BMW Z3

The BMW Z3 was the first modern mass-market roadster produced by BMW, as well as the first BMW model assembled in the United States. It was introduced as a 1996 model year vehicle, shortly after being featured in the James Bond movie, GoldenEye. There were a few variants of the car before its production run ended in 2002, including a coupe version for 1999. It was manufactured and assembled in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The Z3 was replaced by the BMW Z4 in late 2002 at the Paris Auto Show.

Overview

The Z3 was developed from the E36 platform of the 3 Series. The resulting platform is sometimes referred to as the E36/7. The rear semi-trailing arm suspension from the E30 was used rather than the more sophisticated multilink suspension from the E36. At first, just the 1.9 L M44B19 straight-4 engine was offered, though its 138 hp made the car less of a performer than many buyers wanted. Interior appointments, too, were not up to the standard of other BMW models, and the plastic rear window looked especially bad compared to the glass unit found on the much-cheaper 1999 Mazda Miata.

BMW Z3

This little four was complemented by a pair of straight-6es in 1997, the 2.3 L and 2.8 L M52B28. The 2.8 L engine, taken from the 328i, was especially desirable with its 189 hp. The M Roadster (see below) appeared in 1998 with a 3.2 L S52B32 I6, just as the four was retired.

All of the engines were replaced when the car was freshened for 2001. Now, the range consisted of the 2.5 L M52B25, 3.0 L M52B30, and (for the M Roadster) 3.2 L S54B32. All three of these straight-6 engines lasted through the end of the car's run in 2002. Also freshened was the car's interior appointments, though the plastic window remained.

The Z3 proved quite reliable, with problems limited to bad oxygen sensors, a flimsy plastic water pump, and failing rear shock mounts. The car's retro styling was popular, and Z3s have held their value fairly well in the resale market.

M Roadster

From 1998 to 2002, the Motorsports division of BMW produced the M Roadster which included suspension upgrades and the engine from the BMW M3. The 1998, 1999 and 2000 M roadster had the 3.2L S52 (U.S. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 M3 into it with quad exhaust. The 2001 and 2002 models had the S54 motor from the E46 M3. There were also interior upgrades with additional gauges in the center console, lighted "M" shift knob, various chrome bits throughout the cockpit and sport seats as standard equipment. Exterior changes were larger wheels spaced further apart and more aggressive fenders than were installed on the regular Z3. Hardtops were available as an option.

Coupe

In addition to the roadster version of the Z3, BMW also released a coupe featuring a chassis-stiffening rear hatch area. The coupe was available as the Z3 Coupe from 1999 to 2001 or as the BMW Motorsport-enhanced M Coupe from 1999 to 2002.

The Z3 Coupes were only available with the largest 6-cylinder engine offered in the Z3 roadster: the 2.8 L in 1999 and 2000 and the 3.0 L in 2001. The 1999 and 2000 M models were equipped with the 3.2L S52 (U.S. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 BMW M3, while all the 2001 and 2002 models came with the S54 motor from the E46 BMW M3.

Famous Owners

George O'Callaghan - Professional footballer.

Awards

The M Coupe/M Roadster made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1999.

References

  • Nick Pon (2005). Affordable Sports. Sports Car International 21 (6): 96.

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The M Coupe/M Roadster made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1999. These wicks eliminate the need for metal in the wick. George O'Callaghan - Professional footballer. Wicks made from specially treated paper and cotton are also available. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 BMW M3, while all the 2001 and 2002 models came with the S54 motor from the E46 BMW M3. Most metal-cored wicks use zinc or a zinc alloy. The 1999 and 2000 M models were equipped with the 3.2L S52 (U.S. Lead core wicks have not been common since the 1970s: some candles may still be found to have lead core wicks, but these are extremely rare.

The Z3 Coupes were only available with the largest 6-cylinder engine offered in the Z3 roadster: the 2.8 L in 1999 and 2000 and the 3.0 L in 2001. Concerns rose that the lead in these wicks would vaporize during the burning process, releasing lead vapours - a known health and developmental hazard. The coupe was available as the Z3 Coupe from 1999 to 2001 or as the BMW Motorsport-enhanced M Coupe from 1999 to 2002.. Without a stiff core, the wicks of container candles would sag and drown in the deep wax pool. In addition to the roadster version of the Z3, BMW also released a coupe featuring a chassis-stiffening rear hatch area. A former worry regarding the safety of candles was that a lead core is used in the wicks in order to keep the wicks upright in container candles. Hardtops were available as an option. Candles are a major cause of damaging fire in households.

Exterior changes were larger wheels spaced further apart and more aggressive fenders than were installed on the regular Z3. The root form of chandelier is from the word for candle, though candles are rarely raised and hung today. There were also interior upgrades with additional gauges in the center console, lighted "M" shift knob, various chrome bits throughout the cockpit and sport seats as standard equipment. Decorative candle holders, especially those shaped as a pedestal, are called candlesticks; if multiple candles are held, the term candelabrum is also used. The 2001 and 2002 models had the S54 motor from the E46 M3. The cleanest burning candles will therefore be unscented, undyed, and well constructed candles burning in a draft free area. Spec) or S50 (Europe) motor from the E36 M3 into it with quad exhaust. The type of wick and inclusion of any scents and/or dyes will increase the amount of particulates put into the air by any candle regardless of construction materials.

The 1998, 1999 and 2000 M roadster had the 3.2L S52 (U.S. However highly-refined paraffin wax, since it comprises mainly hydrocarbons, can burn almost cleanly into water vapor and carbon dioxide. From 1998 to 2002, the Motorsports division of BMW produced the M Roadster which included suspension upgrades and the engine from the BMW M3. It is commonly believed candles made of beeswax and/or soy burn more cleanly than petroleum based paraffin waxes. The car's retro styling was popular, and Z3s have held their value fairly well in the resale market. The unit candela was originally defined to indicate the 'brightness' of a naked candle flame. The Z3 proved quite reliable, with problems limited to bad oxygen sensors, a flimsy plastic water pump, and failing rear shock mounts. For comparison, note that a 40 watt incandescent light bulb produces approximately 500 lumens for the same amount of power.

Also freshened was the car's interior appointments, though the plastic window remained. A candle typically produces about 12.6 lumens of visible light and 40 watts of heat [1], although this can vary depending primarily on the characteristics of the candle wick. All three of these straight-6 engines lasted through the end of the car's run in 2002. In practical terms this is almost always an aniline-based dye, although pigments can be used in some circumstances. Now, the range consisted of the 2.5 L M52B25, 3.0 L M52B30, and (for the M Roadster) 3.2 L S54B32. Candles may also be colored by the addition of some sort of coloring agent. All of the engines were replaced when the car was freshened for 2001. Natural scents, in the form of essential oils, can be used, but these are usually only found in premium, small-run candles.

The M Roadster (see below) appeared in 1998 with a 3.2 L S52B32 I6, just as the four was retired. Often, fragrance oils are added to the liquid wax prior to pouring. The 2.8 L engine, taken from the 328i, was especially desirable with its 189 hp. This liquid is then poured into a mold to produce pillar candles, a fireproof jar to produce container candles, or a wick is repeatedly immersed in the liquid to create a dipped taper. This little four was complemented by a pair of straight-6es in 1997, the 2.3 L and 2.8 L M52B28. The most basic production method generally entails the liquification of the solid fuel by the controlled application of heat. Interior appointments, too, were not up to the standard of other BMW models, and the plastic rear window looked especially bad compared to the glass unit found on the much-cheaper 1999 Mazda Miata. Candles are produced in various colors, shapes, sizes and scents.

At first, just the 1.9 L M44B19 straight-4 engine was offered, though its 138 hp made the car less of a performer than many buyers wanted. Candles can be made of paraffin (a byproduct of petroleum refining), stearin (now produced almost exclusively from palm waxes), beeswax (a byproduct of honey collection), gel (a mixture of resin and mineral oil), some plant waxes (generally palm, carnauba, bayberry, or soy), or tallow (a rarely used byproduct of beef fat rendering). The rear semi-trailing arm suspension from the E30 was used rather than the more sophisticated multilink suspension from the E36. Candles used in this way are called Advent candles. The resulting platform is sometimes referred to as the E36/7. In the days leading to Christmas some people burn a set amount to represent each day, as marked on the candle. The Z3 was developed from the E36 platform of the 3 Series. Some candles have these measurements, usually in hours, marked along the wax.

. With the fairly consistent and measurable burning of a candle a common use was to tell the time, though the accuracy is debatable. The Z3 was replaced by the BMW Z4 in late 2002 at the Paris Auto Show. Candles are also frequently used by Wiccans and other Neopagans for magical and meditative purposes. It was manufactured and assembled in Spartanburg, South Carolina. When used in this manner, lighting and extinguishing the candles marks the opening and closing of the ritual. There were a few variants of the car before its production run ended in 2002, including a coupe version for 1999. In Wicca and related forms of Neopaganism, candles are frequently used on the altar to represent the presence of the God and Goddess, and in the four corners of a ritual circle to represent the presence of the four elements.

It was introduced as a 1996 model year vehicle, shortly after being featured in the James Bond movie, GoldenEye. The Humanist festival of HumanLight often features a candle-lighting ceremony. The BMW Z3 was the first modern mass-market roadster produced by BMW, as well as the first BMW model assembled in the United States. This association was inspired by Carl Sagan, who subtitled his 1997 book The Demon-Haunted World with Science as a Candle in the Dark. Sports Car International 21 (6): 96.. For Humanists, skeptics, and nontheists (and particularly secular humanists), candles have become a symbol of the light of reason or rationality. Affordable Sports. Candles are also used in celebrations of Kwanzaa, which is an African American holiday which runs from December 26 to January 1.

Nick Pon (2005). Candles are also used in remembering a deceased loved one, especially on their Yahrzeit, the anniversary of their death according to the Hebrew calendar, when a 24-hour candle is lit. The Jewish holiday of Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights, is celebrated by lighting a candle in a special candelabrum (menorah) each night during the eight-day holiday to commemorate the dedication of the altar in the Temple in Jerusalem. In Judaism, candles are traditionally lit on Friday evening at the start of the weekly Sabbath celebration, and Saturday night during the Havdalah ritual, which ends the Sabbath. Lucia Day is celebrated on December 13 with the crowning of a young girl with a ring of candles.

In Sweden (and other Scandinavian countries), St. They are also used in Advent wreaths. They are still, even today, commonly used to decorate Christmas trees in Denmark and other European countries. Candles were traditionally used to light up Christmas trees before the advent of electric lights.

Candlemas marks the end of the season of Epiphany. See also Paschal candle and Dikiri and trikiri. Candles are lit by worshippers in front of icons in Orthodox and other churches. Votive candles may be lit as an accompaniment to prayer.

In Christianity, they typically represent the light of God, or specificially the light of Christ, and are often placed on the altar. See Ubon Ratchathani Candle Festival. Candles are used in religious ceremonies. Small candles are often placed on birthday cakes.

Scented candles are common in aromatherapy. Today, candles are usually used for their aesthetic value, particularly to set a soft, warm, or romantic ambience, and for emergency lighting during electrical power failures. Makers of candles were known as chandlers. Due to local availability and the cost of resources, for several centuries up to the 19th century candles were more common in northern Europe, and olive oil lamps more common in southern Europe and around the Mediterranean Sea.

Prior to the domestication of electricity, candles were a common source of lighting, before, and later in addition to, the oil lamp. . Portions of the wick that are not evaporating the liquid fuel are themselves consumed in the flame, limiting the exposed length of the wick. As the mass of the solid fuel is melted and consumed, the candle grows shorter.

The brighter, yellower part of the flame is the remaining carbon soot being oxidized to form carbon dioxide. Within the bluer, hotter regions, hydrogen is being separated from the fuel and burned to form water vapor. The burning of the fuel takes place in several distinct regions (as evidenced by the various colors that can be seen within the candle's flame). This flame then provides sufficient heat to keep the candle burning via a self-sustaining chain of events: the heat of the flame melts the top of the mass of solid fuel, the liquified fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action, and the liquified fuel is then vaporized to burn within the candle's flame.

Once vaporized, the fuel combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form a flame. The heat of the match or other flame being used to light the candle first melts and then vaporizes a small amount of the fuel. Prior to the candle being ignited, the wick is saturated with the fuel in its solid form. However in recent years new soy and vegetable candles have become popular.

Typically the fuel is some form of wax - paraffin wax being the most common. A candle is a light source usually consisting of an internal wick which rises through the center of a column of solid fuel.

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