Beetle

For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation).
Suborders
Adephaga
Archostemata
Myxophaga
Polyphaga
See subgroups of the order Coleoptera

Beetles are one of the main groups of insects. Their order, Coleoptera (meaning "sheathed wing"), has more species in it than any other order in the entire animal kingdom. Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and new species are regularly discovered. Estimates put the total number of species — described and undescribed — at between 5 and 8 million. This is why, when J. B. S. Haldane, a British geneticist, was asked what his studies of nature revealed about God, he replied, "An inordinate fondness for beetles".

Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. They have a major impact on the ecosystem in three ways: feeding on plants and fungi, breaking down animal and plant debris, and eating other invertebrates. Certain species are agricultural pests in some areas, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), while other species are important controls of agricultural pests, for example the lady beetles (family Coccinellidae) consume aphids, fruit flies, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops.

Anatomy

Overview of the dorsal anatomy of a Beetle

Bearing in mind the wide diversity and number of species the anatomy of beetles is quite uniform. Beetles are generally characterised by a particularly hard exoskeleton, and the hard wing-cases (elytra) which tend to cover the hind part of the body and protect the second wings, the alae. The elytra are not used in flying, but generally must be raised in order to move the hindwings. In some cases the ability to fly has been lost, characteristically in families such as Carabidae and Curculionidae. After landing, the hindwings are folded below the elytra.

In a few families, both the ability to fly and the wing-cases have been lost, with the best known example being the "glowworms" of the family Phengodidae, in which the females are larviform throughout their lives.

The bodies of beetles are divided into three sections, the head, the thorax, and the abdomen, and these in themselves may be composed of several further segments.

The eyes are compound, and may display some remarkable adabtability, as in the case of the Whirligig beetles (family Gyrinidae), in which the eyes are split to allow a view both above and below the waterline. The dorsal appendage aids the beetle in stalking prey.

Antennae can vary greatly and may be filiform, claviform, flabellate or genticulate.

Oxygen is taken in via a tracheal system: this takes air in through a series of tubes along the body which is then taken into increasingly finer fibres. Pumping movements of the body force the air through the system. Although beetles have blood, it is not used for oxygen transference, although a heart is present.

Development

Larva of the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha)

Beetles are endopterygotes with complete metamorphosis. The larva of a beetle is often called a grub and represents the principal feeding stage of the life-cycle.

The eggs of beetles are minute but may be brightly coloured, they are laid in clumps and there may be from several dozen to several thousand eggs laid by a single female.

Once the egg hatches the larvae tend to feed voraciously, whether out in the open such as with Ladybird larvae, or within plants such as with leaf beetle larvae.

As with lepidoptera, beetle larvae pupate for a period, and from the pupa emerges a fully formed beetle or imago.

In some cases there are several transitory larvae stages and this is known as hypermetamorphosis; examples include the blister beetles (family Meloidae).

Physiology

There are few things that a beetle somewhere will not eat, even inorganic matter may be consumed.

Some beetles are highly specialised in their diet; for example, the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) opts almost entirely to colonize plants of the potato family (Solanaceae). Others are generalists, eating both plants and animals. Ground beetles (family Carabidae) and rove beetles (family Staphylinidae) are entirely carnivorous and will catch and comsume small prey such as earthworms and snails.

Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species, this can range from dung which is consumed by coprophagous species such as the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae), to dead animals which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles (family Silphidae). The beneficial impact to the general ecology of these two activities is huge.

Various techniques are employed by many species for retaining both air and water supplies. Predaceous diving beetles (family Dytiscidae) may be the most common example, they employ a technique of retaining air when diving between the abdomen and the elytra.

Reproduction

The larval period of beetles varies between species but can be as long as several years. Adults have an extremely variable lifespan, again, from weeks to years.

Beetles may display some extremely intricate behaviour when mating. Smell is thought to play significant importance in the location of a mate.

Conflict can play a part in the mating rituals for example in species such as burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) where localised conflicts between males and females rage until only one of each is left, thus ensuring reproduction by the strongest and fittest. Many beetles are territorial and will fiercly defend their small patch of territory from intruding males.

Pairing is generally short but in some cases will last for several hours. During pairing sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilise the egg.

Parental care

As befitting such a large order, the parental care between species varies widely. It ranges from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf to scarab beetles, which construct impressive underground structures complete with a supply of dung to house and feed their young.

There are other notable ways of caring for the eggs and young, such as those employed by leaf rollers, who bite sections of leaf causing it to curl inwards and then lay the eggs, thus protected, inside.

Generally the number of eggs laid is an indicator of the level of parental care subsequently employed, as they are inversely proportional.

Predation

Beetles and larvae have evolved to employ a variety of different strategies for avoiding being eaten.

Many employ simple camoflage to avoid being spotted by predators. These include the leaf beetles (family Chysomelidae) that have a green colouring very similair to their habitat on tree leaves.

A number of longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) bear a striking resemblance to wasps, thus benefitting from a measure of protection. Large ground beetles by contrast will tend to go on the attack, using their strong mandibles to forcibly persuade a predator to seek out easier prey.

Many species, including lady beetles and blister beetles, can secrete poisonous substances to make them unpalatable.

Evolutionary history and classification

Beetles entered the fossil record during the Lower Permian, about 265 million years ago.

The four extant suborders of beetle are these:

These suborders diverged in the Permian and Triassic. Their phylogenetic relationship is uncertain, with the most popular hypothesis being that Polyphaga and Myxophaga are most closely related, with Adephaga an outgroup to those two, and Archostemata an outgroup to the other three.

The extraordinary number of beetle species poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes.

See the article subgroups of the order Coleoptera for a complete list of families.

Impact on humans

Pests

Damage to beans by larvae of the common bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus

There are several serious agricultural and household pests represented by the order, these include :

Beneficial organisms

Some farmers introduce beetle banks to foster and provide cover for beneficial beetles.

Scarab beetles in Egyptian culture

Ancient Egyptian scene depicting a scarab beetle

The scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are coprophagous beetles.

It seemed to the ancient Egyptians that young scarab beetles emerged spontaneously from the burrow where they were born. Therefore they were worshipped as "Khepri", which means "he who came forth." This creative aspect of the scarab was associated with the creator god Atum. The ray-like antennae on the beetle's head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. The scarab beetle god Khepri was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the beetle with his ball of dung.

Many thousands of amulets and stamp seals have been excavated that depict the scarab. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to, "do not stand as a witness against me."

"Le Scarabée Sacré", the opening essay in Jean-Henri Fabre's famous Souvenirs Entomologiques, deals with the insect.

Collecting

Beetle collection at the Melbourne Museum, Australia

The study of beetles is called coleopterology, and its practitioners coleopterists. See the list of list of notable coleopterists for more information.

There is a thriving industry in the collection of wild caught species for amateur and professional collectors.


Gallery

References

Journals


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. A variety of DSL providers and resellers are able to provide broadband Internet over Verizon-owned phone lines. There is a thriving industry in the collection of wild caught species for amateur and professional collectors. Satellite television is available from Dish Network and DirecTV. See the list of list of notable coleopterists for more information. Broadband Internet access is provided by Comcast and RCN in certain areas. The study of beetles is called coleopterology, and its practitioners coleopterists. Cable television is available from Comcast and RCN.

"Le Scarabée Sacré", the opening essay in Jean-Henri Fabre's famous Souvenirs Entomologiques, deals with the insect. Phone service is also available from various national wireless companies. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to, "do not stand as a witness against me.". Verizon, successor to New England Telephone, NYNEX, and Bell Atlantic, is the primary wired telephone service provider for the area. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. Natural gas is distributed by KeySpan Corporation (the successor company to Boston Gas); only commercial and industrial customers may choose an alternate natural gas supplier. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky. NSTAR is the exclusive distributor of electric power to the city, though due to deregulation, customers now have a choice of electric generation companies.

Many thousands of amulets and stamp seals have been excavated that depict the scarab. The agency operates several facilities for sewage treatment, notably an effluent tunnel in Boston Harbor and the Deer Island Wastewater Treatment Plant near the mouth of Boston Harbor. The scarab beetle god Khepri was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the beetle with his ball of dung. Established as a public authority in 1984, the MWRA pipes water from reservoirs in Western and Central Massachusetts, notably the Quabbin and Wachusett Reservoirs, for several communities within Greater Boston. The ray-like antennae on the beetle's head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. The Commission in turn purchases wholesale water and sewage disposal from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA). Therefore they were worshipped as "Khepri", which means "he who came forth." This creative aspect of the scarab was associated with the creator god Atum. Water supply and sewage-disposal services are provided by the Boston Water and Sewer Commission.

It seemed to the ancient Egyptians that young scarab beetles emerged spontaneously from the burrow where they were born. Meanwhile, Amtrak's Downeaster service to Maine originates at North Station. The scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are coprophagous beetles. Fast Northeast Corridor trains, which service New York City, Washington, D.C., and points in between, also stop at Route 128 Station in the southwestern suburbs of Boston. Some farmers introduce beetle banks to foster and provide cover for beneficial beetles. Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and Chicago lines originate at South Station and stop at Back Bay. There are several serious agricultural and household pests represented by the order, these include :. Collectively known as the "T", the MBTA also operates an extensive network of bus lines and water shuttles, and a commuter rail network extending north to the Merrimack River valley, west to Worcester, and south to Providence, Rhode Island.

See the article subgroups of the order Coleoptera for a complete list of families. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) operated the nation's first underground subway system, which has since been expanded to an extensive rapid transit system reaching as far north as Malden, as far south as Braintree, and as far west as Newton. The extraordinary number of beetle species poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes. Through the Big Dig the elevated highway was replaced with an underground tunnel. Their phylogenetic relationship is uncertain, with the most popular hypothesis being that Polyphaga and Myxophaga are most closely related, with Adephaga an outgroup to those two, and Archostemata an outgroup to the other three. The most infamous portion, the Central Artery, runs through downtown Boston and was constantly prone to heavy traffic. These suborders diverged in the Permian and Triassic. US 1 and I-93 runs north to south through the city.

The four extant suborders of beetle are these:. I-95, which surrounds the city, is known as Route 128. Beetles entered the fossil record during the Lower Permian, about 265 million years ago. Boston is the eastern terminus of I-90, also known as the Mass Pike. Many species, including lady beetles and blister beetles, can secrete poisonous substances to make them unpalatable. for cycling. Large ground beetles by contrast will tend to go on the attack, using their strong mandibles to forcibly persuade a predator to seek out easier prey. In its March 2006 issue, Bicycling magazine named Boston as one of the three worst cities in U.S.

A number of longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) bear a striking resemblance to wasps, thus benefitting from a measure of protection. The city also has a number of rotaries, which have confused many drivers. These include the leaf beetles (family Chysomelidae) that have a green colouring very similair to their habitat on tree leaves. Roads change names and lose and add lanes seemingly at random. Many employ simple camoflage to avoid being spotted by predators. Boston has been described as a "City of Squares", referring to the tradition of naming the intersections of major thoroughfares after prominent city residents. Beetles and larvae have evolved to employ a variety of different strategies for avoiding being eaten. Except for the reclaimed Back Bay and part of South Boston, the city has no street grid.

Generally the number of eggs laid is an indicator of the level of parental care subsequently employed, as they are inversely proportional. Boston's streets appear as though they were not planned, evolving from centuries-old foot and cow paths. There are other notable ways of caring for the eggs and young, such as those employed by leaf rollers, who bite sections of leaf causing it to curl inwards and then lay the eggs, thus protected, inside. Green Airport in Providence, Rhode Island, and Manchester Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, are airports outside Massachusetts which serve as secondary facilities. It ranges from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf to scarab beetles, which construct impressive underground structures complete with a supply of dung to house and feed their young. F. As befitting such a large order, the parental care between species varies widely. T.

During pairing sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilise the egg. Another airport serving the city and surrounding areas is Hanscom Field in Lexington and Bedford. Pairing is generally short but in some cases will last for several hours. Logan International Airport, located in the East Boston neighborhood, is the major airport serving Boston. Many beetles are territorial and will fiercly defend their small patch of territory from intruding males. Boston Medical Center, located in the South End neighborhood, is the primary teaching facility for the Boston University School of Medicine as well as the largest trauma center in the Boston area; it was formed by the merger of Boston University Hospital and Boston City Hospital. Conflict can play a part in the mating rituals for example in species such as burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) where localised conflicts between males and females rage until only one of each is left, thus ensuring reproduction by the strongest and fittest. New England Medical Center, located in the southern portions of the Chinatown neighborhood, is affiliated with Tufts University.

Smell is thought to play significant importance in the location of a mate. The facilities in the Longwood Medical Area and MGH are world-renowned research medical centers affiliated with Harvard Medical School. Beetles may display some extremely intricate behaviour when mating. Many of Boston's major medical facilities are associated with universities. Adults have an extremely variable lifespan, again, from weeks to years. Boston also has VA medical centers in the Jamaica Plain and West Roxbury neighborhoods. The larval period of beetles varies between species but can be as long as several years. Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is located near the Beacon Hill neighborhood, with the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital nearby.

Predaceous diving beetles (family Dytiscidae) may be the most common example, they employ a technique of retaining air when diving between the abdomen and the elytra. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Brigham and Women's Hospital were both formed by mergers: the former between Beth Israel Hospital and New England Deaconess Hospital, and the latter by Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and the Boston Hospital for Women. Various techniques are employed by many species for retaining both air and water supplies. The Longwood Medical Area is a region of Boston with a concentration of medical and research facilities, including Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Children's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Harvard Medical School. The beneficial impact to the general ecology of these two activities is huge. As the home to some of the world's most respected research hospitals, Boston enjoys an international reputation in the medical field. Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species, this can range from dung which is consumed by coprophagous species such as the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae), to dead animals which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles (family Silphidae). The city is also the site of two other major annual sporting events: the Boston Marathon, the world-famous 26-mile run from Hopkinton to Copley Square in Boston, and the Head of the Charles Regatta rowing competition on the Charles River.

Ground beetles (family Carabidae) and rove beetles (family Staphylinidae) are entirely carnivorous and will catch and comsume small prey such as earthworms and snails. The hockey teams of these four universities meet every year in an immensely popular four-team tournament known as the "Beanpot". Others are generalists, eating both plants and animals. The most prominent include Boston College (member of the Atlantic Coast Conference), Boston University (America East Conference), Northeastern University (Colonial Athletic Association), and Harvard University. Some beetles are highly specialised in their diet; for example, the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) opts almost entirely to colonize plants of the potato family (Solanaceae). Boston's many colleges and universities field sports teams. There are few things that a beetle somewhere will not eat, even inorganic matter may be consumed. The team plays at Boston University's Nickerson Field.

In some cases there are several transitory larvae stages and this is known as hypermetamorphosis; examples include the blister beetles (family Meloidae). Another major league team is the lacrosse team Boston Cannons of Major League Lacrosse. As with lepidoptera, beetle larvae pupate for a period, and from the pupa emerges a fully formed beetle or imago. Both teams play at Gillette Stadium. Once the egg hatches the larvae tend to feed voraciously, whether out in the open such as with Ladybird larvae, or within plants such as with leaf beetle larvae. Boston fans travel there to see the Patriots and the New England Revolution soccer team of Major League Soccer. The eggs of beetles are minute but may be brightly coloured, they are laid in clumps and there may be from several dozen to several thousand eggs laid by a single female. Once the Boston Patriots, a charter team of the American Football League, the NFL's New England Patriots football team plays in nearby Foxboro.

The larva of a beetle is often called a grub and represents the principal feeding stage of the life-cycle. The game was played between the Boston Americans (currently the Boston Red Sox) and the Pittsburgh Pirates.[11]. Beetles are endopterygotes with complete metamorphosis. Boston was once the home of the National League baseball team Boston Braves as well as the site of the first World Series in 1903. Although beetles have blood, it is not used for oxygen transference, although a heart is present. Their home at Fenway Park, located near Kenmore Square, is the oldest ballpark in active use in the United States. Pumping movements of the body force the air through the system. The baseball team Boston Red Sox is a member of the American League of Major League Baseball.

Oxygen is taken in via a tracheal system: this takes air in through a series of tubes along the body which is then taken into increasingly finer fibres. The Celtics have the distinction of having more World Championships than any other NBA team with 16 championships from 1957 to 1986. Antennae can vary greatly and may be filiform, claviform, flabellate or genticulate. The TD Banknorth Garden (formerly called the Fleet Center) is near North Station is the home of two major league teams: the Boston Bruins ice hockey team (National Hockey League) and the Boston Celtics basketball team (National Basketball Association). The dorsal appendage aids the beetle in stalking prey. The outer suburbs of Boston, which tend to be forested, have vibrantly colored foliage every autumn that attracts many tourists. The eyes are compound, and may display some remarkable adabtability, as in the case of the Whirligig beetles (family Gyrinidae), in which the eyes are split to allow a view both above and below the waterline. A popular guided tour is the Boston Duck Tour, which uses World War II-era duck boats.

The bodies of beetles are divided into three sections, the head, the thorax, and the abdomen, and these in themselves may be composed of several further segments. There are also two self-guided walking tours: Harbor Walk, which is designed to allow people the walk the entire shore of Boston Harbor, and the Black Heritage Trail. In a few families, both the ability to fly and the wing-cases have been lost, with the best known example being the "glowworms" of the family Phengodidae, in which the females are larviform throughout their lives. The New England Aquarium, Franklin Park Zoo, Boston Athenaeum (one of the oldest independent libraries in the United States), and the Boston Children's Museum are located within the city. After landing, the hindwings are folded below the elytra. Kennedy Library. In some cases the ability to fly has been lost, characteristically in families such as Carabidae and Curculionidae. The University of Massachusetts campus at Columbia Point houses the John F.

The elytra are not used in flying, but generally must be raised in order to move the hindwings. Boston is home to several world-renowned museums, including the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum of Science. Beetles are generally characterised by a particularly hard exoskeleton, and the hard wing-cases (elytra) which tend to cover the hind part of the body and protect the second wings, the alae. Other notable districts/neighborhoods include Beacon Hill, Charlestown, Chinatown, Downtown Crossing, North End, and South Boston. Bearing in mind the wide diversity and number of species the anatomy of beetles is quite uniform. Back Bay is also the home of two of New England's tallest buildings: the John Hancock Tower and the Prudential Center.[10] Near the John Hancock Tower is the old John Hancock Building with its prominent weather forecast beacon. . The Back Bay district includes many prominent landmarks such as the Christian Science Center, Boston Public Library, Copley Square, and Newbury Street.

Certain species are agricultural pests in some areas, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), while other species are important controls of agricultural pests, for example the lady beetles (family Coccinellidae) consume aphids, fruit flies, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. Other parks are scattered throughout the city, with the major parks located near Castle Island, Charlestown, the Dorchester shoreline, and East Boston. They have a major impact on the ecosystem in three ways: feeding on plants and fungi, breaking down animal and plant debris, and eating other invertebrates. A major recreation site for many Bostonians, it is also the site of the Hatch Shell. Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. Another major park is the Esplanade located along the banks of the Charles River. Haldane, a British geneticist, was asked what his studies of nature revealed about God, he replied, "An inordinate fondness for beetles". In the winter, the Frog Pond at Boston Common doubles as a popular ice-skating rink.

S. Boston Common is part of the Emerald Necklace, a string of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmstead. B. Also along the Freedom Trail is Boston Common, with the Boston Public Garden being adjacent. This is why, when J. Many are found along the Freedom Trail, which is marked by a red line or bricks embedded in the ground. Estimates put the total number of species — described and undescribed — at between 5 and 8 million. Because of the city's prominent role in the American Revolution, several historic sites relating to that period are preserved as part of the Boston National Historical Park.

Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and new species are regularly discovered. Most Boston television stations have their transmitters in nearby Needham and Newton. Their order, Coleoptera (meaning "sheathed wing"), has more species in it than any other order in the entire animal kingdom. WGBH is a major producer of PBS programs. Beetles are one of the main groups of insects. Boston is also home to PBS station WGBH 2, which also operates WGBX 44. The Coleopterist (UK). The Boston television DMA, which also includes Manchester, New Hampshire, is the fifth largest in the United States.[9] The city is served by stations representing every major American network including WBZ 4 (CBS), WCVB 5 (ABC), WHDH 7 (NBC), WFXT 25 (FOX), WSBK 38 (UPN), and WLVI 56 (WB).

Harde, A Field Guide in Colour to Beetles ISBN 0706419375 Pages 7-24. University radio stations include WZBC (Boston College), WERS (Emerson), and WUMB (UMass Boston). W. A variety of FM radio formats serve the area as well as NPR stations WBUR and WGBH. K. Boston has the largest broadcasting market in New England, with the Boston radio market being the eleventh largest in the United States.[8] Several major AM stations include talk radio WRKO 680 AM, sports/talk station WEEI 850 AM, and news radio WBZ 1030 AM. Thomas, American Beetles (CRC Press, 2001-2). The city is also served by a number of smaller publications such as The Boston Phoenix and The Improper Bostonian.

and Michael C. The Boston Globe, owned by the New York Times Company, and The Boston Herald are Boston's two major daily newspapers. Arnett, Jr. Boston also had one of the leading local ska scenes in the ska revival of the mid-1990s with bands like The Mighty Mighty Bosstones, The Allstonians, and Skavoovie and the Epitones. Ross H. Boston musicians have contributed greatly to the hardcore scene over the years (see also Boston hardcore). Engel, Evolution of the Insects ISBN 0521821495. In contrast to what might be considered the more "refined" aspects of Boston's culture, the city is also one of the birthplaces of the hardcore punk genre of music.

David Grimaldi, Michael S. These events include the weeklong Harborfest festivities and a Boston Pops concert accompanied by fireworks on the banks of the Charles River. Entomological Society of America, Beetle Larvae of the World ISBN 0643055061. There are a number of major annual events such as First Night, which occurs during New Year's Eve, and several events during the Fourth of July. Poul Beckmann, Living Jewels: The Natural Design of Beetles ISBN 3791325280. Renowned performing arts groups include the Boston Ballet, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Pops, Boston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society (the oldest choral company in the United States). Large ground beetles (family Carabidae) are predators of caterpillars and, on occasion, adult weevils, whereas smaller species attack eggs, small caterpillars, and other pest insects. The city also has a number of ornate theatres, including the Cutler Majestic Theatre and The Wang Center for the Performing Arts.

While both adult and larval lady beetles found on crops prefer aphids, they will, if aphids are scarce, use food from other sources, such as small caterpillars, young plant bugs, aphid honeydew, and plant nectar. Much of Boston's culture originates at its universities. The larvae of lady beetles (family Coccinellidae) are often found in aphid colonies. Many consider Boston a highly cultured city, perhaps as a result of its intellectual reputation. Citrus long-horned beetle. Boston has its own collection of neologisms known as Boston slang. Asian long-horned beetle. Italian, Chinese, and Hispanic groups also have major contributions to Boston's cultural composition.

It is most usual for death watch beetle attacks to originate in timber of large dimensions, and it is thought that the actual introduction of the pest into buildings takes place at the time of construction. Irish Americans are a major influence on Boston's politics and religious institutions and consequently on the rest of Massachusetts. It attacks hardwoods such as oak and chestnut, and always where some fungal decay has taken or is taking place. Boston shares many cultural roots with greater New England, including a dialect of the Eastern New England accent popularly known as Boston English, and a regional cuisine with a large emphasis on seafood and dairy products. The death watch beetle (Xestobium rufovillosum) is of some considerable importance as a pest of wooden structures in older buildings in Britain. 3000 students of racial minorities attend participating suburban schools through the Metropolitan Educational Opportunity Council, or METCO. The spread of the fungus by the beetle has led to the devastastation of elm trees in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere, notably North America and Europe. The system operates 145 schools, which includes Boston Latin School (the oldest public school, established in 1635), English High (the oldest public high school, established 1821), and Mather (the oldest public elementary school, established in 1639).[7] The city also has private, parochial, and charter schools.

They are important elm pests because they carry Dutch elm disease (the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) as they move from infected breeding sites to feed on healthy elm trees. Boston Public Schools, the oldest public school system in the U.S., enrolls 58,600 students from kindergarten to grade 12. The elm bark beetles, Hylurgopinus rufipes and Scolytus multistriatus (in the family Scolytidae) attack elm trees. The city is also home to a number of conservatories and art schools, including the Massachusetts College of Art, New England Conservatory, Boston Conservatory, and Berklee College of Music. Crops are destroyed and the beetle can only be treated by employing expensive pesticides, many of which it has begun to develop immunity to. Suffolk University, a small private university known for its law school, maintains a campus on Beacon Hill. As well as potatoes, this can be any one of a number of plants from the potato family (Solanaceae) such as nightshade, tomato, aubergine and capsicum. Northeastern University, a large private university with a distinctive work/study program, maintains a campus in the Fenway district.

Adults mate before overwintering deep in the soil, so that when they emerge the following spring, females can lay eggs immediately, once a suitable host plant has been found. Emerson College, a highly regarded arts & communications school, maintains a campus near the Theatre District at the southwest corner of Boston Common. The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is a notorious pest of potato plants. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) operates several major laboratories within the city. Myxophaga contains about 100 described species in four families, mostly very small, including skiff beetles (Hydroscaphidae) and minute bog beetles (Sphaeriusidae). Harvard recently announced plans to expand its main campus across the Charles River into Boston's Allston neighborhood, which already hosts some of the university's dormitories and sports facilities. Archostemata contains four families of mainly wood-eating beetles, including reticulated beetles (Cupedidae) and telephone-pole beetles (Micromalthidae). These holdings include the Arnold Arboretum, and its business and medical schools.

In these beetles the testes are tubular and the first abdominal sternum (a plate of the exoskeleton) is divided by the hind coxae (the basal joints of the beetle's legs). Harvard University, the nation's oldest institution of higher learning, is based across the Charles River in Cambridge; however, most of its current land holdings lie in Boston. Adephaga contains about 10 families of predatory beetles, includes ground beetles (Carabidae), predacious diving beetles (Dytiscidae) and whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae). Boston University, now the city's second largest employer and one of the largest private universities in the country, was originally established in Vermont before moving to Brookline and later to its present campus in the Back Bay in the 1950s. These beetles can be identified by the cervical sclerites (hardened parts of the head used as points of attachment for muscles) absent in the other suborders. Its campus, initially envisioned as an Oxford in America, subsequently expanded so that almost half of it is now within the city's political boundaries. Polyphaga is the largest suborder, containing more than 300,000 described species in more than 170 families, including rove beetles (Staphylinidae), scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), blister beetles (Meloidae), stag beetles (Lucanidae), and true weevils (Curculionidae). It was originally located in the South End before moving to Chestnut Hill, on the city's western edge.

Boston College was the first institution of higher education established in the city. Boston's reputation as the Athens of America derives in large part from the teaching and research activities of over 100 colleges and universities located in its metropolitan area. It is also a major seaport along the United States east coast as well as a major fishing port. The Port of Boston is the largest and busiest seaport in Massachusetts.

Other major companies are located outside the city, especially along Route 128. has its headquarters in the city. New Balance Athletic Shoe, Inc. Major companies headquartered within the city include Gillette, owned by Procter & Gamble, and Teradyne, one of the world's leading manufacturers of semiconductors and other electronic equipment.

Because of its status as a state capital and the regional home of federal agencies, law and government is another major component of the city's economy. The city is also a major convention destination with four major convention centers: the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay, the Bayside Expo Center in Dorchester, and the World Trade Center Boston and Boston Convention & Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. Textbook publisher Houghton Mifflin is headquartered within the city. Boston is also a printing and publishing center.

The city is also the regional headquarters of major banks such as Bank of America and Sovereign Bank, and a center for venture capital. Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s, and has made Boston one of the top financial cities in the United States. Other important industries include financial services, especially mutual funds and insurance. Not only are they major employers, but they also attract high-tech industries to the city and surrounding region, including computer hardware and software companies as well as biotechnology companies like Millennium Pharmaceuticals and Biogen Idec.

Boston's colleges and universities have a major impact on the city and region's economy. The city has thrice been a recipient of the All-America City Award, the oldest and most respected civic award in the U.S. Boston has eight sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI): Barcelona (Spain), Hangzhou (People's Republic of China), Kyoto (Japan), Melbourne (Australia), Padua (Italy), Strasbourg (France), Sekondi-Takoradi (Ghana), and Taipei (Taiwan). Though the figures are nowhere near the high-water mark set in 1990, the aberrations in the murder rate have been unsettling for many Bostonians and have prompted discussion over whether the Boston Police Department should reevaluate its approach to fighting crime.[4][5][6].

In more recent years, however, the annual murder count has fluctuated by as much as 50% compared to the year before, with 60 murders in 2002, followed by just 39 in 2003, 64 in 2004, and 75 in 2005. This helped lead in part to what has been touted as the "Boston Miracle." Murders in the city dropped from 152 in 1990 (for a murder rate of 26.5 per 100,000 people) to just 31—not one of them a juvenile—in 1999 (for a murder rate of 5.26 per 100,000). Conley, spent nearly ten years working at reducing gang violence in the city. The current DA for Suffolk County and Boston, Daniel F.

Boston's low crime rate in the last years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st has been credited to its police department's collaboration with neighborhood groups and church parishes to prevent youths from joining gangs, as well as heavy involvement from the District Attorney's office. The city is in the Eighth and Ninth Congressional districts. The city also serves as the home of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts, as well as the headquarters of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (the First District of the Federal Reserve). O'Neil Federal Building.

Kennedy Federal Office Building and the Thomas P. Properties include the John F. Boston is also the United States federal government center for New England. As the capital of Massachusetts, Boston plays a major role in state politics.

In addition to city government, numerous state authorities and commissions play a role in the life of Bostonians, including the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport). The school committee is appointed by the mayor, as are city department heads. Flaherty, is elected by the councilors from within themselves. The president of the city council, currently Michael F.

The candidates with the four highest vote totals are elected. Each voter casts up to four votes for at-large councilors, no more than one vote per candidate. There are nine district seats, each elected by the residents of that district through plurality voting, and four at-large seats. The city council is elected every two years.

The mayor is elected to a four-year term by plurality voting. Boston has a "strong mayor" system in which the mayor is vested with extensive executive powers. Like many other major cities in the 1950s and 1960s, Boston's population decreased dramatically due to new highway systems that made it easier to access the suburbs and outer regions. On days with major events such as baseball or basketball games the population can easily increase to 1.5 million.

The population is pushed up to one million or more on an average week day. Boston has the second-largest work day population increase in the country just after Washington D.C. Out of the total population, 25.6% of those under the age of 18 and 18.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. 19.5% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line.

The per capita income for the city was $23,353. Males had a median income of $37,435 versus $32,421 for females. The median income for a household in the city was $39,629, and the median income for a family was $44,151. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.

For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. The median age was 31 years. In the city the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 16.2% from 18 to 24, 35.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 3.17.

37.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. There were 239,528 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.4% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 51.9% were non-families. Census data did not account for this significant segment of the community because of confusing terminology, as Brazilians speak Portuguese and often do not consider themselves specifically Hispanic, Latino, White or African American. These figures became less reliable because of the large, partly undocumented Brazilian population, estimated by some studies to approach 250,000 in Massachusetts.

14.44% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. The racial makeup of the city was 54.48% White, 25.33% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 7.52% Asian American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 7.83% from other races, and 4.39% from two or more races. Italians also form a very large segment of the city's population. The Irish are the largest ethnic group in the city of Boston, and Boston is commonly considered the capital of "Irish America".

There were 251,935 housing units at an average density of 2,009/km² (5,203/mi²). The population density was 4,697/km² (12,166/mi²). As of the censusGR2 of 2000, there were 589,141 people, 239,528 households, and 115,212 families residing in the city. Massachusetts' geographic location's jutting out into the North Atlantic also make the city very prone to Noreaster weather systems that can dump more than 75 cm (30 in) of snow on the region in one storm event.

It also coincidentally averages 108 cm (42 in) of snowfall a year, though this increases dramatically as one goes inland away from the city. The city averages 1080 mm (42 in) of rainfall a year. The record high temperature is 39 °C (102 °F) recorded in 1926 and the record low temperature is -28 °C (-18 °F) recorded in 1934. The coldest month is January, with an average high of 2.2 °C (36 °F) and a low of -5.6 °C (22 °F).[2] Brief periods exceeding 35 °C in summer and below -20 °C in winter are not uncommon.

The hottest month is July, with an average high of 28 °C (82 °F) and a low of 18 °C (64 °F). It has been known to snow in October and get quite mild in February. Summers are typically warm and humid, while winters are cold, windy and snowy. It is not uncommon for the city to experience temperature swings of 30 °C (54 °F) or more over the course of a couple of days.

The weather in Boston, like much of New England, changes rapidly. Boston experiences a continental climate that is very common in New England. The Mystic River separates the neighborhoods of East Boston and Charlestown from Chelsea and Everett. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the cities of Quincy and Milton.

To the east lies Boston Harbor and the Boston Harbor Islands, many of which are part of the Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, operated by the National Park Service. The Charles River separates Boston proper from Cambridge, Watertown, and the neighborhood of Charlestown. Smaller commercial areas are interspersed amongst single-family homes and wooden/brick multifamily row houses. To this day, the South End Historical District remains the nation's largest surviving contiguous Victorian-era neighborhood.

Several of these buildings mix in with modern high-rises, notably in the Financial District, Government Center, Back Bay, and the South Boston waterfront. The downtown area and immediate surroundings consist mostly of low-rise brick or stone buildings, with many older buildings in the Federal style. Only Beacon Hill, the smallest of the three original hills, remains partially intact. Much of the Back Bay and South End are built on reclaimed land—two and a half of Boston's three original hills were used as a source of material for landfill.

With an elevation of 19 feet (5.8 m) above sea level at Logan International Airport, Boston is bordered by the cities of Winthrop, Revere, Chelsea, Everett, Somerville, Cambridge, Watertown, Newton, Brookline, Needham, Dedham, Canton, Milton, and Quincy—often known as, and considered a part of, Greater Boston. The total area is 46.0% water. 125.4 km² (48.4 mi²) of it is land and 106.7 km² (41.2 mi²) of it is water. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 232.1 km² (89.6 mi²).

Once again Boston has become a hub of intellectual, technological, and political ideas. Conversely, Boston's streets currently bustle with a vitality not seen since the 1920s. The city faces gentrification issues and exorbitant living costs. Boston has begun to resemble other parts of the continuous string of Northeast seaboard cities dubbed the BosWash megalopolis.

Over the past several decades, Boston has experienced a dramatic loss of regional institutions and traditions, which once gave it a very distinct social character. The unrest served to highlight racial tensions in the city. Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in 1974 over desegregation busing, which resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mid-1970s. Universities such as Harvard, MIT, and Boston University attracted many students to the Boston area.

Hospitals such as Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and Brigham and Women's Hospital led the nation in medical innovation and patient care. Boston already had a reputation for excellent healthcare services. In the 1970s, Boston boomed after thirty years of economic downturn, becoming a leader in the mutual fund industry. Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, including the demolition of the old West End neighborhood and the construction of Government Center.

By the early and mid-20th century, the city was in decline as factories became old and obsolete, and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere. Boston also grew by annexing the adjacent communities of East Boston, Dorchester, South Boston, Brighton, Allston, Hyde Park, and Charlestown, some of which were augmented by landfill reclamation. Almost six hundred acres (240 hectares) of brackish Charles River marshlands west of Beacon Hill were filled in with soil brought in by rail from the hills of Needham Heights. The most dramatic reclamation project was the filling in of the Back Bay in the mid to late 1800s.

After The Great Boston Fire of 1872, building rubble was used as landfill along the downtown waterfront. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created the areas now known as the South End, West End, Financial District, and Chinatown. The present-day Statehouse sits atop this shortened Beacon Hill. Beginning in 1807, the crown of Beacon Hill was used to fill in a 50-acre (20 hectares) mill pond that later became the Bullfinch Triangle and Scollay Square (now Government Center).

Between 1630 and 1890, the city tripled its physical size by land reclamation, specifically by filling in marshes and mud flats and by filling gaps between wharves along the waterfront.[1] The most intense reclamation efforts were in the 1800s. Fitzgerald. The Irish played a major role in Boston politics — prominent figures include the Kennedys and John F. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community.

In the 1820s, Boston's ethnic composition began to change dramatically; groups like the Irish and Italians moved into the city and brought with them Roman Catholicism. It also became a center of the abolitionist movement. From the mid-to-late-nineteenth century, Boston flourished culturally — it became renowned for its rarefied literary culture and lavish artistic patronage. Until the early 1900s, Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers, and was notable for its garment production, leather goods, and machinery industries.

By the mid-1800s, the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance. In 1822, Boston was chartered as a city. During this era, descendants of old Boston families became regarded, in the American popular mind, as the nation's social and cultural elites; they were later dubbed the Boston Brahmins. After the Revolution, Boston became one of the world's wealthiest international trading ports — major exports were rum, fish, salt, and tobacco.

During this period, Paul Revere made his famous midnight ride. The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles occurred in or near the city, including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. During the early 1770s, British attempts to exert control on the thirteen colonies, primarily via taxation, prompted Bostonians to initiate the American Revolution. Hard work, moral uprightness, and an emphasis on education remain part of Boston's culture.

For example, shortly after Boston's settlement, Puritans founded America's first school, Boston Latin School (1635), and America's first college, Harvard College (1636). Puritan ethics molded an extremely stable and well-structured society in Boston. Massachusetts Bay Colony's original governor, John Winthrop, gave a famous sermon entitled "a City upon a Hill," which captured the idea that Boston had a special covenant with God. A majority of Boston's early citizens were Puritans.

They later renamed the town for Boston, England, in Lincolnshire, from which several prominent "pilgrim" colonists emigrated. Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine. The peninsula was connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus, and surrounded by the waters of Massachusetts Bay and the marshes at the mouth of the Charles River. Boston was founded on September 17, 1630, on a peninsula called Shawmut by its original Native American inhabitants.

. The city also lies at the center of Greater Boston, which also includes the cities of Cambridge, Brookline, Quincy, Newton, and many suburban communities farther from Boston. The area encompasses parts of the states of New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The city lies at the center of the Boston CMSA (Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area), the fifth largest in the United States.

Citizens of Boston are called Bostonians. The city is also sometimes called The Cradle of Liberty for its role in instigating the American Revolution. Boston is sometimes called Puritan City because its founders were Puritans. William Tudor, co-founder of the North American Review, christened the city The Athens of America for its great cultural and intellectual influence.

The Hub is a shortened form of writer Oliver Wendell Holmes's phrase The Hub of the Solar System, now more commonly referred to as The Hub of the Universe. Beantown refers to early Bostonian merchants' habit for making baked beans with imported molasses. The City on a Hill came from the original Massachusetts Bay Colony's governor John Winthrop's goal to create the biblical "City on a Hill." It also refers to Boston's original three hills. Boston has many nicknames.

Its economy is based on education, health care, finance, and technology. It is the unofficial capital of the region known as New England, and one of the oldest, wealthiest, and most culturally significant large cities in the United States. Boston is the capital and largest city in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Location in Massachusetts.

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