Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. Commercially-produced cookies include many varieties of sandwich cookies filled with marshmallow, jam, or icing, as well as cookies covered with chocolate which may more closely resemble a type of confectionery. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. Cookies are broadly classified according to how they are formed, including at least these categories:. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. Obviously there is some variation in that some cookies are purposely undercooked to retain a water-moist center. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. This saturation produces the most texturally attractive feature of the cookie, and indeed all fried foods: crispness saturated with a moisture (namely oil) that does not sink into it.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. Rather than evaporating and thickening the mixture, they remain, saturating the bubbles of escaped gasses from what little water there might have been in the eggs, if added, and the carbon dioxide released by heating the baking powder. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. Oils in baked cakes do not behave as water in the finished product. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. Thus a cake made with butter or eggs instead of water is far denser after removal from the oven. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Oils, be they in the form of butter, egg yolks, vegetable oils or lard are much more viscous than water and evaporate freely at a much higher temperature than water.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. In the cookie the agent of cohesion has become some variation of the theme of oil. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. Water in cakes serves to make the base (in the case of cakes called 'batter') as thin as possible, which allows the bubbles – responsible for a cake's fluffiness – to form better. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Despite their descent from cakes and other sweetened breads, the cookie in almost all its forms has abandoned water as a medium for cohesion. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. A general theory of cookies may be formulated this way.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Cookies are made in a wide variety of styles, using an array of ingredients including sugars, spices, chocolate, butter, peanut butter, nuts or dried fruits. Some are decorative. Some cookies are not cooked at all. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Cookies can be baked until crisp or just long enough that they remain soft, depending on the type of cookie. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. (example) 2.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. The ancestor of the cookie is said to have come from Persia in the 1600s according to many sources. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Cookies were first made from little pieces of cake batter that were cooked separately in order to test oven temperature. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. In Scottish English the word denotes a small scone-like cake or bun, often filled with cream. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. Its name derives from the Dutch word koekje which means little cake, and arrived in the English language via the Scots language, rather than directly from the Dutch.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. . An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. In the United States and Canada, a cookie is a small, flat baked cake (Commonwealth English biscuit). In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. In British English, bar cookies are known as "tray bakes". Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). Brownies are an example of a batter-type bar cookie, while Rice Krispie treats are a bar cookie that doesn't require baking, perhaps similar to a cereal bar.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Bar cookies consist of batter or other ingredients that are poured or pressed into a pan (sometimes in multiple layers), and cut into cookie-sized pieces after baking. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Spritzgebäck are an example of a pressed cookie. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. Pressed cookies are made from a soft dough that is extruded from a cookie press into various decorative shapes before baking. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Gingerbread men are an example.

It specifies things like[4]:. Rolled cookies are made from a stiffer dough that is rolled out and cut into shapes with a cookie cutter. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. Snickerdoodles are an example of molded cookies. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. Molded cookies are also made from a stiffer dough that is molded into balls or cookie shapes by hand before baking. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. The dough is typically shaped into cylinders which are sliced into round cookies before baking.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. Refrigerator cookies are made from a stiff dough that is refrigerated to become even stiffer. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. Chocolate chip cookies are an example of drop cookies. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. During baking, the mounds of dough spread and flatten. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Drop cookies are made from a relatively soft dough that is dropped by spoonfuls onto the baking sheet.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. A chair may or may not have armrests.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs.

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. It is sometimes called the "stool height". For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. There may be cases where padding is not desirable.

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point.

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered).

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. Some chairs have foot rests. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design.

. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. There may be separate headrests.

The back may extend above the height of the head. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool.

Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat.

leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat.

Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Fabric, simple covering without support.

Leather, may be tooled with a design. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Stone, often marble. Molded plastic.

Metal seats of solid or open design. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs.

Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.

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