Chair

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Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. Not all superhero comics are necessarily science fiction; Marvel Comics' Daredevil, for example, despite an initial science-fiction premise, may be more usefully classified as a crime drama. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. Frankenstein, for example, is a science fiction/horror novel; The Adventures of Brisco County, Jr. is a Western/comedy TV series. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. Note: As with film and literature, genres are rarely pure and often blend. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. This was a more mature work than many had come to expect from the comics medium, and the critical and commercial success of A Contract with God helped to establish the term "graphic novel" in common usage.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. The term was popularized when Will Eisner used it on the cover of the paperback edition of his work A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (1978). Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. The term graphic novel was first coined by Richard Kyle in 1964, mainly as an attempt to distinguish the newly translated works from Europe which were then being published from what Kyle saw as the more juvenile publications common in the United States. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. This choice is still controversial, with critics feeling that Töppfer's work is perhaps somewhat unconnected to the genesis of the artform as it is now known in the region. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Although Switzerland contributes less to the body of work, it is significant that many scholars point to a Francophone Swiss, Rodolphe Töpffer, as the true father of comics.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. Donald Duck's superhero alter ego, Paperinik, known in English as Superduck, was created in Italy. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. Italy is also famous for being one of the foremost producers of Walt Disney comic stories, particularly. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Italian cartoonists have and receive great influences from other countries including Belgium, France, Spain and Argentina. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Author comics are published in the French BD format, with an example being Pratt's Corto Maltese.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Collections of classic material for the most famous character, usually with over 200 pages, are also common. Some are decorative. Mainstream comics are usually published on the monthly basis, in a black and white digest size format, with about 100-132 pages of story. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Best sellers remain popular comic books Diabolik or the Bonelli line, namely Tex Willer or Dylan Dog. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. "Author" comics contain often strong erotic contents.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. After World War II, however, artists like Hugo Pratt and Guido Crepax imposed Italian comics to an international audience. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. In Italy, comics (known as fumetti) made their debut as humouristic strips at the end of the 19th century, and later evolved in adventure stories inspired to those coming from the U.S. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. DC Thomson also repackage The Broons and Oor Wullie strips in softcover A4 books for the festive season. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. At Christmas time publishers will repackage and commission material for comic annuals, hardback A4 books.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. The repackaging of European material has been less frequent, although the Tintin and Asterix serials have been successfully translated and repackaged in soft cover books. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. Marvel eventually established a UK office, with DC Comics and Dark Horse Comics also opening offices for periods in the 1990s. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. Several reprint companies were involved in repackaging American material for the British market, notably the importer and distributor Thorpe & Porter. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). The lack of reliable supplies of American comic books led to a variety of black and white reprints, including Marvel's 1950s monster comics, Fawcett's Captain Marvel, and some other characters such as Sheena, Mandrake the Magician and the Phantom.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. The United Kingdom has also established a healthy market in the reprinting and repackaging of material, notably material originated within the United States. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. The content of Action, another title aimed at children and launched in the mid 1970s became the subject of discussion in the House of Commons, and although this was on a smaller scale to such similar investigations in the United States, it also led to a moderation of content published within comics, although such moderatiuon was never formalised to the extent of a creation of any code, and nor was it particularly lasting. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. Underground comics and "small press" titles have also been published within the United Kingdom, notably Oz and Escape Magazine. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Popular titles within the United Kingdom have included The Beano, The Dandy, The Eagle, 2000 AD and Viz.

It specifies things like[4]:. Although Ally Sloper's Half Holiday (1884), the first comic published in Britain, was marketed at adults, publishers quickly targeted a younger market, which has led to most publications being for children and created an association in the public's mind of comics being somewhat juvenile. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. Some comics, such as Judge Dredd and other 2000 AD titles, have been published in a tabloid form known as a "programme", or "prog" for short. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. Although generally referred to as a comic, it can also be referred to as a comic magazine, and has also been known historically as a comic paper. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. Originally the same size as the comic book in the United States, although lacking the glossy cover, the British comic has adopted a magazine size, with The Beano and The Dandy the last to adopt this size in the 1980s.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. Most books are first published as a hard cover oversized book, usually 48 or 64 pages, with later re-releases in soft cover. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. In France, most comics are published at the behest of the author, who will work within his self-appointed time frame, so a wait from six months to two years between installments is common. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. In North America, the more serious Franco-Belgian comics are often seen as equivalent to graphic novels, for various reasons, but whether they are long or short, bound or in magazine format, in Europe there is no need for a more sophisticated term, as the art's name does not itself imply something frivolous. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Relative to the respective size of their countries, the innumerable authors in the region publish huge numbers of comic books.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. Indeed, the distinction of comics as the "ninth art" is prevalent in Francophone scholarship on the form (le neuvième art), as is the concept of comics criticism and scholarship itself. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. It is not insignificant that the French term contains no indication of subject matter, unlike the American terms "comics" and "funnies," which imply an art form not to be taken seriously. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. La bande dessinée is derived from the original description of the artform as "drawn strips". Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. Belgian comic books originally written in Dutch are influenced by the francophone "Franco-Belgian" comics, but have a different feel.

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Belgium and France are two countries that have a long tradition in comics and comic books, where they are called BDs (from Bande Dessinée) in French. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. Along with the shift toward graphic novels among comics publishers, traditional book publishers such as Pantheon have released several dozen graphic novels, including works originally released by comics publishers with much less publicity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. In the early 2000s, sales of standard monthly comic books declined while graphic novels made increasing headway at retail bookstores. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. The "minicomics" form, an extremely informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became increasingly popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an even more limited audience than the small press.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. A number of small publishers in the 1990s changed the format and distribution of their comics to more closely resemble non-comics publishing. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. By the 1980s, several such independent publishers as Eclipse Comics, First Comics, and Fantagraphics were releasing a wide range of styles and formats from color superhero, detective and science fiction comic books to black-and-white magazine-format stories of Latin American magical realism. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. A few (notably RAW) were experimental attempts to bring comics closer to the world of fine art.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Some independent comics continued in the tradition of underground comics, though were generally less overtly graphic, and others resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artists. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). The rise of comic-book specialty stores in the late 1970s created a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics"; two of the first were the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic-book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974-1979, and Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, published from the 1970s through the present day. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Natural, and published Gilbert Shelton's The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers. A chair may or may not have armrests. Crumb later created the popular characters Fritz the Cat and Mr.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. The underground-comics movement is often considered to have started with Zap Comix #1 (1968) by cartoonist Robert Crumb, a former Cleveland greeting-card artist living in San Francisco. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. Underground comics were virtually never sold on newsstands but in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, and by mail order. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. Many were notable for their uninhibited, irreverent style; their frankness in graphic sex, nudity, language and overt politics hadn't been seen in comics outside of their precursors, the pornographic and even more underground "Tijuana bibles". The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. These comics were published and distributed independently of the established mainstream, and most reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time.

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of underground comics occurred. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. comic book industry created the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the Comics Code, a move which saw the particularly targeted EC change its satirical comic book Mad from comic book to magazine format in order to circumvent the Code. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. In response to this attention from government and the media, the U.S. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. Notable events in the history of the American comic book include the psychiatrist Frederic Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which saw the Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency investigate comic books.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. However, these eras are refered to far less frequently than the traditional metalic eras. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. 1961 are sometimes refered to as being from the Marvel Age (refering to the advent of Marvel Comics). Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. Comics published after World War II in 1945 are sometimes refered to being from the Atomic Age (refering to the dropping of the atomic bomb), and books published after Nov. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. The start of the Modern Age (occassionally refered to as the Copper Age) has even more potential starting points, but is most likely the publication of Alan Moore's Watchmen in 1986.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. 1970) or Amazing Spider-Man #96 (May 1971) (the non-Comics Code issue). It is sometimes called the "stool height". 1970), Green Lantern/Green Arrow #76 (Apr. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. Starting points that have been suggested for the Bronze Age of comics are Conan #1 (Oct. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. Indeed, some suggest that we are still in the Bronze Age.

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The beginings of the Bronze and Modern ages are far more disputable. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. 1956) — and last through the early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as the Fantastic Four and Spider-Man. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. The Silver Age of Comic Books is generally considered to date from the first successful revival of the dormant superhero form — the debut of the Barry Allen Flash in Showcase #4 (Sept.-Oct. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. Both of these were simply reprints of newspaper strips.

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. While comics as an artform could arguably extend as far back as sequential cave paintings from thousands of years ago, comic books are dependent on printing, and the starting point for them in book form is generally considered to be the tabloid-sized The Funnies begun in 1929, or the more traditional sized Funnies on Parade from 1933. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. The Platinum Age refers to any material produced prior to this. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. The Golden Age is generally thought as lasting from 1938's introduction of Superman until the early 1950s, during which comic books enjoyed a surge of popularity, the archetype of the superhero was invented and defined, and many of comic books' most popular superheroes debuted. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. The exact boundaries of these eras, the terms for which originated in fandom press, is a debatable point among comic book historians.

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. The history of the comic book in the United States is split into several ages or historical eras: The Platinum Age, The Golden Age, The Silver Age, The Bronze Age, and The Modern Age. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. are marketed at younger teenagers, though the market also produces work for general as well as more mature audiences. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. The majority of all comic books in the U.S. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Since the invention of the comic book format in the 1930s, the United States has been the leading producer, with only the British comic (during the inter-war period through the 1970s) and Japanese manga as close competitors in terms of quantity of titles (although, Japan outweighs America currently in overall sales by a vast margin).

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. . A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The analogous term in the United Kingdom is a comic, short for comic paper or comic magazine. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. In the U.K., the term comic book is used to refer to American comic books by their readers and collectors, while the general populace would mainly consider a comic book a hardcover book collecting comics stories. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). American comic books have become closely associated with the superhero sub-genre.

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Like jazz and a handful of other cultural artifacts, comic books are a rare indigenous American art form, [1] [2] though prototypical examples of the form exist. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Long-form comic books, generally with hardcover or trade-paper binding came to be known as graphic novels, but as noted above, the term's definition is especially fluid. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. The commercial success of these collections led to work being created specifically for the comic-book form, which fostered specific conventions such as splash pages. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. The earliest comic books were simply collections of comic strips that had originally been printed in newspapers.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. In the last quarter of the 20th century, greater acceptance of the comics form among the general reading populace coincided with a greater usage of the term graphic novel, often meant to differentiate a book of comics with a spine from its stapled, pamphlet form, but the difference between the terms seems fuzzy at best as comics become more widespread in libraries, mainstream bookstores, and other places. Some chairs have foot rests. The term "comics" in this context does not refer to comic strips (such as Peanuts or Dilbert). Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. Although the term implies otherwise, the subject matter in comic books is not necessarily humorous, and in fact its dramatic seriousness varies widely. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Comic books are often called comics for short.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. A comic book is a magazine or book containing sequential art in the form of a narrative. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Zap Comix (United States-Last Gasp, Apex Novelties). The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. X-Men (United States - Marvel Comics). However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. Wonder Woman (United States - DC Comics).

In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. Viz (British). This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. Tintin (Belgian - Casterman). A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. Superman (United States - DC Comics). A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities"). Spike and Suzy (Belgian Flemish, originally called Suske en Wiske).

It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. Sandman (United States - DC Vertigo Comics, 1988 World Fantasy Award (unique win for a comic-book series). A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). The Amazing Spider-Man (United States - Marvel Comics). Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. The Smurfs (Belgium - Dupuis). Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. Raw (United States - Raw Books).

Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Mickey Mouse (United States-Disney). "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Mortadelo y Filemón (Spain). Intended usage determines the desired seating position. Monica's Gang (Turma da Mônica) (Brazilian). Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Lucky Luke (Belgium - Dupuis and Dargaud).

. Lone Wolf and Cub (Japanese). See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. The Incredible Hulk (United States - Marvel Comics). Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. Green Lantern (United States - DC Comics). There may be separate headrests. The Fantastic Four (United States - Marvel Comics).

The back may extend above the height of the head. Donald Duck (United States - Dell Comics, Gold Key Comics). Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The Dandy (British). The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. The Beano (British). Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved. Batman (United States - DC Comics).

A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Asterix (French). A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. Akira (Japanese). A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Acme Novelty Library (United States - Fantagraphics). Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. 2000 AD (British).

Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Western comics. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. War comics. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. Science-fiction comics. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat. Satiric comics.

leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. Romance comics. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. Religious comics. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Journalistic comics. Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat. Humor comics.

Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Horror comics. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Historical comics. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Dramatic adventure comics. Fabric, simple covering without support. Crime comics.

Leather, may be tooled with a design. Autobiographical comics. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Anthromorphic/funny animal comics (see also furry). Stone, often marble. Adaptations of narratives in other media, often movies. Molded plastic. Action/adventure comics (of which superhero is a sub-genre).

Metal seats of solid or open design. Political and religious comics. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Adult comics. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Alternative comics. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs. Underground comics.

Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours. Tijuana bible (aka 8-pagers). Brazilian comics - Histórias em Quadrinhos, HQ. Italian comics - Fumetti. Franco-Belgian comics - Bande Dessinée, BD.

European comics

    . Manhwa (Korean comics). Manhua (Chinese comics). Manga (Japanese comics).

    LianHuanHua - (Chinese comics, sequential picture books). Indian comics. Chinese comics- (LianHuanhua, Manhua). Canadian comics.

    British comics. Argentine comics. American comic book.

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