Coral

For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation).
Orders
Scleractinia

Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. The group includes the important reef builders known as hermatypic corals, found in tropical oceans, and belonging to the subclass Zoantharia of order Scleractinia (formerly Madreporaria). The latter are also known as stony corals in as much as the living tissue thinly covers a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. A coral "head" is formed of many individual polyps, each polyp only a few millimetres in diameter. The colony of polyps functions essentially as a single organism by sharing nutrients via a well developed gastrovascular network, and the polyps are clones, each having the same genetic structure. Each polyp generation grows on the skeletal remains of previous generations, forming a structure that has a shape characteristic of the species, but subject to environmental influences.

The hermatypic corals obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon growing in sunlight. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface, although in clear waters corals can grow at depths of 60 m (200 ft). Other corals, notably the cold-water genus Lophelia, do not have associated algae, and can live in much deeper water, with recent finds as deep as 3000 m. Corals breed by spawning, with many corals of the same species in a region releasing gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon.

Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of coral reefs that develop only in tropical and subtropical waters. Some corals exist in cold waters, such as off the coast of Norway (north to at least 69° 14.24' N) and the Darwin Mounds off western Scotland. The most extensive development of extant coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Indonesia is home to 581 of the world's 793 known coral reef-building coral species.

Coral types

There are several other types of corals, notably the octocorals (subclass Octocorallia) and corals classified in other orders of subclass Zoantharia: to wit, the black corals (order Antipatharia) and the soft corals (order Zoanthinaria). Extinct corals include rugose corals and tabulate coral. These two groups went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. Most other anthozoans would be treated under the common name of "sea anemone".

Geological history

Fossil coral Heliophyllum halli from the Devonian of Canada.

Although corals first appeared in the Cambrian period, some 570 million years ago, they are extremely rare as fossils until the Ordovician period, when Rugose and Tabulate corals became widespread.

Tabulate corals occur in the limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses alongside Rugose corals. Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period and they finally became extinct at the end of the Permian period. The skeletons of Tabulate corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as calcite.

Rugose corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. The Rugose corals may be either solitary or colonial, and like the Tabulate corals their skeletons are also composed of calcite. The finest details of their skeletal structures are often well preserved, and such fossils may be cut and polished.

Coral skeletons in a zoological display

Scleractinian corals diversified during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and are at the height of their development today. Their fossils may be found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and they are relatively common fossils in rocks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well as the Caenozoic era. The skeletons of Scleractinian corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. Although they are geologically younger than the Tabulate and Rugose corals, the aragonite skeleton Scleractinian corals does not tend to preserve well, so it is often easier to find fossils of the more ancient Tabulate and Rugose corals.

At certain times in the geological past corals were very abundant, just as modern corals are in the warm clear tropical waters of certain parts of the world today. And like modern corals their fossil ancestors built reefs beneath the ancient seas. Some of these reefs now lie as great structures in the midst of sedimentary rocks. Such reefs can be found in the rocks of many parts of the world including those of the Ordovician period of Vermont, the Silurian period of the Michigan Basin and in many parts of Europe, the Devonian period of Canada and the Ardennes in Belgium, and the Cretaceous period of South America and Denmark. Reefs from both the Silurian and Carboniferous periods have been recorded as far north as Siberia, and as far south as Australia.

Brain coral off the coast of Belize

However, these ancient reefs are not composed entirely of corals. Algae and sponges, as well as the fossilized remains of many echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites that lived on the reefs help to build them. These fossil reefs are prime locations to look for fossils of many different types, besides the corals themselves.

Corals are not restricted to just reefs, many solitary corals may be found in rocks where reefs are not present (such as Cyclocyathus which occurs in the Cretaceous period Gault clay formation of England).

As well as being important rock builders, some corals are useful as zone (or index) fossils, enabling geologists to date the age the rocks in which they are found, particularly those found in the limestones of the Carboniferous period.

Environmental effects on coral

A coral reef can be an oasis of marine life.

Coral can be sensitive to environmental changes, and as a result are generally protected through environmental laws. A coral reef can easily be swamped in algae if there are too many nutrients in the water. Coral will also die if the water temperature changes by more than a degree or two beyond its normal range or if the salinity of the water drops. In an early symptom of environmental stress, corals expel their zooxanthellae; without their symbiotic unicellular algae, coral tissues are colorless, revealing the white of their calcium carbonate skeletons, an event known as 'coral bleaching'.

A combination of temperature changes, pollution, and overuse has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. This has increased the importance of coral biology as a subject of study. Climatic variations, such as El Niño, can cause the temperature changes that destroy corals.

Some coral species exhibit banding in their skeletons resulting from annual variations in their growth rate. In fossil and modern corals these bands allow geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a kind of incremental dating, which combined with geochemical analysis of each band, can provide high-resolution records of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironamental change.

Uses

Living corals underwater are more colorful than dead coral

Coral reefs are a great source of tourism for scuba diving or snorkelling, however this has conservational implications due to damage from removal or destruction of coral.

Ancient coral reefs on land are often mined for limestone. An example of this is the quarrying of Portland limestone from the Isle of Portland.

Reddish coral is sometimes used as a gemstone especially in Tibet. Pure red coral is known as 'fire coral' and it is very rare because of the demand for perfect fire coral for jewellery-making purposes.


This page about Coral includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Coral
News stories about Coral
External links for Coral
Videos for Coral
Wikis about Coral
Discussion Groups about Coral
Blogs about Coral
Images of Coral

Pure red coral is known as 'fire coral' and it is very rare because of the demand for perfect fire coral for jewellery-making purposes. The primary benefit of this concept is the fact that it uses no water directly. Reddish coral is sometimes used as a gemstone especially in Tibet. Supercritical carbon dioxide has previously been used in dry cleaning. An example of this is the quarrying of Portland limestone from the Isle of Portland. The grease is filtered from the carbon dioxide and removed from the system. Ancient coral reefs on land are often mined for limestone. It also demonstrates the physical properties of a liquid, hence the solvent effectiveness, and a gas, which fills its container and thus does not require as much mechanical agitation.

Coral reefs are a great source of tourism for scuba diving or snorkelling, however this has conservational implications due to damage from removal or destruction of coral. Pressurized carbon dioxide behaves like a nonpolar solvent, which can effectively remove grease. In fossil and modern corals these bands allow geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a kind of incremental dating, which combined with geochemical analysis of each band, can provide high-resolution records of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironamental change. Its primary feature was the use of supercritical carbon dioxide in place of water in closed-loop operation. Some coral species exhibit banding in their skeletons resulting from annual variations in their growth rate. A team of students from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia won top honors in the 2004 Electrolux Design Laboratory competition for their Rockpool waterless dishwasher design. Climatic variations, such as El Niño, can cause the temperature changes that destroy corals. [1] The study does not address costs associated with the manufacture and disposal of dishwashers.

This has increased the importance of coral biology as a subject of study. At least one privately funded, non-peer-reviewed study concludes that automatic dishwashers use less water than even the most efficient hand-washers, while relative energy use depends on hand-washing technique. A combination of temperature changes, pollution, and overuse has led to the destruction of many coral reefs around the world. Comparing the efficiency of automatic dishwashers and hand-washing of dishes is difficult because hand-washing techniques vary drastically by individual. In an early symptom of environmental stress, corals expel their zooxanthellae; without their symbiotic unicellular algae, coral tissues are colorless, revealing the white of their calcium carbonate skeletons, an event known as 'coral bleaching'. One of the most well know brands of commercial dishwasher is Hobart.[www.hobartcorp.com]. Coral will also die if the water temperature changes by more than a degree or two beyond its normal range or if the salinity of the water drops. There are many types of commercial dishwashers including undercounter, single tank, conveyor, flight type, and carousel machines.

A coral reef can easily be swamped in algae if there are too many nutrients in the water. Hot water sanitizing requires a rinse temperature of at least 180 °F (80 °C). Coral can be sensitive to environmental changes, and as a result are generally protected through environmental laws. NSF (http://www.nsf.org/business/food_equipment/standards.asp?program=FoodEqu) sets the standards for wash and rinse time along with proper water temperature for chemical or hot water sanitizing methods. As well as being important rock builders, some corals are useful as zone (or index) fossils, enabling geologists to date the age the rocks in which they are found, particularly those found in the limestones of the Carboniferous period. Commercial machines are capable of washing a rack of dishes in just a few minutes or less using a wash water temp of usually 120 to 140 °F (50 to 60 °C) for a low temperature sanitizing machine or 150 minimum wash temp for a hot water sanitizing machine. Corals are not restricted to just reefs, many solitary corals may be found in rocks where reefs are not present (such as Cyclocyathus which occurs in the Cretaceous period Gault clay formation of England). Much larger heavy-duty dishwashers with a high output are available for use in catering and commerical establishments where a large number of dishes are to be washed and sanitized.

These fossil reefs are prime locations to look for fossils of many different types, besides the corals themselves. The other method is a chemical sanitisation method, that many commercial low temperature machines use, using chlorine injected in the final rinse water. Algae and sponges, as well as the fossilized remains of many echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites that lived on the reefs help to build them. One is to use hot water sanitising, using final rinse water at a temperature of at least 83 °C (180 °F). However, these ancient reefs are not composed entirely of corals. Commercial dishwashers can use one of two types of sanitisation methods. Reefs from both the Silurian and Carboniferous periods have been recorded as far north as Siberia, and as far south as Australia. Dishwashers (even commercial ones used in restaurants) do not do this.

Such reefs can be found in the rocks of many parts of the world including those of the Ordovician period of Vermont, the Silurian period of the Michigan Basin and in many parts of Europe, the Devonian period of Canada and the Ardennes in Belgium, and the Cretaceous period of South America and Denmark. Domestic dishwashers do not sterilise the utensils, as proper sterilisation requires autoclaving at 121 °C with pressurised wet steam for at least 15 minutes. Some of these reefs now lie as great structures in the midst of sedimentary rocks. In addition, the lead in the crystal glass can be converted into a soluble form, which is not good for the health of subsequent users. And like modern corals their fossil ancestors built reefs beneath the ancient seas. Lead crystal should not be cleaned in a dishwasher as the corrosive effect of dishwasher detergent is high on such types of glass - that is, it will quickly go 'cloudy'. At certain times in the geological past corals were very abundant, just as modern corals are in the warm clear tropical waters of certain parts of the world today. This may be caused by any or all of the below processes, only one of which is reversible:.

Although they are geologically younger than the Tabulate and Rugose corals, the aragonite skeleton Scleractinian corals does not tend to preserve well, so it is often easier to find fossils of the more ancient Tabulate and Rugose corals. Glassware that is washed by dishwashing machines often develops a white haze on the surface over time. The skeletons of Scleractinian corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. Inexpensive powders sometimes actually contain sand, which can be verified by dissolving the powder in boiling water and then passing the solution through a coffee filter; these detergents should be avoided to prevent wear of the dishes and the dishwasher. Their fossils may be found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and they are relatively common fossils in rocks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods as well as the Caenozoic era. Intuition suggests that a powder will provide a better scrubbing action due to a soft media sandblasting effect, though liquid detergents have marketed themselves as premium products. Scleractinian corals diversified during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras and are at the height of their development today. Dishwasher detergents are strongly alkaline (basic).

The finest details of their skeletal structures are often well preserved, and such fossils may be cut and polished. it may also contain:. The Rugose corals may be either solitary or colonial, and like the Tabulate corals their skeletons are also composed of calcite. Dishwashing detergent contains:. Rugose corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. Sound dampening is the primary factor that determines the cost of a standard built-in dishwasher. The skeletons of Tabulate corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as calcite. Thus, a QuietPartner 1 or QuietGuard 2 dishwasher, despite the "Quiet" designation, may not actually be quiet at all.

Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period and they finally became extinct at the end of the Permian period. Higher numbers usually indicate higher sound dampening and thus less noise output. Tabulate corals occur in the limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses alongside Rugose corals. QuietGuard (Kenmore), QuietPartner (Whirlpool), Whisper Package (Maytag), followed by a number. Although corals first appeared in the Cambrian period, some 570 million years ago, they are extremely rare as fossils until the Ordovician period, when Rugose and Tabulate corals became widespread. Manufacturers generally use their own nomenclature with sound dampening, i.e. Most other anthozoans would be treated under the common name of "sea anemone". Undampened, low-end dishwashers generally output noise levels of anywhere from 65-70 decibels.

These two groups went extinct at the end of the Paleozoic. Using blankets, panels, and sound-absorbing materials in various configurations, dishwashers can achieve sound dampening levels down to 44 decibels or so. Extinct corals include rugose corals and tabulate coral. However, pressure switches (some dishwashers use a pressure switch and flow meter) are not required in most microprocessor controlled dishwashers as they use the motor and sometimes a rotational position sensor to sense the resistance of water, when it senses there is no cavitation it knows it has the optimal amount of water. There are several other types of corals, notably the octocorals (subclass Octocorallia) and corals classified in other orders of subclass Zoantharia: to wit, the black corals (order Antipatharia) and the soft corals (order Zoanthinaria). In such dishwashers the electromechanical rotary switch often used to control the washing cycle is replaced by a microprocessor but most sensors and valves are still required to be present. . This can save water and energy if the user runs a partial load.

Indonesia is home to 581 of the world's 793 known coral reef-building coral species. Many newer dishwashers feature microprocessor-controlled, sensor-assisted wash cycles that adjust the wash duration to the quantity of dirty dishes (sensed by changes in water temperature) or the amount of dirt in the rinse water (sensed chemically/optically). The most extensive development of extant coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Pre-rinsing under a running tap beforehand simply wastes water. Some corals exist in cold waters, such as off the coast of Norway (north to at least 69° 14.24' N) and the Darwin Mounds off western Scotland. Pre-rinsing is not necessary even without integrated waste disposal units - all that is required is for the larger items of food waste to be removed before placing in the dishwasher. Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of coral reefs that develop only in tropical and subtropical waters. One manufacturer that is known for omitting hard food disposals is Bosch, a German brand; however, Bosch does so in order to reduce noise.

Corals breed by spawning, with many corals of the same species in a region releasing gametes simultaneously over a period of one to several nights around a full moon. Mid-to-higher end North American dishwashers often come with hard food disposal units, which behave like miniature garbage (waste) disposal units that eliminate large pieces of food waste from the wash water. Other corals, notably the cold-water genus Lophelia, do not have associated algae, and can live in much deeper water, with recent finds as deep as 3000 m. Older models used a baked enamel on steel and are prone to chipping and erosion; chips in the baked enamel finish must be cleaned of all dirt and corrosion then patched with a special compound or even a good quality two-part epoxy. As a result, these corals are usually found not far beneath the surface, although in clear waters corals can grow at depths of 60 m (200 ft). They also come at a price premium. The hermatypic corals obtain much of their nutrient requirement from symbiotic unicellular algae called zooxanthellae, and so are dependent upon growing in sunlight. Stainless steel tubs resist hard water, provide better sound dampening, and preserve heat to dry dishes faster.

Each polyp generation grows on the skeletal remains of previous generations, forming a structure that has a shape characteristic of the species, but subject to environmental influences. The inside of a dishwasher, called the tub, can be composed of plastic or stainless steel. The colony of polyps functions essentially as a single organism by sharing nutrients via a well developed gastrovascular network, and the polyps are clones, each having the same genetic structure. Dishwashers may come in standard or tall tub designs; standard tub dishwashers have a service kickplate beneath the dishwasher door that allows for simpler maintenance and installation, but tall tub dishwashers have approximately 20% more capacity and better sound dampening from having a continuous front door. A coral "head" is formed of many individual polyps, each polyp only a few millimetres in diameter. Portable dishwashers exist in 45 and 60 cm (Europe) 18 and 24 inch (US) widths, with castors and attached countertops. The latter are also known as stony corals in as much as the living tissue thinly covers a skeleton composed of calcium carbonate. Dishwashers that are installed into standard kitchen cabinets have a standard width and depth of 60 cm (Europe) or 24 inches (US), and most dishwashers must be installed into a hole a mininum of 86 cm (Europe) or 34 inches (US) tall.

The group includes the important reef builders known as hermatypic corals, found in tropical oceans, and belonging to the subclass Zoantharia of order Scleractinia (formerly Madreporaria). Dishes or plates of irregular sizes may not fit properly in a dishwasher's cleaning compartment, so it is advisable to check for compatibility before buying a dishwasher. Corals are gastrovascular marine cnidarians (phylum Cnidaria; class Anthozoa) existing as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically forming colonies of many individuals. The capacity of a dishwasher according to international standards is measured in standard place settings. Adoption was greatest at first in commercial environments, but by the 1970s dishwashers had become commonplace in domestic situations. Models installed with permanent plumbing arrived in 1920s, and electric drying elements were added in 1940.

She never washed dishes herself and only invented the dishwasher as her servants were chipping her fine china. Cochrane was quite wealthy and was the granddaughter of John Fitch, the inventor of the steam boat. Modern dishwashers are descended from the 1886 invention of Josephine Cochrane, also hand-powered, which she unveiled at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. The first reports of a mechanical dishwashing device are of an 1850 patent by Joel Houghton of a hand-powered device.

Some dishwashers also contain a heating element to achieve fast drying of the dishes. The dishwasher therefore is mainly a device for spraying water on the dishes - first detergent-added water for cleaning purposes, then clean water (though sometimes with a rinsing aid added) to remove the detergent residue. Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on mechanical action to remove soiling, mechanical dishwashers use the circulation of quite hot (55-65 degrees Celsius or 130-150 degrees Fahrenheit) water (usually, but not always heated or brought up to temperature by an element) and very strong detergents (most far too alkaline for habitual exposure to the skin) to achieve its cleaning effect. .

They are found in restaurants and also in many kitchens of homes. A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning food utensils for preparation, keeping, serving and eating and drinking. The latter usage is discussed in this article. The term dishwasher can represent either a person who washes (cleans) dishes (a term commonly used in the food service industry) or a machine that performs a similar function.

washing dishes by hand. Study of dishwashers vs. http://archives.tcm.ie/businesspost/2005/01/30/story1860.asp. http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1997/7/97.07.05.x.html.

http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2003/F/20033788.html. http://www.newi.ac.uk/buckleyc/materials.htm#Glass. http://www.ccspa.org/conseducation/SDAC_autodish.html. http://www2.whirlpool.com/html/homelife/cookin/cookdw5.htm.

Physical abrasion
- Glassware placed such that it is physically touching can abrade and produce a milky surface. Sodium carbonate solution is alkaline and leaches out SiO2 from the glass. Sodium bicarbonate decomposes to sodium carbonate (by losing CO2) in the hot final rinse. The water softener replaces calcium with sodium.

bicarbonate) hardness and the water softener is used. Etching occurs in the final (hot) rinse if the water supply has a high temporary (i.e. Silicate filming/etching/accelerated crack corrosion
- Silicate in the detergent protects glass from etching but only during the wash cycle - it is rinsed away after the wash. The resin may have stopped working because it has be poisoned by iron or manganese salts in the supply water.

The dishwasher should either be recharged with salt, adjusted appropriately for the hardness of the supply water - or possibly this is a symptom of failure of the ion exchange resin in the water softener (which is one of the more expensive components). It can be removed by cleaning with vinegar or lemon juice, or a proprietary limescale removal agent. Limescale deposit
- If the dishwasher has run out of the salt that recharges the ion exchange resin that softens the water, and the water supply is 'hard', limescale deposits can appear on all items, but are especially visible on glassware. Sand (inexpensive powdered detergents).

Gelling agents (in liquid/gel based detergents). Starches (in tablet based detergents). Anti-caking agents (in granular detergent). Perfumes.

Additives to slow down the removal of glaze & patterns from glazed ceramics. Anti-foaming agents
- Used as foam decreases the effectiveness of the washing action. Anti-corrosion agents
- Often sodium silicate, prevents corrosion of dishwasher components. Enzymes
- Breaks up and solublises protein-based food deposits, and possibly oil, lipid and fat deposits.

Non-ionic surfactants
- Lowers the surface tension of the water, emulsifies oil, lipid and fat food deposits, prevents droplet spotting on drying. Oxygen-based bleaching agents
- Breaks up and bleaches organic deposits. Phosphates
- Solublises calcium and magnesium ions to prevent 'hard-water' type limescale deposits. Whirlpool.

Manufactured by either Whirlpool Corporation or Frigidaire. Kenmore. Frigidaire. Whirlpool, featuring plastic tubs, and relocatable in-door utensil racks.

Maytag, featuring plastic and stainless steel tubs, tiered racks, and numerous additional side racks. Manufactured by Whirlpool Corporation. Kenmore, featuring plastic tubs and hard food disposals. Manufactured by AMAG.

Low water and energy consumtion. ASKO, featuring stainless steel tubs and self-cleaning filtration. Manufactured by Maytag Corporation. Jenn-Air.

Fisher and Paykel. GE Profile. GE Monogram. Manufactured by Whirlpool Corporation.

Kenmore Elite, featuring adjustable upper racks, stainless steel tubs, and TurboZone (a bank of jets in the back of the dishwasher designed especially for potscrubbing). Bosch, featuring stainless steel tubs and self-cleaning filtration. Manufactured by Whirlpool Corporation. KitchenAid, featuring custom panel kits, hard food disposals, and stainless steel tubs.

11-21-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List