A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).
Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form.
Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek).Caterpillar of the monarch butterfly
Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'.
Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food.
Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant.
More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars.Caterpillar
Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours.
Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates.
The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience.
Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means.
Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples).
"Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005
Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae.
Literature and art
For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth.
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For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth. The Kodansha Manga Award are another set of publisher sponsored awards, in existence since 1960. Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae. The Shogakukan Manga Award, sponsored by the manga publisher Shogakukan Publishing has been awarded since 1956. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005. There is another set of awards named for Osamu Tezuka in Japan, the Osamu Tezuka Cultural Prizes, awarded annually. "Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. It is named after the manga pioneer Osamu Tezuka.
The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples). The Tezuka Award, awarded since 1971, is a biannual manga award offered by the Japanese publisher Shueisha, under the auspices of its Weekly Shonen Jump magazine. Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The Urhunden Prize is another Swedish award for comic books, although its current status is unknown. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means. The Adamson Awards are awarded annually by the Swedish Academy of Comic Art at the Gothenburg Book Fair. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. The Haxtur Awards, (Premios Haxtur), are awarded annually at the Salón Internacional del Cómic del Principado de Asturias.
Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Pantera di Lucca Comics is a prize awarded in Italy. The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience. The Max & Moritz Prizes are awarded biannually at the Internationalen Comic-salon Erlangen. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates. Angoulême International Comics Festival Prizes (aka Alph'arts) and the Grand Prix de la ville d'Angoulême. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. The Prix de la critique is a prize awarded by the Association des Critiques et des journalistes de Bande Dessinée annually.
For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. The awards are named in honour of Canadian-born co-creator of Superman, Joe Shuster (1914-1992), and are awarded at the Paradise Comics Toronto Comicon. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world.
They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. The Bédélys Prize have been awarded to French language comics at the Promo 9e Art Foundation since 2000. Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. The National Newspaper Awards of Canada include a category for Editorial Cartoonist. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars. The Cartoon Art Trust's British Cartoonist Awards are annual awards presented to newspaper cartoonists. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. The National Comics Awards were launched in 1997, originally awarded at the United Kingdom Comic Art Convention, before moving to that event's succesor, the Comics Festival.
More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. The current status of the awards is unknown. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant. The awards have lessened in importance and prestige, disappearing entirely for a period during the 1999s. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. The Eagle Awards were launched in 1976, named in honour of The Eagle comic. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. In 1999 Wizard magazine launched its Wizard Fan Awards, chosen through two rounds of voting by the magazine's readers.
These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. The Comics Buyer Guide has been giving annual awards, chosen by reader poll, since 1983. Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. Alley Awards had ceased to be presented by the start of the 1970s. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food. The Alley Awards, presented by the fanzine Alter Ego, began in 1961, with the awards decided by the fanzine's team of editors. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. These are awarded by Friends of Lulu, an organisation concerned with furthering the appeal of comic books to a female audience.
Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. The Lulu Awards were also created in 1997. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'. The Ignatz Awards, begun in 1997, are awarded annually at the Small Press Expo, and the attendees of the Expo vote for the winners based on a shortlist drawn up by independent judges. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. The Eisner nominations are decided by a panel of five judges before being voted on by retailers, creators and publishers within the industry. Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. The Will Eisner Comics Industry Awards were also launched in 1988, named in honor of Will Eisner.
The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek). Voting for the Harvey Awards is performed through a ballot of industry proffesionals. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The Harvey Awards were named in honor of Harvey Kurtzman, and include the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. In 1988 two separate awards were launched, both aimed at the comic book industry. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. These awards ran until 1987 before a dispute over the ownership of the awards led to their ending.
Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. The awards were sponsored by Fantagraphics through their magazine Amazing Heroes. They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form. In 1984 the Kirby Awards, named for Jack Kirby, were launched, aimed specifically at the comic book industry. Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". The awards had a very short life, and were no longer being presented by the late 1970s. A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). The Academy of Comic Book Arts Awards, also known as Shazams, were created in 1970, the first awards being given out in 1971.
Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits . They were named in honor of Rube Goldberg and are presented annually by the National Cartoonists Society of the United States. Music
Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. Process white is a thick opaque white handy for covering mistakes, whilst adhesives and tapes are helpful in composition where an image may need to be assembled from different sources. Children's stories
A drawing board gives a good angled surface to work from, with lamps supplying necessary lighting. Erasers, rulers, templates, set squares and a T-square assist in creating lines and shapes. Color can also be achieved through crayons, pastels or colored pencils. An artist might also choose to create his work in paints; either acrylics; gouache; poster paints; or watercolours.
Mechanical tints can be employed to add gray tone to an image. When inking, an artist may choose to use a variety of brushes, dip pens, a fountain pen or a variety of technical pens or markers. An artist will use a variety of pencils, paper, typically Bristol board, and a waterproof ink. A cartoonist in this instance typically works alone, although again it is not unheard of for a cartoonist to use assistants.
Mort Walker is one such creator who employed a studio, whilst Bill Watterson was one such cartoonist who eschewed the studio method, preferring to create the strip himself. However it is not unusual for a cartoonist to employ the studio method, particularly when a strip become successful. A comic strip tends to be the work of a sole creator, usually termed a cartoonist. Any number of people can assist in the creation of a comic book in this way, from a plotter, a breakdown artist, a penciller, an inker, a scripter, a letterer, and a colorist, with some roles being performed by the same person.
The editor will assemble a number of creators and oversee the work to publication. Through its use by the industry, the roles have become heavily codified, and the managing of the studio has become the company's responsibility, with an editor discharging the management duties. Within the comic book industry of the United States, the studio system has come to be the main method of creation. However, works from independent companies, self-publishers or those of a more personal nature can be produced by as little as one creator.
The nature of the comics work being created determines the number of people who work upon its creation, with successful comic strips and comic books being produced through a studio system, in which an artist will assemble a team of assistants to help in the creation of the work. Even some professionally printed and bound booklets are referred to as minicomics, as long as they are published by the artist and marketed in minicomic venues, but this usage is controversial. By this loose definition, a single photocopied page folded in quarters would still be a minicomic, but so would a thicker digest-sized comic, or even a large, elaborate, and relatively expensive photocopied booklet with a silkscreened cover. Currently, the term is used in a more general sense which emphasizes the handmade, informal aspect rather than the format.
(The earliest and most popular comics in mini- and digest sizes—predating not only the term minicomic, but even the standard comic-book format—were the anonymous and pornographic Tijuana bibles of the 1920s.). An early and unusually popular example of this minicomic format was Matt Feazell's Cynicalman, which began in 1980. These comics were generally photocopied, although some that were produced in larger quantities used offset printing. These sizes were convenient for artists using standard office supplies: a US letter page could be folded in half to make a digest, or in quarters for a minicomic.
Originally, it referred only to size: a digest comic measured 5.5 inches wide by 8.5 inches tall, while a minicomic was 5.5 inches by 4.25 inches. The term was originally used in the United States and has a somewhat confusing history. Minicomics are even less mainstream than alternative comics. A number of cartoonists have started this way and gone on to more traditional types of publishing, while other more established artists continue to produce minicomics on the side.
These are a common inexpensive way for those who want to make their own comics on a very small budget, with mostly informal means of distribution. A minicomic is a small, creator-published comic book, often photocopied and stapled or with a handmade binding. Often storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement. A storyboard is essentially a large comic of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand to help the directors and cinematographers visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur.
Storyboards are like illustrations displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing an animated or live-action film. The instructional comic is a strip designed for educative or informative purposes, notably the instructions upon an aeroplane's safety card. Some webcomics have gained popular, critical, or commercial success. Currently, there are thousands of webcomics available online.
Webcomics are similar to self-published print comics in that almost anyone can create their own webcomic and publish it on the Web. With the Internet's easy access to an audience, webcomics run the gamut from traditional comic strips to graphic novels and beyond. Many webcomics are exclusively published online, while some are published in print but maintain a web archive for either commercial or artistic reasons. Webcomics, also known as online comics and web comics, are comics that are available on the Internet.
In American terminology, a graphic album is an anthology-format comic book with multiple stories that is published and distributed as a book rather than a periodical as distinguished from a graphic novel which has similar format but tells a single story. They contain either new stories or collections of previously serialised strips. In Europe, a comic album is the equivalent to a graphic novel, being of A4 size and hardcover, typically with 48 pages. The comic annual is an annual publication predominantly specific to the United Kingdom.
Graphic novels often encompass several separate issues of comic books and can be published over a period of several months or years and then republished in larger volumes. It is often used to imply subjective distinctions in artistic quality between graphic novels and other kinds of comics which can be quite controversial. However, the term is not strictly delimited, and can be notoriously difficult to pin down. Graphic novel is a term for a kind of comic book, usually with long and fairly complex storylines and often aimed at more mature audiences.
More recent established titles include 2000 AD and Viz. Over the next century many different titles have been published, with The Dandy debuting in 1937 and the Beano in 1938. The British comic dates back to 1884, a year which saw the publication of Ally Sloper's Half Holiday. The primary format for first publication of Franco-Belgian comics, and also the format used in the United Kingdom, where it is commonly referred to as a "comic", plurally as "comics".
The term "comics" in this context does not refer to comic strips (such as Peanuts or Dilbert). Although the term implies otherwise, the subject matter in comic books is not necessarily humorous, and in fact its dramatic seriousness varies widely. Comic books are often called comics for short. The comic book is predominantly a United States term, with the term comic or comic magazine preferred in Europe.
Sunday strips are much larger and have always tended to be in color. Daily strips usually run Monday through Saturday, and historically have been presented in black and white, although color is used more often since the early nineties. Newspaper comic strips come in two formats, daily strips and Sunday strips. In the United States the term "comics" is sometimes used to describe the page of a newspaper upon which comic strips are found, and through this usage has also grown to be used as a definition for comic strips.
This usage is still fairly common in the United Kingdom. The term has currently become most commonly used when referring to the shortened newspaper comic strip, but historically the term was designed to apply to any strip, there being no upper limit on the length of a strip, the minimum length being two. The comic strip, also known as a strip cartoon, is a sequence of images. Cartoons typically take one of three forms, that of the gag cartoon, the editorial cartoon or the political cartoon.
Although a singular image, it has been argued that since the cartoon both combines words with image and constructs a narrative, it merits inclusion as a form of comics. Harvey, as a form of comics. The cartoon, originally an artist's prepartory drawings, is considered by some scholars, notably R.C. Comics as an art form represents many different forms and publication formats, not all of which are physical.
For a fuller exploration of the language, please see Comics vocabulary. The layout of images on a page can be utilised by artists to convey the passage of time, to build suspense or to highlight action48. The narration of a comic is set out through the layout of the images, and whilst there may be many people who work on one work, like films, there is one vision of the narrative which guides the work. In comics, creators transmit expression through arrangement and juxtaposition of either pictures alone, or word(s) and picture(s), to build a narrative.
This means comics are not an illustrated version of standard literature, and whilst some critics argue that they are a hybrid form of art and literature, others contend comics are a new and separate art; an integrated whole, of words and images both, where the pictures do not just depict the story, but are part of the telling. Comics, as sequential art, emphasise the pictorial representation of a narrative. The purpose of comics is certainly that of narration, and so that must be an important factor in defining the art form. However, it is worth noting that both definitions are lacking, in that the first excludes any sequence of wordless images; and the second excludes single panel cartoons such as editorial cartoons.
As noted above, two distinct definitions have been used to define comics as an art form: the combination of both word and image; and the placement of images in sequential order. This allows the placement and grouping of artists by triangulation. He places the realistic representation in the bottom left corner, with iconic representation, or cartoony art, in the bottom right, and a third identifier, abstraction of image, at the apex of the triangle. Scott McCloud has created The Big Triangle44 as a tool for thinking about comics art.
Fiore has also expressed distaste with the terms realistic and cartoony, preferring the terms literal and freestyle, repectively.43. Fiore has coined the phrase liberal. The basic styles have been identified as realistic and cartoony, with a huge middle ground for which R. Whilst almost all comics art is in some sense abbreviated, and also whilst every artist who has produced comics work brings their own individual approach to bear, some broader art styles have been identified.
By many definitions (including McCloud's, above) the definition of comics extends to digital media such as webcomics. Some artists, Brian Bolland being a notable example41, are now using digital means to create artwork, with the published work being the first physical appearance of the artwork. Artists will also make use of a lightbox when creating the final image in ink. Comics artists will generally sketch a drawing in pencil before going over the drawing again in ink, using either a dip pen or a brush.
In 2005 Robert Crumb's work was exhibited in galleries both sides of the Atlantic, and The Guardian newspaper devoted its tabloid supplement to a week long exploration of his work and idioms40. In the 1980s comics scholarship started to blossom in the U.S.39, and a resurgance in the popularity of comics was seen, with Alan Moore and Frank Miller producing notable superhero works and Bill Watterson's Calvin & Hobbes being syndicated. The term graphic novel was popularised in the late 1970s, having been coined at least two decades previous, to distance the material from this confusion38. In the 1960s and 1970s, underground cartoonists used the spelling comix to distinguish their work from mainstream newspaper strips and juvenile comic books; ironically, although their work was written for an adult audience, it was usually comedic in nature as well, so the "comic" label was still appropriate37.
The modern double usage of the term comic, as an adjective describing a genre, and a noun designating an entire medium, has been criticised as confusing and misleading. The collecting of comics is today known by a separate term known as panelology. During the latter half of the 20th century comics have become a very popular item for collectors and from the 1970s comics publishers have actively encouraged collecting and shifted a large portion of comics publishing and production to appeal directly to the collector's community. The lifting of a ban on non-propaganda publications, allowed Osamu Tezuka to re-energise both the content of manga and the style of its presentation Tezuka's first book work was an updating of Treasure Island, appropriately titled New Treasure Island (1947)36.
After World War II the form in Japan, known as manga started to modernise. Also in 1938, Spirou first appeared in Belgium, starting the typical custom of weekly magazines featuring mostly Franco-Belgian comics. In 1938 Action Comics #1 was published, featuring the first appearance of Superman and ushering in what is now referred to as the Golden Age of Comic Books35. Techniques devised by Eisner whilst adapting the material for this new format include the "jump cut".34.
Will Eisner was one who supplied foreign material, and in his retooling of the material to fit the comic book format Eisner is credited with inventing the grammar of the comic book. By 1935 comic books were commissioning original material, mostly influenced by the pulp magazines of the day, whilst also repackaging foreign material33. This led to Eastern publishing Famous Funnies in May 1934 for sale through the newsstands.32. On a hunch, Gaines distributed extra copies to newstands, with a ten cent cover price, returning to find them all sold.
Gaines as an advertising giveaway, its success led to similar giveaways being published. C. Wildenberg and Max. Published in 1933 by two workers for the Eastern Color Printing Company of New York, Harry L.
The first publication to use a format recognisable today as a comic book was Funnies on Parade which took the tabloid size used for the Sunday supplements and folded it in half. Reputed to be the first four-color comic newsstand publication in the United States, it was published in tabloid size, a size which left it easily confused with the Sunday supplements of the time and so harmed sales to the extent that publication ceased after 36 issues. Another notable publication of 1929 was The Funnies, a reprint collection of newspaper strips. The strip was collected as Tintin in the Land of the Soviets in 1930, being published in the European comic album format.31.
1929 also saw the first appearance of Tintin published as a black and white strip in a supplement to Le Vingtième Siècle, a Belgian newspaper. More strips followed, with the term "comic" quickly adopting through popular usage to refer to the form rather than the content29, 30. In 1929, strips started to broaden their content, with Buck Rogers and Tarzan launching the action genre. came to define early newspaper strips, which initially featured humorous narratives , hence the adjective comic28.
The term comics in the U.S. This boom marks the beginning of comics as an ongoing popular art form27. The Yellow Kid, the star of Hogan's Alley, became so popular as to drive newspaper sales, and in doing so prompted the creation of other strips. Outcault's single-panel cartoon series Hogan's Alley (1895) or Rudolph Dirks' multi-panel strip The Katzenjammer Kids (1897)26.
Depending on the criteria used, the first successful comics series featuring regular characters was either R.F. They established the tradition of the British comic as being a periodical containing comic strips.25. These magazines also republished American material, previously published in newspapers in the U.S. In 1890 two more comic magazines debuted to the British public, Comic Cuts and Illustrated Chips.
Ally Sloper's Half Holiday, (1884), is published, and is reputed to be the first comic strip magazine to feature a recurring character. It is around this time that Manhua, the Chinese form of comics, started to formalise, a process that lasted up until 1927.24. This strip is thought to be a significant fore-runner of the comic strip.23. In Germany in 1865 Max and Moritz by Wilhelm Busch was published within a newspaper.
Judge and Puck were popular22. Similar magazines containing cartoons in continental Europe included Fliegende Blätter and Charivari, whilst in the U.S. This usage became common parlance and has lasted into the present day21. In Britain, in 1841, Punch, a magazine containing such drawings launched.20 In 1843 Punch referred to its 'humourous pencilings' as cartoons in satirical reference to Parliament, who were organising an exhibition of cartoons at the time.
Satirical drawings in newspapers were popular through much of the 19th century. Sir Ernst Gombrich certainly felt Töpffer to have evolved a new pictorial language, that of an abbreviated art style, which worked by allowing the audience to fill in gaps with their own imagination19. You make a book: good or bad, sober or silly, crazy or sound in sense."18. You do not merely pen a joke or put a refrain in couplets.
You must actually invent some kind of play, where the parts are arranged by plan and form a satisfactory whole. Nor is it simply to dramatize a proverb or illustrate a pun. In 1845 Töpffer formalised his thoughts on the picture story in his Essay on Physiognomics: "To construct a picture-story does not mean you must set yourself up as a master craftsman, to draw out every potential from your material —often down to the dregs! It does not mean you just devise caricatures with a pencil naturally frivolous. His work is reprinted throughout Europe and in the U.S., creating a market on both continents for similar works17.
Rodolphe Töpffer, a Francophone Swiss artist, is the key figure of the early part of the 19th century. His work popularised the strip form as a pictorial narrative16. An example of Rowlandson's work from 1782, satirising the politics of the day, shows it to be an early variation of the strip cartoon. Rowlandson and Gillray are credited with having codified the speech balloon in its present form15, from the previous convention of having speech represented by banners.
Other notable artists producing work in this period are Thomas Rowlandson, Jan Vandergucht, James Gillray and George Cruikshank. The Punishments of Lemuel Gulliver by William Hogarth, (1726), is another early work that bears similarities of form, although Eddie Campbell has argued14 that these may be more a collection of cartoons rather than actual comics. An early surviving work which is recognisable as being in the form of comics is Francis Barlow's A True Narrative of the Horrid Hellish Popish Plot(c.1682)13. 12.
Sabin prefers to cite the invention of the printing press as the moment when the form began to crystalise, arguing that the medium of comics has been intrinsically linked with printing, and thus whilst variations existed before, they are antecedents and can not be viewed as within the same tradition. However, Roger Sabin has argued that this view is an attempt to co-opt a history with which to somehow justify comics as an art form.11. Many authors and sources, Scott McCloud being the most recent, observe precedents in Egyptian hieroglyphics, Japanese emaki, European stained glass windows, pre-Columbian Central American manuscripts, and the Bayeux Tapestry.9, 10. When and where comics originated is another matter of debate, largely dependent on its definition.
Some digital-media works combine the techniques of comics and animation as a hybrid form. With comics, readers connect a series of static images at their own individual pace, usually with each in its own frame. Most agree that animation, which creates the optical illusion of movement within a static physical frame, is a separate form. Campbell offered instead that "graphic storytelling is the art of using pictures in sequence and its attendant language of forms and techniques, refined over many centuries."8.
However, Eddie Campbell has rejected the expansion of the term comics to define the art form, defining as "humorous art...but with the proviso that in our own times it has come to embrace not only cartoons but comic strips and comic books which are not necessarily humorous due to their own evolutionary patterns, but they remain under this rubric as they evolved from it.". Harvey, in his essay Comedy At The Juncture Of Word And Image, offered a competing definition in reference to McCloud's: "...comics consist of pictorial narratives or expositions in which words (often lettered into the picture area within speech balloons) usually contribute to the meaning of the pictures and vice versa."7. R.C. By contrast, The Comics Journal's "100 Best Comics of the 20th Century"6, included the works of several single panel cartoonists and a caricaturist.
In Understanding Comics (1993) Scott McCloud took Eisner's term sequential art, equated it with the medium of comics, and defined both thus: "juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer"5; this definition excludes single-panel illustrations such as The Far Side, The Family Circus, and most political cartoons from the category, instead classifying those as cartoons. He differentiated between the medium of comics and the language employed within, which he preferred to name sequential art, defining it as "...the arrangement of pictures or images and words to narrate a story or dramatize an idea."3 In 1996, he published Graphic Storytelling, in which he finally defined comics as "the printed arrangement of art and balloons in sequence, particularly in comic books."4. However, in this work Eisner chose not to define comics beyond utilising it as a term to refer to the comic strip and comic book formats collectively. In 1985, Will Eisner published Comics and Sequential Art.
The term as reference to the medium has also been disputed. Scholars disagree on the definition of comics; some claim its printed format is crucial, some emphasize the interdependence of image and text, and others its sequential nature. Note: Although it takes the form of a plural noun, the common usage when referring to comics as a medium is to treat it as singular.. .
However, today's form of comics (with panels, and using text within the image in speech balloons, etc.), as well as the term comics itself, originated in the late 19th century. Depending on the definition of the term, the origin of comics can be traced back to 15th century Europe or even as far as to Egyptian hieroglyphs. In the first two forms the comics are secondary material usually confined to the entertainment sections, while the latter consist either entirely or primarily of comics. The most common forms of printed comics are comic strips (most commonly four panels long) in newspapers and magazines, and longer comic stories in comic books, graphic novels and comic albums.
Originally used to illustrate caricatures and to entertain through the use of amusing and trivial stories, it has by now evolved into a literary medium with many subgenres. Comics (or, less common, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. This style became the basis of the superhero comic book style, since Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel originally worked Superman up for publication as an adventure strip47. They required a less cartoony look, and used the illustrations found in pulp magazines as a basis46.
The realistic style, also referred to as the adventure style is the one developed for use within the adventure strips of the 1930s. Noted exponents of this style are Carl Barks, Will Eisner and Jeff Smith45. The cartoony style is one which utilises comic effects and a variation of line widths as a means of expression.