Caterpillar

The striking caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth

A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form.

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek).

Caterpillar of the monarch butterfly

Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food.

Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars.

Caterpillar

Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours.

Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates.

The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means.

Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples).

"Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005

Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae.

Literature and art

  • Children's stories
    • Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland
    • The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle.
  • Popular song
    • Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen)
  • TV series
    • Arthur in Willo the Wisp
    • The Screamapillar in The Simpsons
  • Music
    • Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]

Additional photos

For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth.


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For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth. The classical example of a limited citizenry was Athens where slaves, women, and metics were excluded from political rights, but the Roman Republic forms another example, and, more recently, the szlachta of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had some of the same characteristics. Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae. Historically, many states limited citizenship to only a proportion of their nationals, thereby creating a citizen class with political rights superior to other classes, but equal with each other. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005. American actress Angelina Jolie received an honorary Cambodian citizenship in 2005 due to her humanitarian efforts. "Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. The only people to ever receve honorary Canadian citizenship are Raoul Wallenberg posthumously in 1985, and Nelson Mandela in 2001.

The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples). Andrei Sakharov in 2002 but it was not made law. Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. A bill was introduced in Congress to grant such status to the Russian nuclear physicist and prisoner of conscience Dr. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means. By Act of Congress and presidential assent, honorary United States citizenship has been awarded to:. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Some countries extend "honorary citizenship" to those whom they consider to be especially admirable or worthy of the distinction.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. It was just that practical requirements meant that national status had to be based on something other than allegiance, or peoples from throughout the Commonwealth might choose to settle in Canada. The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience. Yet, at the same time, Canada continued to stress the continued allegiance of Canadians to a common Crown. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates. Citizenship has replaced allegiance, a more than symbolic change. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. Other Dominions adopted this principle, in New Zealand, in the British Nationality and New Zealand Citizenship Act 1948.

For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. The concept of Commonwealth citizenship was introduced in 1948 in the British Nationality Act 1948. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. In 1946 the Canadian Citizenship Act destroyed the common basis for citizenship. Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. In 1935 the Irish Free State was the first to introduce its own citizenship (However, Irish citizens were still treated as subjects of the Crown, and they are still not regarded as foreign, even though Ireland is not a member of the Commonwealth; Murray v Parkes [1942] All ER 123). These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours. Canada departed from the principle of nationality being defined in terms of allegiance in 1921 (Nationals Act 1921 (Canada)), in a attempt to prevent non-Canadians (especially of Asian origin) from entering Canada.

They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. Although the Republic of Ireland left the Commonwealth in 1949, it is often treated as if it were a member, with references being made in legal documents to 'the Commonwealth and the Republic of Ireland', and its citizens are not classified as foreign nationals, particularly in the United Kingdom. Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. Whilst Commonwealth citizenship is sometimes enshrined in the written constitutions (where applicable) of Commonwealth states and is considered by some to be a form of dual citizenship, there have never been, nor are there any plans for a common passport. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars. This form of citizenship offers certain privileges within some Commonwealth countries:. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. As with the EU, one holds Commonwealth citizenship only by being a citizen of a Commonwealth member state.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. The concept of "Commonwealth Citizenship" has been in place ever since the establishment of the Commonwealth of Nations. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant. The European Commission has affirmed that Union citizenship should be the fundamental status of EU nationals, but this is not accepted by many of the member states of the European Union. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. Union citizenship continues to gain in status and the European Court of Justice has stated that Union citizenship will be the "fundamental status of nationals of Member States" (see Case C-184/99 Rudy Grzelczyk v Centre Public d'Aide Sociale d'Ottignes-Louvain-la-Neuve, [2001] ECR I-6193, para 31). Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. EU member states also use a common passport design, burgundy coloured, with the name of the member state, national seal, and the title "European Union" (or its translation).

These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. The right of residence connotes not only the right of abode, but also the right to apply to work in any position (including national civil services with the exception of sensitive positions such as defence). Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. Such rights granted to EU citizens ([1]) include:. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food. EU citizenship offers certain rights and privileges within the EU; in many areas EU citizens have the same or similar rights as native citizens in member states. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. This citizenship flows from national citizenship — one holds the nationality of an EU member state and as a result becomes a "citizen of the Union" in addition.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. The Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of citizenship of the European Union. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'. The ultimate version of supranational citizenship would be some sort of global citizenship; the United Nations does not represent this concept directly, however, being more of an international forum than a structure for expressing individual rights and responsibilities. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. As of 2005, citizenship at this level is a secondary concept, with a weaker status than national citizenship. Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Two examples are given below, of citizenship in the European Union, and also of citizenship within the Commonwealth of Nations.

The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek). In recent years, some intergovernmental organisations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, where it is applied to the totality of the citizens of their constituent countries combined. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. Nationality can be lost, as in denaturalization, and gained, as in naturalization. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. Citizenship derives from a legal relationship with a state. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. jus sanguinis).

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. jus soli) and, in some cases, ethnicity (i.e. They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form. Nationality most often derives from place of birth (i.e. Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". Some countries like Cuba and the United States of America forbid dual citizenship in the other country because of political tensions between the two nations. A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). One example might be as follows: A Cuban-American might be considered a national of Cuba due to his being born there, but he could also become an American citizen through naturalization.

Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]. Thus, you can have a citizenship from one country and be a national of another country. Music

    . Citizenship as explained above is the political rights of an individual within a society. The Screamapillar in The Simpsons. But in such cases, those eligible are also sometimes seen as "citizens" of the relevant state, province, or region. Arthur in Willo the Wisp. Subnational entities may impose requirements, of residency or otherwise, which permit citizens to participate in the political life of that entity, or to enjoy benefits provided by the government of that entity.

    TV series

      . Citizenship most usually relates to membership of the nation state, but the term can also apply at subnational level. Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen). . Popular song
        . In this vein, some schools in England and Wales give citizenship lessons – a slight variation of Personal and Social Education. The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle. Citizenship often also implies working towards the betterment of one's community through participation, volunteer work, and efforts to improve life for all citizens.

        Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. See nationality for further discussion of the properties of national citizenship and how it can be acquired. Children's stories

          . It is largely coterminous with nationality, although it is possible to have a nationality without being a citizen (i.e., be legally subject to a state and entitled to its protection without having rights of political participation in it); it is also possible to have political rights without being a national of a state; for example, a citizen of a Commonwealth country resident in the United Kingdom is entitled to full political rights. Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now usually a state) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. French nobleman and American Revolutionary War ally, the Marquis de La Fayette (2002).

          Macedonian (To Albanian Parents)-born Catholic nun and humanitarian Mother Teresa (1996). Pennsylvania founder William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn (1984). Swedish humanitarian and diplomat Raoul Wallenberg (1981). British statesman Sir Winston Churchill (1963).

          defence, Governor-General or President, Prime Minister). In some instances the right to work in any position (including the civil service) is granted, except for certain specific positions (e.g. In some Commonwealth countries resident citizens of other Commonwealth countries are entitled to political rights, e.g., the right to vote in local and national elections and in some cases even the right to stand for election. Some such countries do not require tourist visas of citizens of other Commonwealth countries.

          right to refer to the Ombudsman. right of petition to the European Parliament; and. right to diplomatic and consular protection;. right to vote and stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament and at municipal elections in the Member State of residence;.

          freedom of movement and the right of residence within the territory of the Member States;.

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