Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


This page about Chair includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about Chair
News stories about Chair
External links for Chair
Videos for Chair
Wikis about Chair
Discussion Groups about Chair
Blogs about Chair
Images of Chair

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. In the third quarter of 2003 Sun discountinued their Cobalt line in favor of the AMD based Sun Fire line. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. Previously known as Cobalt Systems, this Internet appliance company was acquired by Sun in 2000. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. Cobalt was also the name of Sun Microsystems' mainly rack-mounted, Intel and Linux based, server appliance line. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. This process is referred to as irradiation.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. Nevertheless, the gamma radiation emitted from cobalt-60 is used to kill bacteria on fruit and vegetables thus increasing their shelf life. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. The risk in the absence of a nuclear war comes from improper handling (or theft) of medical radiotherapeutic units. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. Some nuclear weapon designs could intentionally increase the amount of Cobalt-60 dispersed as nuclear fallout – this is sometimes called a dirty bomb or cobalt bomb, once predicted by a leading scientist as being capable of wiping out all life on earth. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Cobalt-60 is a risk factor in a nuclear confrontation because neutron emissions will convert iron into this isotope.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. Ingestion of 60Co will lead to incorporation of some cobalt into tissues, which is released very slowly. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. Cobalt-60 is a powerful gamma ray emitter and exposure to 60Co is therefore a cancer risk. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Cobalt compounds should be handled with care due to cobalt's slight toxicity. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Powdered cobalt in metal form is a fire hazard.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. The primary decay products before 59Co are element 26 (iron) isotopes and the primary products after are element 28 (nickel) isotopes. Some are decorative. The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 59Co, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. The isotopes of cobalt range in atomic weight from 50 amu (50Co) to 73 amu (73Co). In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. This element also has 4 meta states, all of which have half lives less than 15 minutes.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lifes that are less than 18 hours and the majority of these have half lives that are less than 1 second. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. 22 radioisotopes have been characterized with the most stable being 60Co with a half-life of 5.2714 years, 57-Co (57Co) with a half-life of 271.79 days, and 56-Co (56Co) with a half-life of 77.27 days, and 58-Co (58Co) with a half life of 70.86 days. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. Naturally occurring cobalt is composed of 1 stable isotope, 59-Co (59Co). A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. Oxides are antiferromagnetic at low temperature CoO (Neel temperature: 291 K) and Co3O4 (Neel temperature: 40 K).

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. Due to the various oxidation states, there is an abundant number of compounds. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. It is also produced in the town of Cobalt, Ontario as a byproduct of the silver mining. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. It is also found in Finland, Azerbaijan, and Kazakhstan. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). The world's major producers of cobalt are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, mainland China, Zambia, Russia and Australia.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. The main ores of cobalt are cobaltite, erythrite, glaucodot, and skutterudite. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Cobalt is usually not mined alone, and tends to be produced as a by-product of nickel and copper mining activities. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. Cobalt is not found as a free metal and is generally found in the form of ores. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Cobalt is a central component of the vitamin cobalamin, or vitamin B-12.

It specifies things like[4]:. Having 0.13 to 0.30 mg/kg of cobalt in soils markedly improves the health of grazing animals. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. Cobalt in small amounts is essential to many living organisms, including humans. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. Some also think the name may derive from Greek kobalos, which means 'mine', and which may have common roots with kobold, goblin, and cobalt. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. Other sources cite the origin as stemming from silver miners' belief that cobalt had been placed by kobolds who had stolen the silver.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. The word cobalt comes from the German kobalt or kobold, meaning evil spirit, the metal being so called by miners, because it was poisonous and troublesome (it polluted and degraded the other mined elements, like nickel). Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. In 1938, John Livingood and Glenn Seaborg discovered cobalt-60. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. During the 19th century, cobalt blue was produced at the Norwegian Blaafarveværket (70-80 % of world production), led by the Prussian industrialist Benjamin Wegner. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. He was able to show that cobalt was the source of the blue color in glasses, which previously had been attributed to the bismuth found with cobalt.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. The date of discovery varies depending on the source, but is between 1730 and 1737. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. George Brandt (1694-1768) is credited with the discovery of cobalt. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. Cobalt was known in ancient times through its compounds, which would color glass a rich blue. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. The second machine is out beside the walkway into the Centre.

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. In fact the first machine is on display in the Saskatoon Cancer Centre – look up when entering the lobby. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. The first 60Co therapy machine (the "cobalt bomb") was built and first used in Canada. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. The 60Co source is useful for about 5 years but even after this point is still very radioactive, and so cobalt machines have fallen from favor in the Western world where linacs are common. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. The metal has the unfortunate habit of producing a fine dust, causing problems with radiation protection.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. The 60Co source is about 2 cm in diameter and as a result produces a geometric penumbra, making the edge of the radiation field fuzzy. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. It produces two gamma rays with energies of 1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. Cobalt-60 (Co-60 or 60Co) is a radioactive metal that is used in radiotherapy. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. Co-60 is useful as a gamma ray source partially because it can be produced - in known quantity, and very large amounts - by simply exposing natural cobalt to neutrons in a reactor for a given time.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Common oxidation states of cobalt include +2, and +3, though +1 is also seen. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Metallic cobalt commonly presents a mixture of two crystallographic structures hcp and fcc with a transition temperature hcp→fcc of 722 K. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Cobalt has a relative permeability two thirds that of iron. A chair may or may not have armrests. Cobalt-60, an artificially produced radioactive isotope of cobalt, is an important radioactive tracer and cancer-treatment agent.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. Mammals require small amounts of cobalt salts. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. It is frequently associated with nickel, and both are characteristic ingredients of meteoric iron. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. The Curie temperature is of 1388 K with 1.6~1.7 Bohr magnetons per atom. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. Cobalt is a hard ferromagnetic silver-white element.

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. . Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Cobalt is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Co and atomic number 27. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. London celebrates 50 years of Cobalt-60 Radiotherapy. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. WebElements.com – Cobalt.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. National Pollutant Inventory - Cobalt fact sheet. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. Cobalt is the name of a current line of cars from Chevrolet. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. Los Alamos National Laboratory - Cobalt. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. It is used in industrial radiography to detect structural flaws in metal parts.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. It is used in radiation treatment of foods for sterilization (cold pasteurization). It is sometimes called the "stool height". It is used in radiotherapy. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. Cobalt-60 has multiple uses as a gamma ray source:

    . The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. Steel-belted radial tires.

    Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. Battery electrodes. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Pigments (cobalt blue and cobalt green). Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Ground coats for porcelain enamels. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. Drying agents for paints, varnishes, and inks.

    A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. electroplating because of its appearance, hardness, and resistance to oxidation. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. Catalysts for the petroleum and chemical industries. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Alnico magnets. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. Magnets and magnetic recording media.

      .

      Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. Cemented carbides (also called hard metals) and diamond tools. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. High-speed steels. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Corrosion- and wear-resistant alloys. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Superalloys, for parts in gas turbine aircraft engines.

      The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Alloys, such as:

        . A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered).

        Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body.

        A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. Some chairs have foot rests. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly.

        Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

        In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

        It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

        Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design.

        . See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. There may be separate headrests.

        The back may extend above the height of the head. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

        A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool.

        Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat.

        leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat.

        Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Fabric, simple covering without support.

        Leather, may be tooled with a design. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Stone, often marble. Molded plastic.

        Metal seats of solid or open design. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs.

        Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.

10-22-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List