College football

(Redirected from College Football) A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy.

College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport.

History

A college football game between Texas Tech University and the U.S. Naval Academy.

The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer.

The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada.

The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century. It also became increasingly violent. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly).

Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan.

The season schedule

Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game).

The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season).

In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons.

National championships

  • NCAA Division I-A national football champions
  • NCAA Division I-AA national football championship
  • NCAA Division II national football championship
  • NCAA Division III national football championship
  • NAIA national football championship

NCAA divisions and conferences

NCAA Division I-A

  • Atlantic Coast Conference
  • Big East Conference
  • Big Ten Conference
  • Big Twelve Conference
  • Conference USA
  • Mid-American Conference
  • Mountain West Conference
  • Pacific Ten Conference
  • Southeastern Conference
  • Sun Belt Conference
  • Western Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools

NCAA Division I-AA

  • Atlantic Ten Conference
  • Big Sky Conference
  • Big South Conference
  • Gateway Football Conference
  • Great West Football Conference
  • Ivy League
  • Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference
  • Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
  • Northeast Conference
  • Ohio Valley Conference
  • Patriot League
  • Pioneer Football League
  • Southern Conference
  • Southland Conference
  • Southwestern Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools

NCAA Division II

  • Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Eastern Conference
  • Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Great Northwest Athletic Conference
  • Gulf South Conference
  • Lone Star Conference
  • Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • North Central Conference
  • Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference
  • Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference
  • Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
  • South Atlantic Conference
  • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division II independent schools

NCAA Division III

  • American Southwest Conference
  • Atlantic Central Football Conference
  • College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin
  • Centennial Conference
  • Freedom Football Conference
  • Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Illini-Badger Football Conference
  • Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Middle Atlantic Corporation
  • Midwest Conference
  • Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • New England Football Conference
  • New England Small College Athletic Conference
  • New Jersey Athletic Conference
  • North Coast Athletic Conference
  • Northwest Athletic Conference
  • Ohio Athletic Conference
  • Old Dominion Athletic Conference
  • Presidents' Athletic Conference
  • Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • University Athletic Association
  • Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association
  • USA South Athletic Conference
  • Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division III independent schools

NAIA Conferences

  • Central States Football League
  • Dakota Athletic Conference
  • Frontier Conference
  • Great Plains Athletic Conference
  • Heart of America Athletic Conference
  • Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Mid-South Conference
  • Mid-States Football Association
  • Upper Midwest Athletic Conference
  • NAIA independent schools

Conferences that formerly sponsored football

  • Big Six Conference
  • Big Seven Conference
  • Big Eight Conference
  • Big West Conference
  • Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Missouri Valley Conference
  • Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference
  • Pacific Coast Athletic Association
  • Skyline Conference
  • Southwest Conference
  • Wisconsin State University Conference
  • Yankee Conference

Division I colleges that no longer play football

Last season played in parentheses

  • American University (unknown)
  • Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941)
  • Boston University (1997)
  • Bradley University (1970)
  • University of California, Riverside (1975)
  • University of California, Santa Barbara (1991)
  • California State University, Fullerton (1992)
  • California State University, Long Beach (1991)
  • California State University, Northridge (2001)
  • Campbell University (c. 1953)
  • Canisius College (2002)
  • Centenary College of Louisiana (1947)
  • College of Charleston (1938)
  • Creighton University (1942)
  • University of Denver (1960)
  • DePaul University (c. 1938)
  • University of Detroit Mercy (1964)
  • Drexel University (1973)
  • East Tennessee State University (2003)
  • University of Evansville (1997)
  • Fairfield University (2002)
  • George Washington University (1966)
  • Gonzaga University (1941)
  • High Point University (1950)
  • University of Illinois, Chicago (1973)
  • Lamar University (1989)
  • Long Island University (1940)
  • Loyola College in Maryland (1933)
  • Loyola Marymount University (1951)
  • Loyola University Chicago (c. 1930)
  • Manhattan College (1942)
  • Marquette University (1960)
  • University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979)
  • Mercer University (unknown)
  • Mount Saint Mary's University (1950)
  • Niagara University (1950)
  • Old Dominion University (1941)
    • At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962.
  • University of the Pacific (1995)
  • Pepperdine University (1961)
  • University of Portland (1949)
  • Providence College (1941)
  • Rider University (1951)
  • St. Bonaventure University (1951)
  • St. Francis College (New York) (1935)
  • St. John's University, New York (2002)
  • St. Joseph's University (1939)
  • Saint Louis University (1949)
  • St. Mary's College of California (2003)
  • University of San Francisco (1971)
  • Santa Clara University (1992)
  • Seton Hall University (1981)
  • Siena College (2003)
  • Stetson University (1956)
  • Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966)
  • University of Texas at Arlington (1985)
  • University of Vermont (1974)
  • Wichita State University (1986)
  • University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974)
  • Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973)

College football bowl games for 2004-2005

Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05

College football bowl games played for 2004-2005

  • Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993)
  • Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003)
  • Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl)
  • Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990)
  • Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002)
  • Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937)
  • East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001)
  • Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl)
  • Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971)
  • Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003)
  • Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946)
  • GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999)
  • Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002)
  • Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000)
  • Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978)
  • Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946)
  • Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976)
  • Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl)
  • Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992)
  • Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959)
  • Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997)
  • MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl)
  • Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998)
  • New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001)
  • Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946)
  • Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl)
  • Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968)
  • Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916)
  • Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951)
  • Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000)
  • Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935)
  • Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl)


Bowls no longer played

College football awards

See Also


This page about College Football includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about College Football
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. Jack enjoys playing golf, a sport at which he has become quite good although there is no resemblance in his game to Tiger Woods or other notable persons. Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. He returned to work full time in September of the same year and also adopted a exercise schedule. Last season played in parentheses. Welch underwent triple bypass surgery in May 1995. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons. [4] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3992381.stm).

In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. The second marriage is widely known as Jane cleverly included a provision to neutralize a prenuptial agreement that would have protected Welch's wealth in case of a divorce. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season). She married Jack in April 1989 and they divorced in 2003. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. They divorced amicably in April 1987 after 28 years of marriage. His second wife, Jane Beasley, was a former mergers-and-acquisitions lawyer. The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award. He had four children with his first wife, Carolyn.

The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game). Welch has had a slight stutter since childhood. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. There was a lengthy and well-publicized succession planning saga prior to his retirement. Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. So that a more clear analysis of the cause of GE market value and revenue increases would overwhelmingly credit the market going up and inflation. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan. During this period 1980-2000 (of Jack Welch being GE Chairman) GE revenues increases similarly were almost all due to inflation increases (which increased prices 100-200 % during this 1980-2000 period).

Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. would show that 95 % ++ of the results as GE were simply due to the market going up. Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. A careful analysis of what results were simply from the increased values due to the rise of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from 500 in 1980 to 12,500 in 2001 and today 10,500 .. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly). Through its strong earnings and future growth estimates it was valued at $400 billion at the end of 2004, the world's largest corporation, up from America's tenth largest by market cap in 1981. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass. In 1980, the year before Welch became CEO, GE recorded revenues of roughly $26.8 billion; in 2000, the year before he left, they were nearly $130 billion.

The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. Nevertheless, Welch has lead the company to massive revenues. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. bond-trading scheme of the early 1990s that generated bogus profits" ([3] (http://www.businessweek.com/1998/23/b3581001.htm)). It also became increasingly violent. Critics also say that the pressure Welch imposes leads some employees to cut corners, possibly contributing to some of the defense-contracting scandals that have plagued GE, or to the humiliating Kidder, Peabody & Co. The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century. Jones.

The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada. Also, Welch did not rescue GE from great losses; indeed, the company had 16% annual earnings growth during the tenure of his predecessor, Reginald H. The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. Wright worked to effect a turnaround at NBC, leading it to five years of double-digit earnings and the No.1 position in prime time ratings. The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. Wendt led GE Capital to contribute nearly 40% of the company's total earnings and Robert C. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer. For example, Gary C.

As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. They contend that individual managers are responsible for the company's success. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. Some people believe that Welch is given too much credit for GE's success. The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. Notable is his record salary of $94 million a year, followed by his record retirement-plan of $8 million a year. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport. In 1999 he was named "Manager of the Century" by Fortune magazine ([2] (http://www.timewarner.com/corp/newsroom/pr/0,20812,667526,00.html)).

College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. He also made hundreds of acquisitions and made a push to dominate markets abroad. Welch adopted the Six Sigma quality program in late 1995. NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. During the 90s, Welch helped to modernize GE by emphasizing a shift from manufacturing to services. Bowl Championship Series. In 1986, GE acquired NBC. Doak Walker Award. Of the 112,000 that left the payroll, 37,000 were in sold businesses, and 81,000 was reduced in continuing businesses.

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award. The chapter "the neutron years" in his book says that GE had 411,000 emplyees at the end of 1980, and 299,000 at the end of 1985. Jim Thorpe Award. In the early 1980s he was dubbed "Neutron Jack" (in reference to the neutron bomb) for wiping out the employees while leaving the buildings intact. Mosi Tatupu Award. Welch is also known for destroying the nine-layer management hierarchy and bringing a sense of informality to the company. Dave Rimington Trophy. He also expanded the broadness of the stock options program at GE from just top executives to nearly one third of all employees.

Walter Payton Award. He would push his managers to perform, but he would reward those in the top 20% with bonuses and stock options. Outland Trophy. He earned a reputation for brutal candor in his meetings with executives. Davey O'Brien Award. Each year, Welch would fire the bottom 10% of his managers. Bronko Nagurski Trophy. Welch's strategy was later adopted by other CEOs across corporate America.

Maxwell Award. Although he was initially treated with contempt by those under him for his policies, they eventually grew to respect him. Manning Award. Welch worked to eradicate inefficiency by trimming inventories and dismantling the bureaucracy that had almost led him to leave GE in the past. Lombardi Award. He also pushed the managers of the businesses he kept to become ever more productive. Harlon Hill Trophy. He shut down factories, reduced payrolls, cut lackluster old-line units.

Heisman Trophy. Through the 1980s, Welch worked to streamline GE and make it a more competitive company. Lou Groza Award. "old guard" who had contributed so greatly to the success of the Company. Grantland Rice Award. To the shareholders chagrin, Moore was abruptly terminated at the height of his value to G.E along with other senior members of the G.E. Gagliardi Trophy. Moore lived at 89th and 5th Avenue in Manhattan and had built his reputation on the price fixing scandal that G.E was embroiled in during the 1950's.

Dick Butkus Award. By 1982, Welch had managed to disassemble much of the earlier and successful management put together by Jones, most notably Douglas Moore, Vice-President of Marketing and Public Relations and previously general counsel of the lamp division in Cleveland, Ohio. Buck Buchanan Award. Jones. Fred Biletnikoff Award. Welch became GE's youngest chairman and CEO in 1981, succeeding Reginald H. Chuck Bednarik Award. He moved up the ranks to become senior vice president in 1977 and vice chairman in 1979.

College Football All-America Teams: originally selected by Walter Camp. Welch was named vice president of GE in 1972. Shrine Bowl - Little Rock, Arkansas (1948). "But then he said to me--and this is vintage Jack--'I'm still going to have the party because I like parties, and besides, I think they have some little presents for me.'" Some 12 years later, Welch would audaciously write in his annual performance review that his long-term goal was to become CEO ([1] (http://www.businessweek.com/1998/23/b3581001.htm)). Seattle Bowl - Seattle, Washington (2001 -2002). "It was one of my better marketing jobs in life," recalls Gutoff. San Diego East-West Christmas Classic - San Diego, California (1921 - 1922). "I'm glad to be on trial," Gutoff said. "To try to keep you here is important." At daybreak, Welch gave him his answer.

Salad Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona (1948 - 1952). "As long as I am here, you are going to get a shot to operate with the best of the big company and the worst part of it pushed aside." "Well, you are on trial," retorted Welch. Raisin Bowl - Fresno, California (1946 - 1949). "Trust me," Gutoff remembers pleading. Presidential Cup Bowl - College Park, Maryland (1950). Gutoff vowed to work to change the bureaucracy to create a small-company environment. Pasadena Bowl - Pasadena, California (1967 - 1971). He took Welch and Welch's former wife Carolyn out to dinner at the Yellow Aster in Pittsfield, and spent four hours trying to convince Welch to stay.

Oil Bowl - Houston, Texas (1946 - 1947). However, Reuben Gutoff, a young executive one level higher than Welch, decided that the man was too valuable a resource for the company to lose. Oahu Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1998 - 2000). He planned to leave the company to work with International Minerals & Chemicals in Skokie, Illinois. Mercy Bowl - Los Angeles, California (1961; 1971). Welch was displeased with the $1000 raise he was offered after his first year, as well as the strict bureaucracy within GE. Los Angeles Christmas Festival - Los Angeles, California (1924). He worked as a junior engineer in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, at a salary of $10,500.

Harbor Bowl - San Diego, California (1947 - 1949). Welch joined General Electric in 1960. Great Lakes Bowl - Cleveland, Ohio (1947). and Ph.D at the University of Illinois in 1960. Gotham Bowl - New York, New York (1961 - 1962). He went on to receive his M.S. Garden State Bowl - East Rutherford, New Jersey (1978 - 1981). He attended Salem High School and later the University of Massachusetts, graduating in 1957 with a Bachelor of Science degree in chemical engineering.

Freedom Bowl - Anaheim, California (1984 - 1994). Welch was born in Peabody, Massachusetts to Irish-Catholic parents John, a Boston & Maine Railroad conductor and Grace, a housewife. Fort Worth Classic - Fort Worth, Texas (1921). John Francis "Jack" Welch Jr. (born November 19, 1935) was CEO of General Electric between 1981 and 2001. Dixie Classic - Dallas, Texas (1922, 1925, 1934). Dixie Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1948 - 1949).

Delta Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee (1948 - 1949). Cherry Bowl - Pontiac, Michigan (1984 - 1985). Camellia Bowl - Lafayette, Louisiana (1948). California Bowl - Fresno, California (1981 - 1991).

Bluegrass Bowl - Louisville, Kentucky (1958). Bluebonnet Bowl - Houston, Texas (1959 - 1987). Bacardi Bowl - Havana, Cuba (1937). Aviation Bowl - Dayton, Ohio (1961).

Aloha Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1982 – 2000). All-American Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1977 - 1990) (formerly Hall of Fame Classic). Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl). Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935).

Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000). Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951). Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916). Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968).

Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl). Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946). New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001). Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998).

MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl). Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997). Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959). Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992).

Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl). Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976). Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946). Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978).

Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000). Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002). GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999). Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946).

Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003). Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971). Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl). East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001).

Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937). Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002). Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990). Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl).

Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003). Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993). Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973). University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974).

Wichita State University (1986). University of Vermont (1974). University of Texas at Arlington (1985). Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966).

Stetson University (1956). Siena College (2003). Seton Hall University (1981). Santa Clara University (1992).

University of San Francisco (1971). Mary's College of California (2003). St. Saint Louis University (1949).

Joseph's University (1939). St. John's University, New York (2002). St.

Francis College (New York) (1935). St. Bonaventure University (1951). St.

Rider University (1951). Providence College (1941). University of Portland (1949). Pepperdine University (1961).

University of the Pacific (1995). The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962. At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. Old Dominion University (1941)

    .

    Niagara University (1950). Mount Saint Mary's University (1950). Mercer University (unknown). University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979).

    Marquette University (1960). Manhattan College (1942). 1930). Loyola University Chicago (c.

    Loyola Marymount University (1951). Loyola College in Maryland (1933). Long Island University (1940). Lamar University (1989).

    University of Illinois, Chicago (1973). High Point University (1950). Gonzaga University (1941). George Washington University (1966).

    Fairfield University (2002). University of Evansville (1997). East Tennessee State University (2003). Drexel University (1973).

    University of Detroit Mercy (1964). 1938). DePaul University (c. University of Denver (1960).

    Creighton University (1942). College of Charleston (1938). Centenary College of Louisiana (1947). Canisius College (2002).

    1953). Campbell University (c. California State University, Northridge (2001). California State University, Long Beach (1991).

    California State University, Fullerton (1992). University of California, Santa Barbara (1991). University of California, Riverside (1975). Bradley University (1970).

    Boston University (1997). Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941). American University (unknown). Yankee Conference.

    Wisconsin State University Conference. Southwest Conference. Skyline Conference. Pacific Coast Athletic Association.

    Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference. Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Missouri Valley Conference. Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference.

    Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Big West Conference. Big Eight Conference. Big Seven Conference.

    Big Six Conference. NAIA independent schools. Upper Midwest Athletic Conference. Mid-States Football Association.

    Mid-South Conference. Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference. Heart of America Athletic Conference. Great Plains Athletic Conference.

    Frontier Conference. Dakota Athletic Conference. Central States Football League. NCAA Division III independent schools.

    Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. USA South Athletic Conference. Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association. University Athletic Association.

    Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Presidents' Athletic Conference. Old Dominion Athletic Conference.

    Ohio Athletic Conference. Northwest Athletic Conference. North Coast Athletic Conference. New Jersey Athletic Conference.

    New England Small College Athletic Conference. New England Football Conference. Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Midwest Conference.

    Middle Atlantic Corporation. Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Illini-Badger Football Conference.

    Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference. Freedom Football Conference. Centennial Conference. College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin.

    Atlantic Central Football Conference. American Southwest Conference. NCAA Division II independent schools. West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.

    Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. South Atlantic Conference. Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference.

    Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference. North Central Conference. Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Lone Star Conference.

    Gulf South Conference. Great Northwest Athletic Conference. Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Eastern Conference.

    Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools. Southwestern Athletic Conference. Southland Conference.

    Southern Conference. Pioneer Football League. Patriot League. Ohio Valley Conference.

    Northeast Conference. Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference. Ivy League.

    Great West Football Conference. Gateway Football Conference. Big South Conference. Big Sky Conference.

    Atlantic Ten Conference. NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools. Western Athletic Conference. Sun Belt Conference.

    Southeastern Conference. Pacific Ten Conference. Mountain West Conference. Mid-American Conference.

    Conference USA. Big Twelve Conference. Big Ten Conference. Big East Conference.

    Atlantic Coast Conference. NAIA national football championship. NCAA Division III national football championship. NCAA Division II national football championship.

    NCAA Division I-AA national football championship. NCAA Division I-A national football champions.

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