdale Florida and becomes the premier electronic music conference for dance music disc jockeys. Techno distanced itself from disco's roots by becoming almost purely electronic with synthesized beats. Being geographically located between Chicago and New York, Detroit techno combined elements of Chicago house and New York garage along with European imports. mid-1980s - Techno music emerges from the Detroit club scene.

The style was a result of the club DJs who would unsuccessfully try to duplicate the Chicago house sound, for example, leaving out the accentuated high-hats. mid-1980s - New York Garage emerges at DJ Larry Levan's Paradise Garage nightclub in New York. 1983 - Jesse Saunders releases the first house music track, "On & On". The common element of most house music is a 4/4 beat generated by a drum machine or other electronic means (such as a sampler), together with a solid (usually also electronically generated) bassline.

House music is essentially disco music with electronic beats. The name was derived from the Warehouse club in Chicago, where the resident DJ, Frankie Knuckles, mixed old disco classics and Eurosynth pop. 1983 - House music emerges. This event is often seen as the "Big Bang" of the digital audio revolution.

1982 - The compact disc reached the public market in Asia and early the following year in other markets. The song melded electronic hip hop beats with the melody from Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express". 1982 - "Planet Rock" by DJ Afrika Bambaataa is the first hip hop song to feature synthesizers. 1982 - The demise of disco in the mainstream by the summer of 1982 forces many nightclubs to either close or to change entertainment styles, such as by providing MTV style video dancing or live bands.

The term "video jockey", or VJ, was used to describe the fresh faced youth who introduced the music videos. 1981 - Cable television network MTV is launched, originally devoted to music videos, especially popular rock music. This is considered to be the year that disco "died", although the music remained popular for several more years, particularly in underground clubs and in Europe, where the subgenres Euro Disco and Italo Disco were created. 1979 - An anti-disco protest in Chicago's Comiskey Park marks the major backlash against disco amongst rock music fans, who preferred guitars and live drums over electronically generated sounds and beats.

It was also the first real breakthrough for sampling, as the bassline of Chic's "Good Times" laid the foundation for the song. 1979 - The Sugar Hill Gang release "Rapper's Delight", the first hip hop record to become a hit. In the same year, the motion picture Saturday Night Fever popularizes discotheques and becomes one of the top-10 grossing films in history (at the time). 1977 - New York's Studio 54 nightclub grosses $7 million in its first year of business (which is roughly $21 million in today's dollars after adjusting for inflation).

1977 - Hip hop DJ Grand Wizard Theodore invents the scratching technique by accident. 1976 - American DJ and producer Walter Gibbons remixes and releases "Ten Percent" by Double Exposure, the world's first 12" single (aka "maxi-single"). 1975 - Record pools begin, enabling disc jockeys access to newer music from the industry in an efficient method. 1975 - Disco music takes off in the mainstream pop charts in the United States and Europe, causing discotheques to experience a rebirth.

The four main elements of hip hop culture are MCing (rapping), DJing, graffiti, and breakdancing. mid 1970s - Hip hop music and culture begins to emerge, originating among urban African Americans and Latinos in New York City. Years later, Kraftwerk would become a significant influence on hip hop artists such as Afrika Bambaataa and house music pioneer Frankie Knuckles. 1974 - German electronic music band Kraftwerk releases the 22-minute single "Autobahn", which is the precursor to the 12" single.

1974 - Technics releases the first SL-1200 turntable, which evolves into the SL-1200 MK2 in 1979, currently the industry standard for deejaying. Turntablism, the art of using turntables not only to play music, but to manipulate sound and create original music, is considered to begin at this time. He would mix back and forth between two identical records to extend the rhythmic instrumental segment, or break. 1974 - Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc - who is widely regarded as the "godfather of hip hop culture" - develops a technique called breakbeat while performing block parties in his Bronx neighborhood.

It should also be noted that electronics company Technics released a series of direct-drive DJ turntables during this period. The total number of clubs and DJs dropped substantially, and most of the dance clubs were underground gay discos. early 1970s - The Vietnam War, oil crisis, and economic recession has a negative impact on dance clubs and disc jockeys. Neighborhood block parties that are modeled after Jamaican sound systems gain popularity in Europe and in the boroughs of New York City.

late 1960s - Most American discos either closed or were transformed into clubs featuring live bands. Grasso also perfected slip-cueing, the technique of holding a record still while the turntable is revolving underneath, releasing it at the desired moment to create a sudden transition from the previous record. Beatmatching is the technique of creating seamless transitions between back-to-back records with matching beats, or tempos. 1969 - American club DJ Francis Grasso popularizes beatmatching at New York's Sanctuary nightclub.

However, by 1968, the number of dance clubs started to decline. mid-1960s - Nightclubs and discotheques continue to grow in Europe and the United States. These parties quickly became profitable for the promoters, who would sell admission, food and alcohol, leading to fierce competition between DJs for the biggest sound systems and newest records. Promotors, who called themselves DJs, would throw large parties in the streets that centered around the disc jockey, called the "selector".

late 1950s - Jamaican sound systems, a new form of public entertainment, are developed in the ghettos of Kingston, Jamaica. 1955 - Bob Casey, a well-known sock hop DJ, introduces the first two-turntable system for the purpose of alternating back and forth between records, creating continuous playback. In some cases, a live drummer was hired to play beats between songs to maintain the dance floor. They would usually play 45-rpm records featuring hit singles on one turntable, while talking between songs.

1950s - American radio DJs would appear live at "sock hops" and "platter parties" and assume the role of a human jukebox. late 1940s to early 1950s - The introduction of television erodes the popularity of radio's early format, causing it to take on the general form it has today, with a strong focus on music, news and sports. Discos began appearing across Europe and the United States. 1947 - The "Whiskey-A-Go-Go" nightclub opens in Paris, France, considered to be the world's first discothèque, or disco (deriving its name from the French word, meaning a nightclub where the featured entertainment is recorded music rather than an on-stage band).

in 1947 he paid a local metal worker to weld two domestic record decks together and became the first DJ to use twin turntables for continuous play. 1943 - Jimmy Savile launches the world's first DJ dance party by playing jazz records in the upstairs function room of the Loyal Order of Ancient Shepherd's in Otley, England. This is the first occurrence of sampling. 1940s - Musique concrète composers utilize portions of sound recordings to create new compositions.

The show, which he called Make Believe Ballroom, was an instant hit. While his audience was awaiting developments in the Lindbergh kidnapping, Block played records and created the illusion that he was broadcasting from a ballroom, with the nation’s top dance bands performing live. 1934 - American commentator Walter Winchell coins the term "disc jockey" (the combination of "disc", referring to the disc records, and "jockey", which is an operator of a machine) as a description of radio announcer Martin Block, the first announcer to become a star in his own right. 1929 - Thomas Edison ceases phonograph cylinder manufacture, ending the disc and cylinder rivalry.

1927 - Christopher Stone becomes the first radio announcer and programmer in the United Kingdom, on the BBC radio station. 1920s - "Juke-joints" become popular as a place for dancing and drinking to jukebox music. The on-air announcers and programmers would later be known as disc jockeys. In the early radio age, content typically includes comedy, drama, news, music, and sports reporting.

1910s - Regular radio broadcasting begins, using "live" as well as prerecorded sound. 1906 - Reginald Fessenden transmits the first audio radio broadcast in history when he plays Christmas music from Brant Rock, Massachusetts. The disc system gradually becomes more popular due to its cheaper price and better marketing. mid-1890s to early 1920s - Cylinder and disc recordings, and the machines to play them on, are widely mass marketed and sold.

1892 - Emile Berliner begins commercial production of his gramophone records, the first disc record to be offered to the public. The earliest versions played only a single record, but multiple record devices, called jukeboxes, were soon developed. 1889 - Coin-slot phonograph machines, the general public's first encounter with recorded sound, begin to be mass produced. 1887 - German-American Emile Berliner invents the gramophone, a lateral disc device to record and playback sound.

1877 - Thomas Alva Edison invents the phonograph cylinder, the first device to playback recorded sound, in the United States. 1857 - Leon Scott invents the phonoautograph, the first device to record arbitrary sound, in France. In 1955, Bob Casey (born 1941), a well-known sock hop DJ, introduced the first two-turntable system for the purpose of alternating back and forth between records, creating continuous playback. DJ Jazzy Jeff (born 1965), of DJ Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince (also backed Will Smith on his solo efforts).

Mix Master Mike (born 1970), skilled DJ of hip hop group Beastie Boys, three-time winner of the International DMC Turntablism Award. DJ Qbert (born 1969), founding member of the turntablism group the Invisibl Skratch Piklz and three-time winner of the International DMC Award. Terminator X (born 1966), DJ of the highly infuential hip hop group Public Enemy. & Rakim, popularized the James Brown-sampled funky hip hop of the late 1980s.

(born 1965), one half of duo Eric B. Eric B. Jam Master Jay (1965-2002), founder and DJ of Run-DMC, one of the most innovative hip hop groups of all time. Created first hip hop track to feature synthesizers; "The godfather of Hip Hop".

Afrika Bambaataa (born 1960), instrumental in the development of hip hop from its birth in the South Bronx to its international success. Created the Quick Mix Technique which allowed a DJ to precisely extend a break using two copies of the same record; essentially invented modern turntablism. Grandmaster Flash (born 1958), one of the early pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and scratching. DJ Kool Herc (born 1955), inventor of breakbeat technique, "the father of hip hop culture".

Keoki (born 1969), famous techno musician, portrayed in the 2003 film Party Monster. 1 DJ in the World' for the third consecutive year in 2004. Tiesto (born 1969), one of world's leading trance music DJs, voted DJ Magazine's 'No. Paul Oakenfold (born 1963), British record producer, remixer, and one of the best-known DJs worldwide, referred to as a Superstar DJ.

Frankie Knuckles (born 1955), the godfather of house music. Larry Levan (1954-1992), leader of New York Garage music. Francis Grasso (1948-2001), popularized several new disc jockey techniques, including beatmatching and slip-cueing. David Mancuso (born 1944), founder of New York City's first underground party called the Loft.

Jim Ladd (born 1948), the last remaining freeform rock DJ in United States commercial radio. John Peel (1939-2004), one of the original DJs of UK's Radio 1 in 1967, known for the extraordinary range of his taste in music, and for championing unknown musical artists. Wolfman Jack (1938-1995), drew upon his love of horror movies and rock and roll to create his raspy-voiced, howling persona, one of radio’s most distinctive voices. Also the voice of Shaggy in the Scooby-Doo cartoon series.

Casey Kasem (born 1932), disc jockey and music historian, host of the long-running radio series American Top 40. Dick Clark (born 1929), host of American Bandstand, television's longest-running music/variety program, as well as a number of nationally syndicated radio shows. In 1947 he was the first ever DJ to use twin turntables for continuous play after he paid a local metal worker to weld two domestic record decks together. Jimmy Savile (born 1926), British DJ and television personality, best known for his BBC television show Jim'll Fix It where he made the wishes of members of the public (mainly children) come true.

Murray "The K" Kaufman (1922-1982), influential rock and roll disc jockey, for a time was billed as the "Fifth Beatle". Alan Freed (1922-1965), became internationally known for promoting African-American Rhythm and Blues music in the United States and Europe under the name of Rock and Roll. Martin Block (1901-1967), the first radio disc jockey to become a star, inspired the term "disc jockey". Christopher Stone (1882–1965), became the first disc jockey in the United Kingdom in 1927.

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