Caterpillar

The striking caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth

A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form.

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek).

Caterpillar of the monarch butterfly

Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food.

Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars.

Caterpillar

Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours.

Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates.

The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means.

Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples).

"Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005

Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae.

Literature and art

  • Children's stories
    • Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland
    • The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle.
  • Popular song
    • Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen)
  • TV series
    • Arthur in Willo the Wisp
    • The Screamapillar in The Simpsons
  • Music
    • Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]

Additional photos

For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth.


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For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth. A third highway, the Berea Freeway (Ohio 237 in part), connects I-71 to the airport, and forms part of the boundary between Cleveland and Brook Park. Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae. The Jennings Freeway (Ohio 176) connects I-71 just south of I-90 to I-480 near the suburbs of Parma and Brooklyn Heights. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005. The Cleveland Memorial Shoreway carries Ohio 2 along its length, and at varying points also carries US 6, US 20 and I-90. "Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. Two other limited-access highways serve Cleveland.

The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples). Cleveland is also served by two three-digit interstates, Interstate 480, which enters Cleveland briefly at a few points and Interstate 490, which connects I-77 with the junction of I-90 and I-71 just south of downtown. Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. At the junction with the Shoreway, I-90 makes a 90-degree turn known in the area as Dead Man's Curve, then continues northeast, entering Lake County near the eastern split with Ohio 2. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means. Running due east/west through the west side suburbs, I-90 turns northeast at the junction with I-71 and I-490, and is known as the Innerbelt through downtown. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Interstate 90 connects the two sides of Cleveland, and is the northern terminus for both I-71 and I-77.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. I-77 sees the least traffic of the three interstates, although it does connect Cleveland to Akron. The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience. Interstate 77 begins in downtown Cleveland and runs almost due south through the southern suburbs. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates. I-71 runs through the southwestern suburbs and eventually connects Cleveland with Columbus. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. Interstate 71 begins just southwest of downtown and is the major route from downtown Cleveland to the airport.

For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. Three two-digit Interstate highways serve Cleveland directly. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. RTA is currently installing a bus rapid transit line, coined the "Silver Line", which will run along Euclid Avenue from downtown to University Circle.[23]. Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. It consists of two light rail lines, known as the Green and Blue Lines, and a heavy rail line, the Red Line. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours. The rail portion is officially called the Cleveland Rapid Transit, but is better known as The Rapid.

They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. Cleveland currently has a bus and rail mass transit system operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, also known as "RTA". Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. Burke is primarily a commuter and business airport. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars. In addition to Hopkins, Cleveland is served by Burke Lakefront Airport, on the north shore of downtown between Lake Erie and the Shoreway. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. In 1930, the airport was the site of the first airfield lighting system and the first air traffic control tower.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. It holds the distinction of having the first airport-to-downtown rapid transit connection, established in 1968. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is the city's major facility and a large international airport that serves as one of three main hubs for Continental Airlines. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. The city is home to two airports. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. The city remains without major-league hockey to the present, although today's Cleveland Barons, the AHL affiliate of the San Jose Sharks, maintains a tradition of professional hockey in Cleveland stretching back to 1937.[22].

These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. Cleveland fielded an NHL team, the Cleveland Barons, from 1976 to 1978, which was later merged into the Minnesota North Stars. Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. At the 2005 Major League Soccer All-Star Game in Columbus, MLS commissioner Don Garber announced that Cleveland was one of several top areas in contention for an expansion team in 2007. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food. The city's recent lack of success in sports have earned it a reputation of being a cursed sports city, which ESPN validated by proclaiming Cleveland as its "most tortured sports city" in 2004.[21]. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. The Cleveland Cavaliers are experiencing a renaissance with Cleveland fans due to LeBron James, a native of nearby Akron and the number one overall draft pick of 2003.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Between 1995 and 2001, Jacobs Field sold out for 455 consecutive games, a Major League Baseball record. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'. The Cleveland Indians last reached the World Series in 1995 and 1997, though they lost to the Atlanta Braves and Florida Marlins, respectively, and have not won the series since 1948. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. The city's franchise is one of the most storied in football, though it last won an NFL championship in 1964 and has never appeared in the Super Bowl. Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Cleveland has long been known as a "football town", and the Browns dominated the NFL from 1950 to 1955.

The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek). Local sporting facilities include Jacobs Field, Cleveland Browns Stadium, Quicken Loans Arena, and the Wolstein Center. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The city hosted the Gravity Games, an extreme sports series, from 2002 to 2004. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. Annual sporting events held in Cleveland include the Champ Car Grand Prix of Cleveland, the Cleveland Marathon, and the Ohio Classic college football game. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association), and Cleveland Barons (American Hockey League).

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. A Cleveland first in television was The Morning Exchange program on WEWS, which defined the morning show format, and served as the inspiration for Good Morning America. They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form. WVIZ 25 and WEAO 49 are members of PBS. Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". Cleveland is also served by WVPX 23 (i) and Spanish-language channel WQHS 61 (Univision). A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). Cleveland is ranked as the 16th largest television market by Nielsen Media Research.[20] The market is served by stations affiliated with major American networks including WKYC 3 (NBC), WEWS 5 (ABC), WJW 8 (FOX), WOIO 19 (CBS), WUAB 43 (UPN), and WBNX 55 (WB).

Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]. Cleveland also supports several alternative weekly publications, including the Free Times and Cleveland Scene. Music

    . The competing Cleveland Press ceased publication on June 17, 1982, and the Cleveland News ended its run in 1960. The Screamapillar in The Simpsons. Cleveland is served in print by The Plain Dealer, the city's sole remaining daily newspaper. Arthur in Willo the Wisp. Cleveland also served as the location for several noteworthy movies, including The Fortune Cookie (1967) with Walter Matthau and Jack Lemmon, the Academy Award-winning The Deer Hunter (1978), and the holiday favorite A Christmas Story (1983).[19].

    TV series

      . Cleveland also hosts an annual holiday display lighting and celebration, dubbed Winterfest, which is held downtown at the city's historic hub, Public Square. Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen). The Cleveland International Film Festival has been held annually since 1977, and its 11-day run draws about 43,000 people. Popular song
        . The city recently incorporated an annual art and technology festival, known as Ingenuity, which features a combination of art and technology in various installations and performances throughout lower Euclid Avenue. The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle. In addition to the cultural festivals, Cleveland also hosts the CMJ Rock Hall Music Fest, which features national and local acts, including both established artists and up-and-coming acts.

        Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. Cleveland hosts an annual parade on Saint Patrick's Day that brings thousands to the streets of downtown. Children's stories

          . Vendors at the West Side Market in Ohio City offer many different ethnic foods for sale. Cultural festivals such as the annual Feast of the Assumption in the Little Italy neighborhood and the Polish Festival in the Slavic Village neighborhood are popular events. Cleveland is home to many festivals throughout the year.

          The Orchestra plays in Severance Hall during the winter and at Blossom Music Center during the summer. Additionally, Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States.[18] It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. One Playhouse Square, now the headquarters for Cleveland's public broadcasters, was originally used as the broadcast studios of WJW Radio, where disc jockey Alan Freed purportedly first coined the term "rock and roll". The center also hosts various Broadway musicals, special concerts, speaking engagements, and other events throughout the year.

          Playhouse Square's resident performing arts companies include the Cleveland Opera, Ohio Ballet, and the Great Lakes Theater Festival. Playhouse Square includes the State, Palace, Allen, Hanna, and Ohio theaters within what is known as the Theater District of Downtown Cleveland. Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square Center, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York's Lincoln Center. Neighboring attractions include Cleveland Browns Stadium, the Great Lakes Science Center, the Steamship Mather Museum, and the USS Cod, a World War II submarine.

          Pei-designed Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on a Lake Erie harbor immediately north of downtown. M. Cleveland is also home to the I. Five miles (8 km) east of downtown Cleveland is University Circle, a 500-acre (2 km²) concentration of cultural, educational, and medical institutions, including Case Western Reserve University, Severance Hall, University Hospitals, and the Cleveland Museum of Art.

          During Byrd-Bennett's tenure, the system improved in academics and attendance and passed a $1.2 billion school building construction/replacement issue; however, it failed numerous times to pass an operating levy, and currently faces large budget shortfalls and the possibility of slipping back into "academic emergency" as rated by the Ohio Department of Education in 2005. The school board appoints a Chief Executive Officer, the equivalent of a district Superintendent, who is responsible for district management. The mayor was given control of the city schools after a series of elected school boards were deemed ineffective by city voters. It is the only district in Ohio that is under direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board.

          The Cleveland Municipal School District is an underperforming urban district, though test scores improved under mayoral control and former school CEO Barbara Byrd-Bennett. In addition to CSU, downtown hosts the metropolitan campus of Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution, as well as Myers University, a private four school year that focuses on business education. Cleveland State University, based in downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. University Circle is also home to the Cleveland Institute of Art, the Cleveland Institute of Music, and the Ohio College of Podiatric Medicine.

          News & World Report, and enrolls more graduate students then undergraduates, though the school's latest freshman class is among the largest in Case's history. Case is a private university, the top rated university in Ohio as rated by U.S. Most prominent among these is Case Western Reserve University, a world-renowned research and teaching institution based at University Circle. Cleveland is home to a number of colleges and universities.

          The group announced that the city was nominated due to the OneCleveland network and its potential broadband applications.[17]. Progress has been delayed by Intel's recent focus on New Orleans and Cleveland's mayoral election, however, Mayor Jackson has pledged to continue the work on the Digital Communities Initiative.[16] In addition to this Intel initiative, in January 2006 a New York-based think tank, the Intelligent Community Forum, selected Cleveland as one of its seven finalists for the "Intelligent Community of the Year" award, the only city in the United States that was chosen. This distinction will eventually bring to the region around $12 million for use in marketing and expanding regional technology partnerships, creating a city-wide WiFi network, and developing a tech economy. OneCleveland's work attracted the attention of Intel and in mid-2005, Cleveland was named an Intel "Worldwide Digital Community" with Corpus Christi, Texas, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Taipei, Taiwan.

          Case Western Reserve University is also involved in technology initiatives such as the OneCleveland project, a high-speed fiber optic network connecting all nonprofits in the area at high speeds, intended to breed collaboration among the area's major research centers and produce jobs for the city and region. Cleveland State University hired a Technology Transfer Officer to work full time on cultivating technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area, and recently announced the appointment of a Vice President for Economic Development that will be working to leverage the university's assets in expanding the city's economy. Campbell appointed a "tech czar", whose job is to actively recruit tech companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on the Euclid Avenue area. Former Mayor Jane L.

          Additionally, city leaders stepped up efforts to cultivate a technology sector in its economy in the early 2000s. Sinai Medical Center, creating a research campus to stimulate biotech startup companies that can be spun off from research conducted in the city. Case Western Reserve, the Clinic, and University Hospitals have recently announced plans to build a large biotechnology research center and incubator on the site of the former Mt. Cleveland is now one of the top areas in receiving seed money for biotech start-ups and research.

          Cleveland is emerging as a leader in biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. News and World Report.[14] Cleveland's healthcare industry also includes University Hospitals of Cleveland, a noted competitor of the Clinic's which is ranked #18 in cancer research[15], and MetroHealth medical center. The world-famous Cleveland Clinic, the area's largest employer, is one of the highest-ranked hospitals in the United States as tabulated by U.S. Cleveland has also become a world leader in health care and health sciences.

          Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the world, traces its origins to Cleveland, and its Cleveland office remains the firm's largest. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Cleveland is the corporate headquarters of many large companies such as National City Corporation, Eaton Corporation, Forest City Enterprises, Sherwin-Williams Company, and KeyCorp. The city was hit hard by the fall of manufacturing, but the city has diversified its economy to include service-based industries.

          Steel and many other manufactured goods were major industries. Cleveland experienced explosive growth after the opening of the Ohio and Erie Canal, establishing the city as one of the manufacturing centers of America. Cleveland's location on the Cuyahoga River and Lake Erie proved providential in the growth of the city and its industry. Stokes, the first African American mayor of a major city.

          Lausche, and Carl B. Voinovich, two-time Democratic Ohio governor and senator Frank J. Johnson, Republican Senator George V. Previous mayors of Cleveland included progressive Democrat Tom L.

          Jackson. The mayor is the chief executive of the city, and the office is currently held by Frank G. The city of Cleveland operates on the mayor-council (strong mayor) form of government. Bush carried Ohio, John Kerry carried Cuyahoga County, which gave him the strongest support in the state.

          During the 2004 Presidential election, although George W. While other parts of Ohio, particularly Cincinnati and the southern portion of the state, have historically supported the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly breeds the strongest support in the state for the Democrats; Cleveland's two representatives in the House of Representatives are Democrats: Dennis Kucinich and Stephanie Tubbs Jones. This contributed to a political progressivism that has influenced Cleveland politics to the present. Cleveland's position as a center of manufacturing established it as a hotbed of union activity early in its history.

          Although busing ended in the 1990s, Cleveland continued to slide into poverty, reaching a nadir in 2004 when it was named the poorest large city in the United States.[12] The 2005 rankings announced the city had dropped from first in poverty to twelfth, with the rate dropping from 31.3% to 23.2%.[13]. Cleveland was hit hard in the 1960s and early 1970s by white flight and suburbanization, further exacerbated by the busing-based desegregation of Cleveland schools required by the United States Supreme Court. Out of the total population, 37.6% of those under the age of 18 and 16.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. 26.3% of the population and 22.9% of families were below the poverty line.

          The per capita income for the city was $14,291. Males had a median income of $30,610 versus $24,214 for females. The median income for a household in the city was $25,928, and the median income for a family was $30,286. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.

          For every 100 females there were 90.0 males. The median age was 33 years. The population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who are 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.19.

          35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. There were 190,638 households out of which 29.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.5% were married couples living together, 24.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.3% were nonfamilies. Ethnic groups include German (9.2%), Irish (8.2%), Polish (4.8%), Italian (4.6%), and English (2.8%). 7.26% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.

          The racial makeup of the city was 41.49% White, 50.99% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.35% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.59% from other races, and 2.24% from two or more races. There were 215,856 housing units at an average density of 1,074.3/km² (2,782.4/mi²). The population density was 2,380.9/km² (6,166.5/mi²). As of the 2000 CensusGR2 , there were 478,403 people, 190,638 households, and 111,904 families residing in the city.

          Normal yearly precipitation based on the 30-year average from 1961 to 1990 is 36.6 inches (930 mm).[10]. The all-time record high in Cleveland of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on June 25, 1988, and the all-time record low of −20 °F (−29 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[9] On average, July is the warmest month with a mean temperature of 71.9 °F (22.2 °C), and January, with a mean temperature of 25.7 °F (−3.5 °C), is the coldest. The lake effect causes snowfall totals to range greatly across the city; while Hopkins Airport has only reached 100 inches (254 cm) of snowfall in a given season three times since 1968[8], seasonal totals approaching or exceeding 100 inches are not uncommon in an area known as the "Snow Belt", extending from the east side of Cleveland proper through the eastern suburbs and up the Lake Erie shore as far as Buffalo. This feature is the principal contributor to the lake effect snow that is a mainstay of Cleveland (especially east side) weather from mid-November until the surface of Lake Erie freezes, usually in late January or early February.

          The shoreline is very close to due east-west from the mouth of the Cuyahoga west to Sandusky, but at the mouth of the Cuyahoga it turns sharply northeast. Clair-Superior, Union-Miles Park, University Circle-Little Italy, and Woodland Hills. The east side comprises the following neighborhoods: Buckeye-Shaker Square, Central, Collinwood, Corlett, Euclid-Green, Fairfax, Forest Hills, Glenville, Goodrich-Kirtland, Hough, Kinsman, Lee-Miles, Mount Pleasant, Nottingham, St. Three neighborhoods are on the west side of the river, but are sometimes referred to as the south side: Industrial Valley, Slavic Village (North and South Broadway), and Tremont.

          Cleveland residents often define themselves in terms of whether they live on the west side or the east side of the Cuyahoga River.[7] The west side of the city includes the following neighborhoods: Brooklyn Center, Clark-Fulton, Detroit Shoreway, Cudell, Edgewater, Kamm's Corners, Jefferson, Ohio City, Old Brooklyn, Puritas-Longmead, Riverside, Stockyards, West Boulevard, and West Park. Residential opportunities in townhomes, lofts, and apartments have increased downtown over the past ten years. Downtown Cleveland includes several mixed-use neighborhoods, such as the Flats and the Warehouse District, which are occupied by industrial and office buildings, and also by restaurants and bars. The City of Cleveland's Rockefeller Park, with its many Cultural Gardens honoring the city's ethnic groups, follows Doan Brook across the east side.

          Among its six parks are Edgewater Park, located between the Shoreway and Lake Erie just west of downtown, and Euclid Beach Park and Gordon Park on the east side. Apart from the Metroparks is Cleveland Lakefront State Park, which provides public access to Lake Erie. The other three parks are Brookside Park and parts of the Rocky River and Washington Reservations. In the Big Creek valley sits the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, which contains the largest collection of primates of any zoo in the United States.

          The countywide Cleveland Metroparks system, often referred to as the "Emerald Necklace", includes four parks in Cleveland. Known as "Millionaire's Row", Euclid Avenue was world-renowned as the home of such internationally-known names as Rockefeller, Hanna, and Hay. Running east from Public Square to University Circle is Euclid Avenue, which at one time rivaled New York's Fifth Avenue for prestige and elegance. Another of Cleveland's architectural treasures is The Arcade (sometimes called the Old Arcade), a five-story arcade built in 1890.[6].

          The two newer skyscrapers on Public Square, Key Tower (currently the tallest building in the state) and the BP Building, combine elements of Art Deco architecture with postmodern designs. It is a prototypical Beaux-Arts skyscraper. The Terminal Tower, dedicated in 1930, was the tallest building in the United States outside New York City until 1967 and the tallest in the city until 1991. Built in the early 20th century, they are the result of the 1903 Group Plan, and constitute one the most complete examples of City Beautiful design in the United States.

          Many of the city's government and civic buildings, including City Hall, the Cuyahoga County Courthouse, the Cleveland Public Library, and Public Auditorium are clustered around an open mall and share a common neoclassical architecture. Cleveland's downtown architecture is varied. Cleveland shares borders with the following suburbs: Bratenahl, Brook Park, Brooklyn, Brooklyn Heights, Cleveland Heights, Cuyahoga Heights, East Cleveland, Euclid, Fairview Park, Garfield Heights, Lakewood, Linndale, Newburgh Heights, Parma, Rocky River, Shaker Heights, South Euclid, and Warrensville Heights. Public Square, less than a mile (2 km) inland, sits at an elevation of 650 feet (198 m), and Hopkins Airport, only five miles (8 km) inland from the lake, is at an elevation of 770 feet (235 m).

          The land rises quickly from the lakeshore. In Cleveland these bluffs are cut principally by the Cuyahoga River, Big Creek, and Euclid Creek. The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level; however, the city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. The total area is 5.87% water.

          77.6 mi² (201.0 km²) of it is land and 4.8 mi² (12.5 km²) of it is water. According to the United States Census Bureau[5], the city has a total area of 82.4 mi² (213.5 km²). Cleveland is located at 41°28′56″N, 81°40′11″WGR1. Economic development, retention of young professionals, and capitalizing upon its Lake Erie waterfront are current municipal priorities.

          Although Cleveland was hailed by the media as the "Comeback City," many of the inner-city residential neighborhoods remain troubled, and the public school system continues to experience serious problems. Redevelopment within the city limits has been strongest in the downtown area near the Gateway complex—consisting of Jacobs Field and Quicken Loans Arena—and near the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Cleveland Browns Stadium. White. The metropolitan area began a recovery thereafter under Mayors George Voinovich and Michael R.

          The city has struggled to shed this nickname ever since, though in recent times the national media have been much kinder to the city, using it as the poster child for downtown revitalization and urban renaissance. National media began referring to Cleveland as "the mistake by/on the lake" around this time, in reference to both the city's financial difficulties as well as a 1969 fire on the Cuyahoga River where the oil and waste on the river's surface caught on fire. The city's nadir is often considered to be its default on its loans on December 15, 1978, when under Mayor Dennis Kucinich it became the first major American city to enter default since the Great Depression. The city also began witnessing racial unrest, culminating in the Hough Riots on July 18–23, 1966, and the Glenville Shootout on July 23–25, 1968.

          By the 1960s, however, heavy industries began to slump and residents sought new housing in the suburbs. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation." The city's population reached its peak of 914,808, and in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series and the Browns dominated the NFL. Immediately after World War II, the city experienced a brief boom.

          The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Burke Lakefront Airport, among others. Conceived as a way to energize a city hit hard by the Great Depression, the exposition drew 4 million visitors in its first season, and 7 million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the lakeshore north of downtown. Garfield.

          Many Clevelanders of this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, including the 20th president, James A. Johnson. The city was also one of the centers of the national progressive movement, headed locally by Mayor Tom L. Rockefeller made his fortune there, and by 1920, it was the fifth largest city in the country.

          Standard Oil founder John D. Cleveland became one of the major manufacturing and population centers of the United States, and was home to numerous major steel firms. As a halfway point for iron ore coming from Minnesota across the Great Lakes and for coal and other raw materials coming by rail from the south, the site flourished. The rapid growth resulted in Cleveland's incorporation as a city in 1836.[4] The following year, the city, then located on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City (since annexed), over a bridge connecting the two.

          The city began to grow rapidly after the completion of the Ohio and Erie Canal in 1832, turning the city into a key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes, and particularly once the city railroad links were added. Though not initially apparent—the city was surrounded by swampland and the harsh winters did not encourage settlement—the location proved providential. The village of Cleaveland was incorporated on 23 December 1814.[3] The spelling of the city's name was later changed to "Cleveland" when, in 1831, an "a" was dropped so the name could fit a newspaper's masthead. Cleaveland laid out the plan for the modern Public Square area before returning home, never again to visit the area.

          Cleveland obtained its name on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company named an area in Ohio "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party, a month after white settlers had signed a treaty with local Native Americans to acquire the land. . Its nineteen sister cities include Volgograd, Russia; Ljubljana, Slovenia; Miskolc, Hungary; and Alexandria, Egypt. Nicknames used for the city include The Forest City, Metropolis of the Western Reserve, The New American City, America's North Coast, and C-Town.

          Residents of Cleveland are usually referred to as Clevelanders. In studies conducted by The Economist in 2005, Cleveland and Pittsburgh were ranked as the most livable cities in the United States,[1] and the city was ranked as the best city for business meetings in the continental U.S.[2] Nevertheless, the city faces continuing challenges, in particular from concentrated poverty in some neighborhoods and difficulties in the funding and delivering of high-quality public education. More recent investments have provided the city with tourist attractions in the downtown area, such as Jacobs Field, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Playhouse Square Center. City residents and tourists benefit from investments made by wealthy residents in the city's heyday in arts and cultural institutions, and philanthropy also helped to establish a robust public library system in the city.

          Cleveland is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which is the 14th largest in the country with a population of 2,945,831 according to the 2000 Census. The Cleveland-Elyria-Mentor Metropolitan Statistical Area has 2,250,871 people and is the 23rd largest in the country. It is the center of Greater Cleveland, the largest metropolitan area in Ohio, which spans several counties and is defined in several different ways by the United States Census Bureau. As of the 2000 Census, the city proper had a total population of 478,403, making it the 33rd largest city in the nation (recent estimates from the Census Bureau show it to currently be the 36th largest).

          After the decline of heavy manufacturing, Cleveland's businesses are now more often in the financial services, insurance, and healthcare sectors. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the river, and became a manufacturing center owing to its location at the head of numerous canals and railroad lines. The city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, in the Western Reserve in northeastern Ohio on the Cuyahoga River, approximately 60 miles (100 km) west of the Pennsylvania border. state of Ohio.

          The city of Cleveland is the county seat of Cuyahoga County in the U.S.
          Location in Cuyahoga County, Ohio.

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