Christian Louboutin (born 1976) is a well known French shoe designer. Louboutin is black. He includes Princess Caroline of Monaco and Catherine Deneuve among his friends.
Christian Louboutin was interested in women's fashion since he was a small child. In 1979, as he was walking alongside the streets of Paris, he noticed a billboard that instructed women tourists not to scratch the wooden floor in front of the Museum of Oceanic Art.
Louboutin felt personally bothered by this sign, and, as a consequence, he would draw shoes with compressed buckles and with soles. He admits to having spent a lot of time as a teenager drawing these types of shoes in his school notebooks. These shoes would become the base of Louboutin's sales as a designer.
Later on, Louboutin began attending parties and dance halls in Paris, offering his shoes to women at these events and venues. Most of the ladies rejected his shoes, claiming to have no money.
Louboutin then decided to attend various designing schools, such as Chanel's and Saint Laurent's.
Louboutin later opened a boutique shop in Paris; his store became distinguished not only because of his clientele, but also because he offered free coffee to shoppers. Such other sellers such as American company Neiman Marcus began to sell Louboutin's designs. Louboutin shoes also have a trademark red leather sole, making them instantly recognizable.
Louboutin, who has been interviewed by fashion reporters such as Jacques Brunel, has seen his celebrity expand to such places like Monte Carlo, Singapore and the United States, among others.
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Louboutin, who has been interviewed by fashion reporters such as Jacques Brunel, has seen his celebrity expand to such places like Monte Carlo, Singapore and the United States, among others. Poland issued a fan-shaped 10 zloty coin but the oddest coin ever was the 2002 Nauru,Europe-shaped coin. Louboutin shoes also have a trademark red leather sole, making them instantly recognizable. Coins with guitar shapes were issued in Somalia this year. Such other sellers such as American company Neiman Marcus began to sell Louboutin's designs. Bi-metallic coins are used for comemorative purposes and in the 1990s,France used a tri-metallic coin. Louboutin later opened a boutique shop in Paris; his store became distinguished not only because of his clientele, but also because he offered free coffee to shoppers. Some coins, called bracteates, are so thin they can only be struck on one side.
Louboutin then decided to attend various designing schools, such as Chanel's and Saint Laurent's. Such a coin is often said to be "weighted.". Most of the ladies rejected his shoes, claiming to have no money. Coins are sometimes falsified to make one side weigh more. Later on, Louboutin began attending parties and dance halls in Paris, offering his shoes to women at these events and venues. See also coin flipping. These shoes would become the base of Louboutin's sales as a designer. A widely publicized example of an asymmetrical coin is the Belgian one euro coin(reference needed).
He admits to having spent a lot of time as a teenager drawing these types of shoes in his school notebooks. See Bernoulli trial; a fair coin is defined to have the probability of heads (in the parlance of Bernoulli trials, a "success") of exactly 0.5. Louboutin felt personally bothered by this sign, and, as a consequence, he would draw shoes with compressed buckles and with soles. Coins are popularly used as a sort of two-sided die; in order to choose between two options with a random possibility, one choice will be labeled "heads" and the other "tails," and a coin will be flipped or "tossed" to see whether the heads or tails side comes up on top. In 1979, as he was walking alongside the streets of Paris, he noticed a billboard that instructed women tourists not to scratch the wooden floor in front of the Museum of Oceanic Art. Some older such designs remain, such as the 12-sided Australian 50 cent coin. Christian Louboutin was interested in women's fashion since he was a small child. If a coin had an even number of sides this would not be true.
He includes Princess Caroline of Monaco and Catherine Deneuve among his friends. This is so that the coin has a constant diameter, and therefore will be recognised by machines whichever way it is inserted. Louboutin is black. Coins that are not round (British 50 pence for example) usually have an odd number of sides, with the edges rounded off. Christian Louboutin (born 1976) is a well known French shoe designer. Some coins have coin orientation, where the coin must be flipped vertically to see the other side; other coins, such as British coins, have medallic orientation, where the coin must be flipped horizontally to see the other side. The orientation of the obverse with respect to the reverse differs between countries.
 Another rule is that the side carrying the year of minting is the obverse, although most Canadian coins, and all Japanese coins, are an exception. However, the rule is violated in some cases. The back side is called the reverse, or colloquially tails. Traditionally the side of a coin carrying a bust of a monarch or other authority, or a national emblem, is called the obverse, or colloquially heads.
The monarch would have to periodically recall, paying only bullion value of the silver, and re-mint circulating coins. This form of debasement in Tudor England led to the formulation of Gresham's Law. Circulating unmilled British sterling silver coins were known to be shaved to almost half of their minted weight. This is the reason some modern coins have ridges, known as "reeds," on their edges; the presence of reeding shows that the coin's edge has not been shaved.
Prior to the use of milled edges, circulating coins suffered from "shaving," a common problem where unscrupulous persons would shave a small amount of precious metal from the edge of a circulating coin. The milled, or reeded, edges still found on many coins were originally designed to show that none of the valuable metal had been shaved off the coin. Increasingly common are coin counting machines which charge money to consumers for converting their "coins" into "cash". has never revised its coinage system to accommodate this inflation, and as a result, coins in America today are scarcely regarded as "money" in any practical sense.
What is unique to the United States, among the developed countries, is that the U.S. The United Kingdom saw similar inflation during the same era. Virtually every other country debased their coinage too. It also should not be inferred that such debasement and inflation were unique to the U.S.
For example, in 1960, the silver in a dime was worth less than four cents. silver coinage, such coins were actually fiat money, because the value of silver was relatively low. It should be remembered, however, that for most of the era of U.S. Some consider a classic example of this phenomenon to be the behavior of price levels in the United States since 1964 (the last year circulating United States Coins were minted of 90 percent silver).
Debasement of money almost always leads to price inflation unless price controls are also instituted by the governing authority. By replacing some fraction of a coin's precious metal content with a base metal (often copper or nickel), the intrinsic value of each individual coin was reduced (thereby "debasing" their money), allowing the coining authority to produce more coins than would otherwise be possible. Throughout history, governments have been known to create more coinage than their supply of precious metals would allow. For example, in 1979 and 1980, a Chinese architectural team excavating the region surrounding the ancient kingdom of Loulan discovered some Mesolithic stone tools and coins (see Loulan: Modern Chinese Expeditions).
The history of coins is a long and interesting one. True coins also developed very close to this time frame in both India and China. Under three generations of Lydian kings, the money of Lydia gradually moved from being lumps of electrum (a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold) to coins of a guaranteed weight and purity, marked with the seal of the King. By the above definition, the invention and first known usage of coins comes from the Kingdom of Lydia circa 643-630 B.C.
These criteria are:. To distinguish between these two types of coins, as well as from other forms of tokens which have been used as money, monetary scholars have defined three criteria that an object must meet to be a "true coin". This means that the value of the coin is decreed by government fiat rather than agreed by the people, which really makes it less a coin and more a token in the strictest sense. However, in modern times, most coins are made of a base metal and their value comes strictly from their status as fiat money.
The market exchange value of a coin comes from its historic value, and/or the intrinsic value of the component metal (for example gold coins, silver coins or platinum coins). See Coin collecting and Numismatics for more information on the collecting of coins, bank notes, token coins and Exonumia. . Coins are usually used for lower-valued units, and banknotes are usually used for the higher values; also, in most money systems, the highest value coin is worth less than the lowest-value note.
Along with banknotes, coins make up the cash forms of all modern money systems. A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. It must be marked to identify the authority that guarantees the content. It must be of a standardized weight and purity.
It must be made of a valuable material, and trade for close to the market value of that material.