Atkins Nutritional Approach

(Redirected from Atkins Diet) Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution book

The Atkins Nutritional Approach, popularly known as the Atkins Diet or just Atkins, is a popular but controversial high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. It was popularized by Dr. Robert Atkins (1930-2003) in a series of books, starting with Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. It has been astonishingly popular in recent times because of his revised book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, in which he updated some of his ideas but remained faithful to the original concepts.

Dr. Atkins argued that many eating disorders are the result of hyperinsulinism, or excessive secretion of insulin which comes through eating too many carbohydrates. According to Atkins, this causes food cravings and unstable blood sugar levels, which can cause mood swings, depression, and sleeping problems. Atkins claimed that his diet stabilizes insulin and blood sugar levels, eliminating cravings and often reducing appetite.

Atkins represents a radical departure from prevailing theories. He claimed there are two main unrecognised factors about Western eating habits, arguing firstly that the main cause of obesity is eating refined carbohydrates particularly sugar, flour, and high-fructose corn syrups; and secondly that saturated fat is overrated as a nutritional problem, only trans fats from sources such as hydrogenated oils need to be avoided. Consequently, Dr Atkins rejects the advice of the food pyramid, instead telling us the tremendous increase in refined carbohydrates is responsible for the rise in metabolic disorders of the 20th century, and the focus on the detrimental effects of dietary fat has actually contributed to the obesity problem by increasing the proportion of insulin inducing foods in the diet.

The Atkins Nutritional Approach seems to provoke extreme reactions, to the point where even just discussing it can be a problem. Dr. Samuel Klein, of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, has reported encountering anger from academicians simply for daring to present data on the Atkins diet.

Nature of the diet

While most of the emphasis in Atkins is on the diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are considered equally important elements.

Atkins involves restriction of the intake of carbohydrates in order to switch the body's metabolism from burning glucose to burning fat (chiefly stored fat). This process (called lipolysis) begins when the body enters the state of ketosis as a consequence of running out of carbohydrates to burn. Although Atkins claimed that ketosis helped the body burn fat more easily, nutritionalists are quick to point out that the body will burn stored fat for energy whenever the calories taken in are less than those burned.

Atkins restricts "net carbs", or carbs that have an effect on blood sugar. Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting sugar alcohols and fiber (which are shown to have no effect on blood sugar level) from total carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols need to be treated with caution, while they may be slower to convert to glucose they can be a significant source of glycemic load and can stall weight loss.

Preferred foods in all categories are whole, unprocessed foods with a low glycemic load.

There are four phases of the Atkins diet:

Induction

The Induction phase is the first, and most restrictive phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Carbohydrate intake is limited to 20 net grams per day. The allowed foods include a liberal amount of most meats, a good bit of cheese and cream, two cups of salad, and one cup of other vegetables. Caffeine and alcoholic beverages are not allowed.

The Induction Phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss - reports of losses up to six or eight pounds (3 or 4 kg) per week are not uncommon.

Atkins suggests the use of KetoStix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics. These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning, phase.

Ongoing Weight Loss

The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of an increase in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. Carb intake increases by 5 grams of carbs per day each week. A goal in OWL is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing". The OWL phase lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight.

Pre-maintenance

Carbohydrate intake is increased again, and the key of goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance", this the maximum number of carbohydrates you can eat each day without gaining weight.

Lifetime maintenance

This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasised, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight.

Views in favor of the diet

When the Atkins diet was introduced in the 1970s, it was immediately attacked by existing experts, who claimed it was unhealthy and would fail. Those claims persist today, even though there are now studies indicating the contrary:

  • "The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss...and greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease" --New England Journal Of Medicine, Volume 348:2082-2090, 22 May 2003, Number 21
  • "better participant retention and greater weight loss...greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels" --Annals Of Internal Medicine, 18 May 2004 | Volume 140 Issue 10 | Pages 769-777
  • "Diets high in fat do not appear to cause excess body fat, and reductions in fat will not be a solution." --American Journal Of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 9, Supplement 2, 30 December 2002, Pages 47-59
  • "sustained weight loss" --American Journal of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 1, July 2002, Pages 30-36
  • "When carbohydrates were restricted, study subjects spontaneously reduced their caloric intake to a level appropriate for their height, did not compensate by eating more protein or fat, and lost weight. We concluded that excessive overeating had been fueled by carbohydrates." "In addition to the calorie reduction and weight loss, subjects experienced markedly improved glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, as well as lower triglycerides and cholesterol." This is not a controlled study in that there was no control group; it merely observed the effect of putting ten obese diabetics on the Atkins diet; this is "the only study of the Atkins diet to have been conducted in the strictly controlled environment of a clinical research center where every calorie eaten and spent was measured." --Annals of Internal Medicine, 15 March 2005

It's important to note that many of these represent scientifically controlled studies, published in peer-reviewed journals. Proponents of the Atkins diet feel much of the criticism leveled at the diet comes from statements and opinions of individuals and associations, rather than from controlled and reviewed studies. Advocates of the diet dispute criticisms based on the fact that a low-carb diet is likely to be high-fat and allegations that fat, especially saturated fat, is harmful. Atkins backers maintain that, aside from trans fat, saturated fat is not harmful and is actually necessary in diet. Proponents cite Gary Taubes who, in a 2001 article in Science, 291 (5513): 2536, claims that the oft-cited "consensus" opinion against saturated fats derives from political rather than scientific motives.

The original recommendations for low-fat diets were based on the idea that, yes, the studies had not been done to prove fat harmful, but maybe it was harmful (for example, saturated fat in diet was associated in some studies with high cholesterol levels which was associated in some studies with heart disease), and allegedly there was no harm in reducing fat, therefore it should be reduced; millions of lives might be lost if we waited for scientific proof.

However, when fat is reduced in a diet, the practical consequence is that people will substitute carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, especially highly-processed, quickly-digested carbohydrates, cause a blood sugar spike, stimulating insulin production and all the consequences of that, quite possibly resulting in weight gain, which is itself a major cardiac risk factor. As was pointed out at the time the original low-fat recommendations were being worked out, shifting dietary composition toward carbohydrates and away from fat affects many different metabolic systems in the body; making such a shift without strong scientific evidence effectively subjected a whole population to an uncontrolled experiment; only now are the results of this experiment starting to be widely examined, and many are concluding that recommending low-fat diets was a very bad idea. It's not just the cardiologist, Dr. Atkins, but also renowned cardiologist Dr. Agatston ("South Beach Diet") and many others.

Critics of low-carb dieting may also fail to consider a simple fact of life: people are built differently. As with any diet, the Atkins may not be effective for some people. For some people, a low-fat diet may work as well as a low-carb diet, perhaps better. But for many people, it seems, a low-carb diet may be more effective, and there is accumulating research confirming this.

Opponents of the Atkins diet tend to claim that weight is regained when dieting stops. However, this is true of all diets, not just low-carb diets. It is unfair to single out the Atkins or any low-carb diet for this factor. The crucial issue is the sustainability of the diet in its Maintenance phase. In the context of widespread propaganda against fat, many people, even those who try the Atkins diet or other low-carb diet, try to make it low-fat, which apparently does not work. The fat is a crucial part of Atkins, for fat is satisfying, it sates.

For years, opponents of the Atkins diet claimed that (1) it would not work, it was preposterous, eating all that fat would make people fat, and (2) it would seriously increase cardiac risk. Yet, when studies are finally done to see what low-carb/high-fat diets actually do, they are at worst as effective as the recommended low-fat diets, and they do not, in fact, increase cardiac risk factors; indeed, overall, they lower them. So then the critics defend their low-fat position by noting, correctly, that the new studies were small. Yet the studies on which the low-fat gospel was based were also small, and less definitive. In the end, no study has shown that cardiac disease has been reduced by promoting low-fat diets, and there is evidence to the contrary.

Criticism of the diet often focuses on the safety of inducing ketosis, which is one of the body's natural processes for the metabolism of body fat often during sleep. It is biologically natural to burn fat - that's why we store it. Ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a serious medical condition seen in diabetics and alcoholics.

Low-fat diets are not automatically healthy ones. Traditional, high-fat French cooking has led to a much lower incidence of obesity, morbid obesity and chronic heart disease than in the high-sugar American diet, despite overall energy intake and exercise levels being the same.

The 22 May 2003, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine published two scientific, randomized studies comparing standard low-fat diets to low-carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins Diet. In both studies, subjects lost more weight on the low-carbohydrate plans.

A research study carried out by the Weight and Eating Disorders Program at the University of Pennsylvania, reported in May 2003 that the Atkins diet raised levels of HDL (or "good") cholesterol by an average of 11% and reduced the amount of triglycerides in the bloodstream by 17%. This counters one of the chief criticisms of Atkins' approach, which is that cholesterol is raised by eating fatty foods and meat.

In the study, conventional dieters' HDL cholesterol raised by only 1.6% while their triglyceride levels did not improve significantly. Weight loss was also statistically greater in the Atkins dieters after three and six months compared with the conventional dieters (although this did not remain statistically significant after a year). The study followed the diets of 63 obese men and women. (See New Scientist, 21 May 2003.)

Views critical of the diet

Low-carbohydrate diets have been the subject of heated debate in medical circles for three decades [1] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/). They are still controversial and only recently has any serious research supported some aspects of Atkins' claims, especially for short-term weight-loss (6 months or less).

But many in the scientific community also raise serious concerns:

  • The National Weight Control Registry, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) tracked the habits of successful dieters over a longer term, 10 years. Despite this diet's overwhelming popularity compared to other diets, of the 5,000 Americans confirmed to have lost an average of 70 pounds (32 kg) and able to prove they have kept it off for at least 6 years of the decade of NIH’s data-keeping, less than 1% were confirmed to be Atkins adherents.
  • Even in studies only one year long, this diet can fail to produce the greater weight-loss which is claimed to come from factors other than calorie-reduction such as ketosis: It was compared to dieters on Dean Ornish’s diet, Weight Watchers, and The Zone Diet for 1 year. The Atkins Diet came last in terms of weight lost at the end of the year. (Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J. L., Griffith, J.L., et al., "One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk", Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 12 November 2003 in Orlando, Florida.)
  • The May 2004 Annals of Internal Medicine study showed that Atkins Dieters had significantly more diarrhea, general weakness, rashes and muscle cramps. Atkins.com now suggests a fiber supplement.
  • Also, acidity from the typically high protein intake can cause osteoporosis (Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study. Amer Jrnl Public Health 1997;87:992-7. See also follow-up in February, 2003 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 77, No. 2, 504-511); this includes 72,000+ people and 18 years of data. Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ. Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly. Amer Jrnl Epidemiology 1994;139:493-503.

With its emphasis on fatty foods, the Atkins diet has generally been considered by most medical and nutritional experts to be unsound. It also violates the food pyramid, which states that amounts of carbohydrates, protein and fats (in that order) must be regularly consumed to stay healthy. Some experts have even suggested Atkins' plan is quackery. Among those criticizing the healthiness of his diet, if not also skeptical of the claims of greater weight-loss than other, safer diets, are such reputable organizations as:

a. “...the Atkins diet, as recommended, poses a serious threat to health.” --Chair of the American Medical Association's Council on Food and Nutrition, testimony to Congress

b. "unhealthy and can be dangerous." --C. Everett Koop (Shape Up America! news release, 29 December 2003)

c. "a nightmare of a diet." --Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102 (2002): p.260

d. Also condemned by National Institutes of Health in NIH Publ. No. 94-3700, 1993.

e. Condemned by ACS in American Cancer Society; Weighing In on Low Carb Diets, 2004.

f. Condemned by the American Kidney Fund in American Kidney Fund news release, 25 April 2002.

g. Condemned by American Heart Association in Circulation 104 (2001): p.1869.

h. Condemned by Johns Hopkins in Diabetes 2004. Johns Hopkins University White Paper, 2004

i. Condemned by the American College of Sports Medicine in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 (2001): p.2145.

j. Expressing a general sentiment was the conclusion: “runs counter to all the current evidence-based dietary recommendations.” --Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 (2004): p.725

Opponents of the diet also point out that the initial weight loss upon starting the diet is a phenomenon common with most diets, and is due to reduction in stored glycogen and related water in muscles, not fat loss. They claim that no evidence has surfaced that any diet will cause weight loss unless it reduces food energy below the maintenance level, and reports have indicated that successful weight loss due to the Atkins diet may be the result of less food energy being consumed by the dieter, rather than the lack of carbohydrates. [2] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3416637.stm) They further point out that weight loss on fad diets, which typically restrict or prohibit certain foods, is often due to the fact that the dieter has less food choices available. Also, a diet of low-carb foods may quickly become dull to many people, meaning that their appetite is somewhat naturally suppressed as they become hungry for carbs, but the dieter either has none handy or resists this hunger.

There is also bad breath and fatigue, it is claimed: [3] (http://content.health.msn.com/content/article/87/99349.htm?GT1=3391), [4] (http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columnnn/nn000905.html), and Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 68(2001): p.761

On May 27, 2004, Jody Gorran, a 53-year-old Florida businessman with a family history of heart disease, filed a lawsuit against Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. and the estate of Dr. Robert Atkins, claiming that the Atkins diet regimen caused severe heart disease, making it necessary for him to undergo angioplasty. As of 28 May, he has been seeking a court injunction banning Atkins Nutritionals from marketing its products without a warning of potential health risks, and asking for compensatory damages.

Dr. Robert Eckel of the American Heart Association says that high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets put people at risk for heart disease. [5] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/articlesb/article332.html)

Misconceptions about the diet

Many people incorrectly believe that the Atkins Diet promotes eating unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses. In fact, while certain foods are allowed in unlimited quantities (i.e., are limited only by appetite), the Atkins Diet is very specific in recommending lean meats, such as seafood and poultry. This is a key point of clarification that Dr. Atkins addressed in the more recent revisions of his book.

Some criticism of the diet seems to be based on a confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is short for Benign Dietary Ketosis, which is a normal metabolic process that results when glucose is not available as a source of energy. The body then burns mostly fat, both directly and through conversion to ketones which make the energy of fat available in water soluble form. Ketoacidosis is a metabolic crisis due to the inability to utilize glucose because of a lack of insulin and in which there is an abnormal accumulation of ketones exacerbated by severe dehydration as the kidneys spill the useless glucose, losing water in the process. This occurs in diabetics and in a related form in alcoholics.

Another common misconception arises from confusion between the Induction Phase and rest of the diet. The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of carbohydrates permitted per day. The plan is clear that dieters should not ordinarily continue past the 2-week Induction Phase without slowly raising their daily carbohydrate count. Once the weight-loss goal is reached, carbohydrate levels are raised even further, though still significantly below USDA norms, and still within the definition of ketosis.

Reference

  • New England Journal of Medicine: (vol 348, p 2082) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12761365)

Related topics

  • Diet
  • Dieting

published 1999


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published 1999. The CNN Center headquarters is located in Atlanta, GA. Once the weight-loss goal is reached, carbohydrate levels are raised even further, though still significantly below USDA norms, and still within the definition of ketosis. Georgia is also home to Ted Turner, who founded TBS, TNT, and CNN, among others. The plan is clear that dieters should not ordinarily continue past the 2-week Induction Phase without slowly raising their daily carbohydrate count. state). The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of carbohydrates permitted per day. See also List of radio stations in Georgia (U.S.

Another common misconception arises from confusion between the Induction Phase and rest of the diet. It also operates, in whole or in part, several radio stations as Georgia Public Radio (GPR). This occurs in diabetics and in a related form in alcoholics. Georgia Public Broadcasting (GPB) operates nine major educational television stations across the state as Georgia Public Broadcasting Television. Ketoacidosis is a metabolic crisis due to the inability to utilize glucose because of a lack of insulin and in which there is an abnormal accumulation of ketones exacerbated by severe dehydration as the kidneys spill the useless glucose, losing water in the process. The three largest Protestant denominations in Georgia are: Baptist (51% of total state population), Methodist (12%), Presbyterian & Pentecostal & Episcopalian (tied 2%). Ketosis is short for Benign Dietary Ketosis, which is a normal metabolic process that results when glucose is not available as a source of energy. The body then burns mostly fat, both directly and through conversion to ketones which make the energy of fat available in water soluble form. Religiously, Georgia is overwhelmingly Protestant:.

Some criticism of the diet seems to be based on a confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Females made up approximately 50.8% of the population. Atkins addressed in the more recent revisions of his book. 7.3% of its population were reported as under 5 years of age, 26.5% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. This is a key point of clarification that Dr. Racially, Georgia is:. In fact, while certain foods are allowed in unlimited quantities (i.e., are limited only by appetite), the Atkins Diet is very specific in recommending lean meats, such as seafood and poultry. More than half of the state's population lives in the Atlanta metro area.

Many people incorrectly believe that the Atkins Diet promotes eating unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses. Its population has grown 34% (2.2 million) from its 1990 levels, making it one of the fastest-growing states in the country. [5] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/articlesb/article332.html). As of 2003, the population of Georgia was 8,684,715, making it the 10th most populous state. Robert Eckel of the American Heart Association says that high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets put people at risk for heart disease. Its industrial outputs are textiles and apparel, transportation equipment, food processing, paper products, chemical products, electric equipment, and tourism. Dr. Georgia's agricultural outputs are poultry and eggs, peanuts, cattle, hogs, dairy products, and vegetables.

As of 28 May, he has been seeking a court injunction banning Atkins Nutritionals from marketing its products without a warning of potential health risks, and asking for compensatory damages. Its per capita personal income for 2003 put it 31st in the nation at $29,000. Robert Atkins, claiming that the Atkins diet regimen caused severe heart disease, making it necessary for him to undergo angioplasty. Georgia's 2003 total gross state product was $320 billion. and the estate of Dr. Several highways and short line railroads also traverse the state. On May 27, 2004, Jody Gorran, a 53-year-old Florida businessman with a family history of heart disease, filed a lawsuit against Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. Atlanta is still a major railroad hub for CSX and Norfolk Southern, in addition to being a major airport hub now as well.

There is also bad breath and fatigue, it is claimed: [3] (http://content.health.msn.com/content/article/87/99349.htm?GT1=3391), [4] (http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columnnn/nn000905.html), and Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 68(2001): p.761. Georgia is also the largest state east of the Mississippi River, since West Virginia seceded from Virginia during the Civil War. Also, a diet of low-carb foods may quickly become dull to many people, meaning that their appetite is somewhat naturally suppressed as they become hungry for carbs, but the dieter either has none handy or resists this hunger. The state is an important producer of cotton, tobacco, and forest products, notably the so-called "naval stores" such as turpentine and rosin from the pine forests. [2] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3416637.stm) They further point out that weight loss on fad diets, which typically restrict or prohibit certain foods, is often due to the fact that the dieter has less food choices available. The capital is Atlanta, in the central part of northern Georgia, and the peach is a symbol of the state. They claim that no evidence has surfaced that any diet will cause weight loss unless it reduces food energy below the maintenance level, and reports have indicated that successful weight loss due to the Atkins diet may be the result of less food energy being consumed by the dieter, rather than the lack of carbohydrates. The highest point in Georgia is Brasstown Bald, 4784 feet (1458 m); the lowest point is sea level.

Opponents of the diet also point out that the initial weight loss upon starting the diet is a phenomenon common with most diets, and is due to reduction in stored glycogen and related water in muscles, not fat loss. The central piedmont extends from the foothills to the fall line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the continental coastal plain of the southern part of the state. Expressing a general sentiment was the conclusion: “runs counter to all the current evidence-based dietary recommendations.” --Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 (2004): p.725. The northern part of the state is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, a mountain range in the mountain system of the Appalachians. j. Georgia is bordered on the south by Florida, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, on the west by Alabama, and on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina. Condemned by the American College of Sports Medicine in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 (2001): p.2145. (See: list of Georgia counties.).

i. There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the Atlanta Regional Commission and Georgia Regional Transportation Authority do provide some regional services, and the ARC must approve all major land development projects in metro Atlanta. Johns Hopkins University White Paper, 2004. All taxes are collected by the state and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities. Condemned by Johns Hopkins in Diabetes 2004. Up to 1% of a SPLOST can go to homestead exemptions. h. Local taxes are almost always charged on groceries but never prescriptions.

Condemned by American Heart Association in Circulation 104 (2001): p.1869. Counties participating in MARTA have another 1%, the city of Atlanta (in two counties) has the only city sales tax (1%, total 8%) for fixing its old sewers. g. Each county may add up to a 2% SPLOST. Condemned by the American Kidney Fund in American Kidney Fund news release, 25 April 2002. Georgia has a modest income tax and a 4% state sales tax, which is not applied to groceries or prescription drugs. f. So far, only Columbus, Augusta, and Athens have done this.

Condemned by ACS in American Cancer Society; Weighing In on Low Carb Diets, 2004. Georgia does not provide for townships or independent cities, but does allow consolidated city-county governments by local referendum. e. Conversely, the city of Sandy Springs is one of the largest in the state (over 80,000), but is not legally so since it is not yet incorporated, although a referendum is planned for the summer of 2005. 94-3700, 1993. Every incorporated town, no matter how small, is legally a city. No. Besides the counties, Georgia only defines cities as local units of government.

Also condemned by National Institutes of Health in NIH Publ. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with "home rule" authority, and so the county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county as a municipality would. d. Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the county. "a nightmare of a diet." --Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102 (2002): p.260. Declaration of Independence. c. Gwinnett County was named after Button Gwinnett, one of the delegates from Georgia who signed the U.S.

Everett Koop (Shape Up America! news release, 29 December 2003). Before 1932, there were 161, with Milton and Campbell being merged into Fulton at the end of 1931, during the Great Depression. "unhealthy and can be dangerous." --C. Georgia also has 159 counties, the most of any state except Texas (254). b. House of Representatives. “...the Atkins diet, as recommended, poses a serious threat to health.” --Chair of the American Medical Association's Council on Food and Nutrition, testimony to Congress. As of the 2001 reapportionment, the state has 13 congressmen and women in the U.S.

a. senators are Saxby Chambliss (Republican) and Johnny Isakson (Republican). Among those criticizing the healthiness of his diet, if not also skeptical of the claims of greater weight-loss than other, safer diets, are such reputable organizations as:. At the federal level, Georgia's two U.S. Some experts have even suggested Atkins' plan is quackery. Judges for the smaller courts are elected by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction to four-year terms. It also violates the food pyramid, which states that amounts of carbohydrates, protein and fats (in that order) must be regularly consumed to stay healthy. Justices of the Supreme Court and Judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non-partisan elections to six-year terms.

With its emphasis on fatty foods, the Atkins diet has generally been considered by most medical and nutritional experts to be unsound. In addition, there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction, including State Courts, Superior Courts, Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts. But many in the scientific community also raise serious concerns:. State Judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority. They are still controversial and only recently has any serious research supported some aspects of Atkins' claims, especially for short-term weight-loss (6 months or less). The state Constitution mandates a maximum of 56 Senators, elected from single-member districts, and a minimum of 180 Representatives, apportioned among representative districts (which sometimes results in more than one Representative per district); there are currently 56 Senators and 180 Representatives. The term of office for Senators and Representatives is two years. Low-carbohydrate diets have been the subject of heated debate in medical circles for three decades [1] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/). The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, while the House of Representatives selects their own Speaker.

(See New Scientist, 21 May 2003.). Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The study followed the diets of 63 obese men and women. (See: list of Georgia governors.). Weight loss was also statistically greater in the Atkins dieters after three and six months compared with the conventional dieters (although this did not remain statistically significant after a year). States, most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia, rather than appointed by the governor. In the study, conventional dieters' HDL cholesterol raised by only 1.6% while their triglyceride levels did not improve significantly. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S.

This counters one of the chief criticisms of Atkins' approach, which is that cholesterol is raised by eating fatty foods and meat. Both the governor and lieutenant governor are elected to four-year terms of office. A research study carried out by the Weight and Eating Disorders Program at the University of Pennsylvania, reported in May 2003 that the Atkins diet raised levels of HDL (or "good") cholesterol by an average of 11% and reduced the amount of triglycerides in the bloodstream by 17%. The Lieutenant Governor, currently Mark Taylor (Democrat), is elected on a separate ballot. In both studies, subjects lost more weight on the low-carbohydrate plans. Executive authority in the state rests with the governor, currently Sonny Perdue (Republican). The 22 May 2003, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine published two scientific, randomized studies comparing standard low-fat diets to low-carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins Diet. States and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the separation of legislative, executive and judicial power.

Traditional, high-fat French cooking has led to a much lower incidence of obesity, morbid obesity and chronic heart disease than in the high-sugar American diet, despite overall energy intake and exercise levels being the same. As with all other U.S. Low-fat diets are not automatically healthy ones. The state capital is Atlanta. Ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a serious medical condition seen in diabetics and alcoholics. For over 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians only elected Democratic governors, and Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly. It is biologically natural to burn fat - that's why we store it. Until recently, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single-party dominance of any state in the Union.

Criticism of the diet often focuses on the safety of inducing ketosis, which is one of the body's natural processes for the metabolism of body fat often during sleep. The state's legislature also met at other temporary sites, including Macon, especially during the Civil War. In the end, no study has shown that cardiac disease has been reduced by promoting low-fat diets, and there is evidence to the contrary. Georgia has had five "permanent" state capitals: colonial Savannah, which later alternated with Augusta; then for a decade at Louisville (pron. Lewis-ville), and from 1806 through the American Civil War at Milledgeville. Yet the studies on which the low-fat gospel was based were also small, and less definitive. state to approve a literature censorship board in the United States. So then the critics defend their low-fat position by noting, correctly, that the new studies were small. On February 19, 1953 Georgia became the first U.S.

Yet, when studies are finally done to see what low-carb/high-fat diets actually do, they are at worst as effective as the recommended low-fat diets, and they do not, in fact, increase cardiac risk factors; indeed, overall, they lower them. On July 15, 1870, following Reconstruction, Georgia became the last former Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union. For years, opponents of the Atkins diet claimed that (1) it would not work, it was preposterous, eating all that fat would make people fat, and (2) it would seriously increase cardiac risk. This event served as the historical background for the book and movie Gone With the Wind. The fat is a crucial part of Atkins, for fat is satisfying, it sates. In December 1864, a large swath of the state was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. In the context of widespread propaganda against fat, many people, even those who try the Atkins diet or other low-carb diet, try to make it low-fat, which apparently does not work. On January 18, 1861 Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major theater of the American Civil War.

The crucial issue is the sustainability of the diet in its Maintenance phase. This day is now known as Georgia Day, which is not a public holiday, but is mainly observed in schools and by some local civic groups. It is unfair to single out the Atkins or any low-carb diet for this factor. Massive British settlement began in the early 1730s with James Oglethorpe, an Englishman in the British parliament, who promoted the idea that the area be used to settle people in a debtors' prison. On February 12, 1733, the first settlers landed in the HMS Anne at what was to become the city of Savannah. However, this is true of all diets, not just low-carb diets. In 1724, it was first suggested that what was by then a British colony be called Province of Georgia in honor of King George II. Opponents of the Atkins diet tend to claim that weight is regained when dieting stops. The conflict between Spain and Britain over control of Georgia began in earnest in about 1670, when the British, moving south from their Carolina colony in present-day South Carolina met the Spanish moving north from their base in Florida.

But for many people, it seems, a low-carb diet may be more effective, and there is accumulating research confirming this. The local moundbuilder culture, described by Hernando de Soto in 1540, had completely disappeared by 1560. For some people, a low-fat diet may work as well as a low-carb diet, perhaps better. Early on, a number of Spanish explorers visited the inland region of Georgia, leaving a trail of destruction behind them. As with any diet, the Atkins may not be effective for some people. Main article: History of Georgia. Critics of low-carb dieting may also fail to consider a simple fact of life: people are built differently. Navy ships have been named USS Georgia in honor of this state.

Agatston ("South Beach Diet") and many others. Several U.S. Atkins, but also renowned cardiologist Dr. The state tree is the Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), the state bird is the brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), and the state flower is the cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata). It's not just the cardiologist, Dr. Ray Charles sang it on the legislative floor when the bill passed. As was pointed out at the time the original low-fat recommendations were being worked out, shifting dietary composition toward carbohydrates and away from fat affects many different metabolic systems in the body; making such a shift without strong scientific evidence effectively subjected a whole population to an uncontrolled experiment; only now are the results of this experiment starting to be widely examined, and many are concluding that recommending low-fat diets was a very bad idea. The state song, Georgia on My Mind by Hoagy Carmichael was originally written about a woman of that name, but after Georgia native Ray Charles sang it, the state legislature voted it the state song.

Carbohydrates, especially highly-processed, quickly-digested carbohydrates, cause a blood sugar spike, stimulating insulin production and all the consequences of that, quite possibly resulting in weight gain, which is itself a major cardiac risk factor. Georgia is also known as the Peach State or Empire State of the South . However, when fat is reduced in a diet, the practical consequence is that people will substitute carbohydrates. Georgia is one of the fastest growing states in the nation, with an estimated 8,829,383 people in 2004. The original recommendations for low-fat diets were based on the idea that, yes, the studies had not been done to prove fat harmful, but maybe it was harmful (for example, saturated fat in diet was associated in some studies with high cholesterol levels which was associated in some studies with heart disease), and allegedly there was no harm in reducing fat, therefore it should be reduced; millions of lives might be lost if we waited for scientific proof. Georgia's population in 2000 was 8,186,453 (U.S. Census). Proponents cite Gary Taubes who, in a 2001 article in Science, 291 (5513): 2536, claims that the oft-cited "consensus" opinion against saturated fats derives from political rather than scientific motives. It was the thirteenth colony and became the fourth state, ratifying the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788.

Atkins backers maintain that, aside from trans fat, saturated fat is not harmful and is actually necessary in diet. Georgia was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. Advocates of the diet dispute criticisms based on the fact that a low-carb diet is likely to be high-fat and allegations that fat, especially saturated fat, is harmful. postal abbreviation is GA. It's important to note that many of these represent scientifically controlled studies, published in peer-reviewed journals. Proponents of the Atkins diet feel much of the criticism leveled at the diet comes from statements and opinions of individuals and associations, rather than from controlled and reviewed studies. Georgia is a southern state of the United States and its U.S. Those claims persist today, even though there are now studies indicating the contrary:. Non-Religious 5%.

When the Atkins diet was introduced in the 1970s, it was immediately attacked by existing experts, who claimed it was unhealthy and would fail. Other Religions 1%. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasised, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight. Other Christian 1%. This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Roman Catholic 6%. Carbohydrate intake is increased again, and the key of goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance", this the maximum number of carbohydrates you can eat each day without gaining weight. Protestant 84%.

The OWL phase lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight. 1.4% Mixed race. A goal in OWL is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing". 0.3% American Indian. Carb intake increases by 5 grams of carbs per day each week. 2.1% Asian. The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of an increase in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. 5.3% Hispanic.

These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning, phase. 28.7% Black. Atkins suggests the use of KetoStix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics. 62.6% White non-Hispanic. The Induction Phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss - reports of losses up to six or eight pounds (3 or 4 kg) per week are not uncommon. Interstate 285 (the Perimeter around Atlanta). Caffeine and alcoholic beverages are not allowed. Interstate 95.

The allowed foods include a liberal amount of most meats, a good bit of cheese and cream, two cups of salad, and one cup of other vegetables. Interstate 85, Interstate 185, Interstate 985. Carbohydrate intake is limited to 20 net grams per day. Interstate 75, Interstate 475, Interstate 575. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Interstate 59, Interstate 24. The Induction phase is the first, and most restrictive phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. Interstate 20, Interstate 520.

There are four phases of the Atkins diet:. Interstate 16, Interstate 516. Preferred foods in all categories are whole, unprocessed foods with a low glycemic load. Sugar alcohols need to be treated with caution, while they may be slower to convert to glucose they can be a significant source of glycemic load and can stall weight loss. Atkins restricts "net carbs", or carbs that have an effect on blood sugar. Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting sugar alcohols and fiber (which are shown to have no effect on blood sugar level) from total carbohydrates.

Although Atkins claimed that ketosis helped the body burn fat more easily, nutritionalists are quick to point out that the body will burn stored fat for energy whenever the calories taken in are less than those burned. This process (called lipolysis) begins when the body enters the state of ketosis as a consequence of running out of carbohydrates to burn. Atkins involves restriction of the intake of carbohydrates in order to switch the body's metabolism from burning glucose to burning fat (chiefly stored fat). While most of the emphasis in Atkins is on the diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are considered equally important elements.

Samuel Klein, of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, has reported encountering anger from academicians simply for daring to present data on the Atkins diet. Dr. The Atkins Nutritional Approach seems to provoke extreme reactions, to the point where even just discussing it can be a problem. Consequently, Dr Atkins rejects the advice of the food pyramid, instead telling us the tremendous increase in refined carbohydrates is responsible for the rise in metabolic disorders of the 20th century, and the focus on the detrimental effects of dietary fat has actually contributed to the obesity problem by increasing the proportion of insulin inducing foods in the diet.

He claimed there are two main unrecognised factors about Western eating habits, arguing firstly that the main cause of obesity is eating refined carbohydrates particularly sugar, flour, and high-fructose corn syrups; and secondly that saturated fat is overrated as a nutritional problem, only trans fats from sources such as hydrogenated oils need to be avoided. Atkins represents a radical departure from prevailing theories. Atkins claimed that his diet stabilizes insulin and blood sugar levels, eliminating cravings and often reducing appetite. According to Atkins, this causes food cravings and unstable blood sugar levels, which can cause mood swings, depression, and sleeping problems.

Atkins argued that many eating disorders are the result of hyperinsulinism, or excessive secretion of insulin which comes through eating too many carbohydrates. Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, in which he updated some of his ideas but remained faithful to the original concepts. It has been astonishingly popular in recent times because of his revised book, Dr.

Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. Robert Atkins (1930-2003) in a series of books, starting with Dr. It was popularized by Dr. The Atkins Nutritional Approach, popularly known as the Atkins Diet or just Atkins, is a popular but controversial high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

Dieting. Diet. New England Journal of Medicine: (vol 348, p 2082) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12761365). Amer Jrnl Epidemiology 1994;139:493-503.

Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly. Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ. 2, 504-511); this includes 72,000+ people and 18 years of data. 77, No.

See also follow-up in February, 2003 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. Amer Jrnl Public Health 1997;87:992-7. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study. Also, acidity from the typically high protein intake can cause osteoporosis (Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA.

Atkins.com now suggests a fiber supplement. The May 2004 Annals of Internal Medicine study showed that Atkins Dieters had significantly more diarrhea, general weakness, rashes and muscle cramps. L., Griffith, J.L., et al., "One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk", Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 12 November 2003 in Orlando, Florida.). (Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J.

The Atkins Diet came last in terms of weight lost at the end of the year. Even in studies only one year long, this diet can fail to produce the greater weight-loss which is claimed to come from factors other than calorie-reduction such as ketosis: It was compared to dieters on Dean Ornish’s diet, Weight Watchers, and The Zone Diet for 1 year. Despite this diet's overwhelming popularity compared to other diets, of the 5,000 Americans confirmed to have lost an average of 70 pounds (32 kg) and able to prove they have kept it off for at least 6 years of the decade of NIH’s data-keeping, less than 1% were confirmed to be Atkins adherents. The National Weight Control Registry, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) tracked the habits of successful dieters over a longer term, 10 years.

We concluded that excessive overeating had been fueled by carbohydrates." "In addition to the calorie reduction and weight loss, subjects experienced markedly improved glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, as well as lower triglycerides and cholesterol." This is not a controlled study in that there was no control group; it merely observed the effect of putting ten obese diabetics on the Atkins diet; this is "the only study of the Atkins diet to have been conducted in the strictly controlled environment of a clinical research center where every calorie eaten and spent was measured." --Annals of Internal Medicine, 15 March 2005. "When carbohydrates were restricted, study subjects spontaneously reduced their caloric intake to a level appropriate for their height, did not compensate by eating more protein or fat, and lost weight. "sustained weight loss" --American Journal of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 1, July 2002, Pages 30-36. "Diets high in fat do not appear to cause excess body fat, and reductions in fat will not be a solution." --American Journal Of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 9, Supplement 2, 30 December 2002, Pages 47-59.

"better participant retention and greater weight loss...greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels" --Annals Of Internal Medicine, 18 May 2004 | Volume 140 Issue 10 | Pages 769-777. "The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss...and greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease" --New England Journal Of Medicine, Volume 348:2082-2090, 22 May 2003, Number 21.

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