Charles Lindbergh

Charles Lindbergh with the Spirit of St. Louis.

Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) was a pioneering United States aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927.

Early life

Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Swedish immigrants. He grew up in Little Falls, Minnesota. His father, Charles August Lindbergh, was a lawyer and later a U.S. congressman who opposed the entry of the U.S. into World War I; his mother was a chemistry teacher. Early on he showed an interest in machines. In 1922 he quit a mechanical engineering program, joined a pilot and mechanist training with Nebraska Aircraft, bought his own airplane, a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny", and became a stunt pilot. In 1924, he started training as a U.S. military aviator with the United States Army Air Corps. After finishing first in his class, he worked as a civilian airmail pilot on the line St. Louis in the 1920s.

In April 1923, while visiting friends in Lake Village, Arkansas, Lindbergh made his first ever night-time flight over Lake Village and Lake Chicot.

First solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean

The Spirit of St. Louis on display at the Smithsonian.

Lindbergh gained sudden great international fame as the first pilot to fly solo and non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, flying from Roosevelt Airfield (Nassau County, Long Island), New York to Paris on May 20-May 21, 1927 in his single-engine airplane The Spirit of St. Louis which had been designed by Donald Hall and custom built by Ryan Airlines of San Diego, California. He needed 33.5 hours for the trip. (His grandson Erik Lindbergh repeated this trip 75 years later in 2002.) Although Lindbergh was the first to fly from New York to Paris nonstop, he was not the first to make a Transatlantic flight. That had been done first in stages by the crew of the NC-4 in May 1919, with the first non-stop flight made by Alcock and Brown in June 1919.

Lindbergh's accomplishment won him the Orteig Prize of $25,000 on offer since 1919. A ticker-tape parade was held for him down 5th Avenue in New York City on June 13, 1927.[1] His public stature following this flight was such that he became an important voice on behalf of aviation activities until his death. He served on a variety of national and international boards and committees, including the central committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in the United States. On March 21, 1929 he was presented the Medal of Honor for his historic trans-Atlantic flight.

Lindbergh is recognized in aviation for demonstrating and charting polar air-routes, high altitude flying techniques, and increasing aircraft flying range by decreasing fuel consumption. These innovations are the basis of modern intercontinental air travel.


Marriage, children, kidnapping

He married the author Anne Morrow Lindbergh in 1929. He taught her how to fly and did much of the exploring and charting of air-routes together with her. The two had six children: Charles Augustus, Jr.(born 1930), Jon (1932), Land (1937), Anne (1940), Scott (1942) and Reeve (1945).

Main article: Lindbergh kidnapping

Their son Charles Augustus, 20 months old, was abducted on March 1, 1932 from their home. The boy was found dead on May 12 in Hopewell, New Jersey just a few miles from the Lindbergh's home, after a nation-wide ten week search and ransom negotiations with the kidnappers. More than three years later, a media circus ensued when the man accused of the murder, Bruno Hauptmann, went on trial. Tired of being in the spotlight and still mourning the loss of their son, the Lindberghs moved to Europe in December 1935. Hauptmann, who maintained his innocence until the end, was found guilty and was executed on April 3, 1936.

World War II

In Europe during the rise of fascism, Lindbergh traveled to Germany several times at the behest of the U.S. military, where he reported on German aviation and the Luftwaffe (air force). Lindbergh was intrigued, and stated that Germany had taken a leading part in a number of aviation developments, including metal construction, low-wing designs, dirigibles, and Diesel engines. Lindbergh also undertook a survey of aviation in the Soviet Union in 1938.

In 1938 the American ambassador to Germany, Hugh Wilson invited Lindbergh to a dinner with Hermann Göring at the American embassy in Berlin to improve American-German relations. The dinner included diplomats and three of the greatest minds of German aviation, Ernst Heinkel, Adolf Baeumaker, and Dr. Willy Messerschmitt. Göring decorated Lindbergh with German medal of honor (the Verdienstkreuz Deutcher Adler) for his services to aviation and particularly for his 1927 flight. Lindbergh's decoration later caused an outcry in the United States. Lindbergh declined to return the medal to the Germans because he claimed that to do so would be "an unnecessary insult" to the Nazi leadership. The Lindberghs lived in England and Brittany, France during the late 1930's in order to find tranquility and avoid the celebrity that followed them everywhere in the United States after the kidnapping trial. He would return to the United States as war broke out in Europe.

As Nazi Germany began World War II, Lindbergh became a prominent speaker in favor of isolationism, going so far as to recommended that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Germany during his January 23, 1941 testimony before Congress. Lindbergh was also the major spokesman for America First providing many speeches during 1940-1941. As American entry into the war began to seem inevitable, Lindbergh stated he would publicly name "the groups that were most powerful and effective in pushing the United States towards involvement in the war". At an America First rally in Des Moines, Iowa, on September 11, 1941, he made a speech titled: "Who Are the War Agitators?". In it, he pointed out that Americans had solidly opposed entering the war when it began, and that three groups had been "pressing this country toward war" -- the Roosevelt Administration, the British, and the Jews. In the same speech, Lindbergh clearly communicated that he considered Jewish-Americans to not be patriotic when he said; "But I am saying that the leaders of both the British and Jewish races, for reasons which are understandable from their viewpoint as they are inadvisable from ours, for reasons which are not American, wish to involve us in the war. We cannot blame them for looking out for what they believe to be their own interests, but we also must look out for ours. We cannot allow the natural passions and prejudices of other people to lead our country to destruction." Lindbergh resigned his commission in the U.S. Army Air Corps when President Franklin D. Roosevelt openly questioned his loyalty.

However, after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he attempted to return to the Army Air Corps, but was denied when several of Roosevelt's cabinet secretaries registered objections. He went on to assist with the war effort by serving as a civilian consultant to aviation companies and the government, as well as flying about 50 combat missions (again as a civilian) in 1944 in the Pacific. His contributions include engine-leaning techniques that Lindbergh showed P-38 Lightning pilots. This improved fuel usage in cruise, and enabled aircraft to fly longer range missions such as the one that killed Admiral Yamamoto. He also showed Marine F4U pilots how to take off with twice the bomb load that the aircraft was rated for.

Later life

After World War II he lived quietly in Connecticut as a consultant both to the chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force and to Pan American World Airways. His 1953 book The Spirit of St. Louis, recounting his non-stop transatlantic flight, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1954. Dwight D. Eisenhower restored his assignment with the Army Air Corps and making him Brigadier General in 1954. In the 1960s, he became a spokesman for the conservation of the natural world, speaking in favor of the protection of whales, against super-sonic transport planes and was instrumental in establishing protections for the primitive Filipino group the Tasaday.

In 1927, Lindbergh was named the inaugural Time Man of the Year for his solo transatlatic flight.

From 1957 until his death in 1974, Lindbergh had an affair with a woman 24 years his junior, the German hat maker Brigitte Hesshaimer. They had three children together: Dyrk (born 1958), Astrid (born 1960), and David (born 1967). The two managed to keep the affair completely secret; even the children did not know the true identity of their father, whom they met sporadically when he came to visit. Astrid later read a magazine article about Lindbergh and found snapshots and more than a hundred letters written from him to her mother. She disclosed the affair in 2003, two years after both Brigitte Hesshaimer and Anne Morrow Lindbergh had died. DNA tests have confirmed the truth of these assertions.

Many believe that the tragic kidnapping and death of his son Charles Augustus psychologically influenced him to foster these children in secret so as to compensate for his terrible loss. Lindbergh spent his final years on the Hawaiian island of Maui, where he died of cancer on August 26, 1974. He was buried on the grounds of the Palapala Ho'omau Church. His epitaph, which quotes Psalms 139:9, reads: Charles A. Lindbergh Born: Michigan, 1902. Died: Maui, 1974. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea. — CAL

Close image of Charles Lindberg tombstone Overall image of Charles Lindberg grave

The Lindbergh Terminal at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport was named after him and a replica of The Spirit of St. Louis hangs there. He also lent his name to San Diego's Lindbergh Field, which is also known now as San Diego International Airport.

Lindbergh in fiction

A fictional version of Lindbergh is a major character in Philip Roth's 2004 counterfactual alternative history novel, The Plot Against America; this portrayal engendered some controversy.

The Agatha Christie book and movie Murder on the Orient Express begin with a fictionalized depiction of the Lindbergh baby kidnapping.

James Stewart played Lindbergh in the biographical The Spirit of St. Louis, directed by Billy Wilder. The film begins with events leading up to the flight before giving a gripping and intense view of the flight itself.

Shortly after Lindbergh made his famous flight, the Stratemeyer Syndicate began publishing the Ted Scott Flying Stories by Franklin W. Dixon wherein the hero was closely modeled after Lindbergh.


This page about Charles Lindbergh includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Charles Lindbergh
News stories about Charles Lindbergh
External links for Charles Lindbergh
Videos for Charles Lindbergh
Wikis about Charles Lindbergh
Discussion Groups about Charles Lindbergh
Blogs about Charles Lindbergh
Images of Charles Lindbergh

Dixon wherein the hero was closely modeled after Lindbergh. He has written the following:. Shortly after Lindbergh made his famous flight, the Stratemeyer Syndicate began publishing the Ted Scott Flying Stories by Franklin W. Jimmy Carter has been a relatively prolific author. The film begins with events leading up to the flight before giving a gripping and intense view of the flight itself. He is also an accomplished amateur woodworker and has occasionally been featured in the pages of Fine Wood Working magazine, which is published by Taunton Press. Louis, directed by Billy Wilder. Carter also teaches a Sunday School class at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains, Georgia.

James Stewart played Lindbergh in the biographical The Spirit of St. Every September he goes to the Plains Peanut Festival and reportedly frequents the Pink Pig Barbecue Restaurant in Cherry Log, Georgia when he and the former First Lady are visiting their log cabin near Ellijay, Georgia. The Agatha Christie book and movie Murder on the Orient Express begin with a fictionalized depiction of the Lindbergh baby kidnapping. Bush, and Bill Clinton) as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. A fictional version of Lindbergh is a major character in Philip Roth's 2004 counterfactual alternative history novel, The Plot Against America; this portrayal engendered some controversy. W. He also lent his name to San Diego's Lindbergh Field, which is also known now as San Diego International Airport. On November 22, 2004, New York Republican Governor George Pataki named Carter and the other living former presidents (Gerald Ford, George H.

Louis hangs there. In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, which has been the centerpoint for recent reports of prisoner and Muslim holy book Quran abuse. The Lindbergh Terminal at Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport was named after him and a replica of The Spirit of St. Bush (his father) had started. — CAL. W. If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea. He claimed that Blair had allowed his better judgement to be swayed by Bush's desire to finish a war that George H.

Died: Maui, 1974. Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and misinterpretations" in order to oust Saddam Hussein. Lindbergh Born: Michigan, 1902. In March 2004, Carter roundly condemned George W. His epitaph, which quotes Psalms 139:9, reads: Charles A. Critics of Carter's diplomatic efforts (during and after his presidency) generally concede that Carter is honest and well intentioned, but consider him to be naive about less scrupulous foreign leaders. He was buried on the grounds of the Palapala Ho'omau Church. Bush were said to have been less than pleased with Carter's "freelance" diplomacy in Iraq and elsewhere.

Lindbergh spent his final years on the Hawaiian island of Maui, where he died of cancer on August 26, 1974. and George W. Many believe that the tragic kidnapping and death of his son Charles Augustus psychologically influenced him to foster these children in secret so as to compensate for his terrible loss. Not all Carter's efforts have gained him favor in Washington; President Clinton and both Presidents George H.W. DNA tests have confirmed the truth of these assertions. Carter visited Cuba in May 2002, meeting with Fidel Castro and becoming the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since Castro's 1959 revolution. She disclosed the affair in 2003, two years after both Brigitte Hesshaimer and Anne Morrow Lindbergh had died. He and his wife Rosalynn are also well-known for their work with Habitat for Humanity.

Astrid later read a magazine article about Lindbergh and found snapshots and more than a hundred letters written from him to her mother. president, after Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson, to receive the Nobel Peace Prize award. The two managed to keep the affair completely secret; even the children did not know the true identity of their father, whom they met sporadically when he came to visit. Carter was the third U.S. They had three children together: Dyrk (born 1958), Astrid (born 1960), and David (born 1967). This includes acting as election observers, particularly in Latin America and Africa. From 1957 until his death in 1974, Lindbergh had an affair with a woman 24 years his junior, the German hat maker Brigitte Hesshaimer. He and members of the center are sometimes involved in the monitoring of the electoral process in support of free and fair elections.

In the 1960s, he became a spokesman for the conservation of the natural world, speaking in favor of the protection of whales, against super-sonic transport planes and was instrumental in establishing protections for the primitive Filipino group the Tasaday. The center also focuses on world-wide health care including the campaign to eliminate guinea worm disease. Eisenhower restored his assignment with the Army Air Corps and making him Brigadier General in 1954. His work in international public policy and conflict resolution is largely through the Carter Center. Dwight D. Since his unsuccessful bid for re-election, Carter has been involved in a variety of public policy, human rights, and charitable causes. Louis, recounting his non-stop transatlantic flight, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1954. In February 2005, Jimmy and Rosalyn Carter both spoke at the commissioning ceremony for this submarine.

His 1953 book The Spirit of St. Navy vessels to be named for a person still alive at the time of the naming. Air Force and to Pan American World Airways. The USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) was named on April 27, 1998, making it one of the very few U.S. After World War II he lived quietly in Connecticut as a consultant both to the chief of staff of the U.S. Because he had served as a submariner (the only president to have done so), a submarine was named for him. He also showed Marine F4U pilots how to take off with twice the bomb load that the aircraft was rated for.
.

This improved fuel usage in cruise, and enabled aircraft to fly longer range missions such as the one that killed Admiral Yamamoto. He has also been criticized for not doing enough to promote his stated human rights foreign policy stance in his administration, such as continuing to support the Indonesian government even while it was implicated in the commission of acts of genocide in the occupation of East Timor. His contributions include engine-leaning techniques that Lindbergh showed P-38 Lightning pilots. Some have accused Carter of ordering a cover-up of the events at Three Mile Island following the near meltdown of that nuclear plant. He went on to assist with the war effort by serving as a civilian consultant to aviation companies and the government, as well as flying about 50 combat missions (again as a civilian) in 1944 in the Pacific. In response, Congress passed the Taiwan Relations Act. However, after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, he attempted to return to the Army Air Corps, but was denied when several of Roosevelt's cabinet secretaries registered objections. During Carter's administration, diplomatic recognition was switched from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China, a policy continued into the 21st century.

Roosevelt openly questioned his loyalty. In 1977, Carter stated that there was no need to apologize to the Vietnamese people for the damage and suffering caused by the Vietnam war as "the destruction was mutual.". Army Air Corps when President Franklin D. [3] Such a scenario was termed "The October Surprise" by the Reagan team. We cannot allow the natural passions and prejudices of other people to lead our country to destruction." Lindbergh resigned his commission in the U.S. With the November election approaching, the Reagan team had reason to believe a second rescue attempt was being prepared or, absent that, a diplomatic deal to gain an election-eve release of the 52 American officials held in Tehran. We cannot blame them for looking out for what they believe to be their own interests, but we also must look out for ours. Bush) was responsible for destroying a deal between the Carter administration and the hostage takers that may have lead to their release a month before the election.

In the same speech, Lindbergh clearly communicated that he considered Jewish-Americans to not be patriotic when he said; "But I am saying that the leaders of both the British and Jewish races, for reasons which are understandable from their viewpoint as they are inadvisable from ours, for reasons which are not American, wish to involve us in the war. W. In it, he pointed out that Americans had solidly opposed entering the war when it began, and that three groups had been "pressing this country toward war" -- the Roosevelt Administration, the British, and the Jews. Members of the Reagan-Bush campaign and administration (most notably Barbara Honegger, in her book October Surprise), and the president of Iran in 1980 (Abu Al-Hasan Bani-Sadr, My Turn to Speak: Iran, the Revolution and Secret Deals With the U.S.) have alleged that a secret agreement between the Reagan campaign and the Iranians (orchestrated by George H. At an America First rally in Des Moines, Iowa, on September 11, 1941, he made a speech titled: "Who Are the War Agitators?". This record represents our hope and our determination and our goodwill in a vast and awesome universe."[2] See also Voyager Golden Record. As American entry into the war began to seem inevitable, Lindbergh stated he would publicly name "the groups that were most powerful and effective in pushing the United States towards involvement in the war". We hope some day, having solved the problems we face, to join a community of Galactic Civilizations.

Lindbergh was also the major spokesman for America First providing many speeches during 1940-1941. If one such civilization intercepts Voyager and can understand these recorded contents, here is our message: We are trying to survive our time so we may live into yours. As Nazi Germany began World War II, Lindbergh became a prominent speaker in favor of isolationism, going so far as to recommended that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Germany during his January 23, 1941 testimony before Congress. Of the 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, some - - perhaps many - - may have inhabited planets and space faring civilizations. He would return to the United States as war broke out in Europe. President Carter, official statement placed on the Voyager spacecraft for its trip outside our solar system, June 16, 1977: "We cast this message into the cosmos . The Lindberghs lived in England and Brittany, France during the late 1930's in order to find tranquility and avoid the celebrity that followed them everywhere in the United States after the kidnapping trial. This took place during the period from May 1977 until the fall of 1977.

Lindbergh declined to return the medal to the Germans because he claimed that to do so would be "an unnecessary insult" to the Nazi leadership. Alfred Webre was Principal Investigator for a proposed civilian scientific study of extraterrestrial communication presented to and developed with interested Carter White House staff. Lindbergh's decoration later caused an outcry in the United States. Through Stanford Research Institute, Mr. Göring decorated Lindbergh with German medal of honor (the Verdienstkreuz Deutcher Adler) for his services to aviation and particularly for his 1927 flight. [1] During his presidential campaign, Carter promised to release the truth about any alleged UFO cover-up. Willy Messerschmitt. He filed a report with the International UFO Bureau in Oklahoma City after a request from that organization.

The dinner included diplomats and three of the greatest minds of German aviation, Ernst Heinkel, Adolf Baeumaker, and Dr. President Carter claims to have witnessed a UFO in 1969. In 1938 the American ambassador to Germany, Hugh Wilson invited Lindbergh to a dinner with Hermann Göring at the American embassy in Berlin to improve American-German relations. Bush presidencies, Islamic fundamentalism as a political force was not well understood. Lindbergh also undertook a survey of aviation in the Soviet Union in 1938. At the time, and continuing into the Reagan and G.H.W. Lindbergh was intrigued, and stated that Germany had taken a leading part in a number of aviation developments, including metal construction, low-wing designs, dirigibles, and Diesel engines. Some even tie the program to the 1996 coup that established the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and to the creation of violent Islamic terrorist groups.

military, where he reported on German aviation and the Luftwaffe (air force). In retrospect, this contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union, but is also often tied to the resulting instability of post-Soviet Afghani governments, which led to the rise of Islamic theocracy in the region. In Europe during the rise of fascism, Lindbergh traveled to Germany several times at the behest of the U.S. In order to oppose the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, Carter and Zbigniew Brzezinski started a $40 billion program of training Islamic fundamentalists in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Hauptmann, who maintained his innocence until the end, was found guilty and was executed on April 3, 1936. Also in response to the events in Afghanistan, Carter prohibited Americans from participating in the 1980 Summer Olympics, which were held in Moscow, and he reinstated registration for the draft for young males. Tired of being in the spotlight and still mourning the loss of their son, the Lindberghs moved to Europe in December 1935. would not allow any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf.

More than three years later, a media circus ensued when the man accused of the murder, Bruno Hauptmann, went on trial. (The pro-Moscow government in Afghanistan—placed by a coup in 1978—was unable to suppress the Muslim insurgency.) After the invasion, Carter announced the Carter Doctrine, which stated that the U.S. The boy was found dead on May 12 in Hopewell, New Jersey just a few miles from the Lindbergh's home, after a nation-wide ten week search and ransom negotiations with the kidnappers. In December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, evidently fearful that the Muslim uprising that had swept Iran would spread to the millions of Muslims in the Soviet Union. Their son Charles Augustus, 20 months old, was abducted on March 1, 1932 from their home. However, Reagan asked Carter to head to Germany to greet the hostages. Main article: Lindbergh kidnapping. The hostages had been held captive for 444 days, and their release happened just minutes after Carter left office.

The two had six children: Charles Augustus, Jr.(born 1930), Jon (1932), Land (1937), Anne (1940), Scott (1942) and Reeve (1945). Although the Carter team had negotiated with the hostage takers for release of the hostages, an agreement trusting the hostages takers to abide by their word was not signed until January 19, 1981, after the election of Ronald Reagan. He taught her how to fly and did much of the exploring and charting of air-routes together with her. Carter managed to win just six states, 49 electoral votes and 41% of the popular vote, barely beating the dismal record of Senator Barry Goldwater in 1964, who managed to win six states, 52 electoral votes and 38.5% of the popular vote against an incumbent president. He married the author Anne Morrow Lindbergh in 1929. Nevertheless, the 1980 election results were not even close.
. The subsequent responses to the crisis, from a "Rose Garden strategy" of staying inside the White House, to the unsuccessful attempt to rescue the hostages, were largely seen as contributing to defeat in the 1980 election.

These innovations are the basis of modern intercontinental air travel. and die in Egypt, the Iran hostage crisis continued, and dominated the last year of Carter's presidency, even though almost half of the hostages were released. Lindbergh is recognized in aviation for demonstrating and charting polar air-routes, high altitude flying techniques, and increasing aircraft flying range by decreasing fuel consumption. Though later that year the Shah would leave the U.S. On March 21, 1929 he was presented the Medal of Honor for his historic trans-Atlantic flight. The Iranians demanded 1.) the return of the Shah to Iran for trial, 2.) the return of the Shah's wealth to the Iranian people, 3.) an admission of guilt by the United States for its past actions in Iran, plus an apology, and 4.) a promise from the United States not to interfere in Iran's affairs in the future. He served on a variety of national and international boards and committees, including the central committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in the United States. In response to the Shah's entry into the U.S., Iranian militants seized the American embassy in Tehran taking some 100 Americans hostage.

A ticker-tape parade was held for him down 5th Avenue in New York City on June 13, 1927.[1] His public stature following this flight was such that he became an important voice on behalf of aviation activities until his death. In 1979, Carter reluctantly allowed the deposed Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi into the United States for political asylum and medical treatment. Lindbergh's accomplishment won him the Orteig Prize of $25,000 on offer since 1919. Carter was initially prepared to recognize the revolutionary government of the monarch's successor, but his efforts proved futile. That had been done first in stages by the crew of the NC-4 in May 1919, with the first non-stop flight made by Alcock and Brown in June 1919. support as a leading cause of his quick overthrow. (His grandson Erik Lindbergh repeated this trip 75 years later in 2002.) Although Lindbergh was the first to fly from New York to Paris nonstop, he was not the first to make a Transatlantic flight. Many have since connected the Shah's dwindling U.S.

He needed 33.5 hours for the trip. The Shah was deposed and exiled. Louis which had been designed by Donald Hall and custom built by Ryan Airlines of San Diego, California. Though Carter praised the Shah as a wise and valuable leader, when a popular uprising against the monarchy broke out in Iran, the Carter administration did not intervene. Lindbergh gained sudden great international fame as the first pilot to fly solo and non-stop across the Atlantic Ocean, flying from Roosevelt Airfield (Nassau County, Long Island), New York to Paris on May 20-May 21, 1927 in his single-engine airplane The Spirit of St. However, his rule was strongly autocratic. In April 1923, while visiting friends in Lake Village, Arkansas, Lindbergh made his first ever night-time flight over Lake Village and Lake Chicot. strategic policy in Middle East was built.

Louis in the 1920s. The Shah had been a strong ally of America since World War II, and was one of the "twin pillars" upon which U.S. After finishing first in his class, he worked as a civilian airmail pilot on the line St. interests came in Carter's dealings with the Shah of Iran. military aviator with the United States Army Air Corps. The main conflict between human rights and U.S. In 1924, he started training as a U.S. unofficially recognized Taiwan through the Taiwan Relations Act).

In 1922 he quit a mechanical engineering program, joined a pilot and mechanist training with Nebraska Aircraft, bought his own airplane, a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny", and became a stunt pilot. Carter continued the policy of Richard Nixon to "normalize" relations with People's Republic of China granting full diplomatic and trade relations, thus ending official relations with the Republic of China (though the two nations continued to trade and the U.S. Early on he showed an interest in machines. Carter was also known for his criticism of Alfredo Stroessner, Augusto Pinochet, the apartheid government of South Africa, and other traditional allies. into World War I; his mother was a chemistry teacher. Strong pressure from the United States and the United Kingdom prompted new elections in what was then called Zimbabwe Rhodesia. congressman who opposed the entry of the U.S. Carter continued his predecessors' policies of imposing sanctions on Rhodesia, and, after Bishop Abel Muzorewa was elected Prime Minister, protested that the Marxists Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo were excluded from the elections.

His father, Charles August Lindbergh, was a lawyer and later a U.S. The Carter administration ended support to the historically U.S.-backed Somoza government in Nicaragua, and gave millions of dollars in aid to the nation's new regime, following a Sandinista coup. He grew up in Little Falls, Minnesota. This was intended to be a break from the policies of several predecessors, in which human rights abuses were often overlooked if they were committed by a nation that was allied to the United States. Lindbergh was born in Detroit, Michigan, the son of Swedish immigrants. In its place Carter promoted his foreign policy as being one that would place human rights at the forefront. . President Carter initially departed from the long-held policy of containment toward the Soviet Union, as first articulated in the Truman Doctrine and held to by all subsequent American presidents, both Republican and Democrat.

Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) was a pioneering United States aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. The stagnant growth of the economy (causing unemployment), in combination with a high rate of inflation, has often been called stagflation, an unprecedented situation in American economics. He succeeded, but only by first going through a very unpleasant phase where the economy slowed down, causing a rise in unemployment, prior to any relief from the inflation. Volcker took actions (raising interest rates even further) to slow down the economy and bring down inflation, which he considered his mandate. William Miller who left to become the Secretary of the Treasury.

government debt coming under pressure, Carter appointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board; Volcker replaced G. With the markets for U.S. Investments in fixed income were becoming less valuable (both bonds, and pensions being paid to retired people). The rapid change in rates led to disintermediation of bank deposits, which contributed to the beginning of the Savings and Loan crisis.

The inflation caused interest rates to rise to unprecedented levels (above 12 percent per year). Carter's government reorganization efforts also separated the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services. He also installed solar power panels on the roof of the White House, and a wood stove in the living quarters; his successor, Ronald Reagan, later removed the solar panels and the wood stove. To encourage Americans to conserve energy during the 1979 energy crisis, Carter once appeared in a sweater and urged citizens to turn down their thermostats.

Schlesinger. The first head of the department was James R. Carter added the United States Department of Energy as a new cabinet-level department. A major issue for President Carter was inflation, caused especially by the rising price of imported oil, which was the major source of energy for many industries.

Amongst Presidents who served at least one full term, Carter is the only one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court. The RDF was the forerunner of CENTCOM. On 1 October 1979, President Carter announced before a television audience the existence of the Rapid Deployment Forces (RDF), a mobile fighting force capable of responding to worldwide trouble spots, without drawing on forces committed to NATO. With no visible efforts towards a way out of the malaise, Carter's poll numbers dropped even further.

Two days after the speech, Carter asked for the resignations of all of his Cabinet officers, and ultimately accepted five. But many who had hoped for more inspired leadership after the Ford Administration, found themselves disappointed. The country was in the worst recession since the 1930s, with inflation and unemployment at record levels. Carter's speech, though viewed by some as too much like a sermon, was well-received.

This has come to be known as his "malaise" speech, even though he never actually used the word "malaise" anywhere in the text:. On July 15, 1979, Carter gave a nationally-televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people. The story broke months after the attack, during the slow news month of August, when White House Press Secretary Jody Powell described the incident to reporter Brooks Jackson over tea; shortly thereafter, it was on the front page of The Washington Post with a cartoon take-off, "Paws", of the poster from the movie "Jaws". A White House photographer captured the scene on film.

Carter flailed at the rabbit with his paddle, splashing water at it, and the rabbit turned and swam away. The swimming rabbit, perhaps ill or fleeing from a predator, attempted to board the presidential yacht. A small blow to his reelection campaign came on April 20, 1979, when he was attacked by a "killer rabbit" while fishing in a pond from a small boat. He was much less successful on the domestic front, having alienated both his own party and his opponents, through what was perceived as a lack of willingness to work with Congress — much as he had in his term as Governor.

The Carter Administration's foreign policy is most remembered for the Iran hostage crisis, for the peace treaty he brokered between the states of Israel and Egypt with the Camp David Accord, for the SALT II treaty brokered with the Soviet Union, for the Panama Canal treaty which turned the canal over to Panama, and for an energy crisis. Carter was the first candidate from the Deep South to be elected president since Reconstruction. The centerpiece of his campaign platform was government reorganization. He ran an effective campaign, did well in debates, and won his party's nomination and then the election, receiving 50.1% of the popular vote, making him one of only two Democratic Party Presidential Candidates to win a majority of the popular vote since Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1944.

However, the Watergate scandal was still fresh in the voters' minds, and so his position as an outsider, distant from Washington, DC, became an asset. When Carter entered the Democratic Party Presidential primaries in 1976, he at first was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians. Carter served as governor of the state of Georgia from 1971 to 1975. He was the first state-wide office holder in the Deep South to say this in public (such sentiments would have signaled the end of the political career of politicians in the region less than 15 years earlier, as was the case with Atlanta mayor Ivan Allen Jr., who testified before Congress in favor of the Voting Rights Act).

But, following his election, Carter said in speeches that the time of racial segregation was over, and that racial discrimination had no place in the future of the state. On the stump, he promised to re-appoint an avowed segregationist to the state Board of Regents. Carl Sanders, showing Sanders associating with black basketball players. Carter's campaign aides handed out photographs of his opponent, former Gov.

In his 1970 campaign, Carter was elected governor on a pro-George Wallaceplatform. In the 1960's, he served two terms in the Georgia State Senate. Carter started his career by serving on the Plains school board. She bore him three sons (John William, born in 1947; James Earl III, born in 1950; and Donnel Jeffrey, born in 1952), and gave birth to his daughter (Amy Lynn, late in life, in 1967).

After World War II, he and Rosalynn started a family. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man, called, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?". Even as President, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity, serving as a Sunday School teacher throughout his political career.

Upon the death of his father in 1953, however, Carter resigned from the Navy, and established a peanut farming business in Plains, where he was involved in a farming accident which left him with a permanently bent finger. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Carter loved the Navy, and had planned to make it his career. Carter later used this as the theme of his presidential campaign, and as the title of his first book, "Why Not The Best?" He even mentioned Admiral Rickover in his inaugural address.

Rickover only asked "Did you always do your best?" Carter was forced to admit he had not, and the Admiral asked why. Carter said "Sir, I graduated 59th out of a class of 820". He was asked about his rank in his class at the Naval Academy. There was a story he often told of being interviewed by the Admiral.

Carter later said that next to his parents, Admiral Rickover had had the greatest influence on him. Rickover was a demanding officer, and Carter was greatly influenced by him. Navy's nuclear submarine program, where he became a qualified nuclear engineer. Rickover for the U.S.

He was later selected by Admiral Hyman G. Carter served on submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. They are considered members of the class of 1947, as their class would have graduated in 1947, except that the program had been temporarily compressed. Vietnam POW and war hero, Jeremiah Denton, was one of Carter's classmates.

Carter was a very gifted student, and finished 59th out of his Academy class of 820. degree from the United States Naval Academy in 1946, the same year he married Rosalynn Smith. He attended Georgia Southwestern College, Georgia Institute of Technology, and he studied nuclear physics at Union College, and received a B.S. He grew up in nearby Archery.

His youngest sister, Ruth Carter Stapleton (1929-1983), became a well- known Christian evangelist. Carter's sister, Gloria Carter Spann (1926-1990), was low-key and was famous for collecting and riding Harley Davidson motorcycles. His younger brother, Billy Carter (1937-1988), caused some political problems for him during his administration. Carter mentioned his beloved teacher in his inaugural address as an example of someone who beat overwhelming odds.

She had encouraged young Jimmy to read War and Peace; he was disappointed to find that there were no cowboys or Indians in the book. Coleman was handicapped by polio. Ms. He was greatly influenced by one of his high school teachers, Julia Coleman.

By the time he attended Plains High School,he was also a star in basketball and football. Young Carter was a gifted student from an early age, who always had a fondness for reading. Born the oldest of four children to James Earl Carter and Bessie Lillian Gordy in the Southwest Georgia town of Plains, he was the first president born in a hospital. .

In 2002, Carter won the Nobel Peace Prize for his "efforts to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development.". He has also traveled extensively to monitor elections, conduct peace negotiations, and establish relief efforts. In 1982, he founded the Carter Center as a forum for issues related to democracy and human rights. In the decades since he left office, Carter gained more respect for his role as an international mediator and peacemaker, and has used his position as a former president to further many charitable causes.

His administration oversaw the founding of the Departments of Energy and Education, and enacted strong legislation on environmental protection. The Carter administration failed to reform the tax system, and to reduce the size of the government bureaucracy, as promised during the 1976 campaign, or to pass the Martin Luther King holiday, despite Carter's own Democratic Party controlling both Houses of Congress, and the White House. Among his administration's accomplishments, were the Panama Canal treaties, the Camp David Accords, and the SALT II treaty with the Soviet Union. The Misery Index, Carter's own invention of economic well-being, rose 50% in four years.

Inflation and interest rates reached their highest levels since World War II, as the Carter administration froze domestic oil prices in response to rising prices from OPEC. With the international outrage of the Iranian hostage crisis in 1978, and the humiliating Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, Carter appeared impotent, as America saw its influence declining abroad. Carter's presidency was marked by retrenchment, after the disappointing agony that had been the Vietnam War, and economic stagflation churning at home. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924), an American politician, was the 39th President of the United States (1977–1981), and 83rd (1971–1975) Governor of Georgia.

NY: Summit Books, 1991. The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics. Lance, Bert. NY: Harper & Row, 1976.

The Man from Plains: The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter. Kucharsky, David. of KS, 1993. The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. Lawrence, KS: U.

Kaufman, Burton I. Austin: UT Press, 1984. Panama Odyssey. Jordan, William J.

NY: Putnam, 1982. Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. Jordan, Hamilton. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1988.

The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress. Jones, Charles O. Sharing Good Times (2004). President.

The Hornet's Nest (2003), a historical novel and the first work of fiction written by a U.S. The Nobel Peace Prize Lecture (2002). Christmas in Plains: Memories (2001). An Hour before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood (2001).

The Virtues of Aging (1998). Sources of Strength: Meditations on Scripture for a Living Faith (1997). Living Faith (1996). The Little Baby Snoogle-Fleejer (1995), a children's book, illustrated by his daughter.

Always a Reckoning (1995), a collection of poetry, illustrated by his granddaughter. Talking Peace: A Vision for the Next Generation (1993 and 1995). Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age (1992). An Outdoor Journal (1988 and 1994).

Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life (1987 and 1995), with Rosalynn Carter. The Blood of Abraham (1985 and 1993). Negotiation: The Alternative to Hostility (1984). Keeping Faith: Memoirs of a President (1982 and 1995).

A Government as Good as Its People (1977 and 1996). Why Not the Best? (1975 and 1996). On October 14, 1978 President Carter signed into law a bill that legalized the homebrewing of beer and wine. Carter is 5 feet, 11 inches (180 cm) tall.

02-28-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Google+ Directory