Chair

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Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. After reviewing all of the possible soundalikes, the company officially adopted kěkǒu-kělè (可口可乐), meaning roughly "tasty and fun". Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. However, the Coca-Cola company itself never adopted such a translation. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. In reality, some local Chinese shopkeepers did create their own signs in an effort to approximate the sound of the product's name, resulting in kǒukē-kǒulà (口蝌口蜡), which might more literally be translated as "mouth tadpole, mouth wax". A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. It is often repeated as an urban legend that the Coca-Cola company mistranslated its product's name into a string of characters meaning "Bite the wax tadpole" while attempting to market the product in Chinese.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. Pepper is the number one soft drink; and Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Prince Edward Island in Canada, where Pepsi is the market leader.[citation needed] In Peru,Inca Kola, the "national beverage" (independently produced until 1999, when Coca-Cola acquired Corporación Inca Kola del Perú S.A., the Peruvian company that formerly produced it) is more popular.[25] In Sweden, despite Coca-Cola's strong holiday-oriented marketing efforts, Julmust outsells Coca-Cola during the Christmas season.[26] Note that in Scotland, where the locally produced Irn-Bru was once more popular, 2005 figures show that both Coca-Cola and Diet Coke now outsell Irn-Bru.[27]. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. Nevertheless, there are some places like New York state in the United States of America, where Pepsi leads the market; Texas, in the USA, where Dr. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. Coca-Cola is the best-selling soft drink in most countries. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Coca Cola's positive business contributions following some of these criticisms include:.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet.
Main article: Coca-Cola Company: Praises. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. There are many criticisms of both the company's products and trade practices. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. As the largest seller of soft drinks in the world, including its flagship Coca-Cola drink, the Coca-Cola Company has been criticized for some of its corporate actions, from issues such as monopolistic practices, reliance on low health standards, racist employment practices, the privatization of water supplies, to the abuse of workers' rights, including the assassination of union members. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Main article: Coca-Cola Company: Criticisms.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. [20] SINALTRAINAL's boycott followed the removal of the Coca-Cola Company from SINALTRAINAL's lawsuit, see the #Business practices section. Some are decorative. In Summer 2003, Colombian trade Union SINALTRAINAL called for an international boycott of Coca-Cola products because of intimidation, kidnapping and murder of workers in Coca Cola bottling plants by paramilitaries who were allegedly acting on behalf of the Coca Cola Company in order to drive down wages in Colombia. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. See #Business practices section for environmental impact discussions.. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. As of 2005, Coke and Pepsi together hold 95% market share of soft-drink sales in India.[19].

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. Coca-Cola had registered a 15 percent drop in sales after the pesticide allegations were made in 2003. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. In 2004, Coca-Cola was described as being experimentally used as a pesticide by India farmers in Andhra Pradesh.[17] However, it was later revealed to be a publicity stunt by local activists and farmers.[18]. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. Narain says CSE's study of pesticide residues in soft drinks was a natural follow-up to a previous study it did on bottled water.[16]. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. Ms.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. Coke's David Cox, Coke's Hong Kong-based communications director for Asia, accuses Sunita Narain, CSE's director, of "brandjacking," using Coke's brand name to draw attention to her campaign against pesticides. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. Coke and PepsiCo oppose the move, arguing that lab tests aren't reliable enough to detect minute traces of pesticides in complex drinks like soda. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. But an Indian parliamentary committee in 2004 backed up CSE's findings and a government-appointed committee is now trying to develop the world's first pesticide standards for soft drinks. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). Coca Cola and PepsiCo angrily denied allegations that their products manufactured in India contained toxin levels far above the norms permitted in the developed world.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. CSE said it had tested the same products in the US and found no such residues. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. CSE found that the Indian produced Pepsi's soft drink products had 36 times the level of pesticide residues permitted under European Union regulations; Coca Cola's 30 times. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. Tested products included Coke, Pepsi, Seven Up, Mirinda, Fanta, Thums Up, Limca, Sprite. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. In 2003, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a non-governmental organisation in New Dehli, said aerated waters produced by soft drinks manufacturers in India, including multinational giants Pepsico and Coca-Cola, contained toxins including lindane, DDT, malathion and chlorpyrifos — pesticides that can contribute to cancer and a breakdown of the immune system.

It specifies things like[4]:. As an example, in 2004 Coca-Cola India's market share was 60.9%.[15]. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. However, these claims conflict with marketshare data. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. Critics claim Coca-Cola is less popular in other places such as India, due to suspicions regarding the health standards of the drink. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. In the Middle East, the only region in the world where Coca-Cola is not the number one soda drink, Coca-Cola nonetheless holds almost 25% marketshare and had double-digit growth in 2003.[14].

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. However, these claims conflict with marketshare data. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. foreign policy in Israel and elsewhere.[citation needed] They additionally cite the example of Mecca Cola which has become a hit in the past few years. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Critics claim Coca-Cola is less popular in Arab countries due to disapproval of U.S. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. The performance and talk dealt with the sugar industry and other multinational corporation policies and Coca-Cola as a symbol of corporate power.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. As part of their 2005 "Experience The Experience" tour, art group monochrom created a 'Brick Of Coke': they put several gallons of Coca-Cola into a pot and boiled it down until the residue left behind could be molded into a brick. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. The identification with the spread of American culture has led to the pun "Coca-Colonisation". Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. The drink is also often a metonym for the Coca-Cola Company. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. The Coca-Cola drink has a high degree of identification with the United States itself, being considered an "American brand" or to a small extent as representing America (compare Mickey Mouse).

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. There are some groups who criticize this move to use high fructose corn syrup over sugar due to the fact that the corn in which the corn syrup is maintained may come from genetically altered plants. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. This was done largely due to the prices of sugar increasing during these times. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. Since the late 1980s in the US, Coke has been made with high fructose corn syrup instead of sugar glucose/fructose, except Kosher for Passover Coke which can't be made with high fructose corn syrup. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. For more, see phosphoric acid in food.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of phosphoric acid[13]. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. [12]. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. In 2003 the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry took a grant of $1m dollars from Coca-Cola to fund educational research. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. The impartiality of this experiment can be reasonably questioned.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. [11]. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Diet Coke was found to be slightly less acidic. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. None of those are in the critical range to damage tooth enamel. A chair may or may not have armrests. A 2005 experiment by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry found the pH of the mouth to be 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7 in 5, 10, and 20 minutes (respectively) after swishing 15 mL in the mouth for one minute.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. Under normal conditions, its acidity causes no immediate harm.[10]. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. Evidence has been presented in numerous cases against Coca-Cola since the 1920s that decisively proves that the drink is not more harmful than comparable soft drinks, or indeed acidic fruit juices like Mr Juicy apple juice. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine.[8] The soft drink industry dismisses many of these criticisms as urban myths.[9] There are some reports that Coca-Cola is addictive, although the veracity of these reports has yet to be established.[citation needed]. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. While many nutritionists believe that "soft drinks and other calorie-rich, nutrient-poor food can fit into a good diet"[citation needed], it is generally agreed that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed to excess[citation needed], particularly to young children whose soda consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet.[6] Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium (which can contribute to osteoporosis), magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.[7].

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. Since this process cannot extract the cocaine alkaloids at a molecular level, the drink still contains trace amounts of the stimulant[5]. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Today's Coca-Cola uses "spent" coca leaves, those that have been through a cocaine extraction process, to flavor the beverage. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Because cocaine is naturally present in untreated coca leaves, small amounts of cocaine were also present in the beverage. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. Contrary to popular belief, the coca leaf extract cocaine was never added to Coca-Cola, per se.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. The acid can be used to anodize titanium according to various websites.[4]. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. One unusual use for Coke is as a rust-control substance—the phosphoric acid in coke converts iron oxide to iron phosphate, and as such can be used as an initial treatment for corroded iron and steel objects being renovated, etc. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. (While Highway Troopers do not use Coca-Cola for this purpose, it was proven on the television program MythBusters that Coca-Cola can be used quite well as a blood cleaning agent.) For more on acidity and health concerns, see the Acidity subsection below.. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. All of these claims are false.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. These urban legends usually take the form of "fun facts" — for example, "highway troopers use Coke to clean blood from highways after accidents", "somebody once died in a Coke-drinking competition," or "Coke can dissolve a tooth overnight". It is sometimes called the "stool height". Coca-Cola has been the target of urban legends decrying the drink for its supposedly copious amounts of acid (its pH value of 2.5 is midway between vinegar and gastric acid), or the "life-threatening" effects of its carbonated water. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. One false legend claims that Coke was once green, or was accidentally carbonated when a clerk squirted syrup into the wrong glass. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. The numerous urban legends about Coca-Cola have led the Urban Legends Reference Pages to devote a whole section of their site to "Cokelore".

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. They also sponsor the International Rules football test game played between Australia and Ireland every year. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Coca-Cola has a long history of sports marketing relationships, which over the years have included Major League Baseball, the National Football League, National Basketball Association and the National Hockey League, as well as with many teams within those leagues. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. In addition, Coca Cola sponsors the annual Coca-Cola 600 for the NASCAR Nextel Cup auto racing series at Lowe's Motor Speedway in Charlotte, North Carolina. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. In fact, one of the FIFA tournament trophy: FIFA World Youth Championship from Tunisia in 1977 to Malaysia in 1997 was called "FIFA - Coca Cola Cup".

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. Since 1978 Coca-Cola is the main sponsor of FIFA and has sponsored each FIFA World Cup and other competitions organised by FIFA. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. This corporate sponsorship included the 1996 Summer Olympics hosted in Atlanta, which allowed Coca-Cola to spotlight its hometown. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Coca-Cola was the first-ever sponsor of the Olympic games, at the 1928 games in Amsterdam and has been an Olympics sponsor ever since. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. Coca-Cola has a policy of avoiding using children younger than the age of 12 in any of its advertising as a result of a lawsuit from the beginning of the 20th century that alleged that Coke's caffeine content was dangerous to children.[citation needed] However, in recent times, this has not stopped the company from targeting young consumers.[citation needed] In addition, it has not been disclosed in exact terms how safe Coke is for consumption by young children (or pregnant mothers).[citation needed].

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. However, after a few early successes, Columbia began to under-perform, and was dropped by the company in 1989. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Columbia provided subtle publicity through Coke product placements in many of its films while under Coke's ownership. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. In an attempt to broaden its portfolio, Coca-Cola purchased Columbia Pictures in 1982. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Thereafter, Coca-Cola regained its leadership in the market.

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Coca-Cola ran ads to combat Pepsi's ads in an incident sometimes referred to as the cola wars; one of Coke's ads compared the so-called Pepsi challenge to two chimpanzees deciding which tennis ball was furrier. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. During the 1980s, Pepsi-Cola ran a series of television advertisements showing people participating in taste tests in which they expressed a preference for Pepsi over Coke. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. Coca-Cola has gone through a number of different advertising slogans in its long history, including "The pause that refreshes", "I'd like to buy the world a Coke", and "Coke is it" (see Coca-Cola slogans). Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). Advertising for Coke is now almost ubiquitous, especially in southern areas of North America, such as Atlanta, where Coke was invented.

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Coke's advertising has been rather pervasive, as one of Woodruff's stated goals was to ensure that everyone on Earth drank Coca-Cola as their preferred beverage. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Coca-Cola's advertising has had a significant impact on American culture, and is frequently credited with the "invention" of the modern image of Santa Claus as an old man in red-and-white garments; however, while the company did in fact start promoting this image in the 1930s in its winter advertising campaigns, it was already common before that.[3] In the 1970s, a song from a Coca-Cola commercial called "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing", produced by Billy Davis, became a popular hit single, but there is no evidence that it did anything to increase sales of the soft drink. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. It is said that the owner of Root Glass became one of Indiana's wealthiest men because of the bottle, while Samuelsson didn't get anything more than his usual salary. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. In November 1915, Root Glass Company patented the bottle, and in 1916 it went into production.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. However, he continued to turn the pages and eventually he saw a picture of a cacao tree seed pod, with its bulging shape and distinctive grooves. Some chairs have foot rests. He looked in Encyclopaedia Britannica and was quickly forced to dismiss the idea. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. Thomas, Samuelsson decided to see if the shapes of the two ingredients behind the product name (coca and kola nuts) could serve as inspiration. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. According to legend, having received the request for a truly distinctive bottle from bottler Benjamin F.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. The equally famous Coca-Cola bottle, called the "Contour bottle" within the company, was created in 1915 by a Swedish former glassblower, Alexander Samuelsson, who had emigrated to the US in the 1880's and was employed as a manager at the Root Glass Company in Terre Haute, Indiana, one of Coca-Cola's bottle suppliers. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. The typeface used, known as Spencerian script, was developed in the mid 19th century and was the dominant form of formal handwriting in the United States during that period. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. It was Robsinson who came up with the name, and he also chose the logo’s distinctive cursive script. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. The famous Coca-Cola logotype is said to have largely been created by John Pemberton's business partner, Frank Mason Robinson, in 1885.

In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. As sugar and sweetners are added by the bottler, the sweetness of the drink is said to differ in various parts of the world, in order to cater for local taste. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. The Coca-Cola Company owns minority shares in some of its largest franchisees, like Coca-Cola Enterprises and Coca-Cola FEMSA, but almost half of the volume sold in the world is produced by fully independent bottlers. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. The bottlers are normally also responsible for all advertisment and other sales initiatives within their areas. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities"). The bottlers produce the final drink by mixing the syrup with filtered water and sugar (or artificial sweetners) and fill it into cans and bottles, which the bottlers then sell and distribute to retail stores, vending machines, restaurants and food service distributors.

It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. The Coca-Cola Company only produces a syrup concentrate, which it sells to various bottlers throughout the world who hold Coca-Cola franchises for one or more geographical areas. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). The actual production and distribution of Coca-Cola follows a franchising model. Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. However, experienced perfumers and food scientists - today aided by modern analytical methods - can easily identify the composition of food products, a fact that is further supported by the many cola flavorings and competing soft drinks like Pepsi. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. Woodruff, the company presents the formula of Coca-Cola as one of the most closely held trade secrets in modern business that only a few employees know or have access to.

Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. As a publicity marketing strategy started by Robert W. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. By 1998, it was sold in only a few places in the Midwestern U.S. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. However, sales falloff caused a severe cutback in distribution. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. In 1992 the company renamed the product "Coke II" (not to be confused with "Coke C2", a reduced-sugar cola launched by Coca-Cola in 2004).

. Meanwhile, the market share for New Coke had dwindled to only 3% by 1986. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. But the flop of New Coke brought a recovery. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. Purchases of vanilla more than halved during this period. There may be separate headrests. When New Coke was introduced in 1985, this had a severe impact on the economy of Madagascar, a prime vanilla exporter, since New Coke used vanillin, a less-expensive synthetic substitute.

The back may extend above the height of the head. The Coca-Cola Company is the world's largest consumer of natural vanilla extract. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The truth is we are not that dumb, and we are not that smart.". The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Some cynics will say that we planned the whole thing. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved. Donald Keough, company president at the time, responded to the accusation by declaring: "Some critics will say Coca-Cola made a marketing mistake.

A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. The company was later accused of performing this volte-face as an elaborate ruse to introduce a new product while reviving interest in the original. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. This and other protests caused the company to return to the old formula under the name Coca-Cola Classic on July 10, 1985. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Gay Mullins, from Seattle, Washington, founded the Old Cola Drinkers of America organization, which attempted to sue the company, and lobbied for the formula of Old Coke to be released into the public domain. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. The new Coca-Cola formula subsequently caused a public backlash.

Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Coca-Cola management was unprepared, however, for the nostalgic sentiments the drink aroused in the American public; some compared changing the Coke formula to rewriting the American Constitution. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. It is possible that customers would not have noticed the change if it had been made secretly or gradually, and thus brand loyalty could have been maintained. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. The commercial failure of New Coke therefore came as a grievous blow to the management of the Coca-Cola Company. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat. It has also been alleged that Woodruff might not have been able to understand what Goizueta was telling him.

leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. Goizueta claims that Woodruff endorsed it a few months before his death in 1985; others have pointed out that, as the two men were alone when the matter was discussed, Goizueta might have misinterpreted the wishes of the dying Woodruff, who could speak only in monosyllables. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. Woodruff played in the reformulation. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). It is unclear what part long-time company president Robert W. Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat. The reformulation was led by the then-CEO of the company, Roberto Goizueta, and the president Don Keough.

Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Follow-up taste tests revealed that most consumers preferred the taste of New Coke to both Coke and Pepsi. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Coca-Cola tinkered with the formula and created the new Coke. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. In taste tests, drinkers are more likely to respond positively to sweeter drinks, and Pepsi had the advantage over Coke because it is much sweeter. Fabric, simple covering without support. Double-blind taste tests suggested that more consumers preferred the taste of Pepsi (which is believed to have more lemon oil, less orange oil, and uses vanillin rather than vanilla) to Coke.

Leather, may be tooled with a design. Some authorities believe that New Coke, as the reformulated drink came to be known, was invented specifically to respond to its commercial competitor, Pepsi. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. In 1985, Coca-Cola, amid much publicity, changed the formula of the drink. Stone, often marble. For more corporate history, see The history of the Coca-Cola Company. Molded plastic. Before the United States entered World War II, the difficulty of shipping Coca-Cola concentrate to Germany and its occupied states led to the creation of a new drink by a Coca-Cola employee, Fanta.

Metal seats of solid or open design. The beverage had become synonymous with the American way of life. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. The popularity of the drink exploded as American soldiers returned home from the war with a taste for the drink. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Coca-Cola set up bottling plants in several locations overseas to assure the drink's availability to soldiers, setting the stage for the company's post-war overseas expansion. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs. The United States Army permitted Coca-Cola employees to enter the front lines as "Technical Officers" where they operated Coke's system of providing refreshments for soldiers, who welcomed the beverage as a reminder of home.

Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours. When the United States entered World War II, The Coca-Cola Company began providing free drinks for soldiers of the United States Army.
. This meant that Coca-Cola was originally sold in a wide variety of bottles, until the introduction of the iconic, standardized Coke bottle in 1916. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies — in effect, becoming parent bottlers.

However, the loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for the company for decades to come. Asa Candler was tentative about bottling the drink, but the two entrepreneurs who proposed the idea were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design that is now so familiar. Biedenharn.

Its proprietor was Joseph A. The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894, and cans of Coke first appeared in 1955. Regardless, Candler began aggressively marketing the product — the efficiency of this concerted advertising campaign would not be realized until much later.

In 1892, Candler incorporated a second company, The Coca-Cola Company (the current corporation), and in 1910 Candler had the earliest records of the company burned, further obscuring its legal origins. However, in 1914, Dozier came forward to claim her signature on the bill of sale had been forged, and subsequent analysis has indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery as well.[2]. Candler purchased exclusive rights to the formula from John Pemberton, Margaret Dozier, and Woolfolk Walker. After both failed to catch on, Candler set out to establish a legal claim to Coca-Cola in late 1888, in order to force his two competitors out of the business.

So, in the summer of 1888, Candler sold his beverage under the names Yum Yum and Koke. In an attempt to clarify the situation, John Pemberton declared that the name Coca-Cola belonged to Charley, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. [1]. Three versions of Coca-Cola — sold by three separate businesses — were on the market.

Meanwhile, Pemberton's alcoholic son Charley Pemberton began selling his own version of the product. Bloodworth. Murphey, and E.H. Mayfield, A.O.

In the same year, Pemberton sold the rights a second time to three more businessmen: J.C. In 1887, while himself suffering from an ongoing addiction to morphine, Pemberton sold a stake in his company to Asa Griggs Candler, who incorporated it as the Coca Cola Corporation in 1888. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured a myriad of diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Although Pemberton intended it to be mixed with still water, it was sold at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time thanks to a belief that carbonated water was good for the health.

Coca-Cola was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 that year in the Atlanta Journal. The first sales were made at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, and for the first eight months only an average of nine drinks were sold each day. Pemberton called for 5 ounces of coca leaf per gallon of syrup.

He named it Coca-Cola, because it included the stimulant coca leaves from South America and was flavored using kola nuts, a source of caffeine. The following year, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed Prohibition legislation, Pemberton began to develop a non-alchoholic version of the French Wine Cola. He was inspired by the formidable success of French Angelo Mariani's cocawine, Vin Mariani. Columbus, Georgia druggist John Stith Pemberton invented a cocawine called Pemberton's French Wine Coca in 1884.

. Though faced with critiques of its health effects and various allegations of wrongdoing by the company, Coca-Cola has remained an internationally popular soft drink. Originally intended as a patent medicine when it was invented in the late 19th century, Coca-Cola was acquired by the businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose shrewd marketing tactics led Coke to its world-wide soft drink market dominance during the twentieth century. Coke is one of the world's most recognizable and widely sold commercial brands.

The beverage is widely referred to as Coke, a nickname eventually trademarked by the company. Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink, or cola, produced by the The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE:KO) of Atlanta, GA. ^  Mark Thomas Comedy Featuring Coke Online Video about Coke and violations of good practice (accessed June 10, 2005). ^  Coca-Cola Myths and Rumors The Coca-Cola Company (accessed June 10, 2005); "Caffeine and Dehydration: Myth or Fact?," Food Insight, July–August 2002 (accessed June 10, 2005).

^  "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA," Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 31, 1997 (accessed June 10, 2005). ^  "Cola Soft Drinks may Contribite to Lower Bone Mineral Density in Women," American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, September 19, 2003 (accessed June 10, 2005). ^  Ibid; Russell Robertson, "Soda, Calcium, and Osteoporosis," Healthlink—Medical College of Wisconsin (accessed June 10, 2005). Jacobson, "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health," Center for Science in the Public Interest (accessed June 10, 2005).

^  Michael F. ^  John Vidal, "Things grow better with Coke," Guardian Unlimited, November 2, 2004 (accessed June 10, 2005). ^  Mikkelson and Mikkelson, "Acid Slip," March 29, 2004 (accessed June 10, 2005); Mikkelson and Mikkelson, "Tooth in Advertising," February 27, 2001 (accessed June 10, 2005); Mikkelson and Mikkelson, "CO2 Fast, 2 Furious," April 2, 2004 (accessed June 10, 2005). May 1, 1997 (accessed January 15, 2006).

"Anodizing". ^  Seeley, Bill. Mikkelson, "The Claus That Refreshes," snopes.com, February 27, 2001 (accessed June 10, 2005). ^  Barbara Mikkelson and David P.

Gómez, "Peruvian Drug Control Agency: Coca Cola Buys Coca Leaves," Narco News Bulletin, January 28, 2005 (accessed June 10, 2005). ^  Luis A. ^  Sun Trust. ^  Pages 45–47: (Pendergrast, 2000).

ISBN 0465054684.. For God, Country and Coca-Cola, 41–45, Basic Books. ^  Mark Pendergrast (2000). ISBN 0789014858..

Baseball and American Culture: Across the Diamond, 133, Haworth Press. ^  Rielly, Edward J (2003). servings to Hurricane Katrina Evacuees, donated $10 million to tsunami relief efforts in Asia and after the September 11 terrorist attacks committed to a $12 million financial contribution to disaster relief efforts. Charitable Giving: The Coca-Cola Company and its bottling partners shipped more than 30 million donated 8-oz.

HIV / AIDS in Africa: Coca-Cola will spend up to $5 million per year to fund HIV/AIDS treatment for Africans who work within the company's bottling system which employs 58,000 people in Africa; Coca Cola Africa has a $50 million budget to support HIV/AIDS programmes. Coca-Cola offers domestic partner health benefits and its non-discrimination policy includes sexual orientation. Promoting Diversity: Awards including "50 Best Companies for Minorities" by Fortune Magazine in 2004 and ""50 Best Companies for Latinas to Work for in the U.S." by Latina Style in 2004. [23]) [24]:(For information on SINATRAINAL's boycott following the removal, see the #As a political and corporate symbol section.).

In April 2003 District Judge Jose E Martinez in Miami excluded The Coca-Cola Company and its Colombian unit because its bottling agreement did not give it "explicit control" over labour issues in Colombia; in short, the Coca-Cola Company was dismissed from the case.[22] The lawsuit is continuing against the bottlers, Panamco and Colombian bottler Bebidas y Alimentos. With the help of the United Steelworkers of America, SINALTRAINAL filed a lawsuit in 2001. Specifically, The Coca-Cola Company and its bottlers are accused of directing or tolerating the actions of paramilitaries against their workers in order to prevent them from setting up trade unions, resulting in some of the leaders of said attempted trade unions being murdered. In Colombia, the company has been accused by Colombian trade Union SINALTRAINAL of human rights violations.

[21]. In India, the corporation has provoked a number of boycotts and protests as a result of its perceived low standards of hygiene and adverse impact on the environment. For details on the boycotts, see the Coca-Cola Company page.. and Ireland boycott Coca-Cola products for concerns over human rights abuses.

A number of universities in Canada, the UK, the U.S.

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