College football

(Redirected from College Football) A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy.

College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport.

History

A college football game between Texas Tech University and the U.S. Naval Academy.

The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer.

The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada.

The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century. It also became increasingly violent. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly).

Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan.

The season schedule

Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game).

The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season).

In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons.

National championships

  • NCAA Division I-A national football champions
  • NCAA Division I-AA national football championship
  • NCAA Division II national football championship
  • NCAA Division III national football championship
  • NAIA national football championship

NCAA divisions and conferences

NCAA Division I-A

  • Atlantic Coast Conference
  • Big East Conference
  • Big Ten Conference
  • Big Twelve Conference
  • Conference USA
  • Mid-American Conference
  • Mountain West Conference
  • Pacific Ten Conference
  • Southeastern Conference
  • Sun Belt Conference
  • Western Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools

NCAA Division I-AA

  • Atlantic Ten Conference
  • Big Sky Conference
  • Big South Conference
  • Gateway Football Conference
  • Great West Football Conference
  • Ivy League
  • Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference
  • Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
  • Northeast Conference
  • Ohio Valley Conference
  • Patriot League
  • Pioneer Football League
  • Southern Conference
  • Southland Conference
  • Southwestern Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools

NCAA Division II

  • Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Eastern Conference
  • Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Great Northwest Athletic Conference
  • Gulf South Conference
  • Lone Star Conference
  • Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • North Central Conference
  • Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference
  • Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference
  • Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
  • South Atlantic Conference
  • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division II independent schools

NCAA Division III

  • American Southwest Conference
  • Atlantic Central Football Conference
  • College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin
  • Centennial Conference
  • Freedom Football Conference
  • Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Illini-Badger Football Conference
  • Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Middle Atlantic Corporation
  • Midwest Conference
  • Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • New England Football Conference
  • New England Small College Athletic Conference
  • New Jersey Athletic Conference
  • North Coast Athletic Conference
  • Northwest Athletic Conference
  • Ohio Athletic Conference
  • Old Dominion Athletic Conference
  • Presidents' Athletic Conference
  • Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • University Athletic Association
  • Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association
  • USA South Athletic Conference
  • Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division III independent schools

NAIA Conferences

  • Central States Football League
  • Dakota Athletic Conference
  • Frontier Conference
  • Great Plains Athletic Conference
  • Heart of America Athletic Conference
  • Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Mid-South Conference
  • Mid-States Football Association
  • Upper Midwest Athletic Conference
  • NAIA independent schools

Conferences that formerly sponsored football

  • Big Six Conference
  • Big Seven Conference
  • Big Eight Conference
  • Big West Conference
  • Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Missouri Valley Conference
  • Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference
  • Pacific Coast Athletic Association
  • Skyline Conference
  • Southwest Conference
  • Wisconsin State University Conference
  • Yankee Conference

Division I colleges that no longer play football

Last season played in parentheses

  • American University (unknown)
  • Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941)
  • Boston University (1997)
  • Bradley University (1970)
  • University of California, Riverside (1975)
  • University of California, Santa Barbara (1991)
  • California State University, Fullerton (1992)
  • California State University, Long Beach (1991)
  • California State University, Northridge (2001)
  • Campbell University (c. 1953)
  • Canisius College (2002)
  • Centenary College of Louisiana (1947)
  • College of Charleston (1938)
  • Creighton University (1942)
  • University of Denver (1960)
  • DePaul University (c. 1938)
  • University of Detroit Mercy (1964)
  • Drexel University (1973)
  • East Tennessee State University (2003)
  • University of Evansville (1997)
  • Fairfield University (2002)
  • George Washington University (1966)
  • Gonzaga University (1941)
  • High Point University (1950)
  • University of Illinois, Chicago (1973)
  • Lamar University (1989)
  • Long Island University (1940)
  • Loyola College in Maryland (1933)
  • Loyola Marymount University (1951)
  • Loyola University Chicago (c. 1930)
  • Manhattan College (1942)
  • Marquette University (1960)
  • University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979)
  • Mercer University (unknown)
  • Mount Saint Mary's University (1950)
  • Niagara University (1950)
  • Old Dominion University (1941)
    • At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962.
  • University of the Pacific (1995)
  • Pepperdine University (1961)
  • University of Portland (1949)
  • Providence College (1941)
  • Rider University (1951)
  • St. Bonaventure University (1951)
  • St. Francis College (New York) (1935)
  • St. John's University, New York (2002)
  • St. Joseph's University (1939)
  • Saint Louis University (1949)
  • St. Mary's College of California (2003)
  • University of San Francisco (1971)
  • Santa Clara University (1992)
  • Seton Hall University (1981)
  • Siena College (2003)
  • Stetson University (1956)
  • Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966)
  • University of Texas at Arlington (1985)
  • University of Vermont (1974)
  • Wichita State University (1986)
  • University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974)
  • Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973)

College football bowl games for 2004-2005

Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05

College football bowl games played for 2004-2005

  • Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993)
  • Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003)
  • Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl)
  • Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990)
  • Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002)
  • Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937)
  • East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001)
  • Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl)
  • Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971)
  • Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003)
  • Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946)
  • GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999)
  • Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002)
  • Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000)
  • Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978)
  • Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946)
  • Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976)
  • Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl)
  • Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992)
  • Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959)
  • Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997)
  • MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl)
  • Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998)
  • New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001)
  • Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946)
  • Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl)
  • Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968)
  • Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916)
  • Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951)
  • Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000)
  • Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935)
  • Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl)


Bowls no longer played

College football awards

See Also


This page about College Football includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about College Football
News stories about College Football
External links for College Football
Videos for College Football
Wikis about College Football
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Images of College Football


. Tatooing is also used as a form of 'cosmetic surgery', like permanent cosmetics, to hide or neutralise skin discolorations. Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. Tattoos may be located anywhere on the animal's body including it's ear (common for small mammals) or inner lip (bears). Last season played in parentheses. Animals are marked with symbols or alphanumeric characters for identification. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons. Tattooing is also used in managing wildlife and the livestock industry as a marking technique.

In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. Most tattoo artists recommend them and sell them in their parlors. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season). These products are safe, efficient and dermatologically tested. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. In the last few years, new cosmetic and pharmaceutical aftercare products have been developed specifically for the tattoo world. The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award. Japanese soak the tattoo in hot water to clean it.

The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game). Some tattooists will recommend leaving the covering on for several hours or overnight, and then gently washing the area. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. Immediately after completing the tattoo, most tattooists will cover the area to keep out dirt and keep the tattoo from oozing into clothes; sometimes the area is wrapped in clingfilm, paper towel, poultry packs (that come in chicken packs) or gauze. Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. New tattoos are wounds which must be looked after properly. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan. The majority of these products contain petroleum or lanolin which, when applied to a new tattoo, can clog skin pores and actually retard your body's healing process. There is also the possibility of allergic reactions to these products, and, application to a new tattoo can cause skin reactions leading to loss of ink and permanent damage to your tattoo.

Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. These products were intended to prevent cuts, burns, scrapes and abrasions from becoming infected and not for the healing of new tattoos. Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. Tattoo artists have had to recommend a variety of products available from your local drug store. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly). Aftercare for your new tattoo has been a subject of debate in the tattoo community for many years. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass. Many of the most notable tattooists do not belong to any association.

The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. Membership in professional organizations, or certificates of appreciation/achievement, may imply that the artist is aware of the latest trends in equipment and sterilization. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. A reputable artist will:. It also became increasingly violent. The studio must have all of the following:. The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century. See the sections under "Risks," above.

The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada. The television show Mythbusters tested the theory, and concluded that there is no risk of interaction between tattoo inks and MRI. Today the majority of professional tattoos do not contain metal particles and therefore there is no concern with MRI. The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. It is likely that this is an urban myth. The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. There has been concern about the interaction between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures and tattoo inks, some of which contain trace metals. It has been claimed that the magnetic fields produced by MRI machines could interact with these metal particles, potentially causing burns or distortions in the image. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer. Shops should appear clean; sinks with hot water and soap should be available in the bathroom as well as in the studio; tattooers should wash their hands regularly and wear latex gloves; surfaces should be cleaned with disinfectant and floors should appear clean; proper procedures for sterilizing equipment should also be followed strictly.

As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. The risk of infection also be reduced by following obvious precautions. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. People who are susceptible to infection should know the dangers abrading the skin can have and should consult a physician before getting a tattoo. The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. Potential infections include everything from surface infections of the skin to Staphylococcus aureus infections that can cause cardiological damage. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport. Infection from tattooing in clean and modern tattoo studios is rare.

College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. Some tattoo artists give small tests, by marking a small amount of ink behind the ear to determine if that person has an allergic reaction. NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. People with allergies should think carefully about getting a tattoo because of the risk of anaphylactic shock (hypersensitive reaction), which can be life threatening. Bowl Championship Series. Allergic reactions to tattoo pigments are fairly uncommon except for certain brands of red and green (with which some many people have a slight problem with itching,swelling,redness of the skin,oozing). People who are sensitive or allergic to certain metals may react to pigments in the skin by becoming swollen and/or itchy, oozing of clear sebum is also common. Doak Walker Award. The tattooer should know and discuss the risks of disease in tattooing.

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award. These are used on one client, once only, and are discarded when the session ends. Jim Thorpe Award. To avoid contamination, small amounts of ink are poured from larger bottles into disposable cups. Mosi Tatupu Award. In addition, it is important that needles and other instruments do not come in contact with inks that will be used on other clients. Dave Rimington Trophy. Universal precautions, such as washing the hands, wearing latex gloves and the thorough cleaning of floors and surfaces, also reduce the risk of disease.

Walter Payton Award. Most reputable tattoo shops use fresh disposable needles for each client and sterilize reusable instruments between clients using an autoclave. Outland Trophy. Since tattoo instruments come in contact with blood and bodily fluids, diseases may be transmitted if the instruments are used on more than one person without being sterilized. Davey O'Brien Award. Permanent tattooing of any form carries risks, including infection, allergy, and disease. Bronko Nagurski Trophy. Mehndi has also become popular, particularly in the West, as a form of temporary body decoration with no symbolic meaning.

Maxwell Award. Mehndi is traditionally applied onto the hands and feet of brides, but there exist traditions in Bangladesh, Kashmir and Sudan where bridegrooms also have Mehndi applied before wedding ceremonies. Manning Award. PPD is very unhealthy and has been known to cause burns[2] (http://www.hennapage.com/henna/warnings.html). Lombardi Award. So-called 'black henna', which is made by adding p-phenylenediamine (PPD) to natural henna, in order to achieve a black color, may cause allergic reactions. Harlon Hill Trophy. Most designs last up to two weeks, fading from a dark brown to a light orange before disappearing.

Heisman Trophy. The length of time the design will last depends on how long the paste is left on the skin. Lou Groza Award. The designs are usually hand drawn with henna: powdered henna is mixed with coffee or tea, lemon juice (to release the dye) and sugar (for consistency) into a paste which is then applied. Grantland Rice Award. The art known as Mehndi, common in Middle Eastern, North African and Asian countries (but particularly associated with India), is the application of intricate patterns and designs on the hands and feet. Gagliardi Trophy. Temporary tattoos are easily removed with soap and water or oil-based creams, and are intended to last a few days.

Dick Butkus Award. They are generally applied to the skin using water to transfer the design to the surface of the skin. Buck Buchanan Award. Temporary tattoos are a type of body sticker, like a decal. Fred Biletnikoff Award. According to George Orwell, workers in coal mines would wind up with characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds. Chuck Bednarik Award. The prices of cosmetic procedures are higher than design tattoos because most states require permanent makeup artists to be licensed aestheticians.

College Football All-America Teams: originally selected by Walter Camp. Permanent cosmetics are tattoos that enhance eyebrows, lips (liner or lipstick), eyes (shadow, mascara), and even moles, usually with natural colors as the designs are intended to resemble makeup. Shrine Bowl - Little Rock, Arkansas (1948). [1] (http://www.cnn.com/2004/LAW/05/04/tattoo/). Seattle Bowl - Seattle, Washington (2001 -2002). Inmates will be trained to staff and operate the tattoo parlors once six of them open successfully. San Diego East-West Christmas Classic - San Diego, California (1921 - 1922). Legitimate parlors onsite would reduce risks of infection with makeshift tattoo guns, while also offering inmates the chance to cover up unsightly ink they received while incarcerated.

Salad Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona (1948 - 1952). However, Canadian inmates may be able to safely tattoo themselves while incarcerated if a test of onsite prison tattoo parlors in the summer of 2005 proves to be successful. Raisin Bowl - Fresno, California (1946 - 1949). Prisoners often dismiss these risks in a show of toughness. Presidential Cup Bowl - College Park, Maryland (1950). There is also significant risk of illness, including such blood-borne diseases as HIV and hepatitis. Pasadena Bowl - Pasadena, California (1967 - 1971). Tattoos created under such conditions are frequently painful, and the resulting designs are coarser.

Oil Bowl - Houston, Texas (1946 - 1947). In most prisons, tattoo machines are not available so tattooing is done with crude "homemade" machines. Oahu Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1998 - 2000). The unit rapidly and repeatedly drives the needles in and out of the skin, usually 50 to 3,000 times a minute. Mercy Bowl - Los Angeles, California (1961; 1971). In this procedure, ink is inserted into the skin via a group of needles that are soldered onto a bar, which is attached to an oscillating unit. Los Angeles Christmas Festival - Los Angeles, California (1924). The most common method of tattooing in modern times is with an electric tattoo machine.

Harbor Bowl - San Diego, California (1947 - 1949). Traditional Japanese tattoos (irezumi) are still "hand-poked," that is, the ink is inserted beneath the skin using non-electrical, hand-made and hand held tools with needles of sharpened bamboo or steel. Great Lakes Bowl - Cleveland, Ohio (1947). Some cultures create tattooed marks by "tapping" the ink into the skin using sharpened sticks or animal bones. Gotham Bowl - New York, New York (1961 - 1962). This may be an adjunct to scarification. Garden State Bowl - East Rutherford, New Jersey (1978 - 1981). Some tribal cultures still create tattoos by cutting designs into the skin and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, ashes or other agents.

Freedom Bowl - Anaheim, California (1984 - 1994). Such tattoos are performed by veterinarians and the animals are anaesthetized to prevent pain. Fort Worth Classic - Fort Worth, Texas (1921). Pets, show animals, thoroughbred horses and livestock are sometimes tattooed with identification marks, and certain of their body parts (for example, noses) have also been tattooed to prevent sunburn. Dixie Classic - Dallas, Texas (1922, 1925, 1934). Tattoos are also placed on animals, though very rarely for decorative reasons. Dixie Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1948 - 1949). European sailors were known to tattoo the crucifixion on their backs to prevent flogging as a punishment.

Delta Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee (1948 - 1949). The best known is the ka-tzetnik identification system for Jews in concentration camps during the Holocaust. Cherry Bowl - Pontiac, Michigan (1984 - 1985). Throughout history people have also been forcibly tattooed for a variety of reasons. Camellia Bowl - Lafayette, Louisiana (1948). Some Maori males still choose to wear intricate moko on their faces. California Bowl - Fresno, California (1981 - 1991). Today, people commonly choose to be tattooed for cosmetic, religious and magical reasons, as well as as a symbol of belonging to or identification with particular groups (see Criminal tattoos).

Bluegrass Bowl - Louisville, Kentucky (1958). Current estimates have one in seven or over 39 million people in North America who have at least one tattoo. Bluebonnet Bowl - Houston, Texas (1959 - 1987). Tattoos are more popular now than at any time in recorded history. Bacardi Bowl - Havana, Cuba (1937). The "modern" electric tattoo machine is fundamentally the same machine invented by Samuel O'Reilly in 1891, which was based on an electric engraving pen invented by Thomas Edison. Aviation Bowl - Dayton, Ohio (1961). Europeans rediscovered tattooing during the exploration of the South Pacific under Captain James Cook in the 1770s, and sailors were particularly identified with tattoos in European culture until after World War I.

Aloha Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1982 – 2000). In addition, Chinese legend has it that the mother of Yue Fei, the most famous general of the Song Dynasty, tattooed the words 精忠報國 (pinyin: jin zhong bao guo) on his back with her sewing needle before he left to join the army, reminding him to "repay his country with total loyalty". All-American Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1977 - 1990) (formerly Hall of Fame Classic). Tattooing has also been featured prominently in one of the Four Classic Novels in Chinese literature, Water Margin, in which at least two of the 108 characters, Shi Jun and Yan Qing, were described as having tattoos covering nearly the whole of their bodies. Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl). The Man of Pazyryk was also tattooed with therapeutic dots lined up along the spinal column (lumbar region) and around the right ankle. Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935). Their tattooing involves animal designs repertory carried out in a curvilinear style.

Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000). Three tattooed mummies (c. 300 BC) were extracted from the permafrost of Alta´ in second half of the 20th century (the Man of Payzyrk, during the forties; one female mummy and one male in Ukok plateau, during the nineties). Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951). Mair, The Tarim Mummies, London, 2000), some of them could date from the end of the 2nd millennium before our era. Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916). Mallory and V H. Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968). Still relatively unknown (the only current publications in Western languages are those of J P.

Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl). Tarim Basin (West China, Xinjiang) revealed several tattooed mummies of a European physical type. Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946). "Ítzi the Iceman", dated circa 3300 BC, exhibits therapeutic tattoos (small parallel dashes along lumbar and on the legs). New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001). Tattooing has been a Eurasian practice since Neolithic times. Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998). According to Robert Graves in his book The Greek Myths, tattooing was common amongst certain religious groups in the ancient Mediterranean world, which probably contributed to the prohibition of tattooing in Leviticus 19:28 in the Old Testament.

MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl). Japan, and China. Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997). Tattooing was widespread among Polynesian peoples, and in the Philippines, Borneo, Samoa, Africa, Mesoamerica. Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959). The Ainu, the indigenous people of Japan, wore unique facial tattoos. Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992). Tattooing has been a practice of almost every known people.

Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl). Tattoos, particularly full traditional body suits, are still popularly associated with the yakuza (mafia) in Japan; in reality, however, many yakuza members are choosing not to be tattooed to avoid this very stigma. Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976). It is widely believed that one of the initiation rites in becoming a triad member is silently withstanding the pain of receiving a tattoo the size of one's entire back in one sitting, usually performed in the traditional "hand-poked" style. Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946). It is said that most triad members in Hong Kong have a tattoo of a black dragon on the left bicep and one of a white tiger on the right; in fact, many people in Hong Kong use "left a black dragon, right a white tiger" as a euphemism for a triad member. Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978). It has been suggested that a majority of prisoners in US prisons have at least one tattoo.

Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000). Tattoos can be wholly or partially removed by cosmetic surgery but this can be expensive and may not be entirely effective in leaving unblemished skin. Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002). For this reason and others a large proportion of people who get tattoos subsequently regret it. GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999). Tattoos can therefore impair the wearer's career prospects. Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946). Many employers, especially in professional fields, dislike tattoos greatly.

Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003). For example, many businesses such as gyms, hot springs and recreational facilities in Japan still ban people with visible tattoos. Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971). In some areas, tattoos have a largely negative image. This is particularly true in East Asian countries and regions, where tattoos are still generally associated with criminality in the public's mind; therefore those who choose to be tattooed in such countries usually keep their tattoos covered for fear of reprisal. Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl). Many celebrities, particularly in the music industry, wear tattoos, but there are many others who have tattoos but generally keep them covered. East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001). "Tattoo Flash" is also the name of an American tattoo magazine.

Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937). Tattoo designs that are mass produced and sold to tattoo artists and studios are called flash. Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002). This usage is gaining support, with mainstream art galleries holding exhibitions of tattoo designs and photographs of tattoos. Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990). Most tattoo enthusiasts refer to tattoos as art and to tattooists (less often "tattooers") as artists. Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl). In Japanese the word used for traditional designs or those that are applied using traditional methods is irezumi, while "tattoo" is used for non-Japanese designs.

Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003). The origin of the word tattoo is usually traced to the Tahitian tatu or tatau, which means to mark or strike (the latter referring to traditional methods of applying the designs). Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993). In technical terms, tattooing is micro-pigment implantation. Tattoos are a type of body modification. Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973). This article is about the tattoo, a design in ink or some other pigment, usually decorative or symbolic, placed permanently under the skin. University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974). The Symbolism and Meaning of Many Popular Tattoo Designs Jennifer Gribbs Tattoo Design Guide (http://www.tattoojohnny.com/tattoo-design-guide.asp).

Wichita State University (1986). The Art of Tattooing Joshua Andrews Tattoology (http://www.tattoology.net). University of Vermont (1974). The Tattoo Machine Joshua Andrews link Source (http://www.howtotattoo.net). University of Texas at Arlington (1985). Safe Tattooing Joshua Andrews. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966). Russian Criminal Tattoo Encyclopaedia Danzig Baldaev, ISBN 3882439203.

Stetson University (1956). Tattoo Art Magazine. Siena College (2003). Total Tattoo Book Amy Krakow, ISBN 0446670014. Seton Hall University (1981). provide clear aftercare instructions and products. Santa Clara University (1992). always use fresh ink for each session, placing small amounts in disposable containers which are used for one client only.

University of San Francisco (1971). always use properly sterilized non-disposable and disposable supplies. Mary's College of California (2003). always open new, sterile needle packages in front of the client, and always use new, sterile disposable instruments. St. Many artists will change gloves one or more times during longer sessions. Saint Louis University (1949). wash his or her hands with water and soap or an approved sanitizing agent, and wear latex gloves.

Joseph's University (1939). be willing and able to answer questions. St. ensure that the customer is satisfied with and sure about the design before applying it. John's University, New York (2002). refuse to tattoo minors, intoxicated people, or those incapable of consent due to mental defect. St. be knowledgeable, courteous and helpful.

Francis College (New York) (1935). accessible facilities for washing the hands with hot water and soap. St. an autoclave is usually required by law but is not really needed if the items to be used have been presterilized elsewhere. Bonaventure University (1951). sharps containers for old needles. St. biohazard containers for blood-stained objects.

Rider University (1951). Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract) (http://www.ephe.sorbonne.fr/ED2/renaut.htm). Providence College (1941). PhD Thesis on body-marking in Antiquity (L. University of Portland (1949). Renaut, 2004, French and English abstract) (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=GatewayURL&_origin=AUGATEWAY&_method=citationSearch&_piikey=S0003552103000840&_version=1&md5=f6dd58d559c19d58799b93a66225b038). Pepperdine University (1961). Comparative study about Ítzi's therapeutic tattoos (L.

University of the Pacific (1995). The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962. At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. Old Dominion University (1941)

    .

    Niagara University (1950). Mount Saint Mary's University (1950). Mercer University (unknown). University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979).

    Marquette University (1960). Manhattan College (1942). 1930). Loyola University Chicago (c.

    Loyola Marymount University (1951). Loyola College in Maryland (1933). Long Island University (1940). Lamar University (1989).

    University of Illinois, Chicago (1973). High Point University (1950). Gonzaga University (1941). George Washington University (1966).

    Fairfield University (2002). University of Evansville (1997). East Tennessee State University (2003). Drexel University (1973).

    University of Detroit Mercy (1964). 1938). DePaul University (c. University of Denver (1960).

    Creighton University (1942). College of Charleston (1938). Centenary College of Louisiana (1947). Canisius College (2002).

    1953). Campbell University (c. California State University, Northridge (2001). California State University, Long Beach (1991).

    California State University, Fullerton (1992). University of California, Santa Barbara (1991). University of California, Riverside (1975). Bradley University (1970).

    Boston University (1997). Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941). American University (unknown). Yankee Conference.

    Wisconsin State University Conference. Southwest Conference. Skyline Conference. Pacific Coast Athletic Association.

    Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference. Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Missouri Valley Conference. Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference.

    Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Big West Conference. Big Eight Conference. Big Seven Conference.

    Big Six Conference. NAIA independent schools. Upper Midwest Athletic Conference. Mid-States Football Association.

    Mid-South Conference. Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference. Heart of America Athletic Conference. Great Plains Athletic Conference.

    Frontier Conference. Dakota Athletic Conference. Central States Football League. NCAA Division III independent schools.

    Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. USA South Athletic Conference. Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association. University Athletic Association.

    Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Presidents' Athletic Conference. Old Dominion Athletic Conference.

    Ohio Athletic Conference. Northwest Athletic Conference. North Coast Athletic Conference. New Jersey Athletic Conference.

    New England Small College Athletic Conference. New England Football Conference. Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Midwest Conference.

    Middle Atlantic Corporation. Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Illini-Badger Football Conference.

    Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference. Freedom Football Conference. Centennial Conference. College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin.

    Atlantic Central Football Conference. American Southwest Conference. NCAA Division II independent schools. West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.

    Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. South Atlantic Conference. Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference.

    Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference. North Central Conference. Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Lone Star Conference.

    Gulf South Conference. Great Northwest Athletic Conference. Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Eastern Conference.

    Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools. Southwestern Athletic Conference. Southland Conference.

    Southern Conference. Pioneer Football League. Patriot League. Ohio Valley Conference.

    Northeast Conference. Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference. Ivy League.

    Great West Football Conference. Gateway Football Conference. Big South Conference. Big Sky Conference.

    Atlantic Ten Conference. NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools. Western Athletic Conference. Sun Belt Conference.

    Southeastern Conference. Pacific Ten Conference. Mountain West Conference. Mid-American Conference.

    Conference USA. Big Twelve Conference. Big Ten Conference. Big East Conference.

    Atlantic Coast Conference. NAIA national football championship. NCAA Division III national football championship. NCAA Division II national football championship.

    NCAA Division I-AA national football championship. NCAA Division I-A national football champions.

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