Adriana SklenarikovaAdriana Sklenarikova Karembeu
Adriana Sklenarikova (a.k.a. Adriana Karembeu) (born 17 September 1971, Brezno, Slovakia (at that time Czechoslovakia)) is a model.
Having originally studyied medicine in Prague, she gave up her studies to become a model. In December, 1998, she married French football player Christian Karembeu and took his name.
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In December, 1998, she married French football player Christian Karembeu and took his name. The number of Muslims in North America is variously estimated as anywhere from 1.8 to 7 million, depending on which source is used. Having originally studyied medicine in Prague, she gave up her studies to become a model. There are also significant Muslim populations in China, Europe, Central Asia, and Russia. Adriana Karembeu) (born 17 September 1971, Brezno, Slovakia (at that time Czechoslovakia)) is a model. Adherents.com (http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html)); estimates of Islam by country based on US State Department figures yield a total of 1.48 billion, 22.82% of the world's population (see Islam by country.) Only 18% of Muslims live in the Arab world; a fifth is found in Sub-Saharan Africa, about 30% in the Indian subcontinental region of Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, and the world's largest single Muslim community (within the bounds of one nation) is in Indonesia. Adriana Sklenarikova (a.k.a. Commonly cited estimates of the Muslim population today range between 900 million and 1.4 billion people (cf.
According to "The Almanac Book of Facts", the overall population increased 137% within the past decade, Christianity increased 46%, while Islam increased 235%. This is mainly due to the higher birth rates in many Islamic countries while a high conversion rate is also a noted factor. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance (http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_numb.htm) estimate that it is growing at about 2.9% annually, as opposed to 2.3% per year global population growth. Center for World Mission (http://www.religioustolerance.org/growth_isl_chr.htm), and the controversial Samuel Huntington, Islam is growing faster numerically than any of the other major world religions.
According to the World Network of Religious Futurists (http://www.wnrf.org/news/trends.html), the U.S. Based on the percentages published in the 2003 CIA factbook, Islam is the second largest religion in the world. Proponents of modern Islamic philosophy sometimes respond to this by arguing that, as a practical matter, "fundamentalism" in popular discourse about Islam may actually refer, not to core precepts of the faith, but to various systems of cultural traditionalism. The claim that only "liberalisation" of the Islamic Shariah law can lead to distinguishing between tradition and true Islam is countered by many Muslims with the argument that any meaningful "fundamentalism" will, by definition, reject non-Islamic cultural inventions -- by, for instance, acknowledging and implementing Muhammad's insistence that women have God-given rights that no human being may legally infringe upon.
See Modern Islamic philosophy for more on this subject. This movement does not aim to challenge the fundamentals of Islam; rather, it seeks to clear away misinterpretations and to free the way for the renewal of the previous status of the Islamic world as a center of modern thought and freedom. One vehicle proposed for such a change has been the revival of the principle of ijtihad, or independent reasoning by a qualified Islamic scholar, which has lain dormant for centuries. as proposed by advocates of the Islamization of knowledge, and would deal with the modern context.
This would require formulating a new fiqh suitable for the modern world, e.g. Early shariah had a much more flexible character than is currently associated with Islamic jurisprudence, and many modern Muslim scholars believe that it should be renewed, and the classical jurists should lose their special status. Although the most visible movement in Islam in recent times has been fundamentalist Islamism, there are a number of liberal movements within Islam which seek alternative ways to reconcile the Islamic faith with the modern world. See also: Islam by country.
However, the relationship between the West and the Islamic world remains uneasy. Islam and Islamic political power have revived in the 20th century. Following WWI, the remnants of the Ottoman empire were parcelled out as European protectorates or spheres of influence. By the 19th century, these realms had fallen under the sway of European political and economic power.
In the 18th century there were three great Muslim empires: the Ottoman in Turkey, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean; the Safavid in Iran; and the Mogul in India. Saladin however restored unity and defeated the Shiite Fatimids. After the disastrous defeat of the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, Christian Europe launched a series of Crusades and for a time captured Jerusalem. Nonetheless, the later empires of the Abbasid caliphs and the Seljuk Turk were among the largest and most powerful in the world.
After this, there would always be rival dynasties claiming the caliphate, or leadership of the Muslim world, and many Islamic states or empires offering only token obedience to an increasingly powerless caliph. Within a century of his death, an Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic ocean in the west to central Asia in the east, which however was soon torn by Fitnas. Islamic history begins in Arabia in the 7th century with the emergence of the prophet Muhammad. Main articles: History of Islam.
Conversely, some modern Muslim states are far less tolerant towards non-Muslims than they were during the Golden Age of Islam. Now most Christians embrace tolerance and freedom of religion -- as do most religions. As many have pointed out, the classic Islamic state, while deficient by modern standards, was more tolerant than the Christian states of the time, which insisted on complete comformity to a state religion. They were second-class citizens, or dhimmis.
In Islamic territories, they were not to bear arms or proselytize, and they were to pay the aforementioned special tax, the jizyah. The classical Islamic solution was a limited tolerance -- Jews and Christians were to be allowed to privately practice their faith and follow their own family law. Sura 9:29 commands Muslims to fight against Jews and Christians until they either submit to Allah or else agree to pay a special tax. Sura 5:51 commands Muslims not to take Jews and Christians as friends.
Later passages of the Qur'an speak more disparaging of them. Earlier passages of the Qur'an are more tolerant towards Jews and Christians. There are Quranic grounds for both attitudes. At different times and places, Islamic communities have been both intolerant and tolerant.
Some Muslims have respected Jews and Christians as fellow "peoples of the book" (monotheists following Abrahamic religions) and also have reviled them as having abandoned monotheism and corrupted their scriptures. The Qur'an contains both injunctions to respect other religions, and to fight and subdue unbelievers. Main article: Islam and other religions. The following religions might have been said to have evolved from Islam, but are not considered part of Islam, and no longer exist:.
However, Sikhs are forbidden from practices such as eating ritually prepared meat (halal) that are central in Islam. Sikhism also rejects image-worship and believes in one God, just like the Bhakti reform movement in Hinduism and also like Islam does. The philosophical basis of the Sikhs is deeply-rooted in Hindu metaphysics and certain philosophical practices. However, its history lies in the social strife between local Hindu and Muslim communities, during which Sikhs were seen as the "sword arm" of Hinduism.
Some see Sikhism as a syncretic mix of Hinduism and Islam. As of January 1926, their final ruling on the matter of the origins of the Bahá'í Faith and its relationship to Islam was that the Bahá'í Faith was neither a sect of Islam, nor a religion based on Islam, but a clearly-defined, independently-founded, Faith. The claim of the adherents of the Bahá'í Faith that it represents an independent religion was upheld by the Muslim ecclesiastical courts in Egypt during the 1920's. The following religions are said by some to have evolved or borrowed from Islam, but consider themselves independent religions with distinct laws and institutions:.
The following groups consider themselves to be Muslims, but are not considered Islamic by the majority of Muslims or Muslim authorities:. See also: Imam -- Islamic philosophy -- Zaiddiyah. See: Liberal Islam. They may be either Sunni or Shi'ite, and generally favour the development of personal interpretations of Qur'an and Hadith.
Another recent group is the Ijtihadists, which represents a wide variety of views alternatively known as progressive, liberal or secular Muslims. "Wahhabism" is a movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab in the 18th century in what is present-day Saudi Arabia. Another more recent group are the "Wahhabis", though some classify them as the conservative branch of the Hanbali school of Sunni Islam. A large number of Ibadhi Muslims today live in Oman.
Members of this group in the present day are more commonly known as Ibadhi Muslims. Another denomination which dates back to the early days of Islam are the Kharijites. This position is not generally accepted by mainstream Sunni scholarship, and al-Azhar itself distanced itself from this position. According to Shaikh Mahmood Shaltoot, Head of the al-Azhar University in the middle part of the 20th Century, "the Ja'fari school of thought, which is also known as "al-Shi'a al- Imamiyyah al-Ithna Ashariyyah" (i.e., The Twelver Imami Shi'ites) is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought".
Sufism is found more or less across the Islamic world, though bearing distinctive regional variations, from Senegal to Indonesia. There are also some very large groups or sects of Sufism that are not easily categorised as either Sunni or Shi'a, such as the Bektashi. Instead of focusing on the legal aspects of Islam (fiqh) as other madhhabs do, Sufism focuses on the internal aspects of Islam, such as perfecting the aspect of sincerity of faith and fighting one's own ego. However, some consider Sufism a separate mystical school.
Sufism occupies a place between the various schools of Islam, with practitioners falling into either Sunni or Shi'a. The main Shi'ites areas are Iran, Iraq and Lebanon. The term Shi'a is usually taken to be synonymous with the Ithna Ashariyya/Twelvers. The Shi'a consist of one major school of thought known as the Ithna Ashariyya or the "Twelvers", and a few minor schools of thought, as the "Seveners" or the "Fivers" referring to the number of infallible leaders they recognise after the death of Muhammad.
Shi'a Muslims are those that are not Sunni. All four accept the validity of the others and a muslim can choose any one that he thinks is agreeable to his ideas. On some issues, each school of thought differs slightly on fiqh (thoughts on how to practise Islam) although all accept the fundamentals contained within the Holy Quran. They are named after their founders Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanafi, and Hanbali.
It consists of four similar schools of thought (madhhabs) which interpret specific pieces of Islamic practice. The Sunni sect of Islam comprises the majority of all Muslims (about 95%). All denominations, however, follow the five pillars of Islam and believe in the six pillars of faith (mentioned earlier). The major branches are Sunni and Shi'a, with Sufism often considered as an extension of either Sunni or Shi'a thought.
There are a number of Islamic religious denominations, each of which has significant theological and legal differences from each other. Here as elsewhere in Islam, scholars disagree on specific applications of core principles, with some prominently advocating a punitive approach to "exclusionary" issues and others tending to de-emphasize such questions. Other punishments prescribed by sharia (depending on interpretation) may include the annulment of marriage with a Muslim spouse, the removal of children, the loss of property and inheritance rights, or other sanctions. In each of these countries Islamist regimes are estimated to have executed, flogged, and imprisoned hundreds or thousands of people believed to be apostates or blasphemers.
However, some countries, notably Iran under the Islamic Republic, Afghanistan under the Taliban, and Sudan, have been less reluctant to enforce the laws on the books. In most of these countries, such laws are invoked only sporadically and selectively; convictions tend to be reversed at a higher level, or if not reversed, those convicted may be allowed to leave the country. Blasphemy is also an offence in many of these countries. Today apostasy is punishable by death in the countries of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Yemen, Iran, Sudan, Pakistan, and Mauritania.
In the period of Islamic empire, apostasy was considered treason, and was accordingly treated as a capital offense; death penalties were carried out under the authority of the Caliph. There can be no sharp distinction between these concepts, as many believers feel that there can be no blasphemy without apostasy. Blasphemy is showing disrespect or speaking ill of any of the essential principles of Islam. Apostasy is public disloyalty towards Islam by any one who had previously professed the Islamic faith.
In orthodox Islamic theology, conversion out of Islam is forbidden and punishable by death. Islamic communities, as well as Christian and Jewish ones, often exclude apostates and blasphemers from the community of believers. Main article: Apostasy in Islam. In a related development, Mohammad Hashim Kamali has questioned the reliability and contemporary relevance of the above quoted hadith of Hakim ibn Hizam.
In recent times, traditional Islamic law has often been questioned by liberal movements within Islam. And the Prophet said: sell not what is not with you." This hadith has rendered controversial within the Muslim world much of what is considered routine finance outside of it, including the sale of futures and options, both of which might be characterized as the sale of 'what is not with you.'. A merchant named Hakim ibn Hizam reported, "I asked the Prophet: O Messenger of Allah! A man comes to me and asks me to sell him what is not with me, so I sell him and then buy the goods for him in the market. One hadith of special importance for Islamic contractual law should be mentioned here.
The Sunnah is not itself a text like the Qur'an, but is extracted by analysis of the Hadith (Arabic for "report") texts, which contain narrations of the Prophet's sayings, deeds, and actions of his companions he approved. The Qur'an is the foremost source of Islamic jurisprudence; the second is the Sunnah (the practices of the Prophet, as narrated in reports of his life). For Muslims living in secular Western countries sharia ceases to be relevant as law, but remains a source of personal ethics (for example, the avoidance of pork and alcohol, and the use of Sharia-compliant banking services). Muslims in Islamic societies have traditionally viewed Islamic law as essential to their religious outlook.
Main article: Sharia. It is enough to believe and say that one is a Muslim, and behave in a manner befitting a Muslim to be accepted into the community of Islam. This is formally done by reciting the shahada, the statement of belief of Islam, without which a person cannot be classed a Muslim. It is enough to believe in the central beliefs of Islam.
Islam is open to all, regardless of race, age, gender, or previous beliefs. There is no official authority who decides whether a person is accepted to, or dismissed from, the community of believers, known as the Ummah ("Family"). Other beliefs include the Angels, the Jinns (a species of beings not composed of solid matter, but of fire), and the existence of magic (the practice of which is strictly forbidden). A significant fraction of the Qur'an deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details.
Like Christianity and some sects of modern Judaism, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul; the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (a fiery Hell, from the Hebrew ge-hinnom or "valley of Hinnom"; usually rendered in English as Gehenna). Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world) and the final judgement of humanity. Main article: Islamic eschatology. However, most Muslims remain unaffected by those claims and simply regard those said groups to be deviant from Islam.
However, there have been a number of sects whose leaders have proclaimed themselves the successors of Muhammad, perfecting and extending Islam, or, whose devotees have made such claims for their leaders. Mainstream Muslims regard Muhammad as the 'Last Messenger' or the 'Seal of the Prophets' based on the canon. In the Qur'an, 25 specific prophets are mentioned. Islam demands that a believer accept most of the Judeo-Christian prophets, making no distinction between them.
Notable messengers include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses(Musa), Jesus(Isa), and Muhammad, all belonging to a succession of men guided by God. All prophets are said to have spoken with divine authority; but only those who have been given a major revelation or message are called messenger. In general, messengers are the more elevated rank, but Muslims consider all prophets and messengers equal. The Qur'an speaks of God appointing two classes of human servants: messengers (rasul in Arabic), and prophets (nabi in Arabic and Hebrew).
Main article: Prophets of Islam. Translations were the result of human effort and human fallibility, as well as lacking the inspired poetry believers find in the Qur'an. Translations are therefore only commentaries on the Qur'an, or "translations of its meaning", not the Qur'an itself. From the beginning of the faith, most Muslims believed that the Qur'an was perfect only as revealed in Arabic. The Qur'an is regarded as an infallible guide to personal piety and community life, and completely true in its history and science.
Old Qur'ans are not destroyed as wastepaper, but deposited in Qur'an graveyards. Most Muslims regard the Qur'an with extreme veneration, wrapping it in a clean cloth, keeping it on a high shelf, and washing as for prayers before reading the Qur'an. Only reformist or liberal Muslims are apt to take something approaching the Mu'tazili position. The caliph persecuted, tortured, and killed the anti-Mu'tazilis, but their belief eventually triumphed and is held by most Muslims of today.
The Mu'tazili position was supported by caliph Al-Ma'mun. Their opponents, of various schools, claimed that the Qur'an was eternal and perfect, existing in heaven before it was revealed to Muhammad. In the 8th century, the Mu'tazilis claimed that the Qur'an was created in time and was not eternal. The Qur'an early became a focus of Muslim devotion and eventually a subject of theological controversy.
The form of the Qur'an most used today is the Al-Azhar text of 1923, prepared by a committee at the prestigious Cairo university of Al-Azhar. Eventually, most commentators accepted seven variant readings (qira'at) of the Qur'an as canonical, while agreeing that the differences are minor and do not affect the meaning of the text. For hundreds of years after Uthman's recension, Muslim scholars argued as to the correct pointing and reading of Uthman's unpointed official text, (the rasm). Eventually, scripts were developed that used "points" to indicate vowels.
Because the Qur'an was first written [date uncertain] in the Hijazi, Mashq, Ma'il, and Kufic scripts, which write consonants only and do not supply the vowels, and because there were differing oral traditions of recitation, as non-native Arabic speakers converted to Islam, there was some disagreement as to the exact reading of many verses. Some suras (eg surat Iqra) were revealed in parts at separate times. Later scholars have struggled to put the suras in chronological order, and among Muslim commentators at least there is a rough consensus as to which suras were revealed in Mecca and which at Medina. More conservative views state that the order of most suras was divinely set.
Uthman's version organized the revelations, or suras, roughly in order of length, with the longest suras at the start of the Qur'an and the shortest ones at the end. Zayd's written collection, privately treasured by Muhammad's widow Hafsa bint Umar, was used by Uthman and is the basis of today's Qur'an. (This is covered in greater detail in the article on the Qur'an.) Most Muslims accept the account recorded in several hadith, which state that Abu Bakr, the first caliph, ordered Zayd ibn Thabit to collect and record all the authentic verses of the Qur'an, as preserved in written form or oral tradition. There are also numerous traditions, and many conflicting academic theories, as to the provenance of the verses later assembled into the Qur'an.
However, some skeptics doubt the recorded oral traditions (hadith) on which the account is based and will say only that the Qur'an must have been compiled before 750. He sent copies of his version to the various provinces of the new Muslim empire, and directed that all variant copies be destroyed. Scholars accept that the version of the Qur'an used today was first compiled in writing by the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, sometime between 650 and 656. Muslims believe that the Qur'an available today is the same as that revealed to Prophet Muhammad and by him to his followers, who memorized his words.
In addition to memorizing his revelations, his followers are said to have written them down on parchments, stones, bones, sticks, and leaves. Muslims believe that the Qur'an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel on numerous occasions between the years 610 and Muhammad's death in 632. Qur'an is the currently preferred English transliteration of the Arabic original (قرآن); it means “recitation”. It has also been called, in English, the Koran and the Quran.
The Qur'an is the sacred book of Islam. Main article: Qur'an. while two "branches", and one "root", are specifically Shia:. and four of what the Shia call the Branches of Religion:.
All Muslims further agree on two of what the Shia call the Roots of Religion:. Sunni Islam's most fundamental tenets are referred to as the Five Pillars of Islam2, while Shia Islam has a slightly different terminology, encompassing five core beliefs (the "roots of religion") and ten core practices (the "branches of religion".) All Muslims agree on the following statements, which Sunnis term the Five Pillars of Islam, and Shia would consider two of the Roots of Religion and four of the Branches of Religion:. These are consequently the most important divine attributes in the sense that Muslims repeat them most frequently during their ritual prayers (called salah in Arabic, and in India, Pakistan and Turkey called "namaaz" (a Persian word)). All but one Surah (chapter) of the Qur'an begins with the phrase "In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful".
Instead, Muslims describe God by the many divine attributes mentioned in the Qur'an, and also with the 99 names of Allah. Moreover, many Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, rendering any two or three dimensional depictions impossible. No Muslim visual images or depictions of God exist because such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry and are thus prohibited. And Allah is sufficient as its defender." [Chapter 4 : Surah 171].
His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth . Far is it removed from His transcendent majesty that he should have a son . Cease! ( it is ) better for you! Allah is only One God . So believe in Allah and His messengers , and say not "three" .
The Messiah , Jesus son of Mary , was only a messenger of Allah , and His word which He conveyed unto Mary , and a spirit from Him . As it says in the Qur'an, "O People of the Scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion nor utter aught concerning Allah save the truth . However, Muslims completely disagree with the Christian theology concerning the unity of God (the doctrine of the Trinity which sees Jesus as the eternal Son of God), seeing it as akin to polytheism. In spite of the different name used for God, Muslims believe in the same deity as the Judeo-Christian religions.
The implicit usage of the definite article in Allah linguistically indicates the divine unity. Allāh thus translates to "God" in English. In Arabic, God is called Allah, a contraction of al-ilah or "the only god". There is none comparable to Him.".
He never begot, nor was begotten. God is described in Sura al-Ikhlas, (chapter 112) as follows: Say "He is God, the one, the Self-Sufficient master. This monotheism is absolute, not relative or pluralistic in any sense of the word. The fundamental concept in Islam is the oneness of God (tawhid).
Main article: Allah. The Muslim creed in English:. There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims:. All Muslims agree to this, although Sunnis further regard this as one of the five pillars of Islam.
The basis of Muslim belief is found in the shahādatān ("two testimonies"): lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadur-rasūlu-llāhi — "There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God." In order to become a Muslim, one needs to recite and believe these statements. Islam has three primary branches of belief, based largely on a historical disagreement over the succession of authority after Muhammad's death; these are known as Sunni , Shi'ite and Kharijite. Islamic teaching sees Judaism and Christianity as derivations of the teachings of certain of these prophets - notably Abraham - and therefore acknowledges their Abrahamic roots, whilst the Qur'an calls them People of the Book. Muslims hold that Islam is essentially the same belief as that of all the messengers sent by God to mankind since Adam, with the Qur'ān (the one definitive text of the Muslim faith) codifying the final revelation of God.
With that perspective they view the Qur'an as corrective of Jewish and Christian scriptures. Muslims believe that parts of the Bible and the Torah have been forgotten, misinterpreted, or distorted by their followers. Muslims assert that the main written record of revelation to humankind is the Qur'an, which they believe to be flawless, immutable, and the final revelation of God. 570–632) and other prophets, including Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.
Followers of Islam, known as Muslims, believe that God (or, in Arabic, Allāh) revealed his direct word for mankind to Muhammad (c. The word Muslim is also related to the word Islām and means one who "surrenders" or "submits" to God. In Arabic, Islām means "submission" (understood as submission to God) and is described as a Dīn or Deen, meaning "way of life" and/or "religion." Etymologically, it is derived from the same root as, for example, Salām meaning "peace" (also a common salutation). Islam listen (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) "the submission to God" is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the world's second largest religion.
The religion of Ha-Mim. The religion of the medieval Berghouata. Yazidi. Bahá'í Faith.
Babism. The Qadianis (or Ahmadis). The Zikris. The Nation of Islam.
The Druze. To hate the enemies of the Ahl-ul-Bayt (Tabarra). To love the Ahl-ul-Bayt and their followers (Tawalla). The belief in the divinely appointed and guided imamate of Ali and some of his descendants (Imamah).
Paying the tax on profit (Khums). Striving to seek God's approval (Jihad). Forbidding what is evil (Nahi-anil-Munkar). Enjoining what is good (Amr-bil-Ma'roof).
The Resurrection (Me'ad). The Justice of God ('Adl). "Hajj": The Pilgrimage (Hajj) to Mecca during the month of Dhul Hijjah, which is compulsory once in a lifetime for one who has the ability to do it. "Ramadhan": Fasting from dawn to dusk in the month of Ramadan (sawm).
This money or produce is distributed among the poor. "Zakat": The Giving of Zakaah (charity), which is one fortieth (2.5%) of the net worth of savings kept for more than a year, with few exemptions, for every Muslim whose wealth exceeds the nisab, and 10% or 20% of the produce from agriculture. "Salah": Establishing of the five daily Prayers (salah). "Shahadah": The Testimony that there is none worthy of worship except God and that Muhammad is his messenger.
Belief in Destiny (Fate) (Qadaa and Qadar in Arabic). Belief in the Day of Judgment (Qiyamah) and in the Resurrection. Belief in the Angels. Belief in the Books sent by God.
Belief in all the Prophets and Messengers (sent by God). Belief in God, the one and only one worthy of all worship.