Akademiks (an intentional misspelling of "academics") is an American brand of urban clothing popular with devotees of hip hop music. The label was founded in partnership by two brothers, Donwan and Emmett Harrell.
In 2004, the label achieved a degree of notoriety when its advertisements on New York MTA buses, which included the tagline "Read Books, Get Brain", were banned. Although MTA officials had not originally realised that there was any double meaning in this phrase, it was later pointed out that "get brain" was in fact a slang term for "receive oral sex" along the lines of "get head".
Akademiks has gained popularity in the fashion industry due to the number of celebrities who wear the brand's PRPS jeans.
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Akademiks has gained popularity in the fashion industry due to the number of celebrities who wear the brand's PRPS jeans. Only long-established autographed dealers have the many years of research experience to determine the genuinity for autographs being sold in secondhand markets. Although MTA officials had not originally realised that there was any double meaning in this phrase, it was later pointed out that "get brain" was in fact a slang term for "receive oral sex" along the lines of "get head". Baseball legend Babe Ruth, for instance, has had his signature forged on old baseballs, then rubbed in dirt to make them appear to be from the 1930s. In 2004, the label achieved a degree of notoriety when its advertisements on New York MTA buses, which included the tagline "Read Books, Get Brain", were banned. It has been estimated that over 80 percent of the autographed items of famous American sports players being sold over the Internet are fakes. The label was founded in partnership by two brothers, Donwan and Emmett Harrell. Others will use tea or tobacco stains to brown or age their modern missives.
Akademiks (an intentional misspelling of "academics") is an American brand of urban clothing popular with devotees of hip hop music. Forgers buy real Revolutionary War-era documents and surreptitiously pen a famous patriot's name between other real signatures in a manuscript in hope of deceiving an unsuspecting buyer. After British Admiral Nelson lost his right arm at the Tenerife sea-battle in 1797, he switched to his remaining left hand. 1795) will be different from one when he was an 18-year-old land surveyor. An individual's writing styles change throughout the lifespan of a person; a signature of President George Washington (c.
The same confusion can exist in trying to differentiate between the signatures of the sons of Rommel and the American Admiral Nimitz (1945). Any serious autograph collector must watch out for the WWII blitzkrieging General Guderian autographed document: it may be signed by his son who became a German general after the war. However, his son was only a state treasurer, so his autograph is not in high demand. Senior signed the Declaration of Independence so his autograph is valuable.
During the American Revolution (1776-1783) both Oliver Wolcott (Sr.) and his son, Oliver Wolcott Jr., signed various government documents. Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's signature has been forged on authentic documents actually signed by King Emanuel—this helps to make the phony Mussolini signature appear to be real, as it is on an otherwise sound document. German Fieldmarshall Erwin Rommel has had many bogus signatures penned in his characteristic green pencil that he used (ink dried too quickly in the hot North African climate). Many were written on blank Nazi stationery that had been purloined by Allied soldiers ransacking the desks inside of the Fuhrer's shambled bunker in Berlin.
Many spurious documents and postcards claiming to be signed by Adolf Hitler are existential. Many of the autographed documents allegedly signed by the German leaders of the Nazi government have been forged. The miscreant has changed the value of a lower-priced signed book quite easily to a much more lucrative item; changing a mere signature into a signed manuscript. Some deceivers cut pages from books that American President Richard Nixon (c.1970) signed on the blank flyleaf, typed his letter of resignation from the presidency on that signed page, and then sold the doctored item as if Nixon had personally signed a scarce copy of the historical document.
It quoted one of his secretaries as claiming that she used to sign the eccentric artist's signature to postcards depicting his paintings. An article in Smithsonian Magazine explored the "melting timepieces" artwork of the Spanish painter Salvador Dali. Texan currency were signed in ink by Sam Houston, though not handwritten by Houston himself. When liberators freed their country from foreign control they soon issued new paper currency.
"Mickey Mouse" creator, Walt Disney (1955), had several of his cartoonists duplicate his artistic signature on replies to children seeking his autograph. False signatures of the aviator Charles Lindbergh were clandestinely signed onto real 1930-era airmail envelopes bought at stamp shops and then re-sold to unwary buyers; the same with Amelia Earhart and the Wright brothers. All of famous scientists, space astronauts, arctic explorers, musicians, poets, and literary authors have had forgeries produced of their epistols and signatures. Many forgeries of France's Napoleon (c.1800) war orders exist; he was so busy fighting that he barely had enough time to sign promotion orders for generals only, while his scribes counterfeited his name to lesser documents.
The French nobles had their secretaires de main sign their documents. Quality forgeries have been made for all of Europe's past rulers. Even England's King Henry VIII and Pennsylvania-colony founder William Penn used the deceiving hand stamp. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt used them, along with President Woodrow Wilson (c.1916).
President Warren Harding frequently used a rubber stamp while he was a senator. This explains why his autograph as President differs from previous autographs signed when he was a senator. American President Andrew Johnson (c.1866) did so after his right hand was damaged in a train accident when he was a senator before becoming president. Some personalities have used a rubber or steel hand-stamp to "sign" their documents.
Shortly thereafter, Rumsfeld announced that he would start to personally sign such letters. In December 2004 a controversy arose when it was revealed that the United Stats' Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, was using an autopen to sign letters-of-condolence to families of American military members who had died during Gulf War II. After reading about these professional fakes, one must be leery of buying any presidential or astronaut signature from unknown sellers. However, even autopen signatures will eventually change as the signature drum becomes worn and thereby alters the signature.
One might think that autopen signatures would constantly match one another. Many large corporations also use these machines for signing business letters. Astronaut Alan Shepard acknowledged that NASA uses the autopen machine to sign the astronauts' voluminous correspondence. A photo signed by astronaut Neil Armstrong (c.1972) is an autopen signature; Armstrong declined to sign most of these items since 1980.
Kennedy (1961-1963) is The Robot That Helped to Make a President." Forgers have faked the signatures of all American presidents. One book detailing the use of this machine by President John F. The Signa-Signer can even write out in ink an authentically looking handwritten message that has been typed into the machine. Since the early 1950s almost all American presidents, Cabinet members, Senators and Representatives have had an autopen or robot signature-signing machine sign their letters, photographs and books that collectors have mailed to them for autographing.
Some steel engravings may have reprinted the autograph of the portrayed subject; this is known as a facsimile autograph, and to an uninformed buyer it may appear to be real. The bogus autograph is glued onto an authentic steel-engraved portrait of the subject. Autograph collectors should be cautious of clipped signatures. Most deceptions were of mere signatures on a small piece of paper, but extensively written letters were forged as well.
Many were faked during the 1880s, a period that included a fad of aging soldiers in collecting Civil War autographs. All of the Union and Confederate generals from the American Civil War have been forged. As she duplicated his signature so well, she usually placed a "dot" or "period" after the signature so that he could tell her signatures of his name from his own!. Due to his extensive correspondence, Davis' wife frequently signed his name to his dictated letters.
During the American Civil War (1861-1865), the president of the Confederate States of America was Jefferson Davis. When President Ronald Reagan was an actor during the 1940s, he had his mother sign his name to much of his fan mail. Virtually all movie stars have their secretaries sign their letters and photographs for them. Since then secretaries of the president have mimicked their master's signatures on these documents (known as "proxy" signatures).
American presidents previously signed "land grants" until President Andrew Jackson (c.1836) grew accustomed to the time-consuming task. One must know the era in which American presidents signed their documents. One book that explores the production of impressive fake manuscripts pertaining to Mormons is: A Gathering of Saints by Robert Lindsey. They researched the formulas about how to recreate inks of the era that they want to make their fake writings appear to be from.
They use blank end papers from old books upon which to write their fake signatures in their attempt to "match" their autograph with papers of the era that the personality lived. Forgers go to great lengths in making their forgeries appear authentic. Sadly, there are many forged autographs being sold through various internet auction firms, used book stores, and other secondhand markets; the neophyte collector must cast a jaundiced eye at the many popular items being offered. Differentiating the forged from the authentic of these is almost impossible to the amateur collector.
Fake or forged autographs abound for nearly all famous personalities. Sometimes it is just the signature that has been forged, other times the entire document has been unscrupulously doctored. The hobby is extensively fraught with documents, photographs and sports items that were signed by forgers seeking to profit handsomely by selling either a fake or forged item purportedly signed by the real individual to an unwitting buyer. Some collectors collect in a specialized field: such as gathering documents autographed by just American presidents, Nobel Prize winners, or baseball players who have hit over 500 home-runs during their career.
Autograph collecting is an enthralling hobby to collectors, who enjoy assembling a series of historical documents, letters or objects that have been signed or autographed by a notable person as a way of capturing a piece of history. In autograph-auction catalogues the following abbreviations are used to help describe the type of letter or document that is being offered for sale. Constitution; signers of the Israeli Declaration of Independence; signers of the Charter of the European Common Union; signers of the WWII German or Japanese Surrender documents). Other collectors may specialize in specific fields (Nobel Prize winners) or general topics (military leaders participating in World War I) or specific documents (i.e., signers of the Charter of the United Nations; signers of the U.S.
Some of the most popular categories of persons to collect autographs from are: sports and movie stars, teen idols, singers and music groups, political, social and religious leaders, scientists, astronauts and authors. Boxer George Foreman, for instance, records the names and addresses in his personal computer of every person that writes him asking for an autograph, so that whenever he receives a letter, he will know if the person is a fan who admires him or just a dealer who wants to sell his autographs and wants more of them. Because of the high volume of autographs a celebrity might sign over time, keeping track usually involves keeping a record of who has asked previously. The celebrities, of course, would grow tired of that and make it a point to sign only one autograph per person.
Other dealers would locate the celebrity's home address and write to them asking for autographs multiple times. Many dealers also would wait for hours for a celebrity to come out of the place where they were, put 25 photos in front of them for the celebrity to sign and then sell 24 of them. This enraged some celebrities, who would just stop signing autographs for everyone or sign exclusive deals for companies to distribute their autographs, to make sure everyone who got an autograph by paying for it was getting a real autograph and not a fake one. During the 1990s, many people started forging celebrity autographs and selling them as real, necessitating the involvement of the FBI.
A typical scenario is hundreds of fans in a crush waiting by Jackson's hotel, and Jackson signing five or ten autographs in the midst of rushing to his vehicle. It is also a scramble to get Michael Jackson's autograph. Jordan however, has frequently signed at the more peaceful environments, such as golf tournaments. The legendary Michael Jordan, would not and could not sign for most of his career because people were putting each other's safety at risk by scrambling to get the icon's autograph that is worth at least hundreds of dollars.
Other sports stars that try to avoid signing whenever possible are Bill Russell, who does not sign at all, and most NBA stars with huge contracts. Sports personalities include most baseball players, such as the majority of the New York Yankees, the late Joe Dimaggio, and most notoriously, Barry Bonds. Many people however, are not willing to distribute their signature—at least not for free. Art Carney was another person who enjoyed signing autographs, until his passing in November of 2003.
Hilary Duff has gone as far as publicly lashing out at some of her fellow teen idol stars who avoid autograph collectors. It should be noted that many celebrities still enjoy signing autographs for free for the fans, keeping it a very interesting hobby to this day. The boom of collecting autographs as a hobby came during the 1980s, and, as a consequence, many memorabilia dealers took notice, and what used to be an innocent hobby lost that innocence as both dealers and celebrities began to charge money for their signatures (especially on personal checks). In Europe and North America, asking for a celebrity's autograph used to be seen as a child's activity up to only a few decades ago.
In imperial China, an autograph from an emperor was priceless but selling an item bearing it could be an criminal offense. The value of an item bearing a high official's autograph could rise incredibly. In East Asia, an autograph from famous gentry is regarded as an honour. .
This term is used in particular for the practice of collecting autographs of celebrities. As the word is used by non-historians, it has come to mean a person's signature. An autograph is a document written entirely in the handwriting of its author, as opposed to a typeset document or one transcribed by an amanuensis or a copyist; the meaning overlaps with that of the word holograph. Provides the biographies of thousands of American notables, and dozens of steel engravings with facsimile autographs.
By James Wilson, 6 vols., 1888. "Appletons' Cyclopaedia of American Biography" ed. Provides mailing addresses for thousands of individuals involved in: science, music, space, sports, military, politics, world leaders, etc. "Who's Who" series; "Who's Who in America," etc.
Italian language. High glossy photo book of many items relating to Italian dictator Benito Mussolini; including 24-page analysis of his autographs. Ermanno Alberti. "Ieri Ho Visto Il Duce: Trilogia dell'iconografic mussonliniana" ed.
Provides wonderful autograph facsimiles and biographies for some 250 literary, medical, political and music notables from the land of the Taj Mahal: India. Hitkari, Phulkari Pub., 1999, 112 pages. "Autographs of Indian Personalities" by S.S. You shouldn't be a buyer of modern presidents without having these tomes at hand for reference.
It is simply superlative with its autopen minutiae and facsimiles. Perhaps this should really be the second book listed, but listed low here only because of its cost. Eisenhower use of the autopen even before his presidency; presents dozens of secretarial proxy signatures for the modern presidents; lists Watergate participants; displays First Lady items; and shows facsimiles of assassins or would-be assassins from John Booth to John Hinckley. The second volume: contains copious samples of all presidents; reveals Pres.
For the specialist who needs almost 2,000 facsimile documents of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence and Revolutionary War Leaders (including British and French) and other patriots. of Oklahoma Press, 1983, 634 pages. "American Autographs" by Charles Hamilton, 2 vols., Univ. Civil War (1861-1865).
Your guide to the hundreds of autographs of both Union and Confederate personalities from the U.S. "War Between the States: Autographs and Biographical Sketches" by Jim Hayes, Palmetto Pub., 1989, 464 pages. John Kennedy. Reveals the different proxy signatures produced by the autopen machines used by Pres.
"The Robot that Helped to Make a President" by Charles Hamilton, 1965. The title pretty much says it all: hundreds of worldwide facsimile autographs and identifications. "The Guinness Book of World Autographs" by Ray Rawlins, 1997, 244 pages. Two volumes of almost 1,000 glossy pages providing biographies and the reproduction of hundreds of facsimile letters and autographs of Germans (military, political, religious, spies, etc.) involved with the short-lived "Thousand Year Reich.".
2). 1) and 1996 (Vol. "Leaders and Personalities of the Third Reich" by Charles Hamilton, 2 vols., Bender Pub., 1984 (Vol. The author wrote to each of these notables and asked each to give their thoughts about the convening of war-criminal trials for military personnel, specifically for the German GrossAdmiral Donitz; many very illuminate opinions.
Contains the facsimile signatures and biographies of some 350 worldwide military personalities of World War II. Thompson, Amber Pub., 1976, 198 pages. "Dönitz at Nuremberg: A Re-Appraisal" by H.K. It reveals the criminal forging techniques of one of the greatest forgers of historical holograms, and why he killed two people to hide his fakes.
"A Gathering of Saints" by Robert Lindsey, Simon & Schuster, 1988, 397 pages. Discusses the spry efforts of "autograph hounds" in stalking sports and movie autographs, but also reviews the standard political and historical items that teenagers really can't afford. I almost didn't list this book, but I have because it is another one of those "fun" books for beginning collectors. "The Complete Book of Autograph Collecting" by George Sullivan, 1971, 154 pages.
A nice book of autograph trivia. Constitutional Convention, Revolutionary War generals, signers of the United Nations Charter, Napoleon's marshalls, and Napoleon's immediate family and relatives by marriage. Interesting name lists of : attendees at the U.S. For its time, a nice display of autograph facsimiles, with interest to youngsters in starting an autograph collection.
"The Autograph Collector" by Robert Notlep, Crown Pub., 1968, 240 pages. Many nuggets of tidbit factoids about most of these people, and dates of their service or work. While unfairly low on this book list, it is THE reference book of seldom-seen lists of those in the collectible fields of: the Stamp Act Congress, Justices of the Supreme Court, the War of 1812, Unionists & Confederates, First Ladies, financiers, cabinet members, composers, scientists, unsuccessful presidential candidates, military participants, and a few other fields. "Autograph Collector's Checklist" edited by John Taylor, The Manuscript Society, 1990, 172 pages.
presidents and discusses rubber-stamp and proxy signatures used by presidential secretaries. Presents many facsimile letters from U.S. "From the White House Inkwell" by John Taylor, Tuttle Co., 1968, 147 pages. Explains what factors influence the price of an autograph.
Many facsimiles of sports autographs, but also shows 12 different variations as to how Napoleon signed his name. A fun, breezy book about autograph collecting. "Collecting Autographs For Fun and Profit" by Robert Pelton, Betterway Pub., 1987, 160 pages. One of the early books discussing the excitement of autograph collecting, and presents nice facsimiles of old European autographs.
"Word Shadows of the Great: The Lure of Autograph Collecting" by Thomas Madigan, Frederick Stokes Co., 1930, 300 pages. A book for those who specialize in American autographs: the Old West, authors, presidents, women, artists, criminals, musicians, entertainers, and many others. "The Signature of America" by Charles Hamilton, Harper & Row, 1979, 279 pages. Concise, but still choice!.
How to identify lithographs and steel-stamp signatures. Good revelations about the copycat signatures by presidential secretaries. But with some helpful knowledge about identifying autopen signatures and other tidbits about collecting that are useful even to the professional collector. A short, enjoyable book advising teenagers how to start their collections.
"Big Name Hunting: A Beginners Guide to Autograph Collecting" by Charles Hamilton, Simon & Schuster Pub., 1973, 95 pages. Provides a historical summary of: collecting, terminology, evaluation in pricing a document, famous forgers, how to detect forgeries, confused identities, care and preservation, and two nice tables detailing the names of Napoleon's marshals and family members. Written by the great female autograph dealer. "Autographs: A Key to Collecting" by Mary Benjamin, 1963, 345 pages.
It slightly discusses the art of detecting forgeries. It primarily details how to assemble autograph collections by different topics: medical notables, literary authors, scientists, etc. A compilation of over 50 articles reprinted from publications of The Manuscript Society. "Manuscripts: The First Twenty Years" edited by Priscilla Taylor, Greenwood Press, 1984, 429 pages.
A lively and entertaining book discussing the forgers and their techniques that the author encountered when they attempted to sell their forgeries to him at his manuscript shop. "Scribblers & Scoundrels" by Charles Hamilton, Eriksson Pub., 1968, 282 pages. Contains some 40 articles by famous autograph dealers and collectors who discuss how to detect fake autographs; how to care for your collection; and details different ways of how to collect autographs by different topics: science, religion, literature, politics, etc. "Autographs and Manuscripts: A Collector's Manual" edited by Ed Berkeley, Charles Scribner's Sons Pub., 1978, 565 pages.
It is illustrated with more than 800 facsimiles and other reproductions of historical documents signed by nobility, political leaders, American "Wild West" sheriffs and badmen, military, and worldwide literature fields. of Oklahoma Press, 1961, 269 pages. "Collecting Autographs and Manuscripts" by Charles Hamilton, Univ. presidents, wives of the presidents, vice presidents, signers of the Declaration of Independence, and early manned space flights.
Nice lists and dates of: U.S. He confirms that most astronaut materials have passed through the autopen. Shows presidential proxy and autopen samples. presidents and many other prominent personalities.
A wonderful analysis of the scarcity and resale appealability of the holographic material of all U.S. As the title suggests, this book presents strategies as to how one can maximize the value of one's collection by investing in prime autograph documents in various collectible fields. "Making Money in Autographs" by George Sullivan, 1977, 223 pages. He discusses the manuscript forgers and how they duped the experts.
A legendary autograph expert provides hundreds of illustrations of fake versus real signatures. "Great Forgers and Famous Fakes" by Charles Hamilton, Crown Publishers, 1980, 278 pages. It discusses the materials (paper and ink) used by forgers; shows comparisons between fake and real signatures; discusses famous forgers; provides an analysis of major forgeries; details the equipment used in examining questionable documents; and provides a bibliography of almost 100 books written on the subject of either autograph collecting or documenting forgeries. This book was written by one of America's most-respected autograph dealers.
of Oklahoma Press, 1994, 173 pages. "Forging History: The Detection of Fake Letters and Documents" by Kenneth Rendell, Univ. (Originally determined by folding a printer's sheet of paper twice to form two leaves.). quarto(4to): A manuscript page of about nine and one-half by twelve inches.
(Originally determined by folding a printer's sheet of paper to form eighty leaves.). octavo(8vo): A manuscript page about six-by-nine inches. folio: A printer's sheet of paper folded once to make two leaves, double quarto size or larger. TNS: Typed Note Signed.
TLS: Typed Letter Signed. SP: Signed Photograph. PS: Photograph Signed or Postcard Signed. LS: Letter Signed (hand-written by someone else, but signed by the individual sought to be collected).
DS: Document signed (printed, or while hand-written by another, is signed by individual sought to be collected). AQS: Autograph Quote Signed (hand-written and signed by same individual; poem verse, sentence, or bar-of-music). ANS: Autograph Note Signed (hand-written and signed by same individual). AN: Autograph Note (much shorter than a letter).
AMusQs: Autograph Musical Quotation Signed (hand-written and signed by same individual). AMsS: Autograph Manuscript Signed (hand-written and signed by same individual). AMs: Autograph Manuscript (hand-written; such as the draft of a play, research paper or music sheet). ALS: Autograph Letter Signed (hand-written and signed by same individual).
AL: Autograph Letter (hand-written by the person to be collected, but not signed). ADS: Autograph Document Signed (written and signed by same individual). AD: Autograph Document (hand-written by the person to be collected, but not signed).