Beetle

For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation).
Suborders
Adephaga
Archostemata
Myxophaga
Polyphaga
See subgroups of the order Coleoptera

Beetles are one of the main groups of insects. Their order, Coleoptera (meaning "sheathed wing"), has more species in it than any other order in the entire animal kingdom. Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and new species are regularly discovered. Estimates put the total number of species — described and undescribed — at between 5 and 8 million. This is why, when J. B. S. Haldane, a British geneticist, was asked what his studies of nature revealed about God, he replied, "An inordinate fondness for beetles".

Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. They have a major impact on the ecosystem in three ways: feeding on plants and fungi, breaking down animal and plant debris, and eating other invertebrates. Certain species are agricultural pests in some areas, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), while other species are important controls of agricultural pests, for example the lady beetles (family Coccinellidae) consume aphids, fruit flies, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops.

Anatomy

Overview of the dorsal anatomy of a Beetle

Bearing in mind the wide diversity and number of species the anatomy of beetles is quite uniform. Beetles are generally characterised by a particularly hard exoskeleton, and the hard wing-cases (elytra) which tend to cover the hind part of the body and protect the second wings, the alae. The elytra are not used in flying, but generally must be raised in order to move the hindwings. In some cases the ability to fly has been lost, characteristically in families such as Carabidae and Curculionidae. After landing, the hindwings are folded below the elytra.

In a few families, both the ability to fly and the wing-cases have been lost, with the best known example being the "glowworms" of the family Phengodidae, in which the females are larviform throughout their lives.

The bodies of beetles are divided into three sections, the head, the thorax, and the abdomen, and these in themselves may be composed of several further segments.

The eyes are compound, and may display some remarkable adabtability, as in the case of the Whirligig beetles (family Gyrinidae), in which the eyes are split to allow a view both above and below the waterline. The dorsal appendage aids the beetle in stalking prey.

Antennae can vary greatly and may be filiform, claviform, flabellate or genticulate.

Oxygen is taken in via a tracheal system: this takes air in through a series of tubes along the body which is then taken into increasingly finer fibres. Pumping movements of the body force the air through the system. Although beetles have blood, it is not used for oxygen transference, although a heart is present.

Development

Larva of the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha)

Beetles are endopterygotes with complete metamorphosis. The larva of a beetle is often called a grub and represents the principal feeding stage of the life-cycle.

The eggs of beetles are minute but may be brightly coloured, they are laid in clumps and there may be from several dozen to several thousand eggs laid by a single female.

Once the egg hatches the larvae tend to feed voraciously, whether out in the open such as with Ladybird larvae, or within plants such as with leaf beetle larvae.

As with lepidoptera, beetle larvae pupate for a period, and from the pupa emerges a fully formed beetle or imago.

In some cases there are several transitory larvae stages and this is known as hypermetamorphosis; examples include the blister beetles (family Meloidae).

Physiology

There are few things that a beetle somewhere will not eat, even inorganic matter may be consumed.

Some beetles are highly specialised in their diet; for example, the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) opts almost entirely to colonize plants of the potato family (Solanaceae). Others are generalists, eating both plants and animals. Ground beetles (family Carabidae) and rove beetles (family Staphylinidae) are entirely carnivorous and will catch and comsume small prey such as earthworms and snails.

Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species, this can range from dung which is consumed by coprophagous species such as the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae), to dead animals which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles (family Silphidae). The beneficial impact to the general ecology of these two activities is huge.

Various techniques are employed by many species for retaining both air and water supplies. Predaceous diving beetles (family Dytiscidae) may be the most common example, they employ a technique of retaining air when diving between the abdomen and the elytra.

Reproduction

The larval period of beetles varies between species but can be as long as several years. Adults have an extremely variable lifespan, again, from weeks to years.

Beetles may display some extremely intricate behaviour when mating. Smell is thought to play significant importance in the location of a mate.

Conflict can play a part in the mating rituals for example in species such as burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) where localised conflicts between males and females rage until only one of each is left, thus ensuring reproduction by the strongest and fittest. Many beetles are territorial and will fiercly defend their small patch of territory from intruding males.

Pairing is generally short but in some cases will last for several hours. During pairing sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilise the egg.

Parental care

As befitting such a large order, the parental care between species varies widely. It ranges from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf to scarab beetles, which construct impressive underground structures complete with a supply of dung to house and feed their young.

There are other notable ways of caring for the eggs and young, such as those employed by leaf rollers, who bite sections of leaf causing it to curl inwards and then lay the eggs, thus protected, inside.

Generally the number of eggs laid is an indicator of the level of parental care subsequently employed, as they are inversely proportional.

Predation

Beetles and larvae have evolved to employ a variety of different strategies for avoiding being eaten.

Many employ simple camoflage to avoid being spotted by predators. These include the leaf beetles (family Chysomelidae) that have a green colouring very similair to their habitat on tree leaves.

A number of longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) bear a striking resemblance to wasps, thus benefitting from a measure of protection. Large ground beetles by contrast will tend to go on the attack, using their strong mandibles to forcibly persuade a predator to seek out easier prey.

Many species, including lady beetles and blister beetles, can secrete poisonous substances to make them unpalatable.

Evolutionary history and classification

Beetles entered the fossil record during the Lower Permian, about 265 million years ago.

The four extant suborders of beetle are these:

These suborders diverged in the Permian and Triassic. Their phylogenetic relationship is uncertain, with the most popular hypothesis being that Polyphaga and Myxophaga are most closely related, with Adephaga an outgroup to those two, and Archostemata an outgroup to the other three.

The extraordinary number of beetle species poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes.

See the article subgroups of the order Coleoptera for a complete list of families.

Impact on humans

Pests

Damage to beans by larvae of the common bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus

There are several serious agricultural and household pests represented by the order, these include :

Beneficial organisms

Some farmers introduce beetle banks to foster and provide cover for beneficial beetles.

Scarab beetles in Egyptian culture

Ancient Egyptian scene depicting a scarab beetle

The scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are coprophagous beetles.

It seemed to the ancient Egyptians that young scarab beetles emerged spontaneously from the burrow where they were born. Therefore they were worshipped as "Khepri", which means "he who came forth." This creative aspect of the scarab was associated with the creator god Atum. The ray-like antennae on the beetle's head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. The scarab beetle god Khepri was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the beetle with his ball of dung.

Many thousands of amulets and stamp seals have been excavated that depict the scarab. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to, "do not stand as a witness against me."

"Le Scarabée Sacré", the opening essay in Jean-Henri Fabre's famous Souvenirs Entomologiques, deals with the insect.

Collecting

Beetle collection at the Melbourne Museum, Australia

The study of beetles is called coleopterology, and its practitioners coleopterists. See the list of list of notable coleopterists for more information.

There is a thriving industry in the collection of wild caught species for amateur and professional collectors.


Gallery

References

Journals


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. Scouting is often dealt with in a humorous manner, as in the 1989 film Troop Beverly Hills, and is often fictionalized so that the audience knows the topic is Scouting without there being any mention of Scouting by name. There is a thriving industry in the collection of wild caught species for amateur and professional collectors. The works of painters Norman Rockwell and Joseph Csatari and the 1966 film Follow Me, Boys! are prime examples of this idealized American ethos. See the list of list of notable coleopterists for more information. It is especially prevalent in the United States, where Scouting is tied closely to the ideal of Americana. The study of beetles is called coleopterology, and its practitioners coleopterists. As a facet of culture throughout most of the 20th century, Scouting has been portrayed in numerous films and artwork.

"Le Scarabée Sacré", the opening essay in Jean-Henri Fabre's famous Souvenirs Entomologiques, deals with the insect. In recent years, local and national Scout camps have been making their facilities and campsites more accessible toward this goal. The amulets were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which entreated the heart to, "do not stand as a witness against me.". Extension Scouting is a section for handicapped youth in many national organizations, in compliance with Baden-Powell's mandate that Scouting should be "open to all." Sometimes constituted in special units, under the sponsorship of specialized institutions, young handicapped Scouts may also join standard units. During and following the New Kingdom, scarab amulets were often placed over the heart of the mummified deceased. Staff and adult leadership posistions are open to both men and women. In many artifacts, the scarab is depicted pushing the sun along its course in the sky. In the United States, the youngest levels, Cub Scouts and Boy Scouts, are still male only, however, the oldest levels, Venturing and Explorer programs are coeducational.

Many thousands of amulets and stamp seals have been excavated that depict the scarab. The Scout Association in the UK have decided that all Scout Groups should become coeducational by 1 January 2007 - Scouting's centenary. The scarab beetle god Khepri was believed to push the setting sun along the sky in the same manner as the beetle with his ball of dung. Since 2000 any new sections that have opened have been required to offer provision for female Scouts. The ray-like antennae on the beetle's head and its practice of dung-rolling caused the beetle to also carry solar symbolism. In the UK, The Scout Association has been co-educational at all levels for many years, but this has been on an opt-in basis for individual sections or groups. Therefore they were worshipped as "Khepri", which means "he who came forth." This creative aspect of the scarab was associated with the creator god Atum. Where a national Scout association admits both girls and boys, local groups may or may not be co-educational.

It seemed to the ancient Egyptians that young scarab beetles emerged spontaneously from the burrow where they were born. In still others, the national Scout association has opted to admit both boys and girls, while the national Guide association has remained as a separate girls-only movement. The scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae) are coprophagous beetles. In other countries (mainly in Europe), Scouting and Guiding have merged, and there is a common organisation for boys and girls, which is a member of both WOSM and WAGGGS. Some farmers introduce beetle banks to foster and provide cover for beneficial beetles. Some countries (such as the USA) have maintained separate Scouting organisations for boys and girls. There are several serious agricultural and household pests represented by the order, these include :. Worldwide there have been different approaches to coeducation.

See the article subgroups of the order Coleoptera for a complete list of families. Later, his wife Olave took the leading role and became the Chief Guide of the World. The extraordinary number of beetle species poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes. Scouting for girls was started by Baden-Powell in the form of the Guide movement, with the aid of his sister Agnes who was the first Guide Commissioner. Their phylogenetic relationship is uncertain, with the most popular hypothesis being that Polyphaga and Myxophaga are most closely related, with Adephaga an outgroup to those two, and Archostemata an outgroup to the other three. Historically, the early success of the Boy Scouts attracted girls, but the mores of the times did not allow a coeducational programme. These suborders diverged in the Permian and Triassic. At the international level, there are two separate umbrella organisations for coeducational and boys-only organisations, the (World Organization of the Scout Movement), and for organisations for girls only, the (World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts).

The four extant suborders of beetle are these:. Main article: Controversies about the Boy Scouts of America.. Beetles entered the fossil record during the Lower Permian, about 265 million years ago. Many foreign Scouts, from different countries, are also like to buy these badges and local specials in the shop for souvenir and collection. Many species, including lady beetles and blister beetles, can secrete poisonous substances to make them unpalatable. Local Scouts buy uniforms and badges at the shop. Large ground beetles by contrast will tend to go on the attack, using their strong mandibles to forcibly persuade a predator to seek out easier prey. They usually are located at the office of the local branch of scout organisation in a city.

A number of longhorn beetles (family Cerambycidae) bear a striking resemblance to wasps, thus benefitting from a measure of protection. Scout shops sell equipment, clothes, books and other material related to Scouting. These include the leaf beetles (family Chysomelidae) that have a green colouring very similair to their habitat on tree leaves. Penney later. Many employ simple camoflage to avoid being spotted by predators. Both Sears and Montgomery Ward offered Scout uniforms as did J.C. Beetles and larvae have evolved to employ a variety of different strategies for avoiding being eaten. There were not as many Scout shops in America as in England, however, because early in the Scouting movement uniforms were available in mail order catalogs.

Generally the number of eggs laid is an indicator of the level of parental care subsequently employed, as they are inversely proportional. They were called "Scout Outfitters". There are other notable ways of caring for the eggs and young, such as those employed by leaf rollers, who bite sections of leaf causing it to curl inwards and then lay the eggs, thus protected, inside. When the Scouting movement spread to the United States, Scout shops were also opened there. It ranges from the simple laying of eggs under a leaf to scarab beetles, which construct impressive underground structures complete with a supply of dung to house and feed their young. Scout shops still exist in numerous countries around the world. As befitting such a large order, the parental care between species varies widely. Most countries had at least several.

During pairing sperm cells are transferred to the female to fertilise the egg. Locations in the world where Scouting was not as popular had far fewer Scout shops. Pairing is generally short but in some cases will last for several hours. As boys could not buy Scout uniforms in department stores, they went to Scout shops. Many beetles are territorial and will fiercly defend their small patch of territory from intruding males. Scout shops sprang up all over England because Scouting was so popular. Conflict can play a part in the mating rituals for example in species such as burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) where localised conflicts between males and females rage until only one of each is left, thus ensuring reproduction by the strongest and fittest. The Scout shop was created out of the Scouting movement as a new kind of store to sell both uniforms and camping equipment.

Smell is thought to play significant importance in the location of a mate. Scout youth positions. Beetles may display some extremely intricate behaviour when mating. Scout leader positions. Adults have an extremely variable lifespan, again, from weeks to years. Cub Scout youth positions. The larval period of beetles varies between species but can be as long as several years. Akela is stable, Bagheera appears in most packs, others do not appear to exhibit.

Predaceous diving beetles (family Dytiscidae) may be the most common example, they employ a technique of retaining air when diving between the abdomen and the elytra. Cub Scout leader positions These are named after characters in The Jungle Book. Various techniques are employed by many species for retaining both air and water supplies. Note these positions are those of the British Scout Association and do not reflect all organizations worldwide. The beneficial impact to the general ecology of these two activities is huge. There are a number of positions in the Scouting hierarchy, some youth positions (for the Scouts themselves) and others for the Scout leaders. Decaying organic matter is a primary diet for many species, this can range from dung which is consumed by coprophagous species such as the scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae), to dead animals which are eaten by necrophagous species such as the carrion beetles (family Silphidae). Other politically based youth movements still in exsistence include Fianna na hÉireann, an Irish republican youth movement.

Ground beetles (family Carabidae) and rove beetles (family Staphylinidae) are entirely carnivorous and will catch and comsume small prey such as earthworms and snails. The Communist Young Pioneers still exist in some fashion in the People's Republic of China, Cuba, North Korea and Vietnam, and have been turned into a nationalist movement in Tajikistan; the King Somoni Inheritance. Others are generalists, eating both plants and animals. In parts of Europe existed the socialist Red Falcons. Some beetles are highly specialised in their diet; for example, the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) opts almost entirely to colonize plants of the potato family (Solanaceae). Germany created the Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) organization; Mussolini had a fascist youth organization, the Balilla; and Romania under the Iron Guard had the Străjeria. There are few things that a beetle somewhere will not eat, even inorganic matter may be consumed. Prior to World War II, the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary and Romania disbanded Scouting.

In some cases there are several transitory larvae stages and this is known as hypermetamorphosis; examples include the blister beetles (family Meloidae). Andorra, which is a parliamentary democracy, also does not currently have Scouting, but it is not banned there. As with lepidoptera, beetle larvae pupate for a period, and from the pupa emerges a fully formed beetle or imago. Currently, there are no Scouting organizations in Cuba, North Korea, Laos, Myanmar, and the People's Republic of China (except Hong Kong and Macau, which each have a Scouting organization). Once the egg hatches the larvae tend to feed voraciously, whether out in the open such as with Ladybird larvae, or within plants such as with leaf beetle larvae. Some of these governments have their own youth movements that are not considered part of the Scouting movement; whereas some of them totally banned Scouting. The eggs of beetles are minute but may be brightly coloured, they are laid in clumps and there may be from several dozen to several thousand eggs laid by a single female. Scouting has been banned and currently is banned in certain nations.

The larva of a beetle is often called a grub and represents the principal feeding stage of the life-cycle. South Africa's Voortrekkers are an Afrikaner youth movement founded in 1931 as the Dutch Africans found it difficult to belong to a movement founded by their Boer War opponent, Lord Baden-Powell. Beetles are endopterygotes with complete metamorphosis. The Future Farmers of America and 4-H are also sometimes seen in that light. Although beetles have blood, it is not used for oxygen transference, although a heart is present. Other groups such as the Camp Fire USA, YMCA, YWCA, Sokol, Boys' Brigade and Girls' Brigade also have similarities with Scouting, although some of those actually predate the foundation of Scouting. Pumping movements of the body force the air through the system. There are also some similar organisations linked to movements such as organised churches, such as Adventism's Pathfinders, the Nazarene Caravan and the pentecostal Royal Rangers.

Oxygen is taken in via a tracheal system: this takes air in through a series of tubes along the body which is then taken into increasingly finer fibres. Among independent single-country Scout associations are the Éclaireurs Neutres de France. Antennae can vary greatly and may be filiform, claviform, flabellate or genticulate. Other independent multinational Scout organizations include. The dorsal appendage aids the beetle in stalking prey. In Canada and to some extent in the United States, there is a Traditional Scouting movement, seeking to take Scouting back to the way it was in Baden-Powell's days. The eyes are compound, and may display some remarkable adabtability, as in the case of the Whirligig beetles (family Gyrinidae), in which the eyes are split to allow a view both above and below the waterline. Another modern breakway group is the American Heritage Girls, formed in 1995 in response to the perceived growing liberalism in the Girl Scouts of the USA.

The bodies of beetles are divided into three sections, the head, the thorax, and the abdomen, and these in themselves may be composed of several further segments. Baden-Powell Scouts were formed in 1970, initially in the United Kingdom but now also elsewhere, when it was felt that the "modernisation" of Scouting was abandoning the traditions and intentions established by Baden-Powell. In a few families, both the ability to fly and the wing-cases have been lost, with the best known example being the "glowworms" of the family Phengodidae, in which the females are larviform throughout their lives. This organisation was the direct antecedent of the Woodcraft Folk. After landing, the hindwings are folded below the elytra. In the years following the First World War, the Commissioner for Camping and Woodcraft John Hargrave, broke with what he considered to be the Scouts' militaristic approach and founded a breakaway organisation, the Kibbo Kift, taking a number of similar-minded Scoutmasters and troops with him. In some cases the ability to fly has been lost, characteristically in families such as Carabidae and Curculionidae. The order survives to this day in England.

The elytra are not used in flying, but generally must be raised in order to move the hindwings. In 1916 a group of Scoutmasters in Cambridge, led by Ernest Westlake and his son Aubrey, who believed that the movement had moved away from its early ideals and had lost its woodcraft character, founded the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry. Beetles are generally characterised by a particularly hard exoskeleton, and the hard wing-cases (elytra) which tend to cover the hind part of the body and protect the second wings, the alae. The British Girl Scouts were the female counterpart of the British Boy Scouts. Bearing in mind the wide diversity and number of species the anatomy of beetles is quite uniform. With several smaller organisations, such as the Boy's Life Brigade Scouts they formed the National Peace Scouts federation. . The organisation was formed by Sir Francis Vane because of perceptions of bureaucracy and militaristic tendencies in the mainstream movement.

Certain species are agricultural pests in some areas, for example the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), while other species are important controls of agricultural pests, for example the lady beetles (family Coccinellidae) consume aphids, fruit flies, thrips, and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. The first schism within Scouting occurred during November 1909, when the British Boy Scouts (later the Brotherhood of British Scouts, and known internationally as the Order of World Scouts) was formed, initially comprising an estimated 25 percent of all Scouts in the United Kingdom, but rapidly declining from 1911 onward. They have a major impact on the ecosystem in three ways: feeding on plants and fungi, breaking down animal and plant debris, and eating other invertebrates. These groups often provided postal delivery and other basic services in Displaced Persons Camps. Beetles can be found in almost all habitats, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions. For the Scouts-in-exile groups, serving the community outside their homelands, there is resentment that they were not recognized during their nations totalitarian periods. Haldane, a British geneticist, was asked what his studies of nature revealed about God, he replied, "An inordinate fondness for beetles". Scouts-in-Exile groups formed overseas from their native country as a result of war and changes in governments.

S. See article on Scouts-in-Exile.. B. Breakaway and nonaligned organizations can be divided into four categories:. This is why, when J. Six international Scouting organizations serve 437 of the world's national associations, and the largest two organizations, WOSM and WAGGGS, count 362 national associations as members, encompassing the vast majority of the world's Scouts. Estimates put the total number of species — described and undescribed — at between 5 and 8 million. Most have felt the need to create international Scouting organizations to set standards for Scouting and to coordinate activities among member associations.

Forty percent of all described insect species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and new species are regularly discovered. There are at least 520 separate national or regional Scouting associations in the world. Their order, Coleoptera (meaning "sheathed wing"), has more species in it than any other order in the entire animal kingdom. They believe that Scouting in general has moved away from its original intent, because of political machinations that happen to longstanding organizations, and seek to return to the earliest, simplest methods. Beetles are one of the main groups of insects. Others maintain that the WOSM of today is far more political and less youth based than ever envisioned by Lord Baden-Powell. The Coleopterist (UK). Many groups have formed since the original formation of the Scouting "Boy Patrols." Some are a result of groups or individuals who refuse to follow the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities.

Harde, A Field Guide in Colour to Beetles ISBN 0706419375 Pages 7-24. By that point, Scouting was the purview of the world's youth, no longer containable by any one school of thought. W. Between the first publication of Scouting for Boys and the creation of the first supranational Scout organization, WOSM, fifteen years had passed and millions of copies of the appealing handbook had been sold in dozens of languages. K. Scouting is first and foremost an educational game, one that benefits any youth that would learn from its method. Thomas, American Beetles (CRC Press, 2001-2). Do a good turn daily.

and Michael C. Be Prepared. Arnett, Jr. The form of the promise and laws have varied slightly from country to country and over time, but must fulfill the requirements of the World Organisation of the Scout Movement to qualify a National Scout Association for membership. Ross H. Since the birth of Scouting in 1907, all Scouts around the world have taken a Scout Promise or oath to live up to ideals of the movement, and subsribed to the Scout Law. Engel, Evolution of the Insects ISBN 0521821495. Full table on List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members..

David Grimaldi, Michael S. Top 15 countries with Scouting, sorted by membership. Entomological Society of America, Beetle Larvae of the World ISBN 0643055061. Today, there are over 28 million registered Scouters around the world, participating from 216 different countries and territories. Poul Beckmann, Living Jewels: The Natural Design of Beetles ISBN 3791325280. In addition to being the governing policy body it organizes the World Scout Jamboree every four years. Large ground beetles (family Carabidae) are predators of caterpillars and, on occasion, adult weevils, whereas smaller species attack eggs, small caterpillars, and other pest insects. Today the World Organization of the Scout Movement is the governing body for the mainstream of the Scouting Movement.

While both adult and larval lady beetles found on crops prefer aphids, they will, if aphids are scarce, use food from other sources, such as small caterpillars, young plant bugs, aphid honeydew, and plant nectar. Following its foundation in the UK, the Scouting movement started to spread around the globe. The larvae of lady beetles (family Coccinellidae) are often found in aphid colonies. Main article: Scouting around the world. Citrus long-horned beetle. A new British Medal of Merit was issued in 1935. Asian long-horned beetle. During 1934, many Scouters requested a change of design because of the use of the swastika by the National Socialist German Workers Party.

It is most usual for death watch beetle attacks to originate in timber of large dimensions, and it is thought that the actual introduction of the pest into buildings takes place at the time of construction. Like Rudyard Kipling, he would have come across this symbol in India. It attacks hardwoods such as oak and chestnut, and always where some fungal decay has taken or is taking place. Lord Baden-Powell's 1922 Medal of Merit design added a swastika to the Scout fleur-de-lis as good luck to the person receiving the medal. The death watch beetle (Xestobium rufovillosum) is of some considerable importance as a pest of wooden structures in older buildings in Britain. According to "Johnny" Walker, [2] the earliest Scouting use was on the first Thanks Badge introduced in 1911. The spread of the fungus by the beetle has led to the devastastation of elm trees in many parts of the Northern Hemisphere, notably North America and Europe. The swastika was also used as an early symbol by the Boy Scouts in Britain, and worldwide.

They are important elm pests because they carry Dutch elm disease (the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi) as they move from infected breeding sites to feed on healthy elm trees. [1]. The elm bark beetles, Hylurgopinus rufipes and Scolytus multistriatus (in the family Scolytidae) attack elm trees. In 1991, the BSA made it part of the uniform for all Scouts. Crops are destroyed and the beetle can only be treated by employing expensive pesticides, many of which it has begun to develop immunity to. It was given to Scouts and Scouters who had participated in an international Scouting event, such as a World Jamboree. As well as potatoes, this can be any one of a number of plants from the potato family (Solanaceae) such as nightshade, tomato, aubergine and capsicum. Historically in the United States, the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) used this symbol as an award called the World Crest.

Adults mate before overwintering deep in the soil, so that when they emerge the following spring, females can lay eggs immediately, once a suitable host plant has been found. The encircling rope symbolises the unity and family of the World Scout Movement. The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is a notorious pest of potato plants. The bond at the base of the fleur-de-lis shows the family of Scouting. Myxophaga contains about 100 described species in four families, mostly very small, including skiff beetles (Hydroscaphidae) and minute bog beetles (Sphaeriusidae). The two five-point stars stand for truth and knowledge, with the ten points representing the ten points of the Scout Law (see below). Archostemata contains four families of mainly wood-eating beetles, including reticulated beetles (Cupedidae) and telephone-pole beetles (Micromalthidae). The three points on the fleur-de-lis represent the three duties, to God, self and others.

In these beetles the testes are tubular and the first abdominal sternum (a plate of the exoskeleton) is divided by the hind coxae (the basal joints of the beetle's legs). The arrowhead represents the North point on a compass, and is intended to point Scouts on the path to service and unity. Adephaga contains about 10 families of predatory beetles, includes ground beetles (Carabidae), predacious diving beetles (Dytiscidae) and whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae). The fleur-de-lis is an ancient symbol, originally used by Baden-Powell for the enlisted scouts of the British Army and subsequently adopted and modified for the Scout Movement. These beetles can be identified by the cervical sclerites (hardened parts of the head used as points of attachment for muscles) absent in the other suborders. It is a purple, circular badge with a fleur-de-lis in the center, surrounded by a piece of rope tied with a reef knot (also called a square knot). Polyphaga is the largest suborder, containing more than 300,000 described species in more than 170 families, including rove beetles (Staphylinidae), scarab beetles (Scarabaeidae), blister beetles (Meloidae), stag beetles (Lucanidae), and true weevils (Curculionidae). The world membership badge is part of the official uniform of Scouts in all parts of the world, whose national organization is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement.

Individual national or other emblems may be found on the individual country's Scouting article, and/or at Gallery of Scout and Guide national emblems.. Distinctive insignia for all Scout uniforms, recognized and worn the world over, include the Wood Badge and the World Membership Badge. Nowadays, uniforms are frequently blue, orange, red or green, and shorts are replaced by long pants in areas where the culture calls for modesty, and in winter weather. Baden-Powell himself wore shorts as being dressed like the youth contributed to reducing distances between the adult and the young person.

The original uniform, which has created a familiar image in the public eye, consisted of a khaki shirt, shorts and a broad-brimmed "Smokey Bear" hat. The Scout uniform is a specific characteristic of the Scouting movement, in the words of Lord Baden-Powell at the 1938 World Jamboree, "it covers the differences of country and race and make all feel that they are members one with another of one World Brotherhood". So when he adapted the book for youth in Scouting For Boys, it was natural the movement took up the names Scouting and Boy Scouts. The book's popularity with young boys surprised him.

In fact, Baden-Powell's original military training book, Aids To Scouting, was written because he saw the need for improved training of British military enlisted scouts, particularly in the areas of initiative, self-reliance and observation skills. The name "Scouting" seems to have been inspired by the important and romantic role played by military scouts performing reconnaissance in many of the wars of the time. Baden-Powell's personal experiences in India led him to adopt Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book as a major influence for the Cub Scouts — for example, the name used for the Cub Scout leader is Akela (whose name was also appropriated for the Webelos) is that of the leader of the wolf pack from this book. British Scouting, by contrast, makes use of imagery drawn from the Indian subcontinent, because that region was a significant focus in the early years of the Scouting Movement.

This includes not only its selection of animal badges for Cub Scouts, but the underlying assumption that American Indians are more closely connected with nature and therefore have special wilderness survival skills which can be used as part of the training program. frontier experience. In America, for example, Scouting uses images drawn from the U.S. By adopting and modifying local ideologies the Scouting Movement has been able to find acceptance in a wide variety of societies.

Local influences have also been a strong part of the Movement. Many other popular youth movements have also adopted similar attributes successfully. Such things as military-style uniforms, badges of rank, flag ceremonies, and brass bands were commonly accepted in the early years because they were also a part of normal society, but many of those attributes have been watered down or abandoned in later times. Some aspects of the Movement have been criticised as being too militaristic.

The only comparable organisation (in the English-speaking world), the Boys' Brigade, has never been able to match the development of the Scouting movement. He was unique, a retired army general at 55 years of age, able to inspire and enthuse thousands of young people, from all parts of society, to get involved in activities most of them had never contemplated. But it has to be remembered that the ideas that he promoted were revolutionary in education in his time. Many elements of traditional Scouting have their origins in Baden-Powell's own personal education and military training.

By 1910 India, Singapore, Sweden, Denmark, France, Russia, Finland, Germany, Norway, Mexico, Argentina, Greece and the United States had Boy Scouts. It attracted 10,000 boys, as well as a number of girls, who turned out for this exhibition of scouting. The first Scout rally was held at the Crystal Palace, London, in 1910. Chile was the first country outside of the British Dominions to have a recognized scouting program.

Canada became the first overseas Dominion with a sanctioned Boy Scout program, followed by Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The first recognized overseas unit was chartered in Gibraltar in 1908, followed quickly by Malta. The Boy Scout movement swiftly established itself throughout the British Empire. Scouting began to spread throughout Great Britain and Ireland soon after the publication of Scouting For Boys.

The members of a small number of Scout groups have the right to wear a green scarf/neckerchief in recognition of their membership of those groups founded in 1908. Baden-Powell also wrote a book for the assistance of Leaders entitled Aids to Scoutmastership, and others for the use of new sections that were formed later, such as Rovering to Success for Rover Scouts in 1922. In 1919 Gilwell Park near London was purchased as an adult training site and scouting campground. The Wood Badge course was developed to recognize adult leadership training.

To provide for adult leadership, proper training was required. Baden-Powell could not singlehandedly advise all the youth who requested his assistance. As the movement grew Sea Scout, Air Scout and other specialised units were added to the program options. He encouraged them, and the Scouting movement developed by the weight of its own momentum.

However, boys spontaneously formed Scout patrols and flooded Baden-Powell with requests for assistance. Smith for some time. At the time Baden-Powell intended that the book would provide ideas for established organisations, in particular the Boys' Brigade in which he assisted their founder William A. The parts were subsequently published in book form as Scouting for Boys, now commonly considered the first version of the Boy Scout Handbook.

Beginning in January 1908 it initially appeared as six instalments in a boys' fortnightly magazine. In the autumn of 1907, having his draft publication and a successful camp behind him, Baden-Powell went on an extensive speaking tour arranged by his publisher, Pearsons, to promote his forthcoming book. His organizational method, now known as the Patrol System, a key part of Scouting training, allowed the boys to organize themselves into small groups with an elected patrol leader. The same year, to test some of his ideas, he gathered together 21 boys of mixed social background and held a week-long camp, beginning August 1, on Brownsea Island in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England.

By 1907 he had finished a draft called Boy Patrols. Baden-Powell was encouraged to re-write Aids to Scouting to suit a youth readership. Seton, a British-born Canadian living in the United States, subsequently met Baden-Powell and they shared ideas about youth training programs. In 1906, Ernest Thompson Seton sent Baden-Powell a copy of his book entitled The Birchbark Roll of the Woodcraft Indians.

As a result of his status as a national hero, acquired as a result of his determined and successful defence of the town of Mafeking, Baden-Powell's military training manual, Aids to Scouting (written in 1899) became something of a bestseller and was used by teachers and youth organisations. This logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis, which Scouting later adopted as its international symbol. Each Cadet Corps member received a badge, a combination of a compass point and a spearhead. The boys acquitted themselves well, helping in the successful defence of the town (1899–1900) over several months.

Volunteer boys in the town were formed into the Mafeking Cadet Corps, to help support the troops, carry messages, freeing up men for military duties and keeping the boys occupied during the long siege. Baden-Powell defended the town against the Boers (later known as Afrikaners), who outnumbered his troops eight to one. The seeds of the idea of Scouting began during the Siege of Mafeking, South Africa, during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, where Baden-Powell served as the commanding officer. The Guides are known as the Girl Scouts of the USA in the United States.

He also introduced the parallel movement for girls, the Girl Guides in 1910 with the aid of his sister Agnes Baden-Powell. Sir Robert Baden-Powell founded the Scouting movement in 1907 in the United Kingdom. Lt-Gen. .

Note: The S in the word Scout is always uppercase when it refers to Scouting activities. The works of Ernest Thompson Seton and Daniel Carter Beard were very influential in the early development of the Scouting movement as well as the basis of the Traditional Scouting movement that has become very significant in the last several years. Currently Scouting and Guiding have over 38 million members in 217 countries and territories represented through several different Scouting associations at the international level. He was also at that time a good friend of William Alexander Smith, Founder of the Boys' Brigade.

The Scout Movement was founded in 1907 by Robert Baden-Powell, a retired Lieutenant General in the British Army. This is achieved through non-formal education with emphasis on practical activities in the outdoors, the so called Scout method. Its aim is to develop young people physically, spiritually and mentally so that youth may take a constructive place in society. Scouting is a worldwide youth organization.

Assistant patrol leader. Patrol leader (leads a patrol, usually between four and ten Scouts, six is a common number). Assistant Senior patrol leader (American). Senior patrol leader.

In the Boy Scouts of America, the leader of a troop is called the Scoutmaster. "Skipper" ("skip") is the title often given to the leader of a Scout troop. Chief Scout, the position held by Baden-Powell. Seconder (deputy leader of a six).

Sixer (leader of a six). Senior Sixer. Bagheera, deputy pack leader. In American Cub Scouts, the pack leader is refered to as the cubmaster, and any adult leader is "Akela".

Akela, pack leader. World Federation of Independent Scouts. Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d’Europe. Confédération Européenne de Scoutisme.

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