College football

(Redirected from College Football) A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy.

College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport.

History

A college football game between Texas Tech University and the U.S. Naval Academy.

The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer.

The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada.

The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century. It also became increasingly violent. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly).

Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan.

The season schedule

Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game).

The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season).

In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons.

National championships

  • NCAA Division I-A national football champions
  • NCAA Division I-AA national football championship
  • NCAA Division II national football championship
  • NCAA Division III national football championship
  • NAIA national football championship

NCAA divisions and conferences

NCAA Division I-A

  • Atlantic Coast Conference
  • Big East Conference
  • Big Ten Conference
  • Big Twelve Conference
  • Conference USA
  • Mid-American Conference
  • Mountain West Conference
  • Pacific Ten Conference
  • Southeastern Conference
  • Sun Belt Conference
  • Western Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools

NCAA Division I-AA

  • Atlantic Ten Conference
  • Big Sky Conference
  • Big South Conference
  • Gateway Football Conference
  • Great West Football Conference
  • Ivy League
  • Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference
  • Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference
  • Northeast Conference
  • Ohio Valley Conference
  • Patriot League
  • Pioneer Football League
  • Southern Conference
  • Southland Conference
  • Southwestern Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools

NCAA Division II

  • Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Eastern Conference
  • Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Great Northwest Athletic Conference
  • Gulf South Conference
  • Lone Star Conference
  • Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • North Central Conference
  • Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference
  • Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference
  • Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference
  • South Atlantic Conference
  • Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division II independent schools

NCAA Division III

  • American Southwest Conference
  • Atlantic Central Football Conference
  • College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin
  • Centennial Conference
  • Freedom Football Conference
  • Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Illini-Badger Football Conference
  • Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Middle Atlantic Corporation
  • Midwest Conference
  • Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • New England Football Conference
  • New England Small College Athletic Conference
  • New Jersey Athletic Conference
  • North Coast Athletic Conference
  • Northwest Athletic Conference
  • Ohio Athletic Conference
  • Old Dominion Athletic Conference
  • Presidents' Athletic Conference
  • Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • University Athletic Association
  • Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association
  • USA South Athletic Conference
  • Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • NCAA Division III independent schools

NAIA Conferences

  • Central States Football League
  • Dakota Athletic Conference
  • Frontier Conference
  • Great Plains Athletic Conference
  • Heart of America Athletic Conference
  • Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Mid-South Conference
  • Mid-States Football Association
  • Upper Midwest Athletic Conference
  • NAIA independent schools

Conferences that formerly sponsored football

  • Big Six Conference
  • Big Seven Conference
  • Big Eight Conference
  • Big West Conference
  • Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association
  • Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference
  • Missouri Valley Conference
  • Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference
  • Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference
  • Pacific Coast Athletic Association
  • Skyline Conference
  • Southwest Conference
  • Wisconsin State University Conference
  • Yankee Conference

Division I colleges that no longer play football

Last season played in parentheses

  • American University (unknown)
  • Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941)
  • Boston University (1997)
  • Bradley University (1970)
  • University of California, Riverside (1975)
  • University of California, Santa Barbara (1991)
  • California State University, Fullerton (1992)
  • California State University, Long Beach (1991)
  • California State University, Northridge (2001)
  • Campbell University (c. 1953)
  • Canisius College (2002)
  • Centenary College of Louisiana (1947)
  • College of Charleston (1938)
  • Creighton University (1942)
  • University of Denver (1960)
  • DePaul University (c. 1938)
  • University of Detroit Mercy (1964)
  • Drexel University (1973)
  • East Tennessee State University (2003)
  • University of Evansville (1997)
  • Fairfield University (2002)
  • George Washington University (1966)
  • Gonzaga University (1941)
  • High Point University (1950)
  • University of Illinois, Chicago (1973)
  • Lamar University (1989)
  • Long Island University (1940)
  • Loyola College in Maryland (1933)
  • Loyola Marymount University (1951)
  • Loyola University Chicago (c. 1930)
  • Manhattan College (1942)
  • Marquette University (1960)
  • University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979)
  • Mercer University (unknown)
  • Mount Saint Mary's University (1950)
  • Niagara University (1950)
  • Old Dominion University (1941)
    • At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962.
  • University of the Pacific (1995)
  • Pepperdine University (1961)
  • University of Portland (1949)
  • Providence College (1941)
  • Rider University (1951)
  • St. Bonaventure University (1951)
  • St. Francis College (New York) (1935)
  • St. John's University, New York (2002)
  • St. Joseph's University (1939)
  • Saint Louis University (1949)
  • St. Mary's College of California (2003)
  • University of San Francisco (1971)
  • Santa Clara University (1992)
  • Seton Hall University (1981)
  • Siena College (2003)
  • Stetson University (1956)
  • Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966)
  • University of Texas at Arlington (1985)
  • University of Vermont (1974)
  • Wichita State University (1986)
  • University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974)
  • Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973)

College football bowl games for 2004-2005

Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05

College football bowl games played for 2004-2005

  • Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993)
  • Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003)
  • Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl)
  • Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990)
  • Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002)
  • Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937)
  • East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001)
  • Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl)
  • Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971)
  • Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003)
  • Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946)
  • GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999)
  • Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002)
  • Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000)
  • Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978)
  • Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946)
  • Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976)
  • Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl)
  • Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992)
  • Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959)
  • Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997)
  • MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl)
  • Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998)
  • New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001)
  • Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946)
  • Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl)
  • Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968)
  • Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916)
  • Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951)
  • Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000)
  • Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935)
  • Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl)


Bowls no longer played

College football awards

See Also


This page about College Football includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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. All titles except 2002 Leipzig won with Venus Williams as partner. Please see NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. Williams was also on Punk'd when Williams was trying to save a Punk'd problem kid played by Rob Pinkston until Ashton Kutcher came out from the SUV with a baby. Last season played in parentheses. These controversies re-emerged in April 2005 as MTV announced plans to broadcast a reality show around the lives of Serena and Venus Williams. This decision was met with some criticism, as some teams, such as Alabama and Auburn, who traditionally have a bye week on Thanksgiving weekend, will have to play eight games consecutively some seasons. However in 2005 she won her seventh Grand Slam event defeating Maria Sharapova and Lindsay Davenport en route to the title.

In spring 2005, the NCAA ruled that teams could schedule 12 regular-season games beginning in the 2006 season. Disappointing performances during 2004 have been cited as proof of this lack of focus. A series of all-star bowl games round out the season for the balance of January, including the East-West Shrine Game, the Senior Bowl (for many decades the official final game of the season), the Hula Bowl, and the Gridiron Classic (in recent years, the Hula and Gridiron have alternated as the final game of the season). Some believe that she is far too concerned with her fashion and acting careers, and has not focused enough recently on her tennis. This is then followed by a series of bowl games that showcase (usually) the top college team in a particular conference, as well as the consensus "national champion", which is determined not by a true playoff, but by a controversial confederation of voters, broadcast networks, bowls and conferences known as the Bowl Championship Series. Controversy has arisen over Williams's level of dedication to the sport. The college post-season is ushered in by the annual presentation of the Heisman Trophy Award, considered the most prestigious award in all of college football, given to the top player of the year as determined by a panel consisting of media voters and former winners of the award. The injury also forced her to pull out of the 2004 Summer Olympics.

The regular season then continues through early December (generally ending with the annual Army-Navy Game). On August 1, she announced her withdrawal from the Rogers Cup due to the same injury. Until 2003, the regular season was officially ushered in by the Kickoff Classic, held in recent years in New Jersey (although other pre-season games such as the Eddie Robinson Classic and the Pigskin Classic have also been played), but recent NCAA policy changes have eliminated some of these games, and so the season now largely starts out with regular games. On July 30, she withdrew from her quarterfinal match against Russia's Vera Zvonareva with a left knee injury joining her sister who had earlier pulled out due to a sprained right knee. Division 1A college football begins two to three weeks earlier than the NFL, towards the end of August. She reached the final of Wimbledon once again, but lost to the 17-year-old Russian player Maria Sharapova, heralded as one of the greatest young talents the game has seen. It was not until the post-World War II era that the pro game achieved ascendancy in the eyes of the average American sports fan. Serena withdrew from Australian Open 2004 to continue rehabilitating her left knee.

Innovations in strategy and style of play originated in college football and spread to the pro game gradually. Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was murdered on the morning of September 14, 2003, by gunshots as she passed by in a car driven by a man in the Compton area. Prior to the founding of the National Football League, and for a few decades thereafter, college football was the predominant venue for American football. The Williams siblings are the first two women in Grand Slam history to square off in four consecutive finals. Another was the banning of "mass momentum" plays (many of which, like the infamous "flying wedge", were sometimes literally deadly). Even this so-called "Serena Slam" is not a true Grand Slam—tennis purists demand that a player collect all four major titles in a single calendar year to be deemed to have achieved a Grand Slam—it was still a remarkable and rare accomplishment, made all the more remarkable for the fact that Serena had to beat her sister each time. One of the rules changes to emerge from this attempt at alleviating the violence of the sport was the introduction of the forward pass. When Serena beat her sister Venus to win the Australian Open on January 24, 2003, that was only the sixth time a woman has held all four of tennis' major championships at the same time, and the first since Steffi Graf in 1994.

The response to this was the formation of what became the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which set rules governing the sport. At Wimbledon in the 2003 tournament, Serena Williams became back to back champion, by defeating Henin-Hardenne in the Semifinals, and her sister Venus in the Finals on July 5, with a score of 4-6, 6-4, 6-2. President Theodore Roosevelt threatened, in 1906, to ban the sport following a series of player deaths from injuries suffered during games. Henin-Hardenne commented: "Everybody's happy today but the Williams sisters". Henin-Hardenne was responsible for two of Serena's three losses in 2003 (all on clay). It also became increasingly violent. Among boos and catcalls, frustrated Serena lost to Justine Henin-Hardenne of Belgium (Venus lost to Vera Zvonareva in the fourth round). The game increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th century. For the first time since January 2002, the Grand Slam final did not read Williams-Williams at the French Open in June 2003.

The teams agreed to play under compromise rules, and from this meeting the game of football began to evolve in both the United States and Canada. Her feat was coined the "Serena Slam". The two teams were used to playing different brands of football — the McGill team played a rugby-style game, while Harvard played a soccer-style game. She won the Australian Open in 2003, her fourth straight Grand Slam singles title becoming the fifth woman ever to hold all four titles after Connolly, Court, Martina Navratilova and Steffi Graf and only the ninth woman ever to win all four Grand Slam events. This was not deemed a Grand Slam by tennis purists, as the four tournaments were not won in the same calendar year. The development of the American game can be traced to a meeting between the Harvard University and McGill University football teams in 1874. She stated that she believes that Serena's powerful groundstrokes could be negated by extending the rallies and also hitting "junk"—keeping the ball low to make it harder to hit powerful shots. The rules of that game were the 1863 rules of the English Football Association, the basis of the modern form of soccer. Martina Navratilova, in an article in June 2003, stated that, given equal equipment, at her peak she would have been able to beat Serena.

As the score would seemingly indicate, the game bore little resemblance to the game of today. The main weaknesses in her game, similar to her sister Venus, include relatively weak volleying and, because she attempts so many winners, she can occasionally commit large numbers of unforced errors. Rutgers won, by a score of 6 to 4. Serena is also very mobile for her size and power, unlike some of the earlier big hitters in the women's game (for example, Lindsay Davenport). The first game played between teams representing different colleges or universities was played on November 6, 1869 between Rutgers University and Princeton University, at College Field (now the site of the College Avenue Gymnasium), New Brunswick, New Jersey. Her serve is also extremely powerful—in sheer speed, comparable to some of the male players on the tour. College football remains extremely popular today among students, alumni, and other fans of the sport. Against most opponents, her sheer power is enough to win easily, forcing them back behind the baseline to hit their shots, at which point she is able to hit equally powerful winners.

College football was the venue through which American football first gained popularity in the United States. By this stage, Serena had developed the most powerful groundstrokes of any women's tennis player ever (aided, like all players of the modern era, by the advances in racquet technology). NCAA football bowl games, 2004-05. In 2002, she won the French Open, Wimbledon and the US Open. Bowl Championship Series. 2001 was the third consecutive year in which she finished in the top 10 reaching her first Grand Slam singles final in two years. Doak Walker Award. In 2000, she won the doubles gold medal at the Olympics with sister Venus.

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award. 4 in just her third full season winning first five titles of her career including her first Grand Slam. Jim Thorpe Award. She finished 1999 in the top 5 at no. Mosi Tatupu Award. The next day, she and sister Venus won the doubles championship at the same tournament. Dave Rimington Trophy. On September 11 of 1999, Serena won her first Grand Slam tournament when she became US Open champion, becoming the first African American woman to win a Grand Slam tournament since Althea Gibson did it in 1958.

Walter Payton Award. Serena has been the focus of many ad campaigns, including one with shoe and clothes maker Puma, which signed her to a 12 million dollar agreement. Outland Trophy. 7 Steffi Graf in the final at Indian Wells. Davey O'Brien Award. 8 Mary Pierce in the quarter final, and world no. Bronko Nagurski Trophy. 2 Lindsay Davenport in the second round, world no.

Maxwell Award. Ranked number 21, she defeated 3 top 10 players: world no. Manning Award. She defeated Amélie Mauresmo in third set in a final the same day sister Venus won in Oklahoma City marking first time in professional tennis history two sisters won titles in the same week. Lombardi Award. In 1999, Serena was ranked number 21 worldwide, and she and sister Venus had become mainstream celebrities. Harlon Hill Trophy. She earned 2.6 million dollars in the season.

Heisman Trophy. She won her first pro title in doubles at Oklahoma City with sister Venus becoming the third pair of sisters to win a WTA tour women's doubles title. Lou Groza Award. She won the mixed doubles title at Wimbledon and US Open with Max Mirnyi completing a Williams family 1998 mixed doubles Grand Slam as sister Venus won Australian Open and Roland Garros titles with Justin Gimelstob. Grantland Rice Award. 10 Spirlea in the 2nd round for her fifth top 10 victory becoming the fastest woman in tennis history to record five top 10 victories (in 16 matches) breaking the previous record set by Monica Seles in 1989 in her 33rd match. Gagliardi Trophy. At Miami, she defeated world no.

Dick Butkus Award. She reached six other quarterfinals during the season. Buck Buchanan Award. 9 Irina Spirlea in the first. Fred Biletnikoff Award. Serena was then expected to do well in her first Grand Slam tournament, but she lost in the second round of the Australian Open to sister Venus after reaching the second round with a victory over world no. Chuck Bednarik Award. Serena felt she had become a top professional after beating Lindsay Davenport in the semi-finals of a minor Australian tournament.

College Football All-America Teams: originally selected by Walter Camp. 3 Lindsay Davenport in the quarter final. Shrine Bowl - Little Rock, Arkansas (1948). 96 reaching semifinal winning over world no. Seattle Bowl - Seattle, Washington (2001 -2002). She began the season in Sydney as a qualifier ranked no. San Diego East-West Christmas Classic - San Diego, California (1921 - 1922). 1998 was the first year in which she finished in the WTA top 20.

Salad Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona (1948 - 1952). 99. Raisin Bowl - Fresno, California (1946 - 1949). She finished 1997 in the top 100 at no. Presidential Cup Bowl - College Park, Maryland (1950). She did not give up, and she started winning matches: By 1997, ranked number 304 in the world, she upset Monica Seles and Mary Pierce at the Ameritech Open in Chicago, recording her first career wins over top 10 players. Pasadena Bowl - Pasadena, California (1967 - 1971). Her first professional event was the Bell Challenge in Quebec, and she was ousted in less than an hour of play.

Oil Bowl - Houston, Texas (1946 - 1947). Because of her age, she was banned from WTA sponsored tournaments, and had to participate in non-WTA events at first. Oahu Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1998 - 2000). Serena became a professional in September 1995, at the age of 14. Mercy Bowl - Los Angeles, California (1961; 1971). Soon Richard, who had struck a deal on behalf of his daughters with a major clothing company, was able to move the rest of the Williams family to West Palm Beach, to be near Serena and Venus. Los Angeles Christmas Festival - Los Angeles, California (1924). Micci had already helped the careers of Jennifer Capriati and Mary Pierce, among others.

Harbor Bowl - San Diego, California (1947 - 1949). In 1991, Richard Williams, saying that he hoped to prevent his daughters from facing racism, stopped sending them to national junior Tennis tournaments, and Serena attended a Tennis school run by professional player Rick Micci instead. Great Lakes Bowl - Cleveland, Ohio (1947). At one point, she replaced sister Venus as the number one ranked tennis player aged 12 or under in California. Gotham Bowl - New York, New York (1961 - 1962). When Serena was four and a half, she won her first tournament, and she entered 49 tournaments before the age of 10, winning 46 of them. Garden State Bowl - East Rutherford, New Jersey (1978 - 1981). Both Venus and Serena Williams would be taken to Compton area public tennis courts to practice when they were young, and they had to dodge bullets many times during the early practice days.

Freedom Bowl - Anaheim, California (1984 - 1994). There, her father dreamed of making at least one of his daughters a tennis superstar, hoping that involvement in sports would give them a way out of that neighborhood. Fort Worth Classic - Fort Worth, Texas (1921). Serena Williams was born in Saginaw, Michigan and when she and her four sisters were young, their parents, Richard and Oracene (also called Brandy), took them to the poor and sometimes violent Los Angeles suburb of Compton. Dixie Classic - Dallas, Texas (1922, 1925, 1934). She currently resides at Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, United States. Dixie Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1948 - 1949). She is the younger sister of another female tennis champion, Venus Williams.

Delta Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee (1948 - 1949). 1 of the Women's Tennis Association (WTA). Cherry Bowl - Pontiac, Michigan (1984 - 1985). Serena Jamica Williams (born September 26, 1981) is a professional women's tennis player, who has been a former World No. Camellia Bowl - Lafayette, Louisiana (1948). 2003: Australian Open. California Bowl - Fresno, California (1981 - 1991). 2002: Leipzig (with Alexandra Stevenson).

Bluegrass Bowl - Louisville, Kentucky (1958). 2002: Wimbledon. Bluebonnet Bowl - Houston, Texas (1959 - 1987). 2001: Australian Open. Bacardi Bowl - Havana, Cuba (1937). 2000: Summer Olympics-Sydney. Aviation Bowl - Dayton, Ohio (1961). 2000: Wimbledon.

Aloha Classic - Honolulu, Hawaii (1982 – 2000). Open. All-American Bowl - Birmingham, Alabama (1977 - 1990) (formerly Hall of Fame Classic). 1999: U.S. Sun Bowl - El Paso, Texas, (since 1936) (originally Sun Bowl, later John Hancock Bowl). 1999: French Open. Sugar Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 1935). 1999: Hannover.

Silicon Valley Football Classic - San Jose, California, (since 2000). 1998: Zurich. Senior Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida (1950), Mobile, Alabama (since 1951). 1998: Oklahoma City. Rose Bowl - Pasadena, California, (1902, continuously since 1916). Peach Bowl - Atlanta, Georgia, (since 1968).

Outback Bowl - Tampa, Florida, (since 1986) (was Hall of Fame Bowl). Orange Bowl - Miami, Florida, (since 1946). New Orleans Bowl - New Orleans, Louisiana, (since 2001). Music City Bowl - Nashville, Tennessee, (since 1998).

MPC Computers Bowl - Boise, Idaho, (since 1997) (was Humanitarian Bowl). Motor City Bowl - Detroit, Michigan, (since 1997). Liberty Bowl - Memphis, Tennessee, (since 1959). Las Vegas Bowl - Las Vegas, Nevada, (since 1992).

Insight Bowl - Phoenix, Arizona, (since 1989) (was Copper Bowl). Independence Bowl - Shreveport, Louisiana, (since 1976). Hula Bowl - Hawaii (different cities since 1946). Holiday Bowl - San Diego, California, (since 1978).

Houston Bowl- Houston, Texas, (since 2000). Hawaii Bowl- Honolulu, Hawaii, (since 2002). GMAC Bowl - Mobile, Alabama, (since 1999). Gator Bowl - Jacksonville, Florida, (since 1946).

Fort Worth Bowl - Fort Worth, Texas, (since 2003). Fiesta Bowl - Tempe, Arizona, (since 1971). Emerald Bowl - San Francisco, California, (since 2002) (was San Francisco Bowl). East-West Shrine Game - Stanford, California (1925-2000), San Francisco, California (since 2001).

Cotton Bowl - Dallas, Texas, (since 1937). Continental Tire Bowl - Charlotte, North Carolina, (since 2002). Champs Sports Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1990). Capital One Bowl - Orlando, Florida, (since 1947) (was Tangerine Bowl and Florida Citrus Bowl).

Blue-Gray Football Classic - Montgomery, Alabama (1938-2001), Troy, Alabama (since 2003). Alamo Bowl - San Antonio, Texas, (since 1993). Xavier University (Cincinnati) (1973). University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (1974).

Wichita State University (1986). University of Vermont (1974). University of Texas at Arlington (1985). Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (1966).

Stetson University (1956). Siena College (2003). Seton Hall University (1981). Santa Clara University (1992).

University of San Francisco (1971). Mary's College of California (2003). St. Saint Louis University (1949).

Joseph's University (1939). St. John's University, New York (2002). St.

Francis College (New York) (1935). St. Bonaventure University (1951). St.

Rider University (1951). Providence College (1941). University of Portland (1949). Pepperdine University (1961).

University of the Pacific (1995). The school has never sponsored football since becoming an independent institution in 1962. At that time, Old Dominion was a two-year division of The College of William and Mary. Old Dominion University (1941)

    .

    Niagara University (1950). Mount Saint Mary's University (1950). Mercer University (unknown). University of Maryland Eastern Shore (1979).

    Marquette University (1960). Manhattan College (1942). 1930). Loyola University Chicago (c.

    Loyola Marymount University (1951). Loyola College in Maryland (1933). Long Island University (1940). Lamar University (1989).

    University of Illinois, Chicago (1973). High Point University (1950). Gonzaga University (1941). George Washington University (1966).

    Fairfield University (2002). University of Evansville (1997). East Tennessee State University (2003). Drexel University (1973).

    University of Detroit Mercy (1964). 1938). DePaul University (c. University of Denver (1960).

    Creighton University (1942). College of Charleston (1938). Centenary College of Louisiana (1947). Canisius College (2002).

    1953). Campbell University (c. California State University, Northridge (2001). California State University, Long Beach (1991).

    California State University, Fullerton (1992). University of California, Santa Barbara (1991). University of California, Riverside (1975). Bradley University (1970).

    Boston University (1997). Birmingham-Southern College (c. 1941). American University (unknown). Yankee Conference.

    Wisconsin State University Conference. Southwest Conference. Skyline Conference. Pacific Coast Athletic Association.

    Nebraska-Iowa Athletic Conference. Nebraska Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Missouri Valley Conference. Indiana Collegiate Athletic Conference.

    Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Big West Conference. Big Eight Conference. Big Seven Conference.

    Big Six Conference. NAIA independent schools. Upper Midwest Athletic Conference. Mid-States Football Association.

    Mid-South Conference. Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference. Heart of America Athletic Conference. Great Plains Athletic Conference.

    Frontier Conference. Dakota Athletic Conference. Central States Football League. NCAA Division III independent schools.

    Wisconsin Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. USA South Athletic Conference. Upstate Collegiate Athletic Association. University Athletic Association.

    Southern Collegiate Athletic Conference. Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Presidents' Athletic Conference. Old Dominion Athletic Conference.

    Ohio Athletic Conference. Northwest Athletic Conference. North Coast Athletic Conference. New Jersey Athletic Conference.

    New England Small College Athletic Conference. New England Football Conference. Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Midwest Conference.

    Middle Atlantic Corporation. Michigan Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Illini-Badger Football Conference.

    Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference. Freedom Football Conference. Centennial Conference. College Conference of Illinois and Wisconsin.

    Atlantic Central Football Conference. American Southwest Conference. NCAA Division II independent schools. West Virginia Intercollegiate Athletic Conference.

    Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. South Atlantic Conference. Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. Pennsylvania State Athletic Conference.

    Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference. North Central Conference. Mid-America Intercollegiate Athletic Association. Lone Star Conference.

    Gulf South Conference. Great Northwest Athletic Conference. Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. Eastern Conference.

    Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. NCAA Division I-AA Independent Schools. Southwestern Athletic Conference. Southland Conference.

    Southern Conference. Pioneer Football League. Patriot League. Ohio Valley Conference.

    Northeast Conference. Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference. Ivy League.

    Great West Football Conference. Gateway Football Conference. Big South Conference. Big Sky Conference.

    Atlantic Ten Conference. NCAA Division I-A Independent Schools. Western Athletic Conference. Sun Belt Conference.

    Southeastern Conference. Pacific Ten Conference. Mountain West Conference. Mid-American Conference.

    Conference USA. Big Twelve Conference. Big Ten Conference. Big East Conference.

    Atlantic Coast Conference. NAIA national football championship. NCAA Division III national football championship. NCAA Division II national football championship.

    NCAA Division I-AA national football championship. NCAA Division I-A national football champions.

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