Caterpillar

The striking caterpillar of the Emperor Gum Moth

A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths).

Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form.

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek).

Caterpillar of the monarch butterfly

Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food.

Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant.

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars.

Caterpillar

Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours.

Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates.

The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means.

Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples).

"Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005

Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae.

Literature and art

  • Children's stories
    • Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland
    • The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle.
  • Popular song
    • Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen)
  • TV series
    • Arthur in Willo the Wisp
    • The Screamapillar in The Simpsons
  • Music
    • Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]

Additional photos

For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth.


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For a series of photographs showing caterpillar life-cycle, see Emperor Gum Moth. The digital clock was invented in 1956. Other carnivorous species of caterpillars are also known, but still represent a tiny fraction of all known representatives of these insect larvae. Quartz timepieces were invented in the 1920s. [...] It is the first time that caterpillars that eat snails or any other mollusk have been found." July 22, 2005. The Noon gun in Cape Town still fires an accurate signal to allow ships to check their chronometers. "Tiny, snail-eating caterpillars found in Hawaiian rain forests tie up their prey with sticky silk and snack on them at leisure. John Harrison created the first, highly accurate marine chronometers in the mid-18th century.

The include the Small White butterfly (brassicas), the Pine Butterfly, and the Codling Moth (apples). This need was a major motivation for the development of accurate mechanical clocks. Some caterpillars are considered serious pests of agriculture or forestry. Latitude is fairly easy to determine through celestial navigation, but the measurement of longitude requires accurate measurement of time. Recent findings have shown that they communicate with their ant protectors by means of vibrations as well as chemical means. Accurate navigation by ships beyond the sight of land depends on the ability to measure latitude and longitude. The Lycaenid butterflies are particularly well known. Rather, they are designated as the current ideal clock because they are currently the best instantiation of the definition.

Some caterpillars obtain protection by associating themselves with ants. However, they are not so designated by fiat. The aim of all these aggressive defense measures is to assure that any predator that eats (or tries to eat) one of them will not be in a hurry to repeat the experience. Since atoms are so numerous and since, within current measurement tolerances, they all beat in a manner such that if one is chosen as periodic then the others are all deemed to be periodic also, it follows that atomic clocks represent ideal clocks to within present measurement tolerances and in relation to all presently known physical processes. This mechanism is not found in any vertebrates. While not all physical processes can be surveyed, the definition should be based on the set of physical processes which includes all individual physical processes which are proposed for consideration. One of their adaptations that enables them to eat this much is a mechanism in a specialized midgut which transports ions at a very high rate to the lumen (midgut cavity), to keep the potassium level higher in the midgut cavity than in the blood. This definition can be further improved by the consideration of successive levels of smaller and smaller error tolerances.

For instance, a tobacco hornworm will increase its own weight ten thousand times in less than twenty days. Sometimes that signal alone is (confusingly) called "the clock," but sometimes "the clock" includes the counter, its indicator, and everything else supporting it. They have the fastest growth rate of any animal in the world. The recurrent, periodic process (a metronome) is an oscillator and typically generates a clock signal. Caterpillars have rightfully been called eating machines. This leads to the following definitions:. These toxic species, such as the Cinnabar moth (Tyria jacobaeae) caterpillars, are brightly striped or coloured in red and yellow - the 'danger' colours. An ideal clock is more appropriately defined in relationship to the set of all physical processes.

They are unaffected by the poison themselves, but it builds up in their system, making them highly toxic to anything that eats one of them. Therefore, to define an ideal clock in terms of any physical theory would be circular. Some caterpillars eat the leaves of plants that are toxic to other animals. An ideal clock is a scientific principle that measures the ratio of the duration of natural processes, and thus will give the time measure for use in physical theories. However, some birds, like cuckoos, will swallow the hairiest of caterpillars. Some computers also maintain time and date for all manner of operations whether these be for alarms, event initiation or just to display the time of day. These caterpillars have spiny bristles or long fine hairs that will irritate anything that brushes against them, or spit acidic digestive juices at potential enemies. (A few research projects are developing CPUs based on asynchronous circuits).

More aggressive self-defence measures are taken by the spitfires and hairy caterpillars. Practically all computers depend on an accurate internal clock signal to allow synchronized processing. Others have a body coloration that closely resembles their food plant. an alarm clock, a VCR, or a time bomb (see: counter). This is an attempt to convince predators that their back is actually their front, giving them an opportunity to escape to the 'rear' when attacked. It may also be used to control a device according to time, e.g. Some caterpillars have large 'false eyes' towards the rear of their abdomen. The main purpose of a clock is not always to display the time.

These methods can be either passive, aggressive, or both. A small clock is often shown in a corner of computer displays or mobile phones. Many species of birds and animals consider caterpillars to be a tasty protein snack, so the caterpillars have evolved several methods of protecting and/or camouflaging themselves. a train station or church. They rely on their antennae to help them locate food. Clocks are in homes and offices; smaller ones (watches) are carried; larger ones are in public places, e.g. Rather than having fully-developed eyes they have a series of six tiny eyelets or 'ocelli' on the lower portion of their head.
.

Caterpillars do not have very good eyesight or senses. After a reset digital clocks lacking a backup battery either start counting from 00:00, or stay 00:00 to indicate that their time needs to be set. These tubules are called 'spiracles', and inside the body they connect together into a network of airtubes or 'tracheae'. Mains-driven digital clocks are often reset after a power failure, and, typically, begin flashing to alert us that the time they display is incorrect. Air enters their bodies through a series of small tubules along the sides of their thorax and abdomen. A digital clock typically displays a numerical hour range of 0-23, or 1-12 (with an indication of AM or PM) using an LCD or LED display, although digital versions of analog-style faces exist. Caterpillars do not breathe through their mouths. Digital clocks use electronic methods of keeping time, typically the 50 or 60 hertz oscillation of AC power or a crystal oscillator as in a quartz movement.

The geometrids, also known as inchworms or loopers, are so named because of the way they locomote, appearing to measure the earth (the word 'geometrid' means 'earth-measurer' in Greek). The ultimate analog clock is the sundial, which tracks the sun continuously, registering the time by the shadow of its gnomon. The gap between the prolegs and the true legs can vary from a slight gap in some species to a large gap in families such as the geometridae. The analog clock with digital display emulates a digital clock but with an analog movement. Another difference is that lepidopteran caterpillars have crochets or hooks on the prolegs. It usually has a circular scale of 12 hours, which also serves as a scale of 60 minutes, and often also as a scale of 60 seconds. The sawfly larva (Hymenoptera) superficially resembles a caterpillar, but can usually be distinguished because the caterpillar has a gap between true legs and prolegs, whereas the sawfly does not. A clock face is the part of an analog clock that tells time through the use of a fixed numbered dial or dials and moving hand or hands.

Caterpillars have six true legs (being hexapods) on the thorax, up to four pairs of prolegs on the middle segments of the abdomen, and sometimes a single pair of prolegs on the last abdominal segment. Analog clocks may be mechanical or have a quartz movement. They eat leaves voraciously, grow rapidly, shed their skins generally four or five times, and eventually pupate into an adult form. There are two major types of clocks. Caterpillars have long segmented bodies and many sets of "legs". Even mechanical clocks have since come to be largely powered by batteries, removing the need for winding. A caterpillar is the larval form of a lepidopteran (a member of the insect order comprising butterflies and moths). Time in these cases is measured in several ways, such as by the behaviour of quartz crystals, or the decay of radioactive elements.

Caterpillar is a song by the live electronica band The Disco Biscuits [1]. The development of electronics in the twentieth century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all. Music

    . Terry is known as the founder of the American clock-making industry. The Screamapillar in The Simpsons. On November 17, 1797, Eli Terry received his first patent for a clock. Arthur in Willo the Wisp. It was also at this time that clock cases began to be made of wood and clock faces to employ enamel.

    TV series

      . The English clockmaker William Clement, inventor of the anchor escapement, is credited with developing this form in 1670. Inch worm by Frank Loesser, (from the motion picture Hans Christian Andersen). Notably, the longcase clock (aka grandfather clock) was created to house the pendulum and works. Popular song
        . The excitement over the pendulum clock attracted the attention of designers resulting in a proliferation of clock forms. The Very Hungry Caterpillar, 1969, Eric Carle. Within just one generation, minute hands and then second hands were added.

        Hookah-smoking caterpillar: Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland. In 1670, the English clockmaker William Clement created the anchor escapement, an improvement over Huygens' crown escapement. Children's stories

          . He determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time (99.38 cm or 39.13 inches for the one second movement) and had the first pendulum driven clock made. Christiaan Huygens, however, is usually credited as the inventor. Galileo had the idea to use a swinging bob to propel the motion of a time telling device earlier in the 17th century.

          The next major development in accuracy occurred in 1657 with the invention of the pendulum clock. The dial between the hour markers is divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. These clocks have only one hand. The earliest table clocks that survive in any quantity are mid-16th century ones from the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg.

          Canonical hours differ in length, and varied as the times of sunrise and sunset shifted. These were used to announce the canonical hours or intervals between set times of prayer. The earliest reasonably accurate clocks are the 13th century tower clocks probably developed for (and perhaps by) monks in Northern Italy. The Muslims also constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their observatories.

          In addition, during the 9th century, Ibn Firnas of Islamic Spain, according to Will Durant, invented a watch-like device which kept accurate time. The latter type was directly copied by Europeans during the 15th century. One such clock included a mercury escapement. Designs and illustrations of epi-cyclic and segmental gears were provided.

          These clocks were weight-driven. A variety of mechanical clocks were produced by Spanish Muslim engineers, both large and small, and this knowledge was transmitted to Europe through Latin translations of Islamic books on mechanics. This word has led scholars to believe that these tower clocks did not employ hands or dials, but “told” the time with audible signals such as bells. (from Greek hora, hour, and legein, to tell).

          There is a record that in 1176 Sens Cathedral installed a ‘horologe’—the word still used in French for large clocks. By the 9th century AD a mechanical timekeeper had been developed that lacked only an escapement mechanism. Historians disagree over the Antikythera mechanism but this is largely thought to be an early mechanical clock. The historian Vitruvius reported that the ancient Egyptians also used a clepsydras, a time mechanism run by flowing water.

          In an hourglass fine sand pours through a tiny hole at a predictable rate. Candles and sticks of incense which burn down at approximately predictable speeds have also been used as clocks. The sundial, which measures the time of day by the direction of shadows cast by the sun, was widely known in ancient times. As the seasons and the phases of the moon can be used to measure the passage of longer periods of time, shorter processes could be used to measure off hours and minutes.

          In principle, it requires no more than some physical process which will proceed at a known rate, and a way to gauge how long that process has been continuing. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions. . The clock in its most common modern form (in use since at least the 14th century) displays the hours, minutes, and sometimes seconds that pass over a twelve or twenty-four-hour period.

          A portable clock is called a watch. (Usually, for measuring time of intervals less than a day--as opposed to a calendar.) Those used for technical purposes, of very high accuracy, are sometimes called chronometers. A clock (from the Latin cloca, "bell") is an instrument for measuring time. world clock.

          water clock. watch. time clock. tide clock.

          sundial. striking clock. stopwatch. skeleton clock.

          sidereal clock. quartz clock. projection clock. torsion pendulum clock.

          swinging pendulum clock. pedestal clock. mantel clock. longcase clock.

          hourglass. grandfather clock. game clock. flip clock.

          cuckoo clock. countdown clock. Railroad chronometers. doll's head clock.

          Data clock for timescapes created with time-technology. clock network. chiming clock. cartel clock.

          bracket clock. binary clock. atomic clock. astronomical clock.

          analog clock with digital display. alarm clock. An ideal clock is a clock (i.e., recurrent process) that makes the most other recurrent processes periodic. A good clock is one which, when used to measure other recurrent processes, finds many of them to be periodic.

          A clock is a recurrent periodic process and a counter.

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