Atkins Nutritional Approach

(Redirected from Atkins Diet) Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution book

The Atkins Nutritional Approach, popularly known as the Atkins Diet or just Atkins, is a popular but controversial high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. It was popularized by Dr. Robert Atkins (1930-2003) in a series of books, starting with Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. It has been astonishingly popular in recent times because of his revised book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, in which he updated some of his ideas but remained faithful to the original concepts.

Dr. Atkins argued that many eating disorders are the result of hyperinsulinism, or excessive secretion of insulin which comes through eating too many carbohydrates. According to Atkins, this causes food cravings and unstable blood sugar levels, which can cause mood swings, depression, and sleeping problems. Atkins claimed that his diet stabilizes insulin and blood sugar levels, eliminating cravings and often reducing appetite.

Atkins represents a radical departure from prevailing theories. He claimed there are two main unrecognised factors about Western eating habits, arguing firstly that the main cause of obesity is eating refined carbohydrates particularly sugar, flour, and high-fructose corn syrups; and secondly that saturated fat is overrated as a nutritional problem, only trans fats from sources such as hydrogenated oils need to be avoided. Consequently, Dr Atkins rejects the advice of the food pyramid, instead telling us the tremendous increase in refined carbohydrates is responsible for the rise in metabolic disorders of the 20th century, and the focus on the detrimental effects of dietary fat has actually contributed to the obesity problem by increasing the proportion of insulin inducing foods in the diet.

The Atkins Nutritional Approach seems to provoke extreme reactions, to the point where even just discussing it can be a problem. Dr. Samuel Klein, of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, has reported encountering anger from academicians simply for daring to present data on the Atkins diet.

Nature of the diet

While most of the emphasis in Atkins is on the diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are considered equally important elements.

Atkins involves restriction of the intake of carbohydrates in order to switch the body's metabolism from burning glucose to burning fat (chiefly stored fat). This process (called lipolysis) begins when the body enters the state of ketosis as a consequence of running out of carbohydrates to burn. Although Atkins claimed that ketosis helped the body burn fat more easily, nutritionalists are quick to point out that the body will burn stored fat for energy whenever the calories taken in are less than those burned.

Atkins restricts "net carbs", or carbs that have an effect on blood sugar. Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting sugar alcohols and fiber (which are shown to have no effect on blood sugar level) from total carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols need to be treated with caution, while they may be slower to convert to glucose they can be a significant source of glycemic load and can stall weight loss.

Preferred foods in all categories are whole, unprocessed foods with a low glycemic load.

There are four phases of the Atkins diet:

Induction

The Induction phase is the first, and most restrictive phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Carbohydrate intake is limited to 20 net grams per day. The allowed foods include a liberal amount of most meats, a good bit of cheese and cream, two cups of salad, and one cup of other vegetables. Caffeine and alcoholic beverages are not allowed.

The Induction Phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss - reports of losses up to six or eight pounds (3 or 4 kg) per week are not uncommon.

Atkins suggests the use of KetoStix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics. These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning, phase.

Ongoing Weight Loss

The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of an increase in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. Carb intake increases by 5 grams of carbs per day each week. A goal in OWL is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing". The OWL phase lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight.

Pre-maintenance

Carbohydrate intake is increased again, and the key of goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance", this the maximum number of carbohydrates you can eat each day without gaining weight.

Lifetime maintenance

This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasised, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight.

Views in favor of the diet

When the Atkins diet was introduced in the 1970s, it was immediately attacked by existing experts, who claimed it was unhealthy and would fail. Those claims persist today, even though there are now studies indicating the contrary:

  • "The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss...and greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease" --New England Journal Of Medicine, Volume 348:2082-2090, 22 May 2003, Number 21
  • "better participant retention and greater weight loss...greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels" --Annals Of Internal Medicine, 18 May 2004 | Volume 140 Issue 10 | Pages 769-777
  • "Diets high in fat do not appear to cause excess body fat, and reductions in fat will not be a solution." --American Journal Of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 9, Supplement 2, 30 December 2002, Pages 47-59
  • "sustained weight loss" --American Journal of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 1, July 2002, Pages 30-36
  • "When carbohydrates were restricted, study subjects spontaneously reduced their caloric intake to a level appropriate for their height, did not compensate by eating more protein or fat, and lost weight. We concluded that excessive overeating had been fueled by carbohydrates." "In addition to the calorie reduction and weight loss, subjects experienced markedly improved glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, as well as lower triglycerides and cholesterol." This is not a controlled study in that there was no control group; it merely observed the effect of putting ten obese diabetics on the Atkins diet; this is "the only study of the Atkins diet to have been conducted in the strictly controlled environment of a clinical research center where every calorie eaten and spent was measured." --Annals of Internal Medicine, 15 March 2005

It's important to note that many of these represent scientifically controlled studies, published in peer-reviewed journals. Proponents of the Atkins diet feel much of the criticism leveled at the diet comes from statements and opinions of individuals and associations, rather than from controlled and reviewed studies. Advocates of the diet dispute criticisms based on the fact that a low-carb diet is likely to be high-fat and allegations that fat, especially saturated fat, is harmful. Atkins backers maintain that, aside from trans fat, saturated fat is not harmful and is actually necessary in diet. Proponents cite Gary Taubes who, in a 2001 article in Science, 291 (5513): 2536, claims that the oft-cited "consensus" opinion against saturated fats derives from political rather than scientific motives.

The original recommendations for low-fat diets were based on the idea that, yes, the studies had not been done to prove fat harmful, but maybe it was harmful (for example, saturated fat in diet was associated in some studies with high cholesterol levels which was associated in some studies with heart disease), and allegedly there was no harm in reducing fat, therefore it should be reduced; millions of lives might be lost if we waited for scientific proof.

However, when fat is reduced in a diet, the practical consequence is that people will substitute carbohydrates. Carbohydrates, especially highly-processed, quickly-digested carbohydrates, cause a blood sugar spike, stimulating insulin production and all the consequences of that, quite possibly resulting in weight gain, which is itself a major cardiac risk factor. As was pointed out at the time the original low-fat recommendations were being worked out, shifting dietary composition toward carbohydrates and away from fat affects many different metabolic systems in the body; making such a shift without strong scientific evidence effectively subjected a whole population to an uncontrolled experiment; only now are the results of this experiment starting to be widely examined, and many are concluding that recommending low-fat diets was a very bad idea. It's not just the cardiologist, Dr. Atkins, but also renowned cardiologist Dr. Agatston ("South Beach Diet") and many others.

Critics of low-carb dieting may also fail to consider a simple fact of life: people are built differently. As with any diet, the Atkins may not be effective for some people. For some people, a low-fat diet may work as well as a low-carb diet, perhaps better. But for many people, it seems, a low-carb diet may be more effective, and there is accumulating research confirming this.

Opponents of the Atkins diet tend to claim that weight is regained when dieting stops. However, this is true of all diets, not just low-carb diets. It is unfair to single out the Atkins or any low-carb diet for this factor. The crucial issue is the sustainability of the diet in its Maintenance phase. In the context of widespread propaganda against fat, many people, even those who try the Atkins diet or other low-carb diet, try to make it low-fat, which apparently does not work. The fat is a crucial part of Atkins, for fat is satisfying, it sates.

For years, opponents of the Atkins diet claimed that (1) it would not work, it was preposterous, eating all that fat would make people fat, and (2) it would seriously increase cardiac risk. Yet, when studies are finally done to see what low-carb/high-fat diets actually do, they are at worst as effective as the recommended low-fat diets, and they do not, in fact, increase cardiac risk factors; indeed, overall, they lower them. So then the critics defend their low-fat position by noting, correctly, that the new studies were small. Yet the studies on which the low-fat gospel was based were also small, and less definitive. In the end, no study has shown that cardiac disease has been reduced by promoting low-fat diets, and there is evidence to the contrary.

Criticism of the diet often focuses on the safety of inducing ketosis, which is one of the body's natural processes for the metabolism of body fat often during sleep. It is biologically natural to burn fat - that's why we store it. Ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a serious medical condition seen in diabetics and alcoholics.

Low-fat diets are not automatically healthy ones. Traditional, high-fat French cooking has led to a much lower incidence of obesity, morbid obesity and chronic heart disease than in the high-sugar American diet, despite overall energy intake and exercise levels being the same.

The 22 May 2003, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine published two scientific, randomized studies comparing standard low-fat diets to low-carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins Diet. In both studies, subjects lost more weight on the low-carbohydrate plans.

A research study carried out by the Weight and Eating Disorders Program at the University of Pennsylvania, reported in May 2003 that the Atkins diet raised levels of HDL (or "good") cholesterol by an average of 11% and reduced the amount of triglycerides in the bloodstream by 17%. This counters one of the chief criticisms of Atkins' approach, which is that cholesterol is raised by eating fatty foods and meat.

In the study, conventional dieters' HDL cholesterol raised by only 1.6% while their triglyceride levels did not improve significantly. Weight loss was also statistically greater in the Atkins dieters after three and six months compared with the conventional dieters (although this did not remain statistically significant after a year). The study followed the diets of 63 obese men and women. (See New Scientist, 21 May 2003.)

Views critical of the diet

Low-carbohydrate diets have been the subject of heated debate in medical circles for three decades [1] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/). They are still controversial and only recently has any serious research supported some aspects of Atkins' claims, especially for short-term weight-loss (6 months or less).

But many in the scientific community also raise serious concerns:

  • The National Weight Control Registry, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) tracked the habits of successful dieters over a longer term, 10 years. Despite this diet's overwhelming popularity compared to other diets, of the 5,000 Americans confirmed to have lost an average of 70 pounds (32 kg) and able to prove they have kept it off for at least 6 years of the decade of NIH’s data-keeping, less than 1% were confirmed to be Atkins adherents.
  • Even in studies only one year long, this diet can fail to produce the greater weight-loss which is claimed to come from factors other than calorie-reduction such as ketosis: It was compared to dieters on Dean Ornish’s diet, Weight Watchers, and The Zone Diet for 1 year. The Atkins Diet came last in terms of weight lost at the end of the year. (Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J. L., Griffith, J.L., et al., "One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk", Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 12 November 2003 in Orlando, Florida.)
  • The May 2004 Annals of Internal Medicine study showed that Atkins Dieters had significantly more diarrhea, general weakness, rashes and muscle cramps. Atkins.com now suggests a fiber supplement.
  • Also, acidity from the typically high protein intake can cause osteoporosis (Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study. Amer Jrnl Public Health 1997;87:992-7. See also follow-up in February, 2003 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. 77, No. 2, 504-511); this includes 72,000+ people and 18 years of data. Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ. Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly. Amer Jrnl Epidemiology 1994;139:493-503.

With its emphasis on fatty foods, the Atkins diet has generally been considered by most medical and nutritional experts to be unsound. It also violates the food pyramid, which states that amounts of carbohydrates, protein and fats (in that order) must be regularly consumed to stay healthy. Some experts have even suggested Atkins' plan is quackery. Among those criticizing the healthiness of his diet, if not also skeptical of the claims of greater weight-loss than other, safer diets, are such reputable organizations as:

a. “...the Atkins diet, as recommended, poses a serious threat to health.” --Chair of the American Medical Association's Council on Food and Nutrition, testimony to Congress

b. "unhealthy and can be dangerous." --C. Everett Koop (Shape Up America! news release, 29 December 2003)

c. "a nightmare of a diet." --Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102 (2002): p.260

d. Also condemned by National Institutes of Health in NIH Publ. No. 94-3700, 1993.

e. Condemned by ACS in American Cancer Society; Weighing In on Low Carb Diets, 2004.

f. Condemned by the American Kidney Fund in American Kidney Fund news release, 25 April 2002.

g. Condemned by American Heart Association in Circulation 104 (2001): p.1869.

h. Condemned by Johns Hopkins in Diabetes 2004. Johns Hopkins University White Paper, 2004

i. Condemned by the American College of Sports Medicine in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 (2001): p.2145.

j. Expressing a general sentiment was the conclusion: “runs counter to all the current evidence-based dietary recommendations.” --Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 (2004): p.725

Opponents of the diet also point out that the initial weight loss upon starting the diet is a phenomenon common with most diets, and is due to reduction in stored glycogen and related water in muscles, not fat loss. They claim that no evidence has surfaced that any diet will cause weight loss unless it reduces food energy below the maintenance level, and reports have indicated that successful weight loss due to the Atkins diet may be the result of less food energy being consumed by the dieter, rather than the lack of carbohydrates. [2] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3416637.stm) They further point out that weight loss on fad diets, which typically restrict or prohibit certain foods, is often due to the fact that the dieter has less food choices available. Also, a diet of low-carb foods may quickly become dull to many people, meaning that their appetite is somewhat naturally suppressed as they become hungry for carbs, but the dieter either has none handy or resists this hunger.

There is also bad breath and fatigue, it is claimed: [3] (http://content.health.msn.com/content/article/87/99349.htm?GT1=3391), [4] (http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columnnn/nn000905.html), and Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 68(2001): p.761

On May 27, 2004, Jody Gorran, a 53-year-old Florida businessman with a family history of heart disease, filed a lawsuit against Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. and the estate of Dr. Robert Atkins, claiming that the Atkins diet regimen caused severe heart disease, making it necessary for him to undergo angioplasty. As of 28 May, he has been seeking a court injunction banning Atkins Nutritionals from marketing its products without a warning of potential health risks, and asking for compensatory damages.

Dr. Robert Eckel of the American Heart Association says that high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets put people at risk for heart disease. [5] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/articlesb/article332.html)

Misconceptions about the diet

Many people incorrectly believe that the Atkins Diet promotes eating unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses. In fact, while certain foods are allowed in unlimited quantities (i.e., are limited only by appetite), the Atkins Diet is very specific in recommending lean meats, such as seafood and poultry. This is a key point of clarification that Dr. Atkins addressed in the more recent revisions of his book.

Some criticism of the diet seems to be based on a confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is short for Benign Dietary Ketosis, which is a normal metabolic process that results when glucose is not available as a source of energy. The body then burns mostly fat, both directly and through conversion to ketones which make the energy of fat available in water soluble form. Ketoacidosis is a metabolic crisis due to the inability to utilize glucose because of a lack of insulin and in which there is an abnormal accumulation of ketones exacerbated by severe dehydration as the kidneys spill the useless glucose, losing water in the process. This occurs in diabetics and in a related form in alcoholics.

Another common misconception arises from confusion between the Induction Phase and rest of the diet. The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of carbohydrates permitted per day. The plan is clear that dieters should not ordinarily continue past the 2-week Induction Phase without slowly raising their daily carbohydrate count. Once the weight-loss goal is reached, carbohydrate levels are raised even further, though still significantly below USDA norms, and still within the definition of ketosis.

Reference

  • New England Journal of Medicine: (vol 348, p 2082) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12761365)

Related topics

  • Diet
  • Dieting

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published 1999. This is most likely a result of the merger with Enix, which was well-known for producing sequels and spinoffs associated with the Dragon Quest series. Once the weight-loss goal is reached, carbohydrate levels are raised even further, though still significantly below USDA norms, and still within the definition of ketosis. Starting with that game, however, several such sequels emerged, especially the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII series of games/movies, all of which continue the story of the game Final Fantasy VII. The plan is clear that dieters should not ordinarily continue past the 2-week Induction Phase without slowly raising their daily carbohydrate count. Until the release of Final Fantasy X-2 the idea of a "direct sequel," that is, a game which picked up directly from the story of a previous game in the series, was unprecedented in the series. The first two weeks of the Atkins Diet are strict, with only 20g of carbohydrates permitted per day. The original Final Fantasy I and Final Fantasy II are released in Final Fantasy Origins, and for the Game Boy Advance as Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls. Final Fantasy III has not yet officially been released in the US, and never rereleased on any platform in any market, but Square-Enix currently plans to release it for the Nintendo DS.

Another common misconception arises from confusion between the Induction Phase and rest of the diet. Final Fantasy IV was released in Final Fantasy Chronicles for the PlayStation, while Final Fantasy V and VI were released in Final Fantasy Anthology for PlayStation. This occurs in diabetics and in a related form in alcoholics. Later ports include translations of the Japanese games with their original numbering. Ketoacidosis is a metabolic crisis due to the inability to utilize glucose because of a lack of insulin and in which there is an abnormal accumulation of ketones exacerbated by severe dehydration as the kidneys spill the useless glucose, losing water in the process. FF3us or FF6j. Ketosis is short for Benign Dietary Ketosis, which is a normal metabolic process that results when glucose is not available as a source of energy. The body then burns mostly fat, both directly and through conversion to ketones which make the energy of fat available in water soluble form. To solve this, many fans use the disambiguating suffixes "us" and "j" for American numbering and Japanese numbering respectively, e.g.

Some criticism of the diet seems to be based on a confusion between ketosis and ketoacidosis. This has been a source of much confusion, with many American fans continuing to refer to IV and VI by their American numbers. Atkins addressed in the more recent revisions of his book. Starting with Final Fantasy VII the pretense was dropped, and all subsequent games used their original numbering, leading to an apparent "jump" over 3 games. This is a key point of clarification that Dr. Final Fantasy IV became "II" and VI became "III". In fact, while certain foods are allowed in unlimited quantities (i.e., are limited only by appetite), the Atkins Diet is very specific in recommending lean meats, such as seafood and poultry. Originally, Final Fantasy II and III for the Famicom and V for the Super Famicom were not released in America, so Square of America decided to change the numbers of the US releases to hide this fact.

Many people incorrectly believe that the Atkins Diet promotes eating unlimited amounts of fatty meats and cheeses.
. [5] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/articlesb/article332.html). On the other hand, the single-player Final Fantasy X-2 has attracted negative attention for its status as the first direct sequel to a previous Final Fantasy game, and for its supposed overreliance on fan service. Robert Eckel of the American Heart Association says that high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets put people at risk for heart disease. A number of diehard fans have accused Final Fantasy XI for neglecting the traditions of the series by switching to a massively multiplayer online format. Dr. Of the more recent installments in the series, Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy X-2 have been most frequently singled out for criticism.

As of 28 May, he has been seeking a court injunction banning Atkins Nutritionals from marketing its products without a warning of potential health risks, and asking for compensatory damages. Fans of these games often argue that the nostalgia factor plays a significant role in many of the negative critical responses to post-Final Fantasy VII installments. Robert Atkins, claiming that the Atkins diet regimen caused severe heart disease, making it necessary for him to undergo angioplasty. Nintendo's Legend of Zelda, Konami's Suikoden, and Square Enix's own Dragon Quest franchises are strong competitors of Final Fantasy. and the estate of Dr. More recent installments of the series (following its premiere on the Sony PlayStation in 1997) are especially attacked by critics within the video game community. On May 27, 2004, Jody Gorran, a 53-year-old Florida businessman with a family history of heart disease, filed a lawsuit against Atkins Nutritionals, Inc. Some cite a lack of interactivity (overuse of full motion video), rigid and often linear story structure, and unoriginality.

There is also bad breath and fatigue, it is claimed: [3] (http://content.health.msn.com/content/article/87/99349.htm?GT1=3391), [4] (http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/columnnn/nn000905.html), and Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 68(2001): p.761. Although the franchise is extremely popular, it is not without critics. Also, a diet of low-carb foods may quickly become dull to many people, meaning that their appetite is somewhat naturally suppressed as they become hungry for carbs, but the dieter either has none handy or resists this hunger. Unlike previous games, battles in both Final Fantasy XI and Final Fantasy XII take place on the world map, with no separate battle screen. [2] (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3416637.stm) They further point out that weight loss on fad diets, which typically restrict or prohibit certain foods, is often due to the fact that the dieter has less food choices available. Early details suggest Final Fantasy XII will adopt a similar system. They claim that no evidence has surfaced that any diet will cause weight loss unless it reduces food energy below the maintenance level, and reports have indicated that successful weight loss due to the Atkins diet may be the result of less food energy being consumed by the dieter, rather than the lack of carbohydrates. Final Fantasy XI featured a fully real time combat system similar to that employed by the game EverQuest: when confronted with an enemy, a character would automatically perform basic physical attacks unless otherwise instructed by the player.

Opponents of the diet also point out that the initial weight loss upon starting the diet is a phenomenon common with most diets, and is due to reduction in stored glycogen and related water in muscles, not fat loss. As this ranking was displayed on screen during battle, it was possible to know when a character and/or enemy would move several combat turns in advance, and to plan battles accordingly. Expressing a general sentiment was the conclusion: “runs counter to all the current evidence-based dietary recommendations.” --Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 (2004): p.725. In the CTB system, every creature in battle would be ranked according to speed. j. Final Fantasy X abandoned the ATB system in favor of the "Conditional Turn-Based Battle System" (CTB). Condemned by the American College of Sports Medicine in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 (2001): p.2145. Generally each of these games included both "active" and "wait" modes: when "wait" mode was chosen, then all activity relating to the time gauge would pause whenever the player was using a submenu to choose a magic spell, item, or special attack.

i. When a specific character's time gauge was filled, the character could act, which would then reset the timer. Johns Hopkins University White Paper, 2004. The ATB system was semi-real time, and afforded every creature in combat a time gauge. Condemned by Johns Hopkins in Diabetes 2004. Starting with Final Fantasy IV, and continuing until Final Fantasy IX (and revived in Final Fantasy X-2), the "Active Time Battle" (ATB) system was introduced. h. The player would input all battle commands at the beginning of each combat round, which would then be carried out based on the speed rating of each character.

Condemned by American Heart Association in Circulation 104 (2001): p.1869. Final Fantasy I through Final Fantasy III all featured a traditional turn based battle system. g. Often these special attacks are integrated into the "job system," which has appeared in several games in the series (Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy V, Final Fantasy Tactics, Final Fantasy X-2). Condemned by the American Kidney Fund in American Kidney Fund news release, 25 April 2002. Most games in the series (from Final Fantasy III on) feature a variety of "special commands," over and beyond the traditional "Attack," "Defend," "Cast Magic," and "Run" battle commands, such as the ability to steal items from enemies, or performing a leap attack. f. Most games in the series utilize an experience level system for character advancement (although Final Fantasy II did not), and a point-based system for casting magical spells (though Final Fantasy I, Final Fantasy III and Final Fantasy VIII all featured different approaches).

Condemned by ACS in American Cancer Society; Weighing In on Low Carb Diets, 2004. As such, Final Fantasy uses a menu-driven, turn-based battle system. e. Final Fantasy borrowed many gameplay elements from its primary rival, the Dragon Quest franchise. 94-3700, 1993. The games often feature various minigames with their own graphical engines. No. The games typically have several types of screens, or modes of interaction, broadly categorized as:.

Also condemned by National Institutes of Health in NIH Publ.
. d. Final Fantasy X-2 utilized the same game engine as Final Fantasy X, and was aesthetically not much different. "a nightmare of a diet." --Journal of the American Dietetic Association 102 (2002): p.260. Final Fantasy X was the first game in the series to use voice overs to any degree. c. Final Fantasy X was released on the PlayStation 2, and made use of the more powerful hardware to render certain cutscenes in real-time, rather than displayed in pre-rendered video.

Everett Koop (Shape Up America! news release, 29 December 2003). Final Fantasy IX returned briefly to the more stylized design of earlier games in the series, but maintained most of the graphical techniques utilized in the previous two games in the series. "unhealthy and can be dangerous." --C. The full motion video sequences utilized a display technique wherein video would play in the background while the polygon characters would be composited on top. b. Starting with Final Fantasy VIII, the series adopted a more photo-realistic look. “...the Atkins diet, as recommended, poses a serious threat to health.” --Chair of the American Medical Association's Council on Food and Nutrition, testimony to Congress. As the only real user-interaction outside of battle was menu-driven, the developers saw no need for fully 3D-rendered overhead graphics.

a. Released shortly after Final Fantasy VII, the spinoff title Final Fantasy Tactics, once again utilized sprites for the characters. Among those criticizing the healthiness of his diet, if not also skeptical of the claims of greater weight-loss than other, safer diets, are such reputable organizations as:. However, Final Fantasy VII's FMVs often lacked consistency, with characters appearing tiny and very indistinct in one scene, and extremely detailed in the next. Some experts have even suggested Atkins' plan is quackery. Final Fantasy VII was also the first Final Fantasy game to use full motion video sequences, part of the reason why the game spanned a full three CD-ROMs. It also violates the food pyramid, which states that amounts of carbohydrates, protein and fats (in that order) must be regularly consumed to stay healthy. The characters and entire game world were now 3-dimensional, with fully pre-rendered backgrounds.

With its emphasis on fatty foods, the Atkins diet has generally been considered by most medical and nutritional experts to be unsound. 1997 saw the release of Final Fantasy VII for the Sony PlayStation and not Nintendo 64 as originally anticipated. But many in the scientific community also raise serious concerns:. This would continue to get more advanced in Final Fantasy VI, and the trend would continue to make the games much more erudite. They are still controversial and only recently has any serious research supported some aspects of Atkins' claims, especially for short-term weight-loss (6 months or less). Finally, in Final Fantasy V, the games began to use kanji. Low-carbohydrate diets have been the subject of heated debate in medical circles for three decades [1] (http://www.lowcarb.ca/). Much of the dialogue was simply clumps of text, making it especially hard for older gamers and foreigners learning Japanese.

(See New Scientist, 21 May 2003.). The text of the Japanese language versions of early Final Fantasy games was comprised purely of kana. The study followed the diets of 63 obese men and women. These games utilized updated graphics and effects, as well as higher quality music and sound than in previous games, but were otherwise similar to their predecessors in basic design. Weight loss was also statistically greater in the Atkins dieters after three and six months compared with the conventional dieters (although this did not remain statistically significant after a year). The same basic system was used in the next three games, Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V, and Final Fantasy VI, for the Super Famicom (known internationally as the Super Nintendo Entertainment System). In the study, conventional dieters' HDL cholesterol raised by only 1.6% while their triglyceride levels did not improve significantly. On the main world screen, small sprite representations of the leading party member were displayed because of graphical limitations, while in battle screens, more detailed, full versions of all characters would appear in a side view perspective.

This counters one of the chief criticisms of Atkins' approach, which is that cholesterol is raised by eating fatty foods and meat. Final Fantasy began on the Nintendo Family Computer ("Famicom," known internationally as the Nintendo Entertainment System) as Final Fantasy I in 1987, and was joined by two sequels, Final Fantasy II and Final Fantasy III, over the next three years. A research study carried out by the Weight and Eating Disorders Program at the University of Pennsylvania, reported in May 2003 that the Atkins diet raised levels of HDL (or "good") cholesterol by an average of 11% and reduced the amount of triglycerides in the bloodstream by 17%.
. In both studies, subjects lost more weight on the low-carbohydrate plans. The battle sequences that end in victory for the player in the first ten installments of the series would be accompanied by a victory fanfare that used the same nine-note sequence to begin the fanfare, and it has become one of the most recognized pieces of music relating to the Final Fantasy series. The 22 May 2003, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine published two scientific, randomized studies comparing standard low-fat diets to low-carbohydrate diets such as the Atkins Diet. The Prelude is actually based off of Bach's piece by the same name.

Traditional, high-fat French cooking has led to a much lower incidence of obesity, morbid obesity and chronic heart disease than in the high-sugar American diet, despite overall energy intake and exercise levels being the same. The games often open with a piece called Prelude, which was a simple arpeggio theme in the early parts, with further melody parts added in latter installments. Low-fat diets are not automatically healthy ones. While the music in games offers wide variety, there are some frequently reused themes. Ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a serious medical condition seen in diabetics and alcoholics. The Final Fantasy soundtracks have also joined the catalogue of the iTunes Music Store. It is biologically natural to burn fat - that's why we store it. Music from Final Fantasy was first performed outside of Japan as a part of the Symphonic Game Music Concert series in Germany.

Criticism of the diet often focuses on the safety of inducing ketosis, which is one of the body's natural processes for the metabolism of body fat often during sleep. The next performance was February 19, 2005 in Rosemont, Illinois by the Chicagoland Pops Orchestra, and currently, as of 2005, the "Dear Friends" concert is on tour in the US. In the end, no study has shown that cardiac disease has been reduced by promoting low-fat diets, and there is evidence to the contrary. That concert was a three-day sell out. Yet the studies on which the low-fat gospel was based were also small, and less definitive. An orchestral Final Fantasy music concert in the United States was performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra at Walt Disney Concert Hall on May 10, 2004. So then the critics defend their low-fat position by noting, correctly, that the new studies were small. Many video game and MIDI world wide web sites offer renditions of Final Fantasy musical pieces.

Yet, when studies are finally done to see what low-carb/high-fat diets actually do, they are at worst as effective as the recommended low-fat diets, and they do not, in fact, increase cardiac risk factors; indeed, overall, they lower them. launched an America Online radio station dedicated to music from the Final Fantasy series, initially carrying complete tracks from Final Fantasy XI in addition to samplings from Final Fantasy VII through Final Fantasy X. For years, opponents of the Atkins diet claimed that (1) it would not work, it was preposterous, eating all that fat would make people fat, and (2) it would seriously increase cardiac risk. On November 17, 2003, Square Enix U.S.A. The fat is a crucial part of Atkins, for fat is satisfying, it sates. Final Fantasy soundtracks and sheet music are increasingly popular amongst non-Japanese Final Fantasy fans and have even been performed by the London Symphony Orchestra. In the context of widespread propaganda against fat, many people, even those who try the Atkins diet or other low-carb diet, try to make it low-fat, which apparently does not work. Other composers who have contributed to the series include Masashi Hamauzu and Junya Nakano.

The crucial issue is the sustainability of the diet in its Maintenance phase. Uematsu is also involved with the rock group The Black Mages, which has released two albums of arranged Final Fantasy tunes. It is unfair to single out the Atkins or any low-carb diet for this factor. In the 2004 Summer Olympics, the American synchronized swimming duo consisting of Alison Bartosik and Anna Kozlova were awarded the bronze medal for their performance to music from Final Fantasy VIII. However, this is true of all diets, not just low-carb diets. His music has played a large part in the popularity of the Final Fantasy franchise abroad. Opponents of the Atkins diet tend to claim that weight is regained when dieting stops. Nobuo Uematsu was the chief music composer of the Final Fantasy series until his resignation from Square Enix in November 2004.

But for many people, it seems, a low-carb diet may be more effective, and there is accumulating research confirming this. Square Enix continues to outsource story and scenario work to Nojima and Stellavista. For some people, a low-fat diet may work as well as a low-carb diet, perhaps better. He partially or completely wrote the stories for Final Fantasy VII, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy X, and Final Fantasy X-2. As with any diet, the Atkins may not be effective for some people. In October 2003, Kazushige Nojima, the series' principle scenario writer, resigned from Square Enix to form his own company, Stellavista. Critics of low-carb dieting may also fail to consider a simple fact of life: people are built differently. Akihiko Yoshida, who served as character designer for the spinoff title Final Fantasy Tactics, as well as the Square-produced Vagrant Story, has been announced as the designer of the upcoming Final Fantasy XII.

Agatston ("South Beach Diet") and many others. Following Amano's departure, he was replaced with Tetsuya Nomura, who continued to work with the series through Final Fantasy X, with the exception of Final Fantasy IX, where character design was handled by Shukou Murase, Toshiyuki Itahana and Shin Nagasawa. Atkins, but also renowned cardiologist Dr. Artistic design, including character and monster design work, was handled by renowned Japanese artist Yoshitaka Amano from Final Fantasy I through Final Fantasy VI. It's not just the cardiologist, Dr. Some key objects and concepts that have appeared in more than one Final Fantasy game include:. As was pointed out at the time the original low-fat recommendations were being worked out, shifting dietary composition toward carbohydrates and away from fat affects many different metabolic systems in the body; making such a shift without strong scientific evidence effectively subjected a whole population to an uncontrolled experiment; only now are the results of this experiment starting to be widely examined, and many are concluding that recommending low-fat diets was a very bad idea. From the strong influence of history, literature, religion and mythology on the story to the frequent reappearance of certain monsters and items, these shared elements provide a unifying framework to the series.

Carbohydrates, especially highly-processed, quickly-digested carbohydrates, cause a blood sugar spike, stimulating insulin production and all the consequences of that, quite possibly resulting in weight gain, which is itself a major cardiac risk factor. Though each Final Fantasy story is independent, many themes and elements of gameplay recur throughout the series. However, when fat is reduced in a diet, the practical consequence is that people will substitute carbohydrates. In a way, the Final Fantasy franchise has been a creative showcase for Square's developers, and many elements originally introduced in the series have made their way into Square's other titles, most notably two of its other major franchises, SaGa and Seiken Densetsu. The original recommendations for low-fat diets were based on the idea that, yes, the studies had not been done to prove fat harmful, but maybe it was harmful (for example, saturated fat in diet was associated in some studies with high cholesterol levels which was associated in some studies with heart disease), and allegedly there was no harm in reducing fat, therefore it should be reduced; millions of lives might be lost if we waited for scientific proof. Many elements and themes would recur throughout the series, but there would be no direct sequels until the release of Final Fantasy X-2 in 2003. Proponents cite Gary Taubes who, in a 2001 article in Science, 291 (5513): 2536, claims that the oft-cited "consensus" opinion against saturated fats derives from political rather than scientific motives. This unusual approach to sequels has continued throughout the series, with each Final Fantasy game introducing a new world, and a new system of gameplay.

Atkins backers maintain that, aside from trans fat, saturated fat is not harmful and is actually necessary in diet. Following the success of the first game, Square quickly began work on a sequel. Unlike a typical sequel, Final Fantasy II featured entirely different characters, with a setting and story bearing only thematic similarities to its predecessor. Advocates of the diet dispute criticisms based on the fact that a low-carb diet is likely to be high-fat and allegations that fat, especially saturated fat, is harmful. Far from being Square's last hurrah, however, Final Fantasy I reversed Square's lagging fortunes, and became Square's flagship franchise. It's important to note that many of these represent scientifically controlled studies, published in peer-reviewed journals. Proponents of the Atkins diet feel much of the criticism leveled at the diet comes from statements and opinions of individuals and associations, rather than from controlled and reviewed studies. Recognizing that the project could very well turn out to be Square's last game, the project was entitled Final Fantasy. Those claims persist today, even though there are now studies indicating the contrary:. At approximately the same time, Square designer Hironobu Sakaguchi began work on an ambitious new fantasy role playing game for the cartridge-based Famicom, inspired in part by Enix's popular Dragon Quest (also known as Dragon Warrior).

When the Atkins diet was introduced in the 1970s, it was immediately attacked by existing experts, who claimed it was unhealthy and would fail. By 1987, declining interest in the FDS had placed Square on the verge of declaring bankruptcy. Whole, unprocessed food choices are emphasised, with the option to drop back to an earlier phase if you begin to gain weight. first entered the Japanese video game industry in the mid 1980s, developing a variety of simple RPGs for Nintendo's Famicom Disk System (FDS), a disk-based peripheral for the Family Computer (Famicom, known internationally as the Nintendo Entertainment System). This phase is intended to carry on the habits acquired in the previous phases, and avoid the common end-of-diet mindset that can return people to their previous habits and previous weight. Square Co., Ltd. Carbohydrate intake is increased again, and the key of goal in this phase is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Maintenance", this the maximum number of carbohydrates you can eat each day without gaining weight. As of early 2005, eleven games have been released as part of the main series, as well as several more spinoffs and related titles.

The OWL phase lasts until weight is within 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of the target weight. It is Square Enix's most successful franchise, having sold over 60 million units worldwide to date. A goal in OWL is to find the "Critical Carbohydrate Level for Losing". Future installments will also appear on the Nintendo DS and PlayStation Portable. Carb intake increases by 5 grams of carbs per day each week. The first installment of the series premiered in Japan in 1987, and Final Fantasy games have subsequently been localized for markets in North America, Europe and Australia, on nearly every modern video game console, including the Nintendo Entertainment System, the MSX2, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, the Sony PlayStation, the WonderSwan Color, the PlayStation 2, IBM PC compatible, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo GameCube, and several different models of mobile phone. The Ongoing Weight Loss (OWL) phase of Atkins consists of an increase in carbohydrate intake, but remaining at levels where weight loss occurs. It may be the most widely distributed "game series" of all time, including both standard console games and portable games, a massive multiplayer online game, games for mobile phones, a computer-generated movie, two anime series, and an upcoming direct-to-DVD movie.

These let the dieter monitor when they enter the ketosis, or fat burning, phase. Final Fantasy (Japanese: ファイナルファンタジー Fainaru Fantajii) is a popular series of role playing games produced by Square Enix (originally Square Co., Ltd.). Atkins suggests the use of KetoStix, small chemically reactive strips used by diabetics. Part of the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII series. The Induction Phase is usually when many see the most significant weight loss - reports of losses up to six or eight pounds (3 or 4 kg) per week are not uncommon. Cell-based OAV serving as a prequel to Final Fantasy VII from Zack's point of view. Caffeine and alcoholic beverages are not allowed. Last Order: Final Fantasy VIIforthcoming

    .

    The allowed foods include a liberal amount of most meats, a good bit of cheese and cream, two cups of salad, and one cup of other vegetables. Part of the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII series. Carbohydrate intake is limited to 20 net grams per day. CGI OAV serving as a sequel to Final Fantasy VII. It is intended to cause the body to quickly enter a state of ketosis. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Childrenforthcoming

      . The Induction phase is the first, and most restrictive phase of the Atkins Nutritional Approach. Released in North America by ADV Films in 2003.

      There are four phases of the Atkins diet:. Original 25 episode television anime series featuring concepts and creatures from the Final Fantasy games. Preferred foods in all categories are whole, unprocessed foods with a low glycemic load. Final Fantasy: Unlimited — 2001

        . Sugar alcohols need to be treated with caution, while they may be slower to convert to glucose they can be a significant source of glycemic load and can stall weight loss. Directed by Hironobu Sakaguchi. Atkins restricts "net carbs", or carbs that have an effect on blood sugar. Net carbohydrates can be calculated from a food source by subtracting sugar alcohols and fiber (which are shown to have no effect on blood sugar level) from total carbohydrates. Feature-length, theatrically released CGI movie featuring concepts and creatures from the Final Fantasy games.

        Although Atkins claimed that ketosis helped the body burn fat more easily, nutritionalists are quick to point out that the body will burn stored fat for energy whenever the calories taken in are less than those burned. Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within — 2001

          . This process (called lipolysis) begins when the body enters the state of ketosis as a consequence of running out of carbohydrates to burn. Released in North America by ADV Films in 1998. Atkins involves restriction of the intake of carbohydrates in order to switch the body's metabolism from burning glucose to burning fat (chiefly stored fat). Anime OAV serving as a sequel to Final Fantasy V. While most of the emphasis in Atkins is on the diet, nutritional supplements and exercise are considered equally important elements. Final Fantasy: Legend of the Crystals — 1994
            .

            Samuel Klein, of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, has reported encountering anger from academicians simply for daring to present data on the Atkins diet. Released in Japan as Final Fantasy I & II Advance. Dr. Remake of Final Fantasy I and Final Fantasy II with bonus quests and dungeons. The Atkins Nutritional Approach seems to provoke extreme reactions, to the point where even just discussing it can be a problem. Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls — 2004 — Nintendo Game Boy Advance

              . Consequently, Dr Atkins rejects the advice of the food pyramid, instead telling us the tremendous increase in refined carbohydrates is responsible for the rise in metabolic disorders of the 20th century, and the focus on the detrimental effects of dietary fat has actually contributed to the obesity problem by increasing the proportion of insulin inducing foods in the diet. Released in North America and Europe in 2003 without any packaging extras.

              He claimed there are two main unrecognised factors about Western eating habits, arguing firstly that the main cause of obesity is eating refined carbohydrates particularly sugar, flour, and high-fructose corn syrups; and secondly that saturated fat is overrated as a nutritional problem, only trans fats from sources such as hydrogenated oils need to be avoided. Compilation of the PlayStation remakes of Final Fantasy I and Final Fantasy II in special edition packaging with omake extras, under the title Final Fantasy I+II Premium Package. Atkins represents a radical departure from prevailing theories. Final Fantasy Origins — 2002 — Sony PlayStation

                . Atkins claimed that his diet stabilizes insulin and blood sugar levels, eliminating cravings and often reducing appetite. Released only in North America, a compilation of the PlayStation remakes of Final Fantasy IV and the Super NES game Chrono Trigger. According to Atkins, this causes food cravings and unstable blood sugar levels, which can cause mood swings, depression, and sleeping problems. Final Fantasy Chronicles — 2001 — Sony PlayStation
                  .

                  Atkins argued that many eating disorders are the result of hyperinsulinism, or excessive secretion of insulin which comes through eating too many carbohydrates. European version – released in 2002, a compilation of the PlayStation remakes of Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy V. Dr. North American version – released in 1999, a compilation of the PlayStation remakes of Final Fantasy V and Final Fantasy VI with a special edition soundtrack CD. Atkins' New Diet Revolution, in which he updated some of his ideas but remained faithful to the original concepts. Final Fantasy Anthology — 1999/2002 — Sony PlayStation

                    . It has been astonishingly popular in recent times because of his revised book, Dr. Never released in North America or Europe.

                    Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. Compilation of the PlayStation remakes of Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V and Final Fantasy VI in special edition packaging with omake extras. Robert Atkins (1930-2003) in a series of books, starting with Dr. Final Fantasy Collection — 1999 — Sony PlayStation

                      . It was popularized by Dr. Never released in North America or Europe. The Atkins Nutritional Approach, popularly known as the Atkins Diet or just Atkins, is a popular but controversial high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. Compilation of Final Fantasy I and Final Fantasy II on one cartridge.

                      Dieting. Final Fantasy I.II — 1994 — Nintendo Family Computer

                        . Diet. Final Fantasy VII: Crisis Core — 2006 (announced) — Sony PlayStation Portable. New England Journal of Medicine: (vol 348, p 2082) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12761365). Final Fantasy VII: Dirge of Cerberus — 2005 (announced) — Sony PlayStation 2. Amer Jrnl Epidemiology 1994;139:493-503. Final Fantasy VII: Before Crisis — 2004 — NTT DoCoMo FOMA 900i series mobile phones.

                        Case-control study of risk factors for hip fractures in the elderly. Compilation of Final Fantasy VII series

                          . Cumming RG, Klineberg RJ. Direct sequel to Final Fantasy X. 2, 504-511); this includes 72,000+ people and 18 years of data. Expanded "international edition" released for the PlayStation 2 in 2004. 77, No. Final Fantasy X-2 — 2003 — Sony PlayStation 2
                            .

                            See also follow-up in February, 2003 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Vol. Final Fantasy: Crystal Chronicles — 2003 — Nintendo GameCube. Amer Jrnl Public Health 1997;87:992-7. Including Weapons, Moogles, and Items. Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study. Features Cloud, Yuffie, Cid, Aerith, Sephiroth from Final Fantasy VII, Squall and Selphie from Final Fantasy VIII, Tidus and Wakka from Final Fantasy X, As well as many other references to previous Final Fantasy Games. Also, acidity from the typically high protein intake can cause osteoporosis (Feskanich D, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA. Sequel Currently in Production.

                            Atkins.com now suggests a fiber supplement. Game created by a working group of both Square and Disney. The May 2004 Annals of Internal Medicine study showed that Atkins Dieters had significantly more diarrhea, general weakness, rashes and muscle cramps. Kingdom Hearts — 2002 — Sony PlayStation 2

                              . L., Griffith, J.L., et al., "One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk", Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions 12 November 2003 in Orlando, Florida.). Features Cloud Strife, Tifa Lockheart, Yuffie Kisaragi, Vincent, Sephiroth and Zack from Final Fantasy VII. (Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J. Fighting game developed by Dream Factory and released by Square.

                              The Atkins Diet came last in terms of weight lost at the end of the year. Ehrgeiz — 1998 — Sony PlayStation

                                . Even in studies only one year long, this diet can fail to produce the greater weight-loss which is claimed to come from factors other than calorie-reduction such as ketosis: It was compared to dieters on Dean Ornish’s diet, Weight Watchers, and The Zone Diet for 1 year. Chocobo Land — 2002 — Nintendo Game Boy Advance. Despite this diet's overwhelming popularity compared to other diets, of the 5,000 Americans confirmed to have lost an average of 70 pounds (32 kg) and able to prove they have kept it off for at least 6 years of the decade of NIH’s data-keeping, less than 1% were confirmed to be Atkins adherents. Never released in North America or Europe. The National Weight Control Registry, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) tracked the habits of successful dieters over a longer term, 10 years. Chocobo Stallion — 1999 — Sony PlayStation
                                  .

                                  We concluded that excessive overeating had been fueled by carbohydrates." "In addition to the calorie reduction and weight loss, subjects experienced markedly improved glucose levels and insulin sensitivity, as well as lower triglycerides and cholesterol." This is not a controlled study in that there was no control group; it merely observed the effect of putting ten obese diabetics on the Atkins diet; this is "the only study of the Atkins diet to have been conducted in the strictly controlled environment of a clinical research center where every calorie eaten and spent was measured." --Annals of Internal Medicine, 15 March 2005. Racing game featuring characters from both Chocobo's Mysterious Dungeon and the Final Fantasy series. "When carbohydrates were restricted, study subjects spontaneously reduced their caloric intake to a level appropriate for their height, did not compensate by eating more protein or fat, and lost weight. Chocobo Racing — 1999 — Sony PlayStation

                                    . "sustained weight loss" --American Journal of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 1, July 2002, Pages 30-36. Released in North America as Chocobo's Dungeon 2. "Diets high in fat do not appear to cause excess body fat, and reductions in fat will not be a solution." --American Journal Of Medicine, Volume 113, Issue 9, Supplement 2, 30 December 2002, Pages 47-59. Chocobo's Mysterious Dungeon 2 — 1998 — Sony PlayStation
                                      .

                                      "better participant retention and greater weight loss...greater decreases in serum triglyceride levels" --Annals Of Internal Medicine, 18 May 2004 | Volume 140 Issue 10 | Pages 769-777. Remade for the Bandai WonderSwan in 1999. "The low-carbohydrate diet produced a greater weight loss...and greater improvement in some risk factors for coronary heart disease" --New England Journal Of Medicine, Volume 348:2082-2090, 22 May 2003, Number 21. Never released in North America or Europe. Chocobo's Mysterious Dungeon — 1997 — Sony PlayStation

                                        . Chocobo series
                                          .

                                          Final Fantasy Tactics Advance — 2003 — Nintendo Game Boy Advance. Final Fantasy Tactics — 1997 — Sony PlayStation. Final Fantasy Tactics series

                                            . Released in Japan as Final Fantasy USA.

                                            Final Fantasy Mystic Quest — 1992 — Super Nintendo Entertainment System

                                              . Remade for the Nintendo Game Boy Advance as Shinyaku Seiken Densetsu (Sword of Mana in North America and Europe). Released in North America as Final Fantasy Adventure. Seiken Densetsu — 1991 — Nintendo Game Boy
                                                .

                                                Released in North America as Final Fantasy Legend III. SaGa III — 1993 — Nintendo Game Boy

                                                  . Released in North America as Final Fantasy Legend II. SaGa II — 1991 — Nintendo Game Boy
                                                    .

                                                    Remade for the WonderSwan Color in 2002. Released in North America as Final Fantasy Legend. Makaitoushi SaGa — 1989 — Nintendo Game Boy

                                                      . SaGa / Final Fantasy Legend series
                                                        .

                                                        Final Fantasy XII — 2005 (announced) — Sony PlayStation 2. Rise of the Zilart and Chains of Promathia were both included in the European release of the game in 2004. Rise of the Zilart was included as part of the original North American release of the game in 2003. Two expansion packs have been released: Final Fantasy XI: Rise of the Zilart (2003) and Final Fantasy XI: Chains of Promathia (2004).

                                                        Also known as Final Fantasy XI Online: it is the first MMORPG in the series. At E3 2005, an Xbox 360 port was announced. Ported to the PC in 2003. Final Fantasy XI — 2002 — Sony PlayStation 2

                                                          .

                                                          Not to be confused with the SGI demo produced alternatively called either Final Fantasy X or Final Fantasy SGI. Expanded "international edition" released for the PlayStation 2 in 2002. Final Fantasy X — 2001 — Sony PlayStation 2

                                                            . Final Fantasy IX — 2000 — Sony PlayStation.

                                                            Ported to the PC in 1999. Final Fantasy VIII — 1999 — Sony PlayStation

                                                              . First Final Fantasy title to be officially released in South Korea (PC version). First Final Fantasy title to be officially released in Europe.

                                                              Ported to the PC in 1998. Expanded "international edition" released for the PlayStation in 1998. Final Fantasy VII — 1997 — Sony PlayStation

                                                                . Released as a standalone game for the Sony PlayStation in Europe.

                                                                Included as part of Final Fantasy Anthology (North American version only). Ported to the Sony PlayStation in 1999. Originally released in North America as Final Fantasy III. Final Fantasy VI — 1994 — Nintendo Super Famicom/Super Nintendo Entertainment System

                                                                  .

                                                                  Included as part of Final Fantasy Anthology (North America and Europe). Ported to the Sony PlayStation in 1998. Unofficially translated by RPGe (1998). Original version was never released in North America or Europe.

                                                                  Final Fantasy V — 1992 — Nintendo Super Famicom

                                                                    . Included as part of Final Fantasy Chronicles (North America) and Final Fantasy Anthology (Europe). Ported to the Sony PlayStation in 1997 and remade for the WonderSwan Color in 2003. Final Fantasy IV Hardtype unofficially translated by J2E (1997, 2001).

                                                                    Remade and edited to reduce difficulty level as Final Fantasy IV Easytype (1992). Originally released in North America as Final Fantasy II. Final Fantasy IV — 1991 — Nintendo Super Famicom/Super Nintendo Entertainment System

                                                                      . Remake for the Nintendo DS is forthcoming 2005 and has been announced for release in North America and Europe.

                                                                      Original version was never released in North America or Europe. Final Fantasy III — 1990 — Nintendo Family Computer

                                                                        . Included as part of Final Fantasy Origins and Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls. Remade for the WonderSwan Color in 2001 and the Sony PlayStation in 2002.

                                                                        Reissued with Final Fantasy II as part of Final Fantasy I.II for the Family Computer in 1994. Original version was never released in North America or Europe. Final Fantasy II — 1988 — Nintendo Family Computer

                                                                          . Included as part of Final Fantasy Origins and Final Fantasy I & II: Dawn of Souls.

                                                                          Remade for the CDMA 1X WIN W21x series of mobile phones as Final Fantasy EZ. Remade for NTT DoCoMo FOMA 900i series of mobile phones as Final Fantasy i. Remade for the MSX2 in 1989, the WonderSwan Color in 2000, and the Sony PlayStation in 2002. Reissued with Final Fantasy II as part of Final Fantasy I.II for the Family Computer in 1994.

                                                                          Original version was released in Japan and North America, but not Europe. Final Fantasy I — 1987 — Nintendo Family Computer/Nintendo Entertainment System

                                                                            . In some games, the option to change the color of the tables is given. This screen is usually a very simple blue-table layout, with a gloved hand to select one's options.

                                                                            Menu Screen — This screen is used for navigating your party's status, equipment, magic, etc. In some cases, pre-rendered video was overlaid with real-time rendered field screen graphics (FMV-3D). They can either be pre-rendered video (FMV), or they can be executed in with the same engine as the field screens. Cutscenes — These scenes are non-interactive playback that usually advances the plot.

                                                                            The world screen was eliminated in Final Fantasy X. These are usually not to scale, as a character may appear the size of a small mountain. Relatively little plot occurs here, but there are exceptions. World screen — A low-scale screen used to symbolize traveling great distances in times that would otherwise slow the game down unacceptably plot-wise. Final Fantasy XII will do away with "scene-battles": battle sequences will occur on the main field screen.

                                                                            In Final Fantasy VII and later, these screens are fully 3D, but very restricted in size. (For example, a random battle in a desert gets a desert backdrop.) Plot-relevant battles (as opposed to battling random monsters) may have a specially built battle screen/arena, however. Battle screens — Battles occur on a separate type of screen (or arena), usually with a change of scale and a backdrop "arena" that usually generically represents where the battle is occurring in the game. Final Fantasy X used a completely 3D field screen system, which allowed the camera angle to change as the characters moved about.

                                                                            Final Fantasy VII, VIII, and IX used pre-rendered and pre-painted backgrounds over which 3D models were overlaid. Prior to Final Fantasy VII, they were pseudo-orthographic, using a simple 2D engine. Final Fantasy VII marked the point that Final Fantasy would have realistic computer graphics, while Dragon Warrior stayed with anime style cel-shaded graphics. Dialog mostly occurs on these screens.

                                                                            Field screens — These are where the main interaction between the characters occurs, and indeed most of the exploration of the world occurs on these screens. Rebellion — Story-wise, many entries in the Final Fantasy series feature a plotline about rebellion against either an economical, political, or religious power (Final Fantasy II 's Emperor of Palamecia, Final Fantasy VI 's Gestahl's Empire, Final Fantasy VII 's Shinra Corp., Final Fantasy VIII 's Sorceress, and Final Fantasy X 's Yu-Yevon, to name a few). Crystals — Most Final Fantasy games feature some obscure reference to elemental crystals, and the stories of Final Fantasy I, Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy IV, Final Fantasy V, and Final Fantasy IX, Final Fantasy XI, and Final Fantasy Tactics Advance revolve around such Crystals. The motion picture Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within also featured a character named "Sid," presumably an alternate spelling of the more traditional "Cid." In a similar vein, characters named Biggs and Wedge (homages to the Star Wars characters Biggs Darklighter and Wedge Antilles) have appeared in Final Fantasy VI to Final Fantasy X-2 (inclusive).

                                                                            Although he is never the same individual, he is usually presented as an owner, creator, and/or pilot of airships. Character names — A character named "Cid" has been present in every Final Fantasy game since Final Fantasy II. Lastly, summoned monsters (also known as Espers, Guardian Forces, Eidolons, or Aeons) such as Bahamut, Shiva, Ifrit, Leviathan and Ramuh have appeared in almost every title in the series. Certain monsters also reappear frequently, including Goblins, Tonberrys and Cactuars.

                                                                            Creatures/monsters — Creatures such as Chocobos and Moogles have appeared in most games in the series. While these are present in many console RPGs, Final Fantasy also has a standard list of items which may be used to cure specific ailments; for example the "Echo Screen" cures silence and "Soft" cures petrification. Status ailments and cures: Characters in Final Fantasy games are usually subject to a number of standard "status ailments" which cause deleterious effects, including silence, poison, petrification and confusion. Later additions have included blue magic (sometimes referred to as "Lore" or "Enemy skill"), which incorporates specific special attacks learned from monsters, and time/space magic, which includes status affecting spells such as "Haste," "Slow," or "Warp.".

                                                                            White magic and black magic represent healing/support and attack magic, respectively, while red magic incorporates elements of both healing and attack magic, at reduced effectiveness. Magical styles — Magic in the Final Fantasy series is generally divided into different schools, which are usually named after a specific color. In Final Fantasy X-2, the "Dresssphere" system actually allowed a player to switch a character's job during the middle of a fight. Additionally, several installments in the series (Final Fantasy III, Final Fantasy V, and Final Fantasy Tactics) have utilized a "Job" system wherein the player is able to switch character classes in between battles.

                                                                            Even in games where the player is not given the choice of choosing class alignment, these classes often play an important background role in the story. Character classes and the Job system — Playable character classes have included the Fighter, White, Black, Red, and Blue Mages, Black Belt, Thief and Mime. In many games, most notably Final Fantasy IV and Final Fantasy IX, the presence of airships is a key component to the story itself. Airships — Powerful airborne vessels which usually serve as a primary mode of transportation for the player.

03-28-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Google+ Directory