Akademiks

Akademiks (an intentional misspelling of "academics") is an American brand of urban clothing popular with devotees of hip hop music. The label was founded in partnership by two brothers, Donwan and Emmett Harrell.

In 2004, the label achieved a degree of notoriety when its advertisements on New York MTA buses, which included the tagline "Read Books, Get Brain", were banned. Although MTA officials had not originally realised that there was any double meaning in this phrase, it was later pointed out that "get brain" was in fact a slang term for "receive oral sex" along the lines of "get head".

Akademiks has gained popularity in the fashion industry due to the number of celebrities who wear the brand's PRPS jeans.


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Akademiks has gained popularity in the fashion industry due to the number of celebrities who wear the brand's PRPS jeans. The following is a partial list of concept cars.. Although MTA officials had not originally realised that there was any double meaning in this phrase, it was later pointed out that "get brain" was in fact a slang term for "receive oral sex" along the lines of "get head". The following is a list of models Audi ostensibly plans to offer in the future.. In 2004, the label achieved a degree of notoriety when its advertisements on New York MTA buses, which included the tagline "Read Books, Get Brain", were banned. Audi now has an impressive range of cars, engines and transmissions available, which continue to lead the way and introduce new technologies into the market. The label was founded in partnership by two brothers, Donwan and Emmett Harrell. Recent examples of this include DSG and FSI.

Akademiks (an intentional misspelling of "academics") is an American brand of urban clothing popular with devotees of hip hop music. As a premium member of the VW Group, technologies are frequently first introduced to the mass market with Audi vehicles before being 'trickled down' to more value oriented brands such as VW, SEAT and Škoda. This is a direct fuel-injection technique that Audi had also used on its diesel engines since the early 1980s. Audi has now introduced FSI on some of their engines, including the 1.6 L 4 cylinder, a new 2.0 L (Audi was the first manufacturer in the world to utilize a turbo charger and FSI on the same powerplant), and the 3.1 L V6. New models of the A3, A4, A6 and A8 have been introduced, with the 1.8 L engine now 2.0 L and the 3.0 L V6 is now 3.1 L in size.

The engine range was continually upgraded, with a 2.7 L twin turbo V6 being offered in the Audi S4, A6 and allroad, the 2.8 L V6 was replaced by a 3.0 L unit. This is implemented in some Volkswagen Golf, Audi A3 and TT models. The system includes dual electrohydraulically controlled clutches instead of a torque converter. At the turn of the century, Audi introduced the direct shift gearbox (DSG), a manual transmission driveable like an automatic transmission.

Further engines were added along the way, including a 3.7 L V8 and 6.0 L W12 for the A8. The V6's were replaced by new 2.4 and 2.8 L 30V V6's in 1998, with marked improvement in power, torque and smoothness. The engines available throughout the range were now a 1.4 L, 1.6 L and 1.8 L 4 cylinder, 1.8 turbo, 2.6 L and 2.8 L V6, 2.2 L turbo-charged 5 cylinder and the 4.2 L V8. The model sold relatively well in Europe, however Audi decided not to develop a new model and it has since been discontinued as of 2004.

Another interesting model introduced was the Mercedes-Benz A-Class competitor, the Audi A2. A new A3 (based on the Volkswagen Golf) was introduced to the range in 1997, and the radical TT coupe and roadster were debuted in 1998 based on the same underpinnings. The Audi Cabriolet continued on (based on the Audi 80 platform) until 1999, gaining the engine upgrades along the way. The S2 was discontinued.

This also meant the S4 became the S6 and a new S4 was introduced in the A4 body. The new nomenclature scheme was applied to the Audi 100 to become the Audi A6 (with a minor facelift). The next major model change was in 1995 when the Audi A4 replaced the Audi 80. The weight reduction was offset by the quattro all-wheel drive system, however it meant the car had similar performance to its rivals, but far superior handling.

The Audi A8 replaced the V8 in 1994, with a revolutionary Aluminium Space Frame (ASF) to save weight. These two models were the beginning of the mass produced S series of performance cars. It was fitted to the Audi Coupe and named the S2 and also to the Audi 100 body, and named the S4. The engine, initially fitted to the 200 quattro 20V of 1991, was a derivative of the engine fitted to the Sport Quattro.

The 5 cylinder was soon dropped as a major engine choice, however a turbocharged 230BHP (169kW) version remained. This engine was also fitted to a face-lifted Audi 80 (all 80 and 90 models were now badged 80 except for the USA), giving this model a choice of 4, 5 and 6 cylinder engines, in sedan, coupe and cabriolet body styles. With the introduction of an all-new Audi 100 in 1992, Audi introduced a 2.8l V6 engine. Although the five cylinder engine was a successful and very robust powerplant, it was still a little too different for the target market.

There was also a coupe version of the 80/90 with both 4 and 5 cylinder engines. By 1991, Audi had the 4 cylinder Audi 80, the 5 cylinder Audi 90 and Audi 100, the turbocharged Audi 200 and the Audi V8. Most obvious was the new grille that was now incorprated in the bonnet. It was essentially a new engine fitted to the Audi 100/200, but with noticeable bodywork differences.

This began with the release of the Audi V8 in 1990. Through the early 1990's, Audi began to move more towards the position of being a real competitor in it's target market against Mercedes-Benz and BMW. This range of engine capacity was a good combination of good fuel economy which was on the mind of every motorist in the 1980's, and a good amount of power the customer wants. Before 1990, there were engines produced with a displacement between 2.0 L and 2.3 L.

The 2.1 L inline 5 cylinder engine was used as a base for the rally cars in the 1980's, providing well over 400 horsepower (298 kW) after modification. This engine was used in not only production cars but also their race cars. In the 1980s, Audi was the champion of the inline 5 cylinder, 2.1/2.2 L engine as a longer lasting alternative to more traditional 6 cylinder engines. Today, after many decades of class-leading technology and engineering, the name quattro is an identifiable symbol and trademark that shows would-be competitors the level of quality they have to achieve in order to attempt to compete with Audi.

Although Porsche and Mercedes-Benz offer all-wheel drive systems in some cars today, neither manufacturer was able to ride the fad and come out on top like Audi has. The system also was not popular in Porsche vehicles because owners wanted the traditional performance of the rear wheel drive they got used to in older Porsches. Unfortunately, the all-wheel drive system in the Mercedes-Benz vehicles were riddled with problems right from the design sheet. In the 1980's, all-wheel drive systems in cars became a fad, and other manufacturers like Porsche and Mercedes-Benz offered all-wheel drive systems in their cars to compete in the marketplace.

In the 1970's, some vehicle manufacturers including Audi (and Subaru) designed their own all wheel drive systems in passenger vehicles. The all-aluminium concept was extended to the company's new sub-compact, the Audi A2 which was launched in 2001. Audi introduced a new series of vehicles in the mid-nineties and continues to pursue leading-edge technology and high performance. An all-aluminium car was brought forward by Audi, and in 1994 the Audi A8 was launched, which introduced aluminium space frame technology.

Audi is the only car manufacturer that produces 100% galvanized vehicles to prevent corrosion. Its first race will likely be the 2006 12 Hours of Sebring as a race-test for the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans. the R10 employs many new features, including a twin-turbocharged diesel engine. This also ends the long era of the R8, however its replacement for 2006, called the Audi R10, was unveiled on December 13, 2005.

The Champion team was also the first American team to win Le Mans since the Gulf Ford GT's in 1967. But with a team of excellent drivers and experience, both Champion R8s were able to take first and third while the ORECA team took fourth. On average, the R8s were about 2-3 seconds off pace compared to the Pescarolo-Judd. The R8s (which were built to old LMP900 regulations) received a more narrow air inlet restrictor, cutting power, and an additional 50 kg of weight compared to the newer LMP1 chassis.

At the 2005 24 Hours of Le Mans, Champion Racing entered two R8s along with an R8 from the Audi PlayStation Team Oreca. Audi returned to the winner's circle at the 2004 race, with the top three finishers all driving R8s: Audi Sport Japan Team Goh finished first, Audi Sport UK Veloqx second, and Champion Racing third. In 2003, two Bentley Speed 8s, with engines designed by Audi and driven by Joest drivers loaned to the fellow VW company, competed in the GTP class and finished the race in the top two positions, while the Champion Racing R8 finished third overall and first in the LMP900 class. Audi also sold the car to customer teams such as Champion Racing.

The factory supported Joest Racing team won at Le Mans three times in a row (2000 - 2002), as well as winning every race in the American Le Mans Series in its first year. Beginning in 1999, Audi built the Audi R8 to compete in sports car racing, including the LMP900 class at the 24 hours of Le Mans. After 4 victories in a row, the Audis were sanctioned with several negative changes that deeply affected the car's performance, although Champion Audi would still manage to win the 2004 championship. They returned in 2004 to defend their title but a newcomer, Cadillac, gave them a run for their money.

Once again, the quattro was superior and Champion Audi won the championship. In the US, Champion Audi racing entered an Audi RS6 in the 2003 speedvision GT challenge, competing against Corvettes, Vipers, and smaller, more agile BMWs. In 2004 Audi returned to touring car racing by entering two factory supported Joest Racing A4s in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters series. The quattro system would eventually be banned in 1998 by the FIA.

they then switched to DTM with the Audi V8, then they turned their attention to the Super Touring. In 1989, Audi moved to IMSA GTO with the 90, however as they avoided the two major endurance events (Daytona and Sebring) despite winning on a regular basis, they would lose out on the title. As Audi moved away from rallying and into circuit racing, they chose first into America with the Trans-Am in 1988,. This Audi S1 started the S-series of cars for Audi which now represents an increased level of sports options and quality to the Audi line up.

The Audi S1 enjoys a 0-60 mph (0-100 km/h) time of 2.3 s. All of Audi's top drivers drove this beast, Hannu Mikkola, Stig Blomqvist, Walter Röhrl and the female driver, Michèle Mouton. The engine was mated to a 6-speed gearbox and ran on Audi's famous all-wheel drive system. The Audi S1 employed Audi's time-tested 5-cylinder turbo charged engine and generated over 600 hp (447 kW).

In 1987, Walter Röhrl claimed the title for Audi setting a new record of 10:47.85 in his Audi S1 he retired from the WRC in 2 years earlier. Bobby Unser used an Audi in that same year to claim a new record for the Pikes Peak Hill Climb at 11:09.22. Joaquim Santos avoided hitting spectators on one side of the road, and ended up hitting spectators on the other side. In 1986, Audi formally left international rally racing following the death in Portugal of driver Joaquim Santos in his RS200.

The climb race pits a driver and car to drive up a 4,302 meter high mountain in Colorado and in 1985, Michèle Mouton set a new record of 11:25.39 and being the first woman to set a Pikes Peak record. Michèle Mouton, the first female WRC driver to win a championship and a driver for Audi, took the Sport Quattro S1, now simply called the S1 and raced in the Pikes Peak Hill Climb. Audi also received rally honors in the Hong Kong to Beijing rally in that same year. After another season mired in mediocre finishes, Walter Röhrl finished the season in his Sport Quattro S1 and helped place Audi second in the manufacturer's points.

In 1984 Audi launched the "Sport Quattro" car which dominated races in Monte Carlo and Sweden with Audi taking all podium finishes but succumbed to problems further into World Rally Championship contention. It won competition after competition for the next two years. Many critics doubted the viability of all-wheel-drive racers, thinking them to be too heavy and complex, yet the Quattro was an instant success, winning its first rally on its first outing. It is considered one of the most significant rally cars of all time because it was one of the first to take advantage of the then-recently changed rules which allowed the use of all-wheel-drive in competition racing.

In 1980 Audi released the Quattro, an all wheel drive turbocharged car that went on to win rallies and races worldwide. In the 1990s Audi dominated the Touring and Super Touring categories of motor racing after success in circuit racing Stateside. Audi's rich tradition in motorsport began with the Auto Union in the 1930s. Audi has competed in (and sometimes dominated) numerous forms of auto racing.

However, after 2003, with the release of the new A4, and in 2004 with the new A6, Audi's dedication to quality had finally paid off when it started to receive news reports and various vehicle critics praising Audis over Mercedes-Benz and BMW. Though its brand still doesn't have the global cachet of Mercedes-Benz or BMW, Audi's reputation for quality and understated style has once again made it a highly desirable marque. In March of 2005, Audi is building its first two dealerships in India following its high increase in sales in that region. The largest sales increases came from Eastern Europe (+19.3%), Africa (+17.2%) and the Middle East (+58.5%).

Record figures were recorded from 21 out of about 50 major sales markets. 2004 marked the 11th straight increase in sales, selling 779,441 vehicles worldwide. Currently, Audi's sales are growing strongly in Europe, and the company is renowned for having the best build quality of any mainstream auto manufacturer. The turning point for Audi was the sale of the new A4 in 1996, and with the release of the A4/6/8 series, which was developed together with VW and other sister brands (so called "platforms").

Audi had contemplated withdrawing from the American market until sales began to recover in the mid-1990s. The report immediately crushed Audi sales, and Audi renamed the affected model (The 5000 became the 100/200 in 1989, as in Germany and elsewhere). 60 Minutes ignored this fact and rigged a car to perform in an uncontrolled manner. This was never an issue in Europe, as Europeans in general use manual transmission gears, and have a "feeling" for vehicle revs in comparison to the speed of the car.

US citizens are used to automatic gearboxes and only two well separated pedals). (In race cars, when manually downshifting under heavy braking, the accelerator has to be used in order to match revs properly, so both pedals have to be close to each other to be operated by the right foot at once, toes on the brake, heels on the gas. Independent investigators concluded that this was most likely due to a close placement of the accelerator and brake pedals (unlike American cars), and the inability, when not paying attention, to distinguish between the two. The 60 Minutes report was based on customer reports of acceleration when the brake pedal was pushed.

This decline in sales was not helped in the USA by a 60 Minutes report which purported to show that Audi automobiles suffered from "unintended acceleration". In the early nineties, sales began to slump for the Audi 80 series, and some basic construction problems started to surface. However, its modern and dynamic exterior belied the low performance of its base engine, and its base package was quite spartan (even the passenger-side mirror was an option.) In 1987, Audi put forward a new and very elegant Audi 90, which had a much superior set of standard features. This completely new development sold extremely well.

In 1986, as the Passat-based Audi 80 was beginning to develop a kind of "grandfather's car" image, the type 89 was introduced. Prominent wins proved the viability of all-wheel drive racecars, and the Audi name became associated with advances in automotive technology,. Commonly referred to as the "Ur-Quattro" (the "Ur-" prefix is a German augmentative used, in this case, to mean "original" and is also applied to the first generation of Audi's S4 and S6 sport sedans, as in "UrS4" and "UrS6"), few of these vehicles were produced (all hand-built by a single team) but the model was a great success in rallying. The performance car was named the "Quattro," a turbocharged coupé which was also the first production vehicle to feature full-time all-wheel drive through a center differential.

The Audi image at this time was a conservative one, and so, a proposal from chassis engineer Jorg Bensinger was accepted to develop the four-wheel drive technology in Volkswagen's Iltis military vehicle for an Audi performance car and rally racing car. This was soon joined by the Audi 80/Fox (which formed the basis for the 1973 Volkswagen Passat) in 1972. The first Audi of the modern era was the Audi 100 of 1968. However, Volkswagen took the K70 for its own range, spelling the end of NSU as a separate brand.

The mid-sized car that NSU had been working on, the K70, was intended to slot between the rear-engined Prinz models and the futuristic Ro 80. Presently several lines of Audi cars are produced in Neckarsulm. In 1967, the new NSU Ro 80 was a space-age car well ahead of its time in technical details such as aerodynamics, light weight, safety, et cetera, but teething problems with the rotary engines put an end to the independence of NSU. NSU then focused on new rotary engines according to the ideas of Felix Wankel.

In the 1950s NSU had been the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles but had moved on to produce small cars like the NSU Prinz (the TT and TTS versions are still popular as vintage race cars). In 1969, Audi merged with NSU, based in Neckarsulm near Stuttgart. Today, aircooled powerplants once produced by VW are no longer placed into production vehicles since December 23, 2005. Daimler-Benz sold the company to Volkswagen in 1964; subsequently, Volkswagen's purchase of Auto Union has led to the modernization of VW to which it gained expertise in manufacturing water-cooled vehicles.

This model appeared in September 1965, "relaunching" the Audi brand. Daimler-Benz developed a 72 hp (54 kW) four-door sedan, with a modern four stroke engine driving the front wheels. In 1958, Daimler-Benz acquired 88 per cent of Auto Union and the next year became its sole owner. The company focused efforts on the DKW brand, but their two-stroke engines became unpopular.

In that period, the four interlinked rings were used together with the DKW badge. After the war, Zwickau soon became part of the German Democratic Republic and Audi headquarters were moved to Ingolstadt. Auto Union plants were heavily bombed and partly destroyed during World War II. The technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines.

This badge was used, however, only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. In 1932 Audi merged with Horch, DKW and Wanderer to form the Auto Union. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork.

At the same time, six cylinder and a small four cylinder (licensed from Peugeot) models were manufactured. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929. In 1928, the company was acquired by J S Rasmussen, owner of DKW, who bought the same year the remains of the US automobile manufacturer, Rickenbacker including the manufacturing equipment for eight cylinder engines. The first six cylinder model (4655 cc) appeared in 1924.

August Horch left the Audi company in 1920. These cars were successful even in sporting events. Audi started with a 2612 cc model followed by a four cylinder model with 3564 cc, as well as 4680 cc and 5720 cc models. Audi has another production plant in Neckarsulm.

Audi produces over 2 million vehicles annually at its main production site in Ingolstadt. It is also popularly believed that Audi is an acronym which stands for "Auto Union Deutschland Ingolstadt". As the word "horch!" translates to "listen!" in German, August Horch settled on the Latin equivalent of his name - "audi!". August Horch was forced to refrain from using his own family name in his new car business.

His former partners sued him for trademark infringement and a German court determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company. He then started a new company in Zwickau and continued using the Horch brand. In 1910, Horch was forced out of the company he had founded. The first Horch automobile was produced in 1901 in Zwickau, in former East Germany.

The company traces its origins back to 1899 and August Horch. . The tagline is used either in original or in its English translation "Advantage through Technology". Audi's German tagline is "Vorsprung durch Technik".

The company is headquartered in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. Audi is an automobile maker in Germany, and is a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group. Audi Roadjet. Audi Le Mans Quattro.

Audi Nuvolari Quattro. Audi Pikes Peak. Audi Avantissimo. Audi Quattro Spyder.

Audi Avus Quattro. Audi Shooting Brake, design study for the next generation TT. Audi Allroad Quattro Concept. Audi RSQ designed exclusively for the 2004 film I, Robot.

R8. Q5. RS4. A5.

model. Audi UrS4/S6. Audi V8. Audi Quattro.

Audi 100/200/5000. Audi 80/90/4000. Audi 50. TT.

S8. A8

    . Q7. RS6.

    S6. A6

      . RS4. S4.

      A4

        . S3. A3
          . A2.

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