Acura Integra

The Acura Integra, sold as a Honda in most of the world, is a small, sporty vehicle sold primarily as a coupe. It is Acura's smallest, least expensive model, designed to offer a competitor to vehicles like Volkswagen's Golf GTI, which was the most well known and popular "hot hatch" of the 1980s when the Integra was introduced. Although a sedan was available for several years, the 4-door body was dropped when the vehicle transitioned to its current fourth-generation "DC5" platform, which is now sold as the RSX in North America.

First Generation 1985-1989

First Generation Integra

The vehicle debuted in Japan in 1985 as the Honda Integra before going on sale a year later in North America as part of the then-new Acura lineup. Three and 5-door hatchback bodies as well as a traditional four-door sedan were available, with a 1.6 L DOHC 16-valve engine powering all three. The engine was the vehicle's most publicized feature, as twin-cam, multi-valve engines were anything but commonplace in entry-level models at the time.

The Integra shared its platform with the less-sporty Civic, although it featured a small list of key upgrades over its lesser stablemate to help merit a price increase over the CRX Si, which was otherwise the sportiest compact vehicle being offered by Honda/Acura; enlarged 4-wheel disc brakes replaced the small front-disc/rear-drum setup used by the Civic and CRX, suspension calibration was re-worked, better tires were used and a 113 horsepower DOHC fuel injected 16-valve engine was used in place of the SOHC, 90 horsepower unit from the CRX Si. Combined with sleeker styling and a nicer interior, buyers were effectivly convinced that the Integra was worth the extra money, and nearly 228,000 units were sold during the five year run of the first generation model.

The model was not without its shortcomings though; despite having 113 horsepower and a reachable 7,000 RPM redline, the new twin-cam engine had little torque and needed to be wound up quite a bit to make full power, leading to criticism that the model wasn't well-suited for day to day driving on surface streets, but was better tuned for spirited driving down tight, windy roads.

Second Generation 1990-1993

Second Generation Integra

Acura debuted the second generation Integra in 1990, now powered by a new 1.8 litre engine making 130 horsepower, giving the model a necessary boost in performance. The three-door hatchback and 4-door sedan body styles continued to be available, but the 5-door hatch was discontinued due to poor market reception.

Trim levels for 1990 and 1991 included the RS (base model), LS, and GS. The GS model could also be had with a leather interior, which made it a sort of "deluxe" model, and featured its own model number.

For 1992 Honda added the GS-R trim level, powered by a de-stroked, 1.7 litre version of the standard engine with the VTEC system from the then-new NSX added-on, bumping output to 160 horsepower. Other small updates came on at the same time, namely new front and rear bumpers, a new steering wheel, new rear turn signals, new ECU, chromed interior door handles and an increase in power to 140 for the non-VTEC engine. Honda had already used the vtec system in the b16a engines in the late 80s which are a predacessor to the b17 engine.

The second generation was the last Integra to be sold without airbags in the United States. Motorized "passive" seat belts were used instead. Canada and the rest of the world got regular seat belts.

This generation also saw Acura make a bit of a marketing shift. Prior to the 1991 model year, Acura had made a minor point of the supposed understated elegance of minimal exterior badging. Therefore, from 1986 to 1990 the only external clues to any Integra's identity came at the rear, where badges for "Acura" "Integra", and the trim level appeared. For the 1991 model year however, Acura's "A" logo appeared for the very first time on the front of the hood, as well as between the taillights. Every Integra made since then has had the "A" badges.

  • 262,285 units sold from 1990-1993

Third Generation 1994-1997

Acura debuted the third generation model in 1994, now based on the all-new Civic chassis that had been introduced in '92. Standard horsepower increased to 142, and the GS-R recieved a dual-stage intake manifold and a displacment boost to 1.8 litre, bringing horsepower up to 170.

A Type R model was added for the 1997 model year, powered by a highly tuned, hand-finished variant of the GS-R's powerplant producing 195 horsepower, meaning it made more hp per litre than the Ferrari F355's V8. Although impressive, the Type R was still hampered by some criticism; its maximum torque output was only 130 ft·lbs, and maximum output could not be achieved until 7000 RPM, meaning that the engine was only performing at peak between 7,000 RPM and its 8,400 RPM redline. Although the engine's "split personality" and unusually high capability to rev made it popular among hardcore enthusiasts, it cost the vehicle points in comparison tests where drivers noted that the vehicle was too hard-edged, loud and rev-hungry to be an easy daily driver.

Fourth Generation 1998-2001

Despite some popular demand for a new Integra model for 1998, Acura chose to give the third-generation model a slight facelift and rerelease it. The 1998 Integra had slightly larger headlights and a more aggressive front bumper. It also has all-red taillights and a revised rear bumper. The GS-R edition received 5-spoke "blade" style wheels as a stylistic change.

Once again, the Type-R saw a limited release in the US.

Type R

The Type R was the pinnacle of the Integra line. It had many exclusive features found on no other Integra.

The B18C5 Type R engine contained more key differences than just some manual assembly steps and an increased redline. The B16A's cylinder head returned for an encore, with differently shaped combustion chambers and intake ports compared to the regular B18C in the GS-R. Molybdenum-coated, high compression pistons and stronger-but-lighter connecting rods strengthened the reciprocating assembly. Two extra counterweights on the crankshaft altered its vibration modes to enhance durability at high RPM. The intake valves were reshaped with a thinner stem and crown that reduced weight and improved flow. The intake ports were given a minor port and polish. Stiffer valve springs resisted float on more aggressive camshafts. Intake air was now drawn from inside the fender well, for a colder, denser charge. That intake fed a short-runner intake manifold with a larger throttle body for better breathing. An improved stainless steel exhaust collector with more gentle merge angles, a change to a larger, consistent piping diameter, flared internal piping in the muffler allowed easier exit of gasses. A retuned engine computer also contributed to improve power output.

The transmission was upgraded with lower and closer gear ratios in second through fifth gears, in order to take advantage of the additional rev range. The American version retained the same 4.4 final drive throughout the Type R's production run, unlike the Japanese market version, which in 1998 changed to a 4.785 final drive along with revised gearing. The clutch disk has a slightly smaller swept area, for improved bite. The GS-R's open differential was replaced with a torque-sensing limited slip type.

The chassis received enhancements in the form of reinforcements to the rear wheel wells, roof rail, and other key areas. "Performance rods," chassis braces that were bolted in place, were added to the rear trunk wall and rear subframe. The front strut tower bar was replaced with a stronger aluminum piece. Camber rigidity was improved at the rear by increasing wheel bearing span by 10 mm. The Type R's body also received a new functional rear wing, body-colored rocker panels, and 5 bolt hubs with special lightweight Type-R wheels. Under those wheels was a much larger set of disk brakes front and back. The tires were upgraded to Bridgestone RE010 "summer" tires.

The Type R received very aggressive tuning in its suspension settings. All soft rubber bushings were replaced with much stiffer versions, as much as 5.3 times higher in durometer readings. The springs and dampers were much stiffer, with a 10 mm reduction in ride height. The rear anti-roll bar diameter was increased to 22 mm in diameter. The front anti-roll bar retained the same size, although the end links were changed to a more responsive sealed ball joint as opposed to a rubber bushing on the lesser models. The result was a chassis with very responsive, racetrack-ready handling that ably absorbed mid-corner bumps well. Mild oversteer was easy to induce with a lift of the throttle, and during steady-state cornering the car maintained a slight tail-out stance.

The interior was stripped down to reduce weight. The air conditioning system was removed and nearly all the sound-dampening material was eliminated. This provided for a much noisier ride, but since the Type-R was a racecar for the street, most owners didn't mind. The Type R was a no-compromise sports car, and it showed the world what Honda was capable of.

  • 301,103 Units sold from 1994-2001 - 2005555

Replacement for Acura Integra

The fourth generation Integra, produced from 2002 onwards, has been renamed the Acura RSX. The new name conforms to Acura's new naming scheme for all cars in its line up (e.g. NSX, TSX, MDX, etc). It also has an entirely new engine, the K-series, which is considered by some to be the best engine Honda has ever released.

Awards

The Integra was on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list six times, in 1987, 1988, and 1994 through 1997. The GS-R model was called out specifically in 1994 and 1995. It made a return on the Ten Best as the Acura RSX for 2002 and 2003


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It made a return on the Ten Best as the Acura RSX for 2002 and 2003. Icing of wings, downbursts and low visibility are often major contributors to weather related crashes. The GS-R model was called out specifically in 1994 and 1995. Adverse weather is the third largest cause of accidents. The Integra was on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list six times, in 1987, 1988, and 1994 through 1997. After human error, mechanical failure is the biggest cause of air accidents, which sometimes also can involve a human component (ie: negligence of the airline in carrying out proper maintenance). It also has an entirely new engine, the K-series, which is considered by some to be the best engine Honda has ever released. The majority of aircraft accidents occur due to human error, that is, an error of the pilot(s) or control tower.

NSX, TSX, MDX, etc). Furthermore, car crashes rarely feature outside local news whereas air crashes are reported internationally, making the risk seem greater. The new name conforms to Acura's new naming scheme for all cars in its line up (e.g. Many people have a fear of flying because the risk of death in an aircraft accident, if there is one, is extremely high. The fourth generation Integra, produced from 2002 onwards, has been renamed the Acura RSX. An accident while driving to the airport in a car is more likely than an accident during the flight. The Type R was a no-compromise sports car, and it showed the world what Honda was capable of. Statistics show that the risk of an air accident is very small.

This provided for a much noisier ride, but since the Type-R was a racecar for the street, most owners didn't mind. With this final test, the aircraft is ready to receive the "final touchups" (internal configuration, painting, etc), and is then ready to be sent to the customer. The air conditioning system was removed and nearly all the sound-dampening material was eliminated. When complete, an aircraft goes through a set of rigorous inspection, to search for imperfections and defects, and after being approved by the inspectors, the aircraft is tested by a pilot, in a flight test, in order to assure that the controls of the aircraft are working properly. The interior was stripped down to reduce weight. In the case of large aircraft, production lines dedicated to the assembly of certain parts of the aircraft can exist, especially the wings and the fuselage. Mild oversteer was easy to induce with a lift of the throttle, and during steady-state cornering the car maintained a slight tail-out stance. The parts are sent to the main plant of the aircraft company, where the production line is located.

The result was a chassis with very responsive, racetrack-ready handling that ably absorbed mid-corner bumps well. The production of such parts is not limited to the same city or country; in the case of large aircraft manufacturing companies, such parts can come from all over of the world. The front anti-roll bar retained the same size, although the end links were changed to a more responsive sealed ball joint as opposed to a rubber bushing on the lesser models. For example, one company can be responsible for the production of the landing gear, while another one is responsible for the radar. The rear anti-roll bar diameter was increased to 22 mm in diameter. However, the production of an aircraft for one company is a process that actually involves dozens, or even hundreds, of other companies and plants, that produce the parts that go into the aircraft. The springs and dampers were much stiffer, with a 10 mm reduction in ride height. There are few companies that produce aircraft on a large scale.

All soft rubber bushings were replaced with much stiffer versions, as much as 5.3 times higher in durometer readings. For example, aircraft from Airbus need to be certified by the FAA to be flown in the United States and vice versa, aircraft of Boeing need to be approved by the JAA to be flown in the European Union. The Type R received very aggressive tuning in its suspension settings. In the case of the international sales of aircraft, a license from the public agency of aviation or transports of the country where the aircraft is also to be used is necessary. The tires were upgraded to Bridgestone RE010 "summer" tires. In Canada, the public agency in charge and authorizing the mass production of aircraft is the Department of Transport. Under those wheels was a much larger set of disk brakes front and back. In the United States, this agency is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and in the European Union, Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA).

The Type R's body also received a new functional rear wing, body-colored rocker panels, and 5 bolt hubs with special lightweight Type-R wheels. Then, the governing public agency of aviation of the country authorizes the company to begin production of the aircraft. Camber rigidity was improved at the rear by increasing wheel bearing span by 10 mm. The flight-tests continue until the aircraft has fulfilled all the necessary requirements. The front strut tower bar was replaced with a stronger aluminum piece. Representatives from an aviation governing agency often make a first flight. "Performance rods," chassis braces that were bolted in place, were added to the rear trunk wall and rear subframe. When the design has passed through these processes, the company constructs a limited number of these aircraft for testing on the ground.

The chassis received enhancements in the form of reinforcements to the rear wheel wells, roof rail, and other key areas. Small models and mockups of all or certain parts of the aircraft are then tested in wind tunnels to verify the aerodynamics of the aircraft. The GS-R's open differential was replaced with a torque-sensing limited slip type. Computers are used by companies to draw, plan and do initial simulations of the aircraft. The clutch disk has a slightly smaller swept area, for improved bite. First the construction company uses a great number of drawings and equations, simulations, wind tunnel tests and experience to predict the behavior of the aircraft. The American version retained the same 4.4 final drive throughout the Type R's production run, unlike the Japanese market version, which in 1998 changed to a 4.785 final drive along with revised gearing. During this process, the objectives and design specifications of the aircraft are established.

The transmission was upgraded with lower and closer gear ratios in second through fifth gears, in order to take advantage of the additional rev range. The design and planning process, including safety tests, can last up to four years for small turboprops, and up to 12 years for aircraft with the capacity of the A380. A retuned engine computer also contributed to improve power output. Most aircraft are constructed by companies with the objective of producing them in quantity for customers. An improved stainless steel exhaust collector with more gentle merge angles, a change to a larger, consistent piping diameter, flared internal piping in the muffler allowed easier exit of gasses. Other aviators with less knowledge make their aircraft using complete kits, with pre-manufactured parts, and assemble the aircraft themselves. That intake fed a short-runner intake manifold with a larger throttle body for better breathing. Small aircraft can be designed and constructed at home.

Intake air was now drawn from inside the fender well, for a colder, denser charge. The Boeing 727 was another widely used passenger aircraft, and the Boeing 747, was the biggest commercial aircraft in the world up to 2005, when it was surpassed by the Airbus A380. Stiffer valve springs resisted float on more aggressive camshafts. Boeing 707 would develop into the later in Boeing 737. The intake ports were given a minor port and polish. The first commercial jet, the de Havilland Comet, was introduced in 1952, and the first successful commercial jet, the Boeing 707, is still in use 50 years later. The intake valves were reshaped with a thinner stem and crown that reduced weight and improved flow. Aircraft, in a civil military role, continued to feed and supply Berlin in 1948, when access to railroads and roads to the city, completely surrounded by Eastern Germany, were blocked, by order of the Soviet Union.

Two extra counterweights on the crankshaft altered its vibration modes to enhance durability at high RPM. The Boeing X-43 is an experimental scramjet with a world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. Molybdenum-coated, high compression pistons and stronger-but-lighter connecting rods strengthened the reciprocating assembly. In October 1947, Chuck Yeager, in the Bell X-1, was the first person to exceed the speed of sound. The B16A's cylinder head returned for an encore, with differently shaped combustion chambers and intake ports compared to the regular B18C in the GS-R. They were also an essential part of several of the military strategies of the period, such as the German Blitzkrieg or the American and Japanese Aircraft carriers. The B18C5 Type R engine contained more key differences than just some manual assembly steps and an increased redline. Aircraft played a primary role in the Second World War, having a presence in all the major battles of the war, especially in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the battles of the Pacific and D-Day.

It had many exclusive features found on no other Integra. The turbine or the jet engine was in development in the 1930's, military jet aircraft began operating in the 1940's. The Type R was the pinnacle of the Integra line. The first commercial flights took place between the United States and Canada, in 1919. Once again, the Type-R saw a limited release in the US. Charles Lindbergh became the first person to cross the Atlantic Ocean in solo flight nonstop, on 20 May 1927. The GS-R edition received 5-spoke "blade" style wheels as a stylistic change. After the First World War, aircraft continued to advance their technology.

It also has all-red taillights and a revised rear bumper. On the side of the allies, the ace with the highest number of downed aircraft was René Fonck, of France. The 1998 Integra had slightly larger headlights and a more aggressive front bumper. In the first war, great aces appeared, of which the greatest was the German Red Baron. Despite some popular demand for a new Integra model for 1998, Acura chose to give the third-generation model a slight facelift and rerelease it. First seen by generals and commanders as a "toy", the aircraft proved to be a machine of war capable of causing serious casualties to enemy lines. Although the engine's "split personality" and unusually high capability to rev made it popular among hardcore enthusiasts, it cost the vehicle points in comparison tests where drivers noted that the vehicle was too hard-edged, loud and rev-hungry to be an easy daily driver. Wars in Europe, in particular World War I, served as initial tests for the use of the aircraft as a weapon.

Although impressive, the Type R was still hampered by some criticism; its maximum torque output was only 130 ft·lbs, and maximum output could not be achieved until 7000 RPM, meaning that the engine was only performing at peak between 7,000 RPM and its 8,400 RPM redline. Most Brazilians, as well as admirers of Santos-Dumont, consider him to be the true inventor of the aircraft, although the very concept of the invention of the first flying machine has substantial ambiguity. A Type R model was added for the 1997 model year, powered by a highly tuned, hand-finished variant of the GS-R's powerplant producing 195 horsepower, meaning it made more hp per litre than the Ferrari F355's V8. Though launched after the Wright Brothers' attempts, his 14-bis was the first to take off, fly, and land without the use of catapults, high winds, or other external assistance. Standard horsepower increased to 142, and the GS-R recieved a dual-stage intake manifold and a displacment boost to 1.8 litre, bringing horsepower up to 170. However, in some countries today, particularly Brazil, Alberto Santos-Dumont is considered to be the "Father of Aviation". Acura debuted the third generation model in 1994, now based on the all-new Civic chassis that had been introduced in '92. This was later superseded by the development of ailerons, devices which performed a similar function but were attached to an otherwise rigid wing.

Every Integra made since then has had the "A" badges. Strictly speaking, the Flyer's wings were not completely fixed, as it depended for stability on a flexing mechanism named wing warping. For the 1991 model year however, Acura's "A" logo appeared for the very first time on the front of the hood, as well as between the taillights. They made their first successful test flights on December 17, 1903 and by 1904 Flyer III was capable of fully controllable, stable flight for substantial periods. Therefore, from 1986 to 1990 the only external clues to any Integra's identity came at the rear, where badges for "Acura" "Integra", and the trim level appeared. The Wright Brothers are commonly credited with the invention of the aircraft, but like Alexander Graham Bell's telephone, theirs was rather the first sustainable and well documented attempt. Prior to the 1991 model year, Acura had made a minor point of the supposed understated elegance of minimal exterior badging. On August 28, 1903 in Hanover, the German Karl Jatho made his first flight.

This generation also saw Acura make a bit of a marketing shift. In August 1892 the Avion II flew for a distance of 200 metres, and on October 14, 1897, Avion III flew a distance of more than 300 metres. Canada and the rest of the world got regular seat belts. On October 9, 1890, Ader attempted to fly the Éole, which succeeded in taking off and flying a distance of approximately 50 meters before witnesses. Motorized "passive" seat belts were used instead. Sir George Cayley, the inventor of the science of aerodynamics, was building and flying models of fixed wing aircraft as early as 1803, and he built a successful passenger-carrying glider in 1853, but it is known the first practical self-powered aeroplanes were designed and constructed by Clément Ader. The second generation was the last Integra to be sold without airbags in the United States. Other aviators who had made similar flights at that time were Otto Lilienthal, Percy Pilcher and Octave Chanute.

Honda had already used the vtec system in the b16a engines in the late 80s which are a predacessor to the b17 engine. Montgomery made a controlled flight in a glider. Other small updates came on at the same time, namely new front and rear bumpers, a new steering wheel, new rear turn signals, new ECU, chromed interior door handles and an increase in power to 140 for the non-VTEC engine. On 28 August 1883, the American John J. For 1992 Honda added the GS-R trim level, powered by a de-stroked, 1.7 litre version of the standard engine with the VTEC system from the then-new NSX added-on, bumping output to 160 horsepower. In 1856, Frenchman Jean-Marie Le Bris made the first powered flight, by having his glider "L'Albatros artificiel" pulled by a horse on a beach. The GS model could also be had with a leather interior, which made it a sort of "deluxe" model, and featured its own model number. In 1853, Englishman George Cayley made the first manned glider flight.

Trim levels for 1990 and 1991 included the RS (base model), LS, and GS. With the first flight made by man (Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Francois d'Arlandes) in an aircraft lighter than air, a balloon, the biggest challenge became to create other craft, capable of controlled flight. The three-door hatchback and 4-door sedan body styles continued to be available, but the 5-door hatch was discontinued due to poor market reception. Leonardo da Vinci drew an aircraft in the 15th century. Acura debuted the second generation Integra in 1990, now powered by a new 1.8 litre engine making 130 horsepower, giving the model a necessary boost in performance. Many stories from antiquity involve flight, such as the legend of Icarus. The model was not without its shortcomings though; despite having 113 horsepower and a reachable 7,000 RPM redline, the new twin-cam engine had little torque and needed to be wound up quite a bit to make full power, leading to criticism that the model wasn't well-suited for day to day driving on surface streets, but was better tuned for spirited driving down tight, windy roads. The dream of flight goes back to the days of pre-history.

Combined with sleeker styling and a nicer interior, buyers were effectivly convinced that the Integra was worth the extra money, and nearly 228,000 units were sold during the five year run of the first generation model. The X-43A set the record on 16 November 2004. The Integra shared its platform with the less-sporty Civic, although it featured a small list of key upgrades over its lesser stablemate to help merit a price increase over the CRX Si, which was otherwise the sportiest compact vehicle being offered by Honda/Acura; enlarged 4-wheel disc brakes replaced the small front-disc/rear-drum setup used by the Civic and CRX, suspension calibration was re-worked, better tires were used and a 113 horsepower DOHC fuel injected 16-valve engine was used in place of the SOHC, 90 horsepower unit from the CRX Si. The Boeing X-43 is an experimental scramjet with a world speed record for a jet-powered aircraft - Mach 9.6, or nearly 7,000 mph. The engine was the vehicle's most publicized feature, as twin-cam, multi-valve engines were anything but commonplace in entry-level models at the time. The last SR-71 flight was in October 2001. Three and 5-door hatchback bodies as well as a traditional four-door sedan were available, with a 1.6 L DOHC 16-valve engine powering all three. The SR-71's Pratt & Whitney J58 engines acted as ramjets at high-speeds (Mach 3.2).

The vehicle debuted in Japan in 1985 as the Honda Integra before going on sale a year later in North America as part of the then-new Acura lineup. The D-21 Tagboard was an unmanned Mach 3+ reconnaissance drone that was put into production in 1969 for spying, but due to the poor level of success and the development of better spy satellites, it was cancelled in 1971. . Ramjet (and the Scramjet variant) aircraft are mostly in the experimental stage. Although a sedan was available for several years, the 4-door body was dropped when the vehicle transitioned to its current fourth-generation "DC5" platform, which is now sold as the RSX in North America. SpaceShipOne is the most famous current rocket aircraft that is the testbed for developing a commercial sub-orbital passenger service. It is Acura's smallest, least expensive model, designed to offer a competitor to vehicles like Volkswagen's Golf GTI, which was the most well known and popular "hot hatch" of the 1980s when the Integra was introduced. Rocket aircraft are not in common usage today, although rocket-assisted takeoffs are somewhat common for military aircraft.

The Acura Integra, sold as a Honda in most of the world, is a small, sporty vehicle sold primarily as a coupe. The later North American X-15 was another important rocket plane, that broke many speed and altitude records and laid much of the groundwork for later aircraft and spacecraft design. 301,103 Units sold from 1994-2001 - 2005555. The first fixed wing aircraft to break the sound barrier was the rocket powered Bell X-1. 262,285 units sold from 1990-1993. Experimental rocket powered aircraft were developed by the Germans as early as World War II, although they were never mass produced by any power during that war. It appears that supersonic aircraft will remain in use almost exclusively by militaries around the world for the foreseeable future.

Due to the high costs, limited areas of use and low demand there are no longer any supersonic aircraft in use by any major airline, and the last Concorde flight was on 26 November 2003. When approaching an area of heavier population density, supersonic aircraft are obliged to fly at subsonic speed. This limits supersonic flights to areas of minimal population density or open ocean. Flight at supersonic speed creates more sound pollution than flight at subsonic speeds, due to the phenomenon of sonic booms.

Moreover, the design of the supersonic aircraft is substantially different to the design of sub-sonic aircraft, in order to make the transition to supersonic flight smoother and to make supersonic flight more efficient. Supersonic aircraft, such as military fighters and bombers, Concorde, and others, make use of special turbines (often utilizing afterburners), that generate the huge amounts of power for flight faster than the speed of the sound. Due to the high speeds needed for takeoff and landing, the jet aircraft makes use of flaps and leading edge devices for the control of lift and speed, and has engine reversers (or thrust reversers) (to direct the airflow forward) to slow down the aircraft upon landing, as well as the wheel brakes. Jet aircraft possess high cruising speeds (700 to 900 km/h) and high speeds for take-off and landing (150 to 250 km/h).

Wide-body aircraft, such as the Airbus A340 and Boeing 777, can carry hundreds of passengers and several tons of cargo, and are able to travel for distances of up to 13 thousand kilometers. In the early 1950's,only a few years after the first jet to be produced in large numbers arrived, the De Havilland Comet became the world's first jet airliner. In 1943 the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first jet fighter aircraft, went into service in the German Luftwaffe. The first jet was the Heinkel He 178, which was tested at Germany's Marienehe Airfield in 1939.

The jet aircraft was developed in England and Germany in 1931. One drawback, however, is that they are noisy; this makes jet aircraft a source of noise pollution. As a consequence, they have greater weight capacity and fly faster than propeller driven aircraft. These engines are much more powerful than a reciprocating engine.

Jet aircraft make use of turbines for the creation of thrust. These aircraft are popular with commuter and regional airlines, as they tend to be more economical on shorter journeys. Turboprop aircraft are a sort of halfway house between propeller and jet: they use a turbine engine similar to a jet to turn propellers. They are also the aircraft of choice for pilots who wish to own their own aircraft.

However, they are significantly cheaper and much more economic than jets, and are generally the best option for people who need to transport a few passengers and/or small amounts of cargo. They are quiet, but they fly at lower speeds, and have lower load capacity compared to similar sized jet powered aircraft. Smaller and older propeller aircraft make use of reciprocating internal combustion engines that turn a propeller to create thrust. Any textbook claiming to be a serious work on the topic will never promote the Equal Transit-time fallacy.

The explanation also fails to account for aerofoils which are fully symmetrical yet still develop significant lift. Such an explanation would predict that an aircraft could not fly inverted, which is demonstrably not the case. It has recently been dubbed the "Equal transit-time fallacy." There is no requirement that divided parcels of air rejoin again, and in fact they do not do so. Despite the fact that this "explanation" is probably the most common of all, it is false.

Therefore, because of its higher speed the pressure of the air above the airfoil must be lower. Known as the "equal transit-time" explanation, it states that the parcels of air which are divided by an airfoil must rejoin again; because of the greater curvature (and hence longer path) of the upper surface of an aerofoil, the air going over the top must go faster in order to "catch up" with the air flowing around the bottom. A false explanation for lift has been put forward in mainstream books, and even in scientific exhibitions. One of the primary goals of wing design is to devise a shape that produces the most lift while producing the least lift-induced drag.

However, most shapes will be very inefficient and create a great deal of drag. Nearly any shape will produce lift if curved or tilted with respect to the air flow direction. The deflection of airflow downward during the creation of lift is known as downwash. The force created by this deflection of the air creates an equal and opposite force upward on the wing according to Newton's third law of motion.

Lift is created as an airstream passes by something which deflects it downward. This shape, called an airfoil or aerofoil, creates lift when a wing travels through the air. If a cross-section of an aircraft wing is viewed, the top of the wing can be seen to be curved, while the bottom of the wing is less curved or straight. An aircraft flies due to the aerodynamic reactions that happen when air passes over the wing.

For example: lifting body, canard, V-tail and flying wing. Unconventional aircraft have been built in a variety of forms. Other common parts of aircraft include trim tabs, air brakes, spoilers, winglets and canards. Conventional aircraft -- from small planes such as the Bumble Bee II and Cessna 140 to a gigantic Antonov 225 -- consist of a fuselage, one or more wings to provide the majority of lift, a tailplane for stability, and a one or more vertical surfaces at the tail for stability.

. Supersonic aircraft, currently only military, research and a few private aircraft, can reach speeds faster than sound. Single-engined aircraft are capable of reaching 175 km/h or more at cruise speed. Commercial jet aircraft can reach up to 875 km/h, and cover one fourth of the earth's circumference in a matter of hours.

The aircraft is the fastest method of transport. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some are capable of take off and landing on ice, snow and calm water. The majority of aircraft, however, also need an airport with the infrastructure to receive maintenance, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and/or passengers. Two necessities for all aircraft are air flow over the wings for lifting of the aircraft, and an open area for landing.

There are also rare examples of aircraft which can vary the angle of incidence of their wings in flight, such the F-8 Crusader, which are also considered to be "fixed-wing". When the wings of these aircraft are fully swept, usually for high speed cruise, the trailing edges of their wings abut the leading edges of their tailplanes, giving an impression of a single delta wing if viewed from above or below. In the early days of their development, these were termed "variable geometry" aircraft. It also embraces an even smaller number of aircraft, such as the General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark, Grumman F-14 Tomcat and the Panavia Tornado, which can vary the sweep angle of their wings during flight.

This is usually to ease stowage or facilitate transport on, for example, a vehicle trailer or the powered lift connecting the hangar deck of an aircraft carrier to its flight deck. The term also embraces a minority of aircraft with folding wings that are intended to fold when on the ground. Some aircraft use fixed wings to provide lift only part of the time and may or may not be referred to as fixed-wing. Fixed-wing aircraft include a large range of craft from small trainers and recreational aircraft to large airliners and military cargo aircraft.

All aircraft wings flex, and some aircraft have wings that can tilt, sweep back, or fold, but if none of these movements are used to generate lift, the wing is considered to be a "fixed-wing". An aircraft is a heavier-than-air craft where movement of the wings in relation to the aircraft is not used to generate lift. Fixed-wing aircraft is a generic term used to refer to what are more commonly known as airplanes in North American English and aeroplanes in Commonwealth English. The flaps change the profile of the wing of the aircraft, maximizing lift and control of the speed of the aircraft in air, particularly in operations of low speed - especially important in landing and take-off.

Some aircraft are equipped with special landing gear, such as pontoons or skis, to allow them to land on water, snow or ice. They usually retract during flight to reduce drag; however, on smaller aircraft the gear are often fixed. The landing gear allow the aircraft to take off and land. The rudder is located on the vertical stabilizer and controls movement around the vertical axis called yaw.

On delta-wing aircraft the ailerons and elevators are combined together to perform the same actions and are called elevons. The elevator and horizontal stabilizer may be combined into a stabilator. The elevators are located on the horizontal stabilizer to control the rotation around the lateral axis called pitch. Many larger aircraft use spoilers to achieve the same effect.

Because roll changes the direction of lift of the wings, it is the primary method of changing the direction of travel. This movement is called roll. They always act at the same time, but in inverse directions, so that the aircraft can be turned along its longitudinal axis. Ailerons are movable surfaces on the wings of the aircraft.

A rudder is attached to the vertical stabilizer. Some aircraft have two vertical stabilizers attached to the horizontal stabilizer or boom structures. The vertical stabilizer is a small vertical wing that is usually attached to the rear of the fuselage. It may be a fixed horizontal stabilizer with a movable elevator or a stabilator that rotates on a shaft to change the angle of incidence.

Most often it is configured to provide negative lift. The tailplane is a small wing that provides positive or negative lift to stabilize the aircraft in flight. A few aircraft have engines attached to the vertical or horizontal stabilizer. The engines are usually located under or on the wings or attached to the fuselage.

Aircraft use a variety of engines, including turbine, reciprocating, and radial engines. An engine (or engines): Also known as powerplants, engines serve to propel the aircraft on the ground and the air. In smaller aircraft, fuel is sometimes stored in the fuselage (or main body). Fuel is often stored in tanks in the wing.

Biplanes (two wings) or triplanes (three wings) were popular in the past, and some are still made for special purposes like aerobatics. Most aircraft are monoplanes having one wing structure for providing lift. left wing and right wing. Sometimes, the half of a wing on either side of the fuselage is referred to as a wing, e.g.

Each wing is a single structure integrated into the fuselage of the aircraft.

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