The BMW Z3 was the first modern mass-market roadster produced by BMW, as well as the first BMW model assembled in the United States. It was introduced as a 1996 model year vehicle, shortly after being featured in the James Bond movie, GoldenEye. There were a few variants of the car before its production run ended in 2002, including a coupe version for 1999. It was manufactured and assembled in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The Z3 was replaced by the BMW Z4 in late 2002 at the Paris Auto Show.
The Z3 was developed from the E36 platform of the 3 Series. The resulting platform is sometimes referred to as the E36/7. The rear semi-trailing arm suspension from the E30 was used rather than the more sophisticated multilink suspension from the E36. At first, just the 1.9 L M44B19 straight-4 engine was offered, though its 138 hp made the car less of a performer than many buyers wanted. Interior appointments, too, were not up to the standard of other BMW models, and the plastic rear window looked especially bad compared to the glass unit found on the much-cheaper 1999 Mazda Miata.BMW Z3
This little four was complemented by a pair of straight-6es in 1997, the 2.3 L and 2.8 L M52B28. The 2.8 L engine, taken from the 328i, was especially desirable with its 189 hp. The M Roadster (see below) appeared in 1998 with a 3.2 L S52B32 I6, just as the four was retired.
All of the engines were replaced when the car was freshened for 2001. Now, the range consisted of the 2.5 L M52B25, 3.0 L M52B30, and (for the M Roadster) 3.2 L S54B32. All three of these straight-6 engines lasted through the end of the car's run in 2002. Also freshened was the car's interior appointments, though the plastic window remained.
The Z3 proved quite reliable, with problems limited to bad oxygen sensors, a flimsy plastic water pump, and failing rear shock mounts. The car's retro styling was popular, and Z3s have held their value fairly well in the resale market.
From 1998 to 2002, the Motorsports division of BMW produced the M Roadster which included suspension upgrades and the engine from the BMW M3. The 1998, 1999 and 2000 M roadster had the 3.2L S52 (U.S. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 M3 into it with quad exhaust. The 2001 and 2002 models had the S54 motor from the E46 M3. There were also interior upgrades with additional gauges in the center console, lighted "M" shift knob, various chrome bits throughout the cockpit and sport seats as standard equipment. Exterior changes were larger wheels spaced further apart and more aggressive fenders than were installed on the regular Z3. Hardtops were available as an option.
In addition to the roadster version of the Z3, BMW also released a coupe featuring a chassis-stiffening rear hatch area. The coupe was available as the Z3 Coupe from 1999 to 2001 or as the BMW Motorsport-enhanced M Coupe from 1999 to 2002.
The Z3 Coupes were only available with the largest 6-cylinder engine offered in the Z3 roadster: the 2.8 L in 1999 and 2000 and the 3.0 L in 2001. The 1999 and 2000 M models were equipped with the 3.2L S52 (U.S. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 BMW M3, while all the 2001 and 2002 models came with the S54 motor from the E46 BMW M3.
George O'Callaghan - Professional footballer.
The M Coupe/M Roadster made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1999.
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The M Coupe/M Roadster made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1999. With skillful use of eddies, a setting pole can propel a canoe even against moderate (class III) rapids. George O'Callaghan - Professional footballer. It allows the canoe to move through water too shallow for a paddle to create thrust, or against a current too quick for the paddlers to make headway. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 BMW M3, while all the 2001 and 2002 models came with the S54 motor from the E46 BMW M3. On swift rivers, the sternman may use a setting pole. The 1999 and 2000 M models were equipped with the 3.2L S52 (U.S. There are some differences in techniques in how the above strokes are utilized.
The Z3 Coupes were only available with the largest 6-cylinder engine offered in the Z3 roadster: the 2.8 L in 1999 and 2000 and the 3.0 L in 2001. It is important that the paddlers remain in unison, particularly in white water, in order to keep the boat stable and to maximize efficiency. The coupe was available as the Z3 Coupe from 1999 to 2001 or as the BMW Motorsport-enhanced M Coupe from 1999 to 2002.. Complementary strokes are selected by the bow and stern paddlers in order to safely and quickly steer the canoe. In addition to the roadster version of the Z3, BMW also released a coupe featuring a chassis-stiffening rear hatch area. On the other hand, the paddler who does not steer usually produces the most forward power or thrust, and the greater source of thrust should be placed in the bow for greater steering stability. Hardtops were available as an option. Steering in the bow is initially more intuitive than steering in the stern, because to steer to starboard, the stern must actually move to port.
Exterior changes were larger wheels spaced further apart and more aggressive fenders than were installed on the regular Z3. The advantage of steering in the bow is that the bowman can change sides more easily than the sternman. There were also interior upgrades with additional gauges in the center console, lighted "M" shift knob, various chrome bits throughout the cockpit and sport seats as standard equipment. Among less-experienced canoeists, the canoe is typically steered from the bow. The 2001 and 2002 models had the S54 motor from the E46 M3. Also, in the case of backferrying, the bowman is responsible for steering the canoe using small correctional strokes while backpaddling with the sternman. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 M3 into it with quad exhaust. The bowman will steer when avoiding rocks and other obstacles that the sternman cannot see.
The 1998, 1999 and 2000 M roadster had the 3.2L S52 (U.S. Among experienced white water canoeists, the sternman is primarily responsible for steering the canoe, with the exception of two cases. From 1998 to 2002, the Motorsports division of BMW produced the M Roadster which included suspension upgrades and the engine from the BMW M3. Steering techniques vary widely, even as to the basic question of which paddler should be responsible for steering. The car's retro styling was popular, and Z3s have held their value fairly well in the resale market. Thus, steering is particularly important, particularly because canoes have flat-bottomed hulls and are very responsive to turning actions. The Z3 proved quite reliable, with problems limited to bad oxygen sensors, a flimsy plastic water pump, and failing rear shock mounts. The paddling action of two paddlers will tend to turn the canoe toward the opposite side that on which the sternman is paddling.
Also freshened was the car's interior appointments, though the plastic window remained. This propulsion method is inefficient and unstable. All three of these straight-6 engines lasted through the end of the car's run in 2002. The canoer stands on the gunwales, near the bow or the stern, and squats up and down to make the canoe rock backward and forward. Now, the range consisted of the 2.5 L M52B25, 3.0 L M52B30, and (for the M Roadster) 3.2 L S54B32. A trick called "gunwale bobbing" allows a canoe to be propelled without a paddle. All of the engines were replaced when the car was freshened for 2001. For travel straight ahead, they draw the paddle from bow to stern, in a straight line parallel to the gunwale.
The M Roadster (see below) appeared in 1998 with a 3.2 L S52B32 I6, just as the four was retired. Conversely, the sternman would paddle to starboard, with the right hand just above the blade and the left hand at the top. The 2.8 L engine, taken from the 328i, was especially desirable with its 189 hp. The left hand acts mostly as a pivot and the right arm supplies most of the power. This little four was complemented by a pair of straight-6es in 1997, the 2.3 L and 2.8 L M52B28. For example, the person in the bow (the bowman) might hold the paddle on the port side, with the left hand just above the blade and the right hand at the top end of the paddle. Interior appointments, too, were not up to the standard of other BMW models, and the plastic rear window looked especially bad compared to the glass unit found on the much-cheaper 1999 Mazda Miata. When two people occupy a canoe, they paddle on opposite sides.
At first, just the 1.9 L M44B19 straight-4 engine was offered, though its 138 hp made the car less of a performer than many buyers wanted. Canoes can navigate swift-moving water with careful scouting of rapids and good communication between the paddlers. The rear semi-trailing arm suspension from the E30 was used rather than the more sophisticated multilink suspension from the E36. For example, the occupants need to keep their center of gravity as low as possible. The resulting platform is sometimes referred to as the E36/7. Canoes have a reputation for instability, but this is not true if they are handled properly. The Z3 was developed from the E36 platform of the 3 Series. On the west coast of North America, large dugout canoes were used in the Pacific Ocean, even for whaling.
. Later, they were made of a wooden frame, wood ribs, other wood parts (seats, gunwales, etc.) and covered with canvas, sized and painted for smoothness and watertightness. The Z3 was replaced by the BMW Z4 in late 2002 at the Paris Auto Show. In the temperate regions of eastern North America, canoes were traditionally made of a wooden frame covered with bark of a birch tree, pitched to make it waterproof. It was manufactured and assembled in Spartanburg, South Carolina. They typically carry a crew of six: one steersman and five paddlers. There were a few variants of the car before its production run ended in 2002, including a coupe version for 1999. In Hawaii, canoes are traditionally manufactured from the trunk of the koa tree.
It was introduced as a 1996 model year vehicle, shortly after being featured in the James Bond movie, GoldenEye. Such vessels carried 40 or 50 warriors in sheltered waters or smaller numbers thousands of miles across the Pacific ocean. The BMW Z3 was the first modern mass-market roadster produced by BMW, as well as the first BMW model assembled in the United States. Such are the very large waka used by Māori who ventured to New Zealand many centuries ago. Sports Car International 21 (6): 96.. In the Pacific Islands, dugout canoes are very large, made from whole mature trees and fitted with outriggers for increased stability in the ocean, and were once used for long-distance travel. Affordable Sports. Early canoes in many parts of the world were dugouts, formed of hollowed logs.
Nick Pon (2005). A slalom canoe is covered on top with a spraydeck, which is usually found on kayaks. On the other hand, slalom canoes are built for maneuverability in rapids. Sprint canoes are paddled kneeling on one knee, and only paddled on one side; in a C-1, the canoeist will have to j-stroke constantly to maintain a straight course. A 1-person sprint canoe will be roughly six metres long; a traveling canoe of a similar length would be suitable for 2 to 3 people with gear.
To reduce drag, they're built with very long and with a narrow beam, which makes them very unstable. Sprint canoes are purpose-built racing boats for use over short to intermediate distance races (200m to 6km). More recently, technologically advanced designs have emerged for particular sports. In the past, people around the world have built very different kinds of canoes, ranging from simple dugouts to large outrigger varieties.
More rocker means a greater curvature which has a similar effect on handling as ommission of a keel; conversly less rocker gives better tracking. The term rocker refers to the curvature of the hull along its length. Hull shape, particularly the manner in which the hull flows to the bow and stern, along with paddling technique , determine how well (or not) a canoe will track. Plastic canoes feature keels for stiffening the hull and allowing internal tubular framing to be flush with the sole of the canoe.
In wood-and-canvas canoes, keels are rub-strips to protect the boat from rocks and as they are pulled up on shore. In aluminum canoes, keels are manufacturing artifacts, where two halves of a hull are joined. Some sort of keel is beneficial when traveling on open water with crosswinds, but the associated increase in draft is undesirable for whitewater. "Shallow Vee"-bottom canoes have an integrated keel-like protrusion of the hull, which increases initial stability.
The hull, moving through the water, is much larger than the keel alone, and has considerably more effect on a canoes path through the water. Keels on canoes will slightly increase the ability to 'track' in a straight line, but decrease the ability to turn quickly to avoid an obstacle. Although tall ends tend to catch the wind, they serve the purpose of shedding waves in rough whitewater or ocean travel. Many canoes are symmetrical about the centerline, but some advanced designs are asymmetrical.
Round-bottomed designs are also able to go over obstructions more easily, due to a small area of contact with the obstruction, though they do have a slightly greater draft. A flat-bottomed canoe has excellent initial stability, but if tilted beyond a threshold, becomes unstable and will capsize. Its initial stability is poor, but its final stability is better. A rounded-bottom canoe exhibits poor resistance to tilt.
However, canoes made of natural materials require regular maintenance, and are lacking in durability. For example, a canvas canoe is more fragile than an aluminum canoe, and thus less suitable for use in rough water; but it is quieter, and so better for observing wildlife. Depending on the intended use of a canoe, the various kinds have different advantages. Modern technology has expanded the range of materials available for canoe construction.
The earliest canoes were made from natural materials:. However, slalom canoes are closed in with a spraydeck, like many kayaks. Canoe hulls are generally open on top. It is designed to allow one person to carry the canoe, and is sometimes molded to the shape of shoulders.
Some canoes, particularly those used for extended trips, are equiped with a yoke across the center of the boat. A 'canoe' in this ambiguous sense is a paddled vessel in which the user faces the direction of travel. In these circumstances, the canoe as defined here is sometimes referred to as an open, Canadian, or Indian canoe, though these terms have their own ambiguities. This confusing use of canoe to generically cover both canoes and kayaks is not so common in North American usage, but is common in Britain, Australia and presumably many parts of the world, both in sporting jargon and in colloquial speech.
In fact, the sport of canoe polo is exclusively played in kayaks. Confusingly, the sport of canoeing, organised at the international level by the International Canoe Federation, uses the word canoe to cover both canoes as defined here, and kayaks (see below for a brief description of the differences between a kayak and a canoe). . The latter is otherwise known as the International Canoe, and is one of the fastest and oldest competitively sailed boat classes in the western world.
Common classes of modern sailing canoes include the 5sqm and the International 10sqm Sailing canoes. Sailing Canoes (see Canoe Sailing) are propelled by means of a variety of sailing rigs. Paddles may be single-bladed or double-bladed. In this way paddling a canoe can be contrasted with rowing, where the rowers face away from the direction of travel.
Paddlers face in the direction of travel, either seated on supports in the hull, or kneeling directly upon the hull. In its human-powered form, the canoe is propelled by the use of paddles, with the number of paddlers depending on the size of canoe. Canoes are pointed at both ends and usually open on top. A canoe is a relatively small boat, typically human-powered, but also commonly sailed.
The method is best performed with bent-shaft paddles. This method is the fastest one on flat water and is used by all marathon canoers in the US and Canada. The It is ok to switch sides method allows the canoeists to switch sides frequently (usually every 5 to 10 strokes) to maintain their heading. The Stay on one side method is where each canoeist takes opposite sides and the sternman uses occasional J-strokes to correct direction of travel.
This is generally used more with the 'it is ok to switch sides' method of paddling. The other technique is generally what newer canoeists use and that is where they bend the elbow to pull the paddle out of the water before they have finished the stroke. This is generally used more with the 'stay on one side' method of paddling. Another benefit of this technique is that along with using less muscle you gain longer strokes which results in an increase of the power to stroke ratio.
One of these techniques involves locking or nearly locking the elbow, that is on the side of the canoe the paddle is, to minimize muscular usage of that arm to increase endurance. Backsweeps are the same stroke done in reverse. If in the stern, the paddler pulls from the waist to the stern of the canoe. In the case of the bowman, the blade will pull a quarter-circle from the bow to the paddler's waist.
The paddler's bottom hand is choked up to extend the reach of the paddle. The paddle is inserted in the water some distance from the gunwale, facing forward, and is drawn backward in a wide sweeping motion. The sweep is unique in that it steers the canoe away from the paddle regardless of which end of the canoe it is performed in. The cross-draw is much stronger than the draw stroke.
The arm of bottom hand crosses in front of the bowman's body to insert the paddle in the water on the opposite side of the canoe some distance from the gunwale, facing towards the canoe, and is then pulled inward while the top hand pushes outward. The cross-draw stroke is a bowman's stroke that exerts the same vector of force as a pry, by moving the blade of the paddle to the other side of the canoe without moving the paddler's hands. A draw can be applied while moving to create a running or hanging draw. The paddle is inserted vertically in the water at arm's length from the gunwale, with the power face toward the canoe, and is then pulled inward to the paddler's hip.
The draw stroke exerts a force opposite to that of the pry. As in the standard pry, the paddle is turned sideways and braced against the gunwale, but rather than forcing the paddle away from the hull, the paddler simply turns it at an angle and allows the motion of the water to provide the force. The running pry can be applied while the canoe is moving. A gentle prying motion is applied, forcing the canoe in the opposite direction of the paddling side.
The paddle is inserted vertically in the water, with the power face outward, and the shaft braced against the gunwale. Another stroke which may be used by either the bow or stern paddler is the pry stroke. It is commonly thought to be less efficient than the J-stroke when paddling long distances across relatively calm water. This stroke uses larger muscle groups, is preferable in rough water and is the one used in white water.
It is somewhat like a stroke with a small pry at the end of it. Unlike the J-stroke in which the side of the paddle pushing against the water during the stroke (the power face) is the side which is used to straighten the canoe, this stroke uses the opposite face of the paddle to make the steering motion. A less elegant but more effective stroke which is used in the stern is the Superior stroke, more commonly referred to as the goon or rudder stroke. This stroke is used in reverse by the bowman while backpaddling or backferrying in white water.
This conveniently counteracts the natural tendency of the canoe to steer away from the side of the sternman's paddle. It begins like a standard stroke, but towards the end, the paddle is rotated and pushed away from the canoe with the power face of the paddle remaining the same throughout the stroke. Advocates of steering in the stern often use the J-stroke, which is so named because, when done on the port side, it resembles the letter J. However the rower sits closer to the bilge and uses a set of pinned oars to propel the boat.
The Adirondack guideboat is a rowboat that has similar lines to a canoe. Some rowboats, such as a River Dory or a raft outfitted with a rowing frame are suitable for whitewater. A single rower works 2 oars, and sits with his or her back toward the direction of travel. A rowboat is not really like a canoe, since it is propelled by oars resting in pivots on the gunwales.
The deck is an extension of the hull, with a special sheet called a spraydeck sealing the gap between deck and the paddler. Kayaks are more commonly enclosed on top with a deck, making it possible to recover from a capsize without the kayak filling with water, although there are also closed canoes, which are common in competition. The double-bladed paddle makes it easier for a single person to handle a kayak. The main difference between a kayak and a canoe is that a kayak is a closed canoe meant to be used with a double-bladed paddle, one blade on each end, instead of a single bladed paddle.
Polyethylene is a cheaper and heavier material used for modern canoe construction. Royalex canoes have been known, after being wrapped around a rock, to be popped back into their original shapes with minimal creasing of the hull. Royalex is another modern composite material that makes an extremely flexible and durable hull. These compounds are light and strong, and the maneuverable, easily portaged canoes allow experienced paddlers access to some of the most remote wilderness areas.
Composites of fiberglass, Kevlar and carbon fiber are used for modern canoe construction. However, a capsized aluminium canoe will sink unless the ends are filled with flotation blocks. Aluminum allowed a lighter and much stronger construction than contemporary wood technology. Aluminum canoes were first made by the Grumman company in 1944, when demand for airplanes for World War II began to drop off.
These use of canvas for this purpose was invented by Union scouts during the United States Civil War. Wood-and-canvas canoes are made by fastening an external canvas shell to a wooden hull. In temperate North America, birch was the preferred tree, with tar mixed into the sap. The Amazonians commonly used Hymenaea trees.
Many indigenous peoples of the Americas built canoes of tree bark and sap. Such canoes can be very functional, lightweight, and strong, and are frequently quite beautiful works of art. Modern wooden canoes are typically strip-built by woodworking craftsmen. This technology is still practiced in some parts of the world.
Early canoes were wooden, often simply hollowed-out tree trunks. Deck (a compartment containing a foam block which prevents the canoe from sinking if capsized). Gunwale (pronounced gunnel; the top edge of the hull). Thwart (a horizontal crossbeam near the top of the hull).
Seat. Hull. Stern. Bow.