Caterpillar

The striking caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth

A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form.

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek).

Caterpillar of the monarch butterfly

Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food.

Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars.

Caterpillar

Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours.

Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates.

The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means.

Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples).

"Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005

Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae.

Literature and art

  • Children's stories
    • Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland
    • The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle.
  • Popular song
    • Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen)
  • TV series
    • Arthur in Willo the Wisp
    • The Screamapillar in The Simpsons
  • Music
    • Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]

Additional photos

For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth.


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For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth. The Optra and Tavera are built at the Halol plant. Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae. The Forester is imported directly from Fuji Heavy Industries in Japan, where it is sold as a Subaru. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005. Since then, Chevrolet currently sells the Chevrolet Optra, Chevrolet Tavera, and the Chevrolet Forester. "Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. The Corsa and Astra were built at a plant in Halol, Gujarat.

The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples). Until June 6, 2003 (the official birthday of Chevrolet), GM India (which was originally a joint venture with Hindustan Motors) sold the Opel Corsa, Opel Astra, and the Opel Vectra. Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. Chevrolet is among the newest brands in India launched by GM's Indian operations. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means. The Holden Commodore is badged as the Chevrolet Lumina in Thailand and the Middle East, as well as South Africa. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Since 2005, Corvette is its own premium brand in Western Europe, sold alongside Cadillacs.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The TrailBlazer is also officially marketed in limited numbers in Japan by Suzuki, which also markets the Chevrolet Optra wagon. The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience. The North American-assembled Tahoe and TrailBlazer are also officially marketed in very limited numbers in Western Europe by Kroymans Corporation, based in the Netherlands. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates. One of the songs by The Fine Young Cannibals is used in all UK Chevrolet television commercials. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. The 2007 Chevrolet Captiva crossover SUV will be the first Europe-only model for the marque.

For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. Exceptions include the use of the Suzuki badge in the US and Canada, the Pontiac badge in Canada, the Holden badge in Australia and New Zealand, and the Buick badge in China for certain Daewoo models. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. In the rest of the world, most Daewoo models wore the Chevrolet badge since 2003. Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. In 2005 models from GM Daewoo were rebranded as Chevrolet in Europe, although the Daewoo name will be retained in South Korea and Vietnam. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours. Current Chevrolets include the Spark (a rebadged Daewoo Matiz), Aveo, Optra, the Lumina (including a pickup version), and the Vivant, an MPV that is really a renamed version of the Daewoo Tacuma.

They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. In 2001, the Chevrolet name made a comeback, used on the Lumina, a rebadged Holden Commodore, and later on, on the Daewoo range of cars. Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. Even more news arrived for Chevrolet. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars. However, thanks to an improved political climate in the 1990s, GM decided to reenter South Africa, eventually buying out the whole of Delta Motors Corporation. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. They concentrated heavily on Opels, Isuzus, and Suzukis.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. Because of the political climate at the time, GM decided to disinvest from South Africa, and a local group eventually bought out GM's South African operations (including the Port Elizabeth plant) and renamed the company as the Delta Motors Corporation. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant. However, these were replaced by Opel models like the Rekord, Commodore, and Senator, and in 1982, the Chevrolet brand name was dropped in favour of Opel. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. The Chevrolet Nomad sold in South Africa was entirely different from the Nomad sold in America—whereas the American Nomad was originally conceived as a wagon version of the Corvette and eventually became the wagon version of the Bel Air, the South African Nomad was an SUV of truck proportions before SUVs were popular. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. By the 1970s, South African Chevrolets like the Kommando and Constantia were based on Australian Holden models like the Kingswood, while the Firenza was based on the Vauxhall Viva.

These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. However, since South Africa was RHD and the US was LHD, plus encouragement by the South African government to use local content, Chevrolets such as the Biscayne were eventually made entirely in South Africa. Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. Originally, Chevrolets were CKD kits of American Chevys assembled in their plant in Port Elizabeth. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food. In the 1960s, the advertising jingle braaivleis, rugby, sunny skies and Chevrolet came to epitomise the ideal lifestyle of white male South Africans. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. In South Africa, Chevrolet was GM's main brand name until 1982.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Mexico also has some cars of its own, such as the Chevy C2, which is a reworked last-gen Corsa, the Sonora (which is a rebadged Tahoe), and the Cheyenne (which is similar to the Silverado but is as different as the Sonora is to the Suburban). These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'. While the Brazilian Vectra is derived from the current Astra, the Mexican Vectra is actually the current Vectra as sold in Europe. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. An example is regarding the Vectra. Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. In Mexico, some of these Opel-sourced Chevrolet models are sold alongside US models.

The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek). Chevrolet had a presence in Argentina since the 1960s where it locally produced the Chevy II (sold in Argentina as the Chevrolet 400 or Chevy), but it stopped its operations in 1981, due to high inflation. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. In Argentina (whose factory was opened in Rosario in 1995), the models are the same Opels made in Brazil, along with the S-10, Blazer, and Avalanche. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. From the 1960s to the mid 1980s, there was also a large station wagon, derived from the C10 truck (somewhat similar to the Suburban) called the Veraneio. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. The Montana is a compact pick-up truck that is also sold in other Latin American markets.

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. Utility and four wheel drive vehicles line-up includes the S10, the Blazer, and the Montana. They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form. Chevrolet's product line-up in Brazil now comprises some exclusive designs like the Corsa "B" based Celta sold in Argentina under the Suzuki brand, the Astra, and a brand new, Brazilian designed Vectra based on the current Opel Astra, while the current Corsa is built and the Omega name is now used on the Holden Commodore. Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". Other smaller Chevrolets in Brazil, such as the Kadett and Monza, were based on the Opel Kadett and Ascona respectively. A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). In Brazil, the Chevrolet Opala was based on the German Opel Rekord from the late 1960s, continuing in production until the early 1990s, when it was replaced by a version of the Opel Omega.

Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]. However, more modern vehicles are now being marketed as market conditions change and competition increases. Music

    . The current S10 and Blazer exemplify this strategy. The Screamapillar in The Simpsons. Historically, many Latin American-market vehicles from GM were modified derivatives of older models from GM's North American and European operations. Arthur in Willo the Wisp. In markets outside North America, the Chevrolet brand name has been used on other GM models.

    TV series

      . 1. Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen). In 1963, one out of every ten cars sold in the United States was a Chevrolet. Popular song
        . Famous Chevy models include the large and luxurious Impala (1958) and the short-lived mid/rear-engined Corvair (1960.) Chevrolet had a great influence on the American automobile market during the 1950s and 1960s. The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle. After the deal was complete in 1917, Durant was president of General Motors, and Chevrolet was merged into GM, becoming a separate division.

        Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. In 1916, Chevrolet was profitable enough to allow Durant to buy a majority of shares in GM. Children's stories

          . Chevrolet first used its "bowtie" logo in 1913. The Classic Six was a 5-passenger touring sedan equipped with a 299 in3 (4.9 L), 6-cylinder engine capable of taking the car to a top speed of 15 miles per hour (25 km/h.). A year later, the "Classic Six" was introduced.

          On November 3, 1911, Chevrolet entered the automobile market to compete with the Ford Model T. William Durant, founder of General Motors, had been forced out of GM in 1910 and wanted to use Louis Chevrolet's designs to rebuild his own reputation as a force in the automobile industry. Louis Chevrolet was a racecar driver, born on December 25, 1878, in La Chaux de Fonds, Switzerland. Durant.

          Chevrolet was co-founded by Louis Chevrolet and William C. . For 2005, Chevrolet outsold its main domestic rival, Ford, for the first time in 19 years, making it once again the top-selling marque in the United States. It is one of the most popular GM marques.

          Chevrolet, or Chevy for short, is a brand of automobile, now a division of General Motors. Zafira, current model in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Viva (2004—present, only sold in Russia, rebadged 1998-2003 Astra B). Venture (1997—2005).

          Vega (1971—1977). Vectra current model, Brazil. W-Series. Uplander (2005—present).

          Triax. Tracker (1998—2004, rebadged Suzuki Vitara). TrailBlazer (2002—present). Townsman.

          Tigra, old model in Brazil. Tavera, an MUV sold throughout the ASEAN markets, especially Indonesia and India; based on an Isuzu model. Tahoe (1994—present). Tacuma (Ex-Daewoo model, from 2005, also known in Europe as the Rezzo).

          SS. Chevrolet S-10 (South American market) (Current model). S-10 (1982—2003)

            . Suburban (1936—present).

            Styleline (1949—1952). SSR (2004—present). Sprint (1985—1988, rebadged Suzuki Swift). Spectrum (1985—1988, rebadged Isuzu Gemini).

            Silverado (1999—present). Series-H (1914—?). Senator, rebadged version for South African market, later sold under Opel name. Royal Mail (1914—?).

            Prizm (1998—2002, rebadged Toyota Corolla). P-Chassis (1949- 1999). Parkwood. Optra (2004—present, rebadged Daewoo Nubira).

            Omega, (1999—present, rebadged Holden Commodore currently sold in Brazil). Nubira. Nova (1962—1979, 1985—1988). Nomad.

            Niva (2002—present). Monza (1975—1980). Monte Carlo (1970—1988, 1995—present). Montana.

            Metro (1998—2001, rebadged Suzuki Swift). Meriva, current model in Latin America. Matiz (2005—present, rebadged Daewoo Matiz). Malibu (1964—1983, 1997—present).

            M3X. LUV (1972—1982, rebadged Isuzu truck). Lumina APV (1990—1996). Lumina (1990—2001).

            Little Six (1913 -1914). Little Four (1911 -1913). Laguna. Lacetti (2005—present, rebadged Daewoo Nubira).

            Kommando—rebadged Holden Kingswood for the South African market, replaced by Chevrolet Rekord in the early 1980s. Kalos (2005—present, rebadged Daewoo Kalos). Journey. Impala (1958—1985, 1994—1996, 2000—present).

            HHR (2006—present). G30. G20. G10.

            Fleetmaster. Fleetline. Forester (Based on Subaru Forester by Fuji Heavy Industries). Express (1997—present).

            Equinox (2004—present). Epica (Ex-Daewoo model aka Evanda). El Camino (1959—1987). e-Cruze.

            Delray (1954&ndash1958). Cruze (2002—present). Corvette (1953—present). Corvair (1960—1969).

            Corsica (1987—1996). Corsa, current model in Latin America. Constantia—a rebadged LWB version of the Holden Kingswood sold in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s. Colorado (2004—present).

            Cobalt (2005—present). Classic Six (1911—?). Citation (1980—1985). C/K (1962— 1998).

            Cheyenne. Chevette (1976—1987). Chevelle (1964—1977). Celebrity (1982—1990).

            Celta (2000—present). Cavalier (1982- 2005). Captiva (2007—present). Caprice (1999?—present, Middle East market, rebadged Holden Statesman).

            Caprice (1970s, South African market, rebadged Holden Statesman). Caprice (1965—1996, North American market)

              . Camaro (1967—2002). Brookwood (1969-1972).

              Chevrolet Blazer (South American market) (Current model). Blazer (1969—2005)

                . Biscayne (1958—1972). Beretta (1987—1996).

                Bel Air (1950—1976). Baby Grand (1914—?). Aveo (2004—present, rebadged Daewoo Kalos). Avalanche (2002—present).

                Astro (1985—2005). Astra (Current model, Latin America). 210. 150.

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