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New York Yankees


Major league affiliations
  • American League (1901-present)
    • East Division (1969-present)
Major league titles
World Series titles (26) 2000 • 1999 • 1998 • 1996
1978 • 1977 • 1962 • 1961
1958 • 1956 • 1953 • 1952
1951 • 1950 • 1949 • 1947
1943 • 1941 • 1939 • 1938
1937 • 1936 • 1932 • 1928
1927 • 1923
AL Pennants (39) 2003 • 2001 • 2000 • 1999
1998 • 1996 • 1981 • 1978
1977 • 1976 • 1964 • 1963
1962 • 1961 • 1960 • 1958
1957 • 1956 • 1955 • 1953
1952 • 1951 • 1950 • 1949
1947 • 1943 • 1942 • 1941
1939 • 1938 • 1937 • 1936
1932 • 1928 • 1927 • 1926
1923 • 1922 • 1921
East Division titles (14) [1][2][3] 2005 • 2004 • 2003 • 2002
2001 • 2000 • 1999 • 1998
1996 • 1981 • 1980 • 1978
1977 • 1976
Wild card berths (2) 1997 • 1995

[1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore.
[2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
[3] - In 2005, the Yankees and the Boston Red Sox finished the season with identical records of 95-67 and finished tied for first place in the East Division standings. Because New York won the regular season series with Boston, New York was awarded the division championship and Boston was awarded the wild card.

Major league nicknames
  • New York Yankees (1913-present)
  • New York Highlanders (1903-1912)
  • Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902)

(Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912)

Major league home ballparks
  • Yankee Stadium (1976-present)
  • Shea Stadium (1974-1975)
  • Yankee Stadium (1923-1973)
  • Polo Grounds (IV) (1913-1922)
    • a.k.a. Brush Stadium (1913-1919)
  • Hilltop Park (1903-1912)
  • Oriole Park (Baltimore) (1901-1902)
Current uniform
Retired numbers

♦ - Hall of Famer
Jackie Robinson's #42 is retired by Major League Baseball

• This box contains major league affiliations only; National Association, Western League and other minor league affiliations are not included.
• The "Established" date indicates when major league status was gained.
• Postseasons prior to 1903 are not included as they were regarded more as exhibitions.
        edit infobox

The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball team based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. They are in the Eastern Division of the American League.

One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Yankees have been among the most storied teams in North America over their 100+ year history; along with franchises like the Boston Celtics, Dallas Cowboys, and Montreal Canadiens, the Yankees have helped exemplify the phrase "dynasty" in professional athletics. They are one of two major league franchises which operate in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League.

The Yankees have won 26 World Series in 39 appearances; the St. Louis Cardinals and the Oakland Athletics are tied for second with 9 World Series victories each, and the Los Angeles Dodgers is second in World Series appearances with 18. Among the North American major sports, the Yankees' success is only approached by the 23 Stanley Cup championships of the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League. The Yankees are also the only team that is represented at every position in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Origins

At the end of the 1900 season the American League re-organized and, with its president Ban Johnson as the driving force, decided to assert itself as a new major league. Previously a minor league (known as the Western League until 1899), the American League carried over five of its previous locations and added three more on the East Coast, including one in Baltimore, Maryland, which had lost its National League team when that league contracted the year before. The intention of Johnson and the American League had been to place a team in New York City, but their efforts had been stymied by the political connections that owners of the National League New York Giants had with Tammany Hall.

When the team began play as the Baltimore Orioles in 1901, they were managed by John McGraw. As a result of a feud with league president Ban Johnson, who rigidly enforced rules about rowdyism on the field of play, McGraw jumped leagues to manage the New York Giants in the middle of the 1902 season. A week later the owner of the Giants also gained controlling interest of the Orioles and raided the team for players, after which the league declared the team forfeit and took control, still intending to move the franchise to New York when and if possible.

In January 1903, the American and National Leagues held a "peace conference" to settle conflicts over player contract disputes and to agree on future cooperation. The NL also agreed that the "junior circuit" could establish a franchise in New York. The AL's Baltimore franchise became the New York franchise when its new owners, Frank Farrell and William Devery, were able to find a ballpark location not blocked by the Giants. Farrell and Devery both had deep ties into city politics and gambling. Farrell owned a casino and several pool halls, while Devery had served as a blatantly corrupt chief of the New York City police and had only been forced out of the department at the start of 1902.

The Highlanders

The franchise's first park in New York was located at 165th St. and Broadway in Manhattan, near the highest point on the island. Consequently the field was known as Hilltop Park and the team quickly became known as the New York Highlanders. The name was also a reference to the noted British military unit The Gordon Highlanders, as the team president from 1903 to 1906 was named Joseph Gordon. Today the site of the original Hilltop Park is occupied by buildings of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.

As the Highlanders, the team enjoyed success only twice, finishing in second place in 1904 and 1910; but otherwise, much of their first fifteen years in New York was spent in the cellar. Their somewhat tainted ownership, along with the questionable activities of some players, notably first baseman Hal Chase, raised suspicions of game-fixing, but little of that was ever proven.

Their best chance came on the last day of the 1904 season, at the Hilltop. New York pitcher Jack Chesbro threw a wild pitch in the ninth inning which allowed the eventual pennant-winning run to score for the Boston Americans. This event had historical significance in several ways. First, the presence of the Highlanders in the race had led the Giants to announce they would not participate in the World Series against a "minor league" team. Although Boston had won the pennant, the Giants still refused to participate. The resulting tongue-lashing of the Giants by the media stung their owner, John T. Brush, who then led a committee that formalized the rules governing the World Series. 1904 was the last year a Series was not played, until the strike-truncated year of 1994. For fans of the team formally named the Red Sox in 1908, the 1904 season-ender would prove to be the last time Boston would defeat the Yankees in a pennant-deciding game for literally a century.

From 1913 to 1922 the team would play in the Polo Grounds, a park owned by their National League rivals, the Giants. Relations between the clubs had warmed when the Giants were allowed to lease Hilltop Park while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt in 1911 following a disastrous fire. During the early 1900s, the nickname "Yankees" was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on "Americans", verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald's report was headlined "Dougherty as a Yankee". That matter-of-fact wording suggests the nickname was already well-known. The New York Herald, on April 15, 1906, reported "Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1". The name grew in popularity over the team's first decade. With the change of parks in 1913, the "Highlanders" reference became obsolete, and the de facto team nickname became exclusively "Yankees". Before very long, New York Yankees had become the official nickname of the club.

By the mid 1910s, owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and both were in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert and Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston. Ruppert was heir to the Ruppert brewery fortune and had also been tied to the Tammany Hall machine, serving as a U.S. Congressman for eight years. Ruppert later said, "For $450,000 we got an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige." But now with an owner possessing deep pockets, and a willingness to dig into them to produce a winning team.

The Ruth and Gehrig era

Perhaps one of the greatest ironies of the Yankees dominance comes from its roots. The Yankees detente with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox circa 1920 (all three collectively known as the "Insurrectos") paid off well. Over the next few years the new owners would begin to enlarge the payroll. Many of the newly acquired players who would later contribute to their success came from the Boston Red Sox, whose owner, theater impresario Harry Frazee, had bought his team on credit and needed money to pay off his loans and purchase Fenway Park from the Fenway Park Trust. Further, as Frazee owned the strongest of the "Insurrectos" franchizes, which antagonized A.L. President Ban Johnson, Frazee faced most of the legal battles which proved costly[1]. From 1919 to 1922, the Yankees acquired pitchers Waite Hoyt, Carl Mays and Herb Pennock, catcher Wally Schang, shortstop Everett Scott and third baseman Joe Dugan, all from the Red Sox. However, pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the biggest of them all. Frazee traded Ruth in January of 1920, citing Ruth's demand for a raise after being paid the highest salary in baseball, and despite owning the single season homerun record at the time of the trade (hitting 29 homeruns in 1919[2]). Frazee also wished to aid the Yankees, as giving the Yankees a box office draw would strengthen a legal ally, and reduce the pressure he faced[3]. Ruth was also regarded as a problem, a carouser. That would continue during his Yankees years, but the ownership was more tolerant, provided he brought fans and championships to the ballpark. Two of the four Boston newspapers agreed with the deal at the time. The Red Sox did not win a World Series from 1919 until 2004 (see Curse of the Bambino), often finding themselves out of the World Series hunt as a result of the success of the Yankees. Harry Frazee finally found success on Broadway in 1927 with the musical comedy No No Nanette, which included the song "Tea For Two".

Babe Ruth

Other critical newcomers in this period were manager Miller Huggins and general manager Ed Barrow. Huggins was hired in 1919 by Ruppert while Huston was serving in Europe with the army (this would lead to a break between the two owners, with Ruppert eventually buying Huston out in 1923). Barrow came on board after the 1920 season, and like many of the new Yankee players had previously been a part of the Red Sox organization, having managed the team since 1918. Barrow would act as general manager or president of the Yankees for the next 25 years and may deserve the bulk of the credit for the team's success during that period. He was especially noted for development of the Yankees' farm system.

The home run hitting exploits of Ruth proved popular with the public, to the extent that the Yankees were soon outdrawing their landlords, the Giants. In 1921 the Yankees were told to move out of the Polo Grounds after the 1922 season. At that time, John McGraw was said to have commented that the Yankees should "move to some out-of-the-way place, like Queens". Instead, to McGraw's chagrin, they broke ground for a new ballpark just across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds. The construction crew moved with remarkable speed and finished the big new ballpark in less than a year. In 1923 the Yankees moved into Yankee Stadium at 161st St. and River Avenue in the Bronx. The site for the stadium was chosen because the IRT Jerome Avenue subway line, now the MTA's#4 train, went right by there, practically on top of Yankee Stadium's right-field wall. The Stadium was the first triple-deck venue in baseball and seated an astounding 58,000. It was truly "the House that Ruth Built",

From 1921 to 1928, the Yankees went through their first period of great success, winning six American League pennants and three World Series. In 1921 through 1923 they faced the Giants in the World Series, losing the first two match-ups but turning the tables in 1923 after the Big Stadium opened. Giants outfielder Casey Stengel, who even then was being called "Old Case", hit two homers to win the two games the Giants came away with. Stengel would later become a "giant" for the Yankees as a manager.

The 1927 team was so potent that it became known as "Murderers' Row" and is sometimes considered to have been the best team in the history of baseball (though similar claims have been made for other Yankee squads, notably those of 1939, 1961 and 1998). Ruth's home run total of 60 in 1927 set a single-season record which would stand for 34 years, and first baseman Lou Gehrig had his first big season with 47 round-trippers.

The Yankees would repeat as American League champions in 1928, fighting off the resurgent Philadelphia Athletics, and sweep the St. Louis Cardinals in the World Series. Babe Ruth hit .625 with 3 home runs in that series, while Lou Gehrig hit .545 and belted 4 round-trippers. After three also-ran seasons, the Yankees returned to the American League top perch under new manager Joe McCarthy in 1932 and swept the Chicago Cubs in the World Series, running their streak of consecutive World Series game wins to 12, a mark which would stand until the 2000 Yankees bested it in the World Series that year. Babe Ruth hit his famous "Called Shot" home run in Wrigley Field in Game 3 of that Series, a fitting "Swan Song" to his illustrious post-season career.

The DiMaggio era

The Yankees run during the 1930s could also be facetiously called the "McCarthy era", as manager Joe McCarthy (no relation to the infamous Senator of the same name) would guide the Yankees to new heights. Just as Gehrig stepped out of Ruth's considerable shadow, a new titan appeared on the horizon, in the person of Joe DiMaggio. The young center fielder from San Francisco was an immediate impact player, batting .323, hitting 29 homers and driving in 125 runs in his rookie season of 1936.

Behind the thundering Yankees bats of DiMaggio, Gehrig and Frank Crosetti, and a superb pitching staff led by Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez and anchored by catcher Bill Dickey, the Yankees reeled off an unprecedented four consecutive World Series wins during 1936-1939. They did it without Gehrig for most of 1939, as the superstar's retirement due to ALS saddened the baseball world.

The strongest competition for the Yankees during that stretch was the Detroit Tigers, who won two pennants before that Yankees four-year stretch, and one after. When the Yankees did get into the Series, they had little trouble. During Game 2 of the 1936 Series, they pounded the Giants 18-4, still the World Series record (through 2005) for most runs by a team in one game. They took the Giants 4 games to 2 in that Series, and 4 games to 1 the next year. They also swept the Chicago Cubs in 1938, and the Cincinnati Reds in 1939.

After an off season came the Summer of 1941, a much-celebrated year, often described by sportswriters as the last great year of the "Golden Era", before World War II and other realities intervened. Ted Williams of the Red Sox was in the hunt for the elusive .400 batting average, which he achieved on the last day of the season. Meanwhile, DiMaggio, who had once hit in 61 straight games as a minor leaguer with the San Francisco Seals, began a hitting streak on May 15 which stretched to an astonishing 56 games.

A popular song by Les Brown celebrated this event, as Betty Bonney and the band members sang it: "He tied the mark at 44 / July the First, you know / Since then he's hit a good 12 more / Joltin' Joe DiMaggio / Joe, Joe DiMaggio, we want you on our side." The last game of the streak came on July 16 at Cleveland's League Park. The streak was finally snapped in a game at Cleveland Stadium the next night before a huge crowd at the lakefront. A crucial factor in ending the streak was the fielding of Cleveland third baseman Ken Keltner, who stopped two balls that DiMaggio hit hard to the left.

Modern baseball historians regard it as unlikely that anyone will ever hit .400 again, barring a change to the way the game is played; and as virtually impossible that anyone will approach DiMaggio's 56-game streak, which is so far beyond second place (44) as to be almost a statistical anomaly.

The Yankees made short work of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 Series. Two months and one day after the final game of the Yanks' 4 to 1 win, the Pearl Harbor attacks occurred, and many of the best ballplayers went off to World War II. The war-thinned ranks of the major leagues nonetheless found the Yanks in the post-season again, as they traded World Series wins with the St. Louis Cardinals during 1942 and 1943.

The Yanks then went into a bit of a slump, and manager McCarthy was let go early in the 1946 season. After a couple of interim managers had come and gone, Bucky Harris was brought in and the Yankees righted the ship again, winning the 1947 pennant and facing a much-tougher Dodgers team than their 1941 counterparts, in a Series that went seven games and was a harbinger of things to come for much of the next decade.

Despite finishing only 3 games back of the pennant-winning Cleveland Indians in 1948, Harris was released, and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel as their manager. Casey had a reputation for being somewhat of a clown and had been associated with managing excruciatingly bad teams such as the mid-1930s Boston Braves, so his selection was met with no little skepticism. His tenure would prove to the most successful in the Yankees' history up to that point. The 1949 season is another that has been written about poetically, as a Yankees team that was seen as "underdogs" came from behind to catch and surpass the powerful Red Sox on the last two days of the season, in a faceoff that could be said to be the real beginning of the modern intense rivalry between these teams. The post-season proved to be a bit easier, as the Yankees knocked off their cross-town Flatbush rivals 4 games to 1.

By this time, the Great DiMaggio's career was winding down. It has often been reported that he said he wanted to retire before he became an "ordinary" player. He was also hampered by bone spurs in his heel, which hastened the final docking of the "Yankee Clipper". As if on cue, new superstars began arriving, including the "Oklahoma Kid", Mickey Mantle, whose first year (1951) was DiMaggio's curtain call.

The 1950s and 1960s

Bettering the McCarthy-era clubs, Stengel's squad won the World Series in his first five years as manager, 1949 through 1953. The five consecutive championships won by the Yankees during this period remains the major league record. Led by players like center fielder Mickey Mantle, pitcher Whitey Ford, and catcher Yogi Berra, Stengel's teams won 10 pennants and seven World Series titles in his twelve seasons as Yankee manager.

The 1950s were also a decade of significant individual achievement for Yankee players. In 1956, Mantle won the major league triple crown, leading both leagues in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130).

On October 8, 1956, in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series against the Dodgers, pitcher Don Larsen threw the only perfect game in World Series history. Not only was it the only perfect game to be pitched in World Series play, it remains the only no-hitter of any kind to be pitched in postseason play. The Yankees went on to win yet another World Series that season, and Larsen earned World Series MVP honors.

Yankee players also dominated the American League MVP award, with a Yankee claiming ownership six times in the decade (1950 Rizzuto, 1951 Berra, 1954 Berra, 1955 Berra, 1956 Mantle, 1957 Mantle). Pitcher Bob Turley also won the Cy Young Award in 1958, the award's third year of existence.

For the decade, the Yankees won six World Series championships ('50, 51, '52, '53, '56, '58) and eight American League pennants. Led by Mantle, Ford, Berra, Elston Howard, and the newly acquired Roger Maris, the Yankees burst into the new decade seeking to replicate the remarkable success of the 1950s.

However, the Yankees lost the 1960 World Series in heartbreaking fashion when Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning, series-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 off Ralph Terry. It remains the only Game 7, walk-off home run in World Series history. Stengel was blamed for the World Series loss for failing to start his ace, Ford, three times in the Series, and was replaced as manager with Ralph Houk prior to the 1961 season. Stengel himself, who had reached his seventh decade in July of that year, clearly thought the issue was age discrimination, remarking, "I'll never make the mistake of turning 70 again." Yogi Berra's assessment of the loss was the equally famous comment, "We made too many wrong mistakes."

During the 1960-61 offseason, a seemingly innocuous development may have marked the beginning of the end for this Yankees dynasty. In December of 1960, Chicago insurance executive Charlie Finley purchased the Kansas City Athletics from the estate of Arnold Johnson, who had died that March.

Johnson had acquired the then-Philadelphia Athletics from the family of Connie Mack in 1954. He was the owner of Yankee Stadium at the time, but was forced to sell the stadium by American League owners as a condition of purchasing the Athletics. Johnson was also a longtime business associate of then-Yankees owners Del Webb and Dan Topping. During Johnson's ownership, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. Maris had been acquired by the Yankees in one such trade. Many fans, and even other teams, frequently accused the Athletics of being operated as an effective farm team for the Yankees. Once Finley purchased the Athletics, he immediately terminated the team's "special relationship" with the Yankees.

In the meantime, 1961 was one of the greatest years in Yankee history. Throughout the summer, Mantle and reigning-MVP Roger Maris hit home runs at a record pace as both chased Babe Ruth's single season home run record of 60. The duo's home run prowess led the media and fans to christen them 'The M & M Boys.' Ultimately, Mantle was forced to bow out in mid-September with 54 home runs when a severe hip infection forced him from the lineup. On October 1, 1961, on the final day of the season, Maris broke the record when he sent a pitch from Boston's Tracy Stallard into the right field stands at Yankee Stadium for his 61st home run. However, by decree of Commissioner Ford Frick, separate single-season home run records were maintained to reflect the fact that Ruth hit his 60 home runs during a 154-game season, while Maris hit his 61 in the first year of the new 162-game season. Some 30 years later, on September 4, 1991, an 8-member Committee for Historical Accuracy appointed by Major League Baseball did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record until it was broken by Mark McGwire on September 8, 1998. (McGwire's record was later broken by Barry Bonds, whose 73 home runs in 2001 remain the major league record. Maris still holds the American League record.)

The Yankees won the pennant with a 109-53 record and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series. The 109 regular season wins posted by the '61 club remain the third highest single-season total in franchise history, behind only the 1998 team's 114 regular season wins and 1927 team's 110 wins. The 1961 Yankees also clubbed a then-major league record for most home runs by a team with 240, a total not surpassed until the 1996 Baltimore Orioles hit 257 with the aid of the designated hitter. Maris won his second consecutive MVP Award while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young.

Because of the excellence of Maris, Mantle, and World Series-MVP Ford, a fine pitching staff, stellar team defense, the team's amazing depth and power, and their overall dominance, the 1961 Yankees are universally considered to be one of the greatest teams in the history of baseball, compared often to their pinstriped-brethren, the 1927 Yankees, the 1939 Yankees, and the 1998 Yankees.

In 1962, the Yankees won their second consecutive World Series, defeating the San Francisco Giants in seven games.

The Yanks would again reach the Fall Classic in 1963, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Behind World Series-MVP Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, the Dodgers starting pitchers threw four complete games and combined to give up just four runs all Series. This was the first time the Yankees were swept in a World Series.

Feeling burnt out after the season, Houk left the manager's chair to become the team's general manager and Berra, who himself had just retired from playing, was named the new manager of the Yankees.

The aging Yankees returned to the World Series in 1964 to face the St. Louis Cardinals in a Series immortalized by David Halberstam's book, October 1964. Despite a valiant performance by Mantle, including a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth of Game 3 off Cardinals' reliever Barney Schultz, the Yankees fell to the Cardinals in seven games. It was to be the last World Series appearance by the Yankees for 12 years.

After the 1964 season, CBS purchased the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. Jokesters at the time wondered if Walter Cronkite would become the manager, perhaps with Yogi Berra doing the newscasts. Topping and Webb had owned the Yankees for 20 years, missing the World Series only 5 times, and going 10-5 in the World Series.

By contrast, the CBS-owned teams never went to the World Series, and in the first year of the new ownership - 1965 - the Yankees finished in the second division for the first time in 40 years; the introduction of the major league amateur draft in 1965 also meant that the Yankees could no longer sign any player they wanted. In 1966 the team finished last in the AL for the first time since 1912, and next-to-last the following year. After that the team's fortunes improved somewhat, but they would not become serious contenders again until 1974.

Return to glory

George Steinbrenner purchased the club for $10 million on January 3, 1973 from CBS, renovated Yankee Stadium, hired and fired Billy Martin a number of times, feuded with star outfielder Reggie Jackson, and presided over the resurgence of the Yankees in the late '70s. Jackson's three home runs in the sixth and final game of the 1977 World Series against three different Dodger pitchers (earning him the nickname "Mr. October") defined the period as much as Martin and Steinbrenner.

The race for the pennant often came to a close competition between the Yankees and the Red Sox, and for fans of both clubs, a game between the two teams (whether in the regular season or post-season championship games) was cause for a rivalry that was often bitter and ruthless, with brawls frequently erupting between both players and fans from the two clubs. The Yankees-Red Sox rivalry came to a head in the 1978 season, when the two clubs finished the regular season in a tie for first place in the AL East. A playoff game between the two teams was held to decide who would go on to the pennant, with the game being held at Boston's Fenway Park (because the Red Sox had won more head-to-head games between the two teams that season). The Yankees won the day, driving a stake through the hearts of their rivals' fans when Bucky Dent drove a game-winning home run over the "Green Monster," one of several emotional moments in the team's history that had Red Sox fans wondering if their team was under some kind of a curse.

A new dynasty

The Yankees entered the 1990s as a last-place team, having spent well but not always wisely on free-agent players since their last appearance in the World Series in 1981. During the 1980s the Yankees, led by their All-Star first baseman Don Mattingly, had the most total wins out of any major league team, but failed to win a World Series (the first such decade since the 1910s). In 1990, Yankee pitcher Andy Hawkins became the first Yankees pitcher ever to lose a no-hitter, when the third baseman (Mike Blowers) committed an error, followed by 2 walks and an error by the left fielder (Jim Leyritz) with the bases loaded, scoring all 3 runners as well as the batter. The 4-0 loss (to the White Sox) was the largest margin of any no-hitter loss in the 20th century. To add to the oddity, the Yankees (and Hawkins) were no-hit by the White Sox 11 days later.

The bad judgment and bad luck of the '80s and early '90s started to change when, while owner Steinbrenner was under suspension, management was able to implement a coherent program without interference from above. Under general managers Gene Michael and Bob Watson and manager Buck Showalter, the club shifted its emphasis from buying talent to developing talent through its farm system and then holding onto it. The first significant sign of success came in 1994, when the Yankees had the best record in the AL when the season was cut short by the players' strike. A year later, the team reached the playoffs as the wild card and was eliminated only after a memorable series against the Seattle Mariners.

Showalter left after the 1995 season due to personality clashes with Steinbrenner and his staff and was replaced by Joe Torre. Initially derided as a retread choice ("Clueless Joe" ran the headline on one of the city's tabloid newspapers), Torre's smooth manner proved out as he led the Yankees to a World Series victory in 1996, defeating the Atlanta Braves in six games. General manager Bob Watson was dismissed when the Yankees failed to repeat in 1997 and was replaced by Brian Cashman, a former Yankees intern. However, the foundation laid by Michael and Watson of players like Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, Mariano Rivera and Bernie Williams was a significant factor in the Yankees' return to prominence. Other prominent members of the late 1990s championships teams acquired through trades included Paul O'Neill, David Cone, Tino Martinez, John Wetteland, Chuck Knoblauch, and Roger Clemens, while Jimmy Key, Wade Boggs, David Wells, Mike Stanton, and Orlando "El Duque" Hernández were signed as free agents.

The 1998-2000 Yankees were the first team to "three-peat" with World Series victories since the Oakland Athletics of the early 1970s. In 1998 and 1999, they swept the San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves, respectively. In 2000, the Yankees met up with cross-town New York Mets for the first Subway Series since 1956 and won four games to one. In these four World Series victories, the Yankees won fourteen straight games. The Yankees are the most recent major league team to repeat as World Series champions.

The 1998 Yankees are widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest teams in baseball history, having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular season wins against just 48 losses en route to a World Series sweep of the Padres. The '98 Yankees went 11-2 during the playoffs and finished with a combined record of 125-50, a major league record. However, their regular season record was surpassed by the 2001 Seattle Mariners, who went 116-46 before losing to the Yankees in the American League Championship Series.

The 21st century

In the emotional October 2001, following the September 11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, the Yankees defeated the Oakland Athletics 3 games to 2 in the Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. But, the usually unhittable Mariano Rivera shockingly blew the lead - and World Series - to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the bottom of the 9th inning of Game 7. Arizona manager Bob Brenly used his pitching staff, which included Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling, very effectively. In addition, the usually potent Yankee attack turned ice-cold.

In 2003, the Yankees defeated their long-time rival the Boston Red Sox in a tough seven-game ALCS, which featured a near-brawl in Game 3 and a series-ending walk-off home run by Aaron Boone in the 11th inning of the final game, only to be defeated by the Florida Marlins - a team with a payroll a quarter of the size of the Yankees' - in the World Series, 4 games to 2.

The loss in the 2001 World Series effectively marked the end of the 1990s Yankee dynasty, as lynchpin players began to retire, not be re-signed, or traded. The Yankees' quick ejection from the 2002 playoffs at the hands of the Anaheim Angels accelerated the changes, as ownership and management began to look increasingly on free agent acquisitions and major trades. The trend continued after the 2003 World Series, culminating when the Yankees traded for the "best player in baseball", Alex Rodriguez, in February 2004. Other significant acquisitions during 2002 to 2004 included Jason Giambi, Hideki Matsui, Gary Sheffield, Kevin Brown, and Javier Vázquez.

In the 2004 American League Championship Series against the Red Sox, the Yankees became the first team in professional baseball history, and only the third team in North American pro sports history (it happened in the NHL twice), to lose a best-of-7 series after taking a 3-0 series lead. After the 2004 World Series, the Yankees needed to improve their pitching, which suffered in the huge collapse to the Red Sox. They signed pitchers Carl Pavano and Jaret Wright. The Yankees also acquired dominant lefty Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks.

The 2005 season didn't start as it expected to be, once they were in last place in the American League East division. Pavano and Wright struggled, so did Johnson. As the season went on, the Yankees got better and slugger Jason Giambi started to hit again. Most of the season, the Yankees were chasing the Boston Red Sox for the division title. The Yankees seemed destined to win the division, and they did.

In the 2005 Division Series, the Angels defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason, winning the final game by a score of 5-3. After the 2005 season, the Yankees needed to get younger and more athletic. In the 2005-2006 offseason, general manager Brian Cashman took control of the Yankees, because owner George Steinbrenner and his advisors signed older talented players after the 2001 season. From the end of the 2005 World Series to December 2005, the baseball world noticed that the Yankees were patient with signing free agents. On December 23, 2005, the Yankees stunned the baseball world by signing center fielder Johnny Damon from the rival Red Sox, where he was a marquee player.

Many explanations have been given for the lack of Yankee World Series titles since 2000. These include depletion of the Yankee farm system because of trades and free agent acquisitions, the aging or departure of the players who had formed the core of the Yankees during the late 1990s, and allegedly poor coaching (like the overuse of Mariano Rivera in the 2001 World Series). Buster Olney, in his book The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty, argues that George Steinbrenner's management style resulted in the players burning out psychologically. Several sabermetricians have argued that success in the playoffs is largely the result of luck. This argument is bolstered by the fact that the production of the Yankees' core players has decreased steadily since their 1996 World Series title.

One particularly creative explanation jokingly proposed by blogger Larry Mahnken is the "Curse of Clay Bellinger". By analogy with the Curse of the Bambino, Mahnken points to the departure of utility player Clay Bellinger from the Yankee roster following the 2001 season and asserts that the Yankees will never again win the World Series until either they make amends to Bellinger or they win the championship anyway. The tautology is part of the joke.

Despite their most recent drought in World Series championships, the Yankees have continued to perform well in the regular season, recently winning their eighth straight AL East division title. In September 2005, the club set a new American League home attendance record of 4,090,696. The Yankees are only the third franchise in sports history to draw over 4 million in regular season attendance at their own ballpark (the others being the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays with 4,057,947 and the 1993 Colorado Rockies with 4,483,350).

Controversy

The Yankees are a notable team not only for their impressive history on the field, but also for their financial situation. The current ownership spends more on player salaries than any other franchise in baseball. As of 2005, the team payroll is more than $208 million, which is $85 million more than the second-highest team, the Red Sox, and more than the five lowest-payroll teams combined [4]. Frustrated after being outbid for pitcher Jose Contreras prior to the 2003 season, Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino even went so far as to dub the Yankees the "Evil Empire," a characterization that is primarily popular among Red Sox fans.

It is a heated debate whether the Yankees' free-spending is positive or negative for baseball, and whether a strict salary cap would make the sport fairer and increase parity among the large-market and small-market teams. The following are arguments for and against these spending practices:

For:

Against:

In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that the Yankees engaged in illegal trade with Cuba and had to settle with the United States government for US$75,000 [6].

Quick facts

Postseason appearances

Baseball Hall of Famers

(Affiliation according to National Baseball Hall of Fame; R. Jackson is affiliated with the Athletics, but wears a Yankee cap[7][8][9])

Further information: New York Yankees: Award Winners and League Leaders

Current roster

40-man roster

Updated on January 27, 2006  

Coaching Staff

Manager

Coaches



Minor league affiliations


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. Schiavo's diagnosis of being in a persistent vegetative state and that he provided her with appropriate care."[43].
. DCF investigators found the claims to be groundless, stating that there were "no indicators" of abuse in any of the cases and concluding that "[t]he preponderance of the evidence shows that Michael Schiavo followed doctors' orders [regarding] Ms. Coaches. These included Terri supposedly being in pain from recent dental work, Terri not having had any dental work for years prior to that, and the blinds in her room not being open wide enough. Manager. During the final stages of the court battle in March 2005, around 30 individuals made a variety of complaints to the DCF, alleging various abuses.

Updated on January 27, 2006  . On March 11, 2005, media tycoon Robert Herring (who believes that stem cell research could have cured Schiavo's condition) offered $1 million (USD) to Michael Schiavo if he agreed to cede his guardianship to his wife's parents.[42] The offer was rejected; George Felos, attorney for Michael Schiavo, described it as "offensive," adding that Michael had rejected other monetary offers, including one of $10 million (USD). Jackson is affiliated with the Athletics, but wears a Yankee cap[7][8][9]). The Schindlers' legal fight was funded by a variety of sources on the political right.[41]. (Affiliation according to National Baseball Hall of Fame; R. Although the vast majority of protests were nonviolent, two of the more extreme acts included death threats aimed towards Michael Schiavo. In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that the Yankees engaged in illegal trade with Cuba and had to settle with the United States government for US$75,000 [6]. The case drew notable figures on both sides of the debate, as well as many pressure groups and public protesters.

Against:. A number of opinion polls were carried out, particularly on the question of federal involvement in the Terri Schiavo case, with conflicting results. For:. The Terri Schiavo case held the attention of both American and international audiences and had major political ramifications. The following are arguments for and against these spending practices:. Jay Wolfson was appointed by Florida legislature to "deduce and represent the best wishes and bests interests of Theresa Schiavo." He reported to Governor Jeb Bush that "the evidence that served as the basis for the decisions regarding Theresa Schiavo were firmly grounded within Florida statutory and case law, which clearly and unequivocally provide for the removal of artificial nutrition in cases of persistent vegetative states," and that the evidence regarding Schiavo's medical condition and intentions had been "deemed, by the trier of fact to be clear and convincing." and "The reasonable degree of medical certainty associated with her diagnosis and prognosis is very high."[40]. It is a heated debate whether the Yankees' free-spending is positive or negative for baseball, and whether a strict salary cap would make the sport fairer and increase parity among the large-market and small-market teams. In 2003, guardian ad litem Dr.

Frustrated after being outbid for pitcher Jose Contreras prior to the 2003 season, Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino even went so far as to dub the Yankees the "Evil Empire," a characterization that is primarily popular among Red Sox fans. The court determined that she had made "credible and reliable" statements that she wouldn't want to be "kept alive on a machine," based on expert testimony, finding that Americans don't want to live "with no hope of improvement," and that her condition in a persistent vegetative state had "long since satisfied" the requirement that there be no hope of improvement.[39]. As of 2005, the team payroll is more than $208 million, which is $85 million more than the second-highest team, the Red Sox, and more than the five lowest-payroll teams combined [4]. During a trial in 2000, testimony was heard from witnesses on both sides to establish Schiavo's wishes regarding life support. The current ownership spends more on player salaries than any other franchise in baseball. Schiavo's husband insisted that she had expressed her wishes not to be kept on life support with no hope for improvement. The Yankees are a notable team not only for their impressive history on the field, but also for their financial situation. Judge Greer rejected their request.[38].

The Yankees are only the third franchise in sports history to draw over 4 million in regular season attendance at their own ballpark (the others being the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays with 4,057,947 and the 1993 Colorado Rockies with 4,483,350). This led to a challenge by Schiavo's parents, who requested a new trial about whether their daughter, as a devout Catholic, would wish to go against the Church's teaching. In September 2005, the club set a new American League home attendance record of 4,090,696. Pope John Paul II stated that health care providers are morally bound to provide food and water to patients in persistent vegetative states. Despite their most recent drought in World Series championships, the Yankees have continued to perform well in the regular season, recently winning their eighth straight AL East division title. David Gibbs III, the lead lawyer for Terri Schiavo’s parents, supported Vatican statements which condemned her treatment as euthanasia. The tautology is part of the joke. Michael had her gravestone read:.

By analogy with the Curse of the Bambino, Mahnken points to the departure of utility player Clay Bellinger from the Yankee roster following the 2001 season and asserts that the Yankees will never again win the World Series until either they make amends to Bellinger or they win the championship anyway. The Schindlers' attorney stated that the family was notified by fax only after the memorial service; by then, the family had already started getting calls from reporters.[37] The ashes were interred at Sylvan Abbey Memorial Park in Clearwater, Florida. One particularly creative explanation jokingly proposed by blogger Larry Mahnken is the "Curse of Clay Bellinger". On June 20, the cremated remains of Terri Schiavo were buried. This argument is bolstered by the fact that the production of the Yankees' core players has decreased steadily since their 1996 World Series title. He was under court order to provide this information to them. Several sabermetricians have argued that success in the playoffs is largely the result of luck. On May 7, Schiavo's parents made public a complaint that they hadn't been informed of when and where the ashes of their daughter had been (or were to be) buried by Michael Schiavo.

Buster Olney, in his book The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty, argues that George Steinbrenner's management style resulted in the players burning out psychologically. It can be heard here (Audio: MP3 Format).[36]. These include depletion of the Yankee farm system because of trades and free agent acquisitions, the aging or departure of the players who had formed the core of the Yankees during the late 1990s, and allegedly poor coaching (like the overuse of Mariano Rivera in the 2001 World Series). Father Frank Pavone, an activist with Priests for Life, delivered the homily. Many explanations have been given for the lack of Yankee World Series titles since 2000. Her parents offered a memorial Mass for her at the Holy Name of Jesus Catholic Church in Gulfport on April 5. On December 23, 2005, the Yankees stunned the baseball world by signing center fielder Johnny Damon from the rival Red Sox, where he was a marquee player. Schiavo's body was cremated following the autopsy.

From the end of the 2005 World Series to December 2005, the baseball world noticed that the Yankees were patient with signing free agents. The manner of death will therefore be certified as undetermined.". In the 2005-2006 offseason, general manager Brian Cashman took control of the Yankees, because owner George Steinbrenner and his advisors signed older talented players after the 2001 season. The cause of which [sic] cannot be determined with reasonable medical certainty. After the 2005 season, the Yankees needed to get younger and more athletic. Schiavo suffered severe anoxic brain injury. In the 2005 Division Series, the Angels defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason, winning the final game by a score of 5-3. Regarding the cause and manner of Schiavo’s death, Thogmartin wrote, "Mrs.

The Yankees seemed destined to win the division, and they did. The examiners also found no evidence that Schiavo had been the victim of trauma (such as domestic violence). Most of the season, the Yankees were chasing the Boston Red Sox for the division title. Although it was stated that Schiavo suffered from an eating disorder that caused a serious electrolyte disturbance, stopping her heart, the autopsy itself showed did not provide, and could not have provided, evidence to support this claim. As the season went on, the Yankees got better and slugger Jason Giambi started to hit again. Aside from a localized, healed inflammation, the cardiac pathologist who studied Schiavo's heart found it and the coronary vessels to be healthy. Pavano and Wright struggled, so did Johnson. In the case of Terri Schiavo, seven of the eight neurologists who examined her in her last years stated that she met the clinical criteria for PVS; the serial CT scans, EEGs, the one MRI, and finally, the pathologic findings, were consistent with that diagnosis.

The 2005 season didn't start as it expected to be, once they were in last place in the American League East division. Ancillary investigations, such as CT scans, MRI, EEGs, and lately fMRI and PET scanning, may only provide support for the clinical impression—as might the pathologic findings, after death. The Yankees also acquired dominant lefty Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks. As the condition is defined in clinical terms, it can therefore only be diagnosed in persons who, at some point, are shown to meet those clinical terms. They signed pitchers Carl Pavano and Jaret Wright. Nelson, P.A., cautioned that "[n]europathologic examination alone of the decedent’s brain – or any brain for that matter – cannot prove or disprove a diagnosis of persistent vegetative state or minimally conscious state."[35] The vegetative state is a behaviorally defined syndrome of complete unawareness, to self and to environment, that occurs in a person who nevertheless experiences wakefulness. After the 2004 World Series, the Yankees needed to improve their pitching, which suffered in the huge collapse to the Red Sox. Stephen J.

In the 2004 American League Championship Series against the Red Sox, the Yankees became the first team in professional baseball history, and only the third team in North American pro sports history (it happened in the NHL twice), to lose a best-of-7 series after taking a 3-0 series lead. The damage was, in the words of Thogmartin, "irreversible, and no amount of therapy or treatment would have regenerated the massive loss of neurons."[34] Dr. Other significant acquisitions during 2002 to 2004 included Jason Giambi, Hideki Matsui, Gary Sheffield, Kevin Brown, and Javier Vázquez. There was marked damage to important relay circuits deep in the brain (the thalami)—another common pathologic hallmark of PVS. The trend continued after the 2003 World Series, culminating when the Yankees traded for the "best player in baseball", Alex Rodriguez, in February 2004. The pattern of damage to the cortex, with injury tending to worsen from the front of the cortex to the back, is also typical. The Yankees' quick ejection from the 2002 playoffs at the hands of the Anaheim Angels accelerated the changes, as ownership and management began to look increasingly on free agent acquisitions and major trades. Throughout the cerebral cortex, the large pyramidal neurons that comprise some 70 percent of cortical cells—critical to the functioning of the cortex—were completely lost.

The loss in the 2001 World Series effectively marked the end of the 1990s Yankee dynasty, as lynchpin players began to retire, not be re-signed, or traded. The neuropathologic changes in her brain were precisely of the type seen in patients who enter a PVS following cardiac arrest. In 2003, the Yankees defeated their long-time rival the Boston Red Sox in a tough seven-game ALCS, which featured a near-brawl in Game 3 and a series-ending walk-off home run by Aaron Boone in the 11th inning of the final game, only to be defeated by the Florida Marlins - a team with a payroll a quarter of the size of the Yankees' - in the World Series, 4 games to 2. Microscopic examination revealed extensive damage to nearly all brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, the thalami, the basal ganglia, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, and the midbrain. In addition, the usually potent Yankee attack turned ice-cold. The brain itself weighed 615 g, only half the weight expected for a female of her age, height, and weight. Arizona manager Bob Brenly used his pitching staff, which included Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling, very effectively. Examination of Schiavo’s nervous system revealed extensive injury.

But, the usually unhittable Mariano Rivera shockingly blew the lead - and World Series - to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the bottom of the 9th inning of Game 7. The official autopsy report[33] was released on June 15, 2005. In the emotional October 2001, following the September 11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, the Yankees defeated the Oakland Athletics 3 games to 2 in the Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. Thogmartin also arranged for specialized cardiac and genetic examinations to be made. However, their regular season record was surpassed by the 2001 Seattle Mariners, who went 116-46 before losing to the Yankees in the American League Championship Series. Jon Thogmartin. The '98 Yankees went 11-2 during the playoffs and finished with a combined record of 125-50, a major league record. The autopsy was lead by Dr.

The 1998 Yankees are widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest teams in baseball history, having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular season wins against just 48 losses en route to a World Series sweep of the Padres. The manner of death was certified as "undetermined", but acute dehydration was noted. The Yankees are the most recent major league team to repeat as World Series champions. It revealed extensive brain damage and generally supported the PVS diagnosis. In these four World Series victories, the Yankees won fourteen straight games. The autopsy occurred on April 1, 2005. In 2000, the Yankees met up with cross-town New York Mets for the first Subway Series since 1956 and won four games to one. After her death, Schiavo's body was taken to the office of the medical examiner for Pinellas and Pasco counties.

In 1998 and 1999, they swept the San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves, respectively. The Schindler family was allowed into the room after Michael Schiavo had left.[32]. The 1998-2000 Yankees were the first team to "three-peat" with World Series victories since the Oakland Athletics of the early 1970s. Her parents, who had been denied access to her during her last hours, went to the hospice to visit her when they were informed she might be approaching death; they arrived half an hour after her death. Other prominent members of the late 1990s championships teams acquired through trades included Paul O'Neill, David Cone, Tino Martinez, John Wetteland, Chuck Knoblauch, and Roger Clemens, while Jimmy Key, Wade Boggs, David Wells, Mike Stanton, and Orlando "El Duque" Hernández were signed as free agents. EST on Thursday, March 31, 2005, with her husband Michael at her side. However, the foundation laid by Michael and Watson of players like Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, Mariano Rivera and Bernie Williams was a significant factor in the Yankees' return to prominence. Terri Schiavo died at 9:05 a.m.

General manager Bob Watson was dismissed when the Yankees failed to repeat in 1997 and was replaced by Brian Cashman, a former Yankees intern. As her tongue was too dry to receive a small piece of the host, she received under the species of wine, one drop being placed on her tongue. Initially derided as a retread choice ("Clueless Joe" ran the headline on one of the city's tabloid newspapers), Torre's smooth manner proved out as he led the Yankees to a World Series victory in 1996, defeating the Atlanta Braves in six games. The Eucharist, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, can be received under the consecrated species of either bread (referred to as the host) or wine. Showalter left after the 1995 season due to personality clashes with Steinbrenner and his staff and was replaced by Joe Torre. In accordance with the Catholic ritual of Viaticum, she received the Eucharist for the last time; it had been administered to her once through her feeding tube just before it was removed. A year later, the team reached the playoffs as the wild card and was eliminated only after a memorable series against the Seattle Mariners. The next day, Schiavo was given the Anointing of the Sick ("Last Rites").

The first significant sign of success came in 1994, when the Yankees had the best record in the AL when the season was cut short by the players' strike. On March 26, 2005, Bob and Mary Schindler announced that their legal options had been exhausted. Under general managers Gene Michael and Bob Watson and manager Buck Showalter, the club shifted its emphasis from buying talent to developing talent through its farm system and then holding onto it. In jest, one official said local police discussed "...whether we had enough officers to hold off the National Guard."[31]. The bad judgment and bad luck of the '80s and early '90s started to change when, while owner Steinbrenner was under suspension, management was able to implement a coherent program without interference from above. If Bush (or the Florida Legislature) had ignored Greer's order by attempting to remove Schiavo from the hospice, a confrontation between the Pinellas Park Police Department and the FDLE agents could have ensued. To add to the oddity, the Yankees (and Hawkins) were no-hit by the White Sox 11 days later. Governor Bush decided to obey the court order despite enormous pressure from the political right.

The 4-0 loss (to the White Sox) was the largest margin of any no-hitter loss in the 20th century. Once Greer was made aware of the stay, he ordered it lifted and all parties stood down. In 1990, Yankee pitcher Andy Hawkins became the first Yankees pitcher ever to lose a no-hitter, when the third baseman (Mike Blowers) committed an error, followed by 2 walks and an error by the left fielder (Jim Leyritz) with the bases loaded, scoring all 3 runners as well as the batter. While the stay was in effect, Florida Department of Law Enforcement personnel prepared to take custody of Terri and transfer her to a local hospital for reinsertion of the feeding tube. During the 1980s the Yankees, led by their All-Star first baseman Don Mattingly, had the most total wins out of any major league team, but failed to win a World Series (the first such decade since the 1910s). The order was appealed to the 2nd DCA the following day, which resulted in an automatic stay under state law. The Yankees entered the 1990s as a last-place team, having spent well but not always wisely on free-agent players since their last appearance in the World Series in 1981. On March 24, 2005, Greer denied a petition for intervention by the Department of Children & Families (DCF) and signed an order forbidding the department from "taking possession of Theresa Marie Schiavo or removing her" from the hospice and directed "each and every and singular sheriff of the state of Florida" to enforce his order.

The Yankees won the day, driving a stake through the hearts of their rivals' fans when Bucky Dent drove a game-winning home run over the "Green Monster," one of several emotional moments in the team's history that had Red Sox fans wondering if their team was under some kind of a curse. It suggested the Schiavo case offered "a great political issue" that would appeal to the party's base (core supporters) and could be used against Senator Bill Nelson, a Democrat from Florida who is up for reelection in 2006, because he had refused to co-sponsor the bill.[30]. A playoff game between the two teams was held to decide who would go on to the pennant, with the game being held at Boston's Fenway Park (because the Red Sox had won more head-to-head games between the two teams that season). The memo was written by Brian Darling, the legal counsel to Florida Republican senator Mel Martinez. The Yankees-Red Sox rivalry came to a head in the 1978 season, when the two clubs finished the regular season in a tie for first place in the AL East. At the same time, the so-called Schiavo memo surfaced, causing a political firestorm. The race for the pennant often came to a close competition between the Yankees and the Red Sox, and for fans of both clubs, a game between the two teams (whether in the regular season or post-season championship games) was cause for a rivalry that was often bitter and ruthless, with brawls frequently erupting between both players and fans from the two clubs. Supreme Court declined to grant certiorari, effectively ending the Schindlers' legal options.

October") defined the period as much as Martin and Steinbrenner. As in the state courts, all of the Schindlers' federal petitions and appeals were denied, and the U.S. Jackson's three home runs in the sixth and final game of the 1977 World Series against three different Dodger pitchers (earning him the nickname "Mr. EST. George Steinbrenner purchased the club for $10 million on January 3, 1973 from CBS, renovated Yankee Stadium, hired and fired Billy Martin a number of times, feuded with star outfielder Reggie Jackson, and presided over the resurgence of the Yankees in the late '70s. from his vacation in Texas in order to sign the bill into law at 1:11 a.m. After that the team's fortunes improved somewhat, but they would not become serious contenders again until 1974. President Bush flew to Washington D.C.

In 1966 the team finished last in the AL for the first time since 1912, and next-to-last the following year. EST. By contrast, the CBS-owned teams never went to the World Series, and in the first year of the new ownership - 1965 - the Yankees finished in the second division for the first time in 40 years; the introduction of the major league amateur draft in 1965 also meant that the Yankees could no longer sign any player they wanted. The bill passed the House on March 21 at 12:41 a.m. Topping and Webb had owned the Yankees for 20 years, missing the World Series only 5 times, and going 10-5 in the World Series. Governor Bush and Congressional Republicans anticipated Greer's adverse ruling well before it was delivered and worked on a daily basis to find an alternative means of overturning the legal process by utilizing the authority of the United States Congress.[29] On March 20, 2005, the Senate (with only three members present) passed their version of the resolution, followed by the House of Representatives, a private bill which came to be called the "Palm Sunday Compromise" (S-686), transferring jurisdiction of the Schiavo case to the federal courts. Jokesters at the time wondered if Walter Cronkite would become the manager, perhaps with Yogi Berra doing the newscasts. Greer told congressional attorneys, "I have had no cogent reason why the (congressional) committee should intervene." He also stated that last-minute action by Congress does not invalidate years of court rulings.[27][28] Although Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist, Senator Rick Santorum, and House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, brought the possibility of sanctioning Greer on charges of contempt of Congress, Congress did not attempt to enforce the subpoenas or take any action against Greer.

After the 1964 season, CBS purchased the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. Following Greer's order on March 18, 2005 to remove the feeding tube, Republicans in the United States Congress subpoenaed both Michael and Terri Schiavo to testify at a congressional hearing.[25] It is contempt of Congress to prevent or discourage congressional witnesses from testifying.[26] The purpose of the subpoenas was thus to postpone the feeding tube removal. It was to be the last World Series appearance by the Yankees for 12 years. The Florida Supreme Court then overturned the law as unconstitutional.[24]. Despite a valiant performance by Mantle, including a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth of Game 3 off Cardinals' reliever Barney Schultz, the Yankees fell to the Cardinals in seven games. On May 5, 2004, Baird found "Terri's Law" unconstitutional, and struck it down.[21] Bush appealed this order to the 2nd DCA, but, on May 12, they issued an "Order Relinquishing Case for Entry of Final Judgment and Order to Show Cause Why this Proceeding Should Not be Certified to the Supreme Court As Requiring Immediate Resolution."[22] The 2nd DCA, in sending it directly to the Florida's Supreme Court, invoked "pass through" jurisdiction.[23]. Louis Cardinals in a Series immortalized by David Halberstam's book, October 1964. On March 17, Baird denied the Schindlers the right to intervene a 2nd time,[17] and the Schindlers, represented by the conservative American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ), appealed the right to participate in the "Terri's Law" case, with the court scheduling an oral argument [18] date for June 14.[19] The Schindlers' other attorney, Pat Anderson, was concurrently challenging Michael Schiavo's right to be Terri's guardian, and, on June 16, [20] she made a petition for writ of Quo Warranto, a pleading that asks "by what right" someone acts in an official capacity.

The aging Yankees returned to the World Series in 1964 to face the St. They appealed, and, on February 13, the Florida Second District Court of Appeal (2nd DCA) reversed Baird's ruling,[16] allowing them to participate. Feeling burnt out after the season, Houk left the manager's chair to become the team's general manager and Berra, who himself had just retired from playing, was named the new manager of the Yankees. Greer. This was the first time the Yankees were swept in a World Series. Douglas Baird, a Circuit Judge in the Florida 6th Circuit, the same circuit as for Judge George W. Behind World Series-MVP Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, the Dodgers starting pitchers threw four complete games and combined to give up just four runs all Series. At the same time, Robert and Mary Schindler, Terri's parents attempted to intervene and participate in the "Terri's Law" case but were denied by Judge W.

The Yanks would again reach the Fall Classic in 1963, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Michael Schiavo opposed the Governor's intervention, and was represented, in part, by the ACLU. In 1962, the Yankees won their second consecutive World Series, defeating the San Francisco Giants in seven games. Bush immediately ordered the feeding tube reinserted. Because of the excellence of Maris, Mantle, and World Series-MVP Ford, a fine pitching staff, stellar team defense, the team's amazing depth and power, and their overall dominance, the 1961 Yankees are universally considered to be one of the greatest teams in the history of baseball, compared often to their pinstriped-brethren, the 1927 Yankees, the 1939 Yankees, and the 1998 Yankees. Earlier, in October of 2003, when the Schindlers' final appeal was exhausted, the Florida Legislature passed "Terri's Law,"[15] giving Governor Jeb Bush the authority to intervene in the case. Maris won his second consecutive MVP Award while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young. Congress made use of extraordinary measures to support the Schindlers.

The 1961 Yankees also clubbed a then-major league record for most home runs by a team with 240, a total not surpassed until the 1996 Baltimore Orioles hit 257 with the aid of the designated hitter. Both the state government of Florida and the U.S. The 109 regular season wins posted by the '61 club remain the third highest single-season total in franchise history, behind only the 1998 team's 114 regular season wins and 1927 team's 110 wins. Many are obviously not aware of the medical exams undertaken for the 2002 trial..." [14]. The Yankees won the pennant with a 109-53 record and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series. Greer noted that "[m]ost of the doctor affidavits submitted are based on their understanding of Schiavo's condition from news reports or video clips they have seen. Maris still holds the American League record.). Both are asking for an experimental procedure." [13] The following day, Greer denied the first motion as well, citing that an affiant doctor for Michael cautioned that fMRI was an experimental procedure that should be conducted in an academic setting, because Schiavo had already undergone swallowing tests and failed, and because VitalStim had only been performed on patients who were not in a PVS.

(McGwire's record was later broken by Barry Bonds, whose 73 home runs in 2001 remain the major league record. The same declarations are being used for both motions and the motion appears to be an alternative pleading to the [previous] motion. Some 30 years later, on September 4, 1991, an 8-member Committee for Historical Accuracy appointed by Major League Baseball did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record until it was broken by Mark McGwire on September 8, 1998. [12] Judge Greer denied the second motion on March 8, saying "it has become clear that the [second] motion is part and parcel of [the previous] motion on medical evaluations. However, by decree of Commissioner Ford Frick, separate single-season home run records were maintained to reflect the fact that Ruth hit his 60 home runs during a 154-game season, while Maris hit his 61 in the first year of the new 162-game season. On February 28, the Schindlers filed a motion, asking for permission to attempt to provide Schiavo with "Food and Water by Natural Means." This second motion asked for permission to "attempt to feed" Schiavo by mouth. On October 1, 1961, on the final day of the season, Maris broke the record when he sent a pitch from Boston's Tracy Stallard into the right field stands at Yankee Stadium for his 61st home run. on Friday, March 18, 2005." [11].

The duo's home run prowess led the media and fans to christen them 'The M & M Boys.' Ultimately, Mantle was forced to bow out in mid-September with 54 home runs when a severe hip infection forced him from the lineup. Anderson argued that Greer did not specify "artificial nutrition and hydration" versus "oral nutrition and hydration" and stated that "the withholding of food and water...was not ordered by the Court but by Michael Schiavo." [10] In his order, Greer also set a time and date for the removal of the feeding tube: "1:00 p.m. Throughout the summer, Mantle and reigning-MVP Roger Maris hit home runs at a record pace as both chased Babe Ruth's single season home run record of 60. [7] [8] Patricia Fields Anderson, the Schindler family attorney, still held out hope "that Terri might be able to take nourishment orally, despite past findings that she is incapable." [9] Judge Greer formally denied the motion and ordered the "removal of nutrition and hydration from the ward" . In the meantime, 1961 was one of the greatest years in Yankee history. The motion was accompanied by thirty-three affidavits from doctors in several specialties, speech pathologists and therapists, and a few neuropsychologists, all urging that new tests be undertaken. Once Finley purchased the Athletics, he immediately terminated the team's "special relationship" with the Yankees. On February 23, 2005, the Schindlers filed a motion for relief from judgment pending medical evaluations[6] The Schindlers wanted Schiavo to be tested with an fMRI and given a swallowing therapy called VitalStim.

Many fans, and even other teams, frequently accused the Athletics of being operated as an effective farm team for the Yankees. No stay was granted by the appellate courts, and on March 18, 2005, Schiavo's feeding tube was removed for a third time. Maris had been acquired by the Yankees in one such trade. The Schindlers filed two motions in an effort for forestall the removal of Terri's feeding tube. During Johnson's ownership, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. In addressing the issue of law surrounding the case, Wolfson concluded "that the trier of fact and the evidence that served as the basis for the decisions regarding Theresa Schiavo were firmly grounded within Florida statutory and case law, which clearly and unequivocally provide for the removal of artificial nutrition in cases of persistent vegetative states.". Johnson was also a longtime business associate of then-Yankees owners Del Webb and Dan Topping. Of suggestions that Michael Schiavo refused to relinquish his guardianship because of financial interests or to cover up previous abuse, Wolfson reported that "there is no evidence in the record to substantiate any of these perceptions or allegations.".

He was the owner of Yankee Stadium at the time, but was forced to sell the stadium by American League owners as a condition of purchasing the Athletics. That the Schindlers would keep their daughter alive to the point of her "limbs being amputated," was not accurate according to Wolfson. Johnson had acquired the then-Philadelphia Athletics from the family of Connie Mack in 1954. Wolfson addressed two criticisms that media attention had affixed to the Schindlers and Michael Schiavo, respectively. In December of 1960, Chicago insurance executive Charlie Finley purchased the Kansas City Athletics from the estate of Arnold Johnson, who had died that March. In examining medical records and consultations surrounding the case, Wolfson concluded: "(that there is) well documented information that she is in a persistent vegetative state with no likelihood of improvement, and that the neurological and speech pathology evidence in the file support the contention that she cannot take oral nutrition or hydration and cannot consciously interact with her environment." He observed further that while there appeared to be agreement about Schiavo and PVS: "the Schindlers have adopted what appears to be a position that Theresa is not in a persistent vegetative state, and/or that they do not support the fact that such a medical state exists at all.". During the 1960-61 offseason, a seemingly innocuous development may have marked the beginning of the end for this Yankees dynasty. His central finding was: "The GAL was not able to independently determine that there were consistent, repetitive, intentional, reproducible interactive and aware activities." He notes further, that when joined by her parents no success was gained in eliciting a repetitive or consistent response from Schiavo.

Stengel himself, who had reached his seventh decade in July of that year, clearly thought the issue was age discrimination, remarking, "I'll never make the mistake of turning 70 again." Yogi Berra's assessment of the loss was the equally famous comment, "We made too many wrong mistakes.". In December, 2003, he submitted his report, referring to himself in the third person as "the GAL". Stengel was blamed for the World Series loss for failing to start his ace, Ford, three times in the Series, and was replaced as manager with Ralph Houk prior to the 1961 season. Wolfson visited Schiavo at least daily over the course of a month. It remains the only Game 7, walk-off home run in World Series history. By the start of 2005, feeding tube removal again seemed imminent and the case again began to reach a national audience. However, the Yankees lost the 1960 World Series in heartbreaking fashion when Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning, series-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 off Ralph Terry. Throughout 2004, the legal struggle continued, but it received less publicity.

Led by Mantle, Ford, Berra, Elston Howard, and the newly acquired Roger Maris, the Yankees burst into the new decade seeking to replicate the remarkable success of the 1950s. Wolfson's report did not change Michael's role as Terri's legal guardian and did not otherwise obstruct him legally. For the decade, the Yankees won six World Series championships ('50, 51, '52, '53, '56, '58) and eight American League pennants. Jay Wolfson, to "deduce and represent the best wishes and best interests" of Schiavo, and report them to Governor Bush. Pitcher Bob Turley also won the Cy Young Award in 1958, the award's third year of existence. Part of the legislation required the appointment of a guardian ad litem, Dr. Yankee players also dominated the American League MVP award, with a Yankee claiming ownership six times in the decade (1950 Rizzuto, 1951 Berra, 1954 Berra, 1955 Berra, 1956 Mantle, 1957 Mantle). [5] She was then returned to the hospice.

The Yankees went on to win yet another World Series that season, and Larsen earned World Series MVP honors. She was taken to a hospital, where her feeding tube was surgically reinserted. Not only was it the only perfect game to be pitched in World Series play, it remains the only no-hitter of any kind to be pitched in postseason play. Bush immediately sent the Florida Department of Law Enforcement to remove Schiavo from the hospice. On October 8, 1956, in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series against the Dodgers, pitcher Don Larsen threw the only perfect game in World Series history. See "Government involvement" for additional details. In 1956, Mantle won the major league triple crown, leading both leagues in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130). Within a week, the Florida legislature passed and Florida Governor Jeb Bush signed "Terri's Law", enabling Bush to intervene.

The 1950s were also a decade of significant individual achievement for Yankee players. On October 15, 2003, Schiavo's feeding tube was removed. Led by players like center fielder Mickey Mantle, pitcher Whitey Ford, and catcher Yogi Berra, Stengel's teams won 10 pennants and seven World Series titles in his twelve seasons as Yankee manager. Iyer for the January 2000 evidentiary hearing had Iyer contacted them [in 1996] as her affidavit alleges." [4]. The five consecutive championships won by the Yankees during this period remains the major league record. Schindler would not have subpoenaed Ms. Bettering the McCarthy-era clubs, Stengel's squad won the World Series in his first five years as manager, 1949 through 1953. and Mrs.

As if on cue, new superstars began arriving, including the "Oklahoma Kid", Mickey Mantle, whose first year (1951) was DiMaggio's curtain call. Schindler...It is impossible to believe that Mr. He was also hampered by bone spurs in his heel, which hastened the final docking of the "Yankee Clipper". and Mrs. It has often been reported that he said he wanted to retire before he became an "ordinary" player. Iyer details what amounts to a 15-month cover-up [April 1995 through July 1996] which include the staff of Palm Garden of Largo Convalescent Center, the Guardian of the Person, the guardian ad litem, the medical professionals, the police and, believe it or not, Mr. By this time, the Great DiMaggio's career was winding down. The exhibits relied upon by them clearly demonstrate this to be true." Regarding Iyer's statements, Greer wrote that they were "incredible to say the least" and that "Ms.

The post-season proved to be a bit easier, as the Yankees knocked off their cross-town Flatbush rivals 4 games to 1. It is not even a veiled or disguised attempt. The 1949 season is another that has been written about poetically, as a Yankees team that was seen as "underdogs" came from behind to catch and surpass the powerful Red Sox on the last two days of the season, in a faceoff that could be said to be the real beginning of the modern intense rivalry between these teams. Schindler to re-litigate the entire case. His tenure would prove to the most successful in the Yankees' history up to that point. and Mrs. Casey had a reputation for being somewhat of a clown and had been associated with managing excruciatingly bad teams such as the mid-1930s Boston Braves, so his selection was met with no little skepticism. On September 17, Judge George Greer denied the petition, and wrote that "the Petition is an attempt by Mr.

Despite finishing only 3 games back of the pennant-winning Cleveland Indians in 1948, Harris was released, and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel as their manager. Iyer stated that standing orders were not to contact the Schindler family, but that she "would call them anyway." Iyer stated that she eventually called the police and was fired the next day. After a couple of interim managers had come and gone, Bucky Harris was brought in and the Yankees righted the ship again, winning the 1947 pennant and facing a much-tougher Dodgers team than their 1941 counterparts, in a Series that went seven games and was a harbinger of things to come for much of the next decade. She stated that it was medically possible that Michael injected his wife with insulin in an attempt to kill her. The Yanks then went into a bit of a slump, and manager McCarthy was let go early in the 1946 season. One of the nurses, Carla Sauer Iyer said in her affidavit that her initial training in 1996 consisted solely of the instruction, "do what Michael Schiavo tells you or you're terminated." She stated that on five different occasions, she tested Schiavo's blood sugar levels after Michael visited her, and she found that her blood sugar levels were so low it wouldn't even register a number. Louis Cardinals during 1942 and 1943. At the hearing the Schindlers' counsel read into the record additional affidavits from three speech professionals and two nurses.

The war-thinned ranks of the major leagues nonetheless found the Yanks in the post-season again, as they traded World Series wins with the St. Gimon. Two months and one day after the final game of the Yanks' 4 to 1 win, the Pearl Harbor attacks occurred, and many of the best ballplayers went off to World War II. Alexander T. The Yankees made short work of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 Series. Accompanying the petition were four affidavits from members of the Schindler family and one from Dr. Modern baseball historians regard it as unlikely that anyone will ever hit .400 again, barring a change to the way the game is played; and as virtually impossible that anyone will approach DiMaggio's 56-game streak, which is so far beyond second place (44) as to be almost a statistical anomaly. The petition was denied.

A crucial factor in ending the streak was the fielding of Cleveland third baseman Ken Keltner, who stopped two balls that DiMaggio hit hard to the left. On September 11, 2003, the Schindlers petitioned the court to forestall removal of the feeding tube to provide for "eight weeks' therapy". The streak was finally snapped in a game at Cleveland Stadium the next night before a huge crowd at the lakefront. In the fall of 2002, their first child was born. A popular song by Les Brown celebrated this event, as Betty Bonney and the band members sang it: "He tied the mark at 44 / July the First, you know / Since then he's hit a good 12 more / Joltin' Joe DiMaggio / Joe, Joe DiMaggio, we want you on our side." The last game of the streak came on July 16 at Cleveland's League Park. In 1995, Michael began a relationship with another woman, Jodi Centonze. Meanwhile, DiMaggio, who had once hit in 61 straight games as a minor leaguer with the San Francisco Seals, began a hitting streak on May 15 which stretched to an astonishing 56 games. By the summer of 2003, Michael's pursuit of having Terri's feeding tube removed had progressed to the point where removal seemed imminent.

Ted Williams of the Red Sox was in the hunt for the elusive .400 batting average, which he achieved on the last day of the season. Pro-life groups had begun to actively come to the aid of the Schindlers and the story was receiving increasing publicity at the state level. After an off season came the Summer of 1941, a much-celebrated year, often described by sportswriters as the last great year of the "Golden Era", before World War II and other realities intervened. As the legal conflict escalated to the state level, the Schindlers began to use Randall Terry as their spokesman. They also swept the Chicago Cubs in 1938, and the Cincinnati Reds in 1939. The Schindlers released an influential video of Terri and her mother in what appeared to be some form of interaction. They took the Giants 4 games to 2 in that Series, and 4 games to 1 the next year. They would do so again in 2005.

During Game 2 of the 1936 Series, they pounded the Giants 18-4, still the World Series record (through 2005) for most runs by a team in one game. In March of 2000, the Schindlers filed a motion to permit oral feeding of Schiavo, which is not considered a life-prolonging procedure under Florida law. When the Yankees did get into the Series, they had little trouble. There were many legal conflicts over the next five years between Michael Schiavo and Terri's parents. The strongest competition for the Yankees during that stretch was the Detroit Tigers, who won two pennants before that Yankees four-year stretch, and one after. The courts determined that Terri was in a persistent vegetative state from which she had little chance of ever recovering. They did it without Gehrig for most of 1939, as the superstar's retirement due to ALS saddened the baseball world. In 1998, Michael requested that Terri's nutrition be withheld with the obvious intention that Terri's life should come to an end in the near future.

Behind the thundering Yankees bats of DiMaggio, Gehrig and Frank Crosetti, and a superb pitching staff led by Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez and anchored by catcher Bill Dickey, the Yankees reeled off an unprecedented four consecutive World Series wins during 1936-1939. Terri's parents and, in several cases, medical administrative staff moved to opposed these measures and thus began a long and complicated legal struggle. The young center fielder from San Francisco was an immediate impact player, batting .323, hitting 29 homers and driving in 125 runs in his rookie season of 1936. He requested that treatment for infections be halted. Just as Gehrig stepped out of Ruth's considerable shadow, a new titan appeared on the horizon, in the person of Joe DiMaggio. In 1994, Michael Schiavo indicated that he saw no hopes for his wife's recovery, and that she would not want to continue her life under those circumstances. The Yankees run during the 1930s could also be facetiously called the "McCarthy era", as manager Joe McCarthy (no relation to the infamous Senator of the same name) would guide the Yankees to new heights. The Schindler's continue to present statements to the public that question this diagnosis, but the issue has not further been addressed by the courts.

Babe Ruth hit his famous "Called Shot" home run in Wrigley Field in Game 3 of that Series, a fitting "Swan Song" to his illustrious post-season career. Michael fought and won a malpractice suit with a large monetary award against Terri's obstetrician based on the premise that Terri had an undiagnosed eating disorder. After three also-ran seasons, the Yankees returned to the American League top perch under new manager Joe McCarthy in 1932 and swept the Chicago Cubs in the World Series, running their streak of consecutive World Series game wins to 12, a mark which would stand until the 2000 Yankees bested it in the World Series that year. That latter pursuit was not successful. Babe Ruth hit .625 with 3 home runs in that series, while Lou Gehrig hit .545 and belted 4 round-trippers. She was diagnosed as being in persistent vegetative state and was provided with standard care for such a case and was also provided with some extraordinary procedures in pursuit of a cognitive recovery. Louis Cardinals in the World Series. She was fitted with a feeding tube for nutrition and hydration.

The Yankees would repeat as American League champions in 1928, fighting off the resurgent Philadelphia Athletics, and sweep the St. Terri Schiavo suffered a cardiac arrest at her home in 1990. Ruth's home run total of 60 in 1927 set a single-season record which would stand for 34 years, and first baseman Lou Gehrig had his first big season with 47 round-trippers.
. The 1927 team was so potent that it became known as "Murderers' Row" and is sometimes considered to have been the best team in the history of baseball (though similar claims have been made for other Yankee squads, notably those of 1939, 1961 and 1998). The physician who examined her did not take a complete medical history, which might have indicated an eating disorder. Stengel would later become a "giant" for the Yankees as a manager. At this time Schiavo's weight had dropped to 120 pounds, and she had stopped menstruating.

Giants outfielder Casey Stengel, who even then was being called "Old Case", hit two homers to win the two games the Giants came away with. In 1989, the Schiavos began visiting an obstetrician and receiving fertility services and counseling in the hopes of having a child. In 1921 through 1923 they faced the Giants in the World Series, losing the first two match-ups but turning the tables in 1923 after the Big Stadium opened. In Florida, she worked as an insurance claims clerk for the Prudential insurance company, and Michael was a restaurant manager. From 1921 to 1928, the Yankees went through their first period of great success, winning six American League pennants and three World Series. Petersburg three months later. It was truly "the House that Ruth Built",. Schiavo's parents also moved to St.

The Stadium was the first triple-deck venue in baseball and seated an astounding 58,000. Petersburg, Florida, in April 1986. The site for the stadium was chosen because the IRT Jerome Avenue subway line, now the MTA's#4 train, went right by there, practically on top of Yankee Stadium's right-field wall. They moved to St. and River Avenue in the Bronx. They were married on November 10, 1984, at Our Lady of Good Counsel Church in Southampton, Pennsylvania. In 1923 the Yankees moved into Yankee Stadium at 161st St. After dating for five months, the couple became engaged.

The construction crew moved with remarkable speed and finished the big new ballpark in less than a year. He was her first boyfriend. Instead, to McGraw's chagrin, they broke ground for a new ballpark just across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds. She met Michael Schiavo in 1982 in a sociology class at Bucks County Community College. At that time, John McGraw was said to have commented that the Yankees should "move to some out-of-the-way place, like Queens". She went on a NutriSystem diet and lost about 55 pounds (25 kg).[2] She may have developed an eating disorder around this time.[3] In 1981, she graduated from Archbishop Wood Catholic High School. In 1921 the Yankees were told to move out of the Polo Grounds after the 1922 season. By her senior year in high school, Schiavo was overweight, with a height of 5 feet, 3 inches (160 cm) and a weight of around 200 pounds (90 kg).

The home run hitting exploits of Ruth proved popular with the public, to the extent that the Yankees were soon outdrawing their landlords, the Giants. (Bobby) and Suzanne (now Suzanne Vitadamo). He was especially noted for development of the Yankees' farm system. Her younger siblings were Robert Jr. Barrow would act as general manager or president of the Yankees for the next 25 years and may deserve the bulk of the credit for the team's success during that period. Schiavo grew up in the Huntingdon Valley area of Lower Moreland Township, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the eldest of three children of Robert and Mary Schindler. Barrow came on board after the 1920 season, and like many of the new Yankee players had previously been a part of the Red Sox organization, having managed the team since 1918. .

Huggins was hired in 1919 by Ruppert while Huston was serving in Europe with the army (this would lead to a break between the two owners, with Ruppert eventually buying Huston out in 1923). She died at a Pinellas Park, Florida hospice on March 31, 2005, at the age of 41. Other critical newcomers in this period were manager Miller Huggins and general manager Ed Barrow. Her feeding tube was removed a third and final time on March 18, 2005. Harry Frazee finally found success on Broadway in 1927 with the musical comedy No No Nanette, which included the song "Tea For Two". Despite these interventions, the courts continued to find that Schiavo was in a PVS with no hope for recovery, and would want to cease life support. The Red Sox did not win a World Series from 1919 until 2004 (see Curse of the Bambino), often finding themselves out of the World Series hunt as a result of the success of the Yankees. By March 2005, the legal history around the Schiavo case included fourteen appeals and numerous motions, petitions, and hearings in the Florida courts; five suits in Federal District Court; Florida legislation struck down by the Supreme Court of Florida; a subpoena by a congressional committee in an attempt to qualify Schiavo for "witness protection"; federal legislation (Palm Sunday Compromise); and four denials of certiorari from the Supreme Court of the United States.[1].

Two of the four Boston newspapers agreed with the deal at the time. By 2003, the matter, while still local to Florida, had received some national attention. That would continue during his Yankees years, but the ownership was more tolerant, provided he brought fans and championships to the ballpark. The courts consistently found that Schiavo was in a PVS and had made credible statements that she would not wish to be kept alive on a machine. Ruth was also regarded as a problem, a carouser. Beginning in 1998, Terri's husband and guardian Michael Schiavo petitioned the courts to remove the gastric feeding tube keeping Schiavo alive; Schiavo's parents Robert and Mary Schindler fought a series of legal battles opposing Michael. Frazee also wished to aid the Yankees, as giving the Yankees a box office draw would strengthen a legal ally, and reduce the pressure he faced[3]. Within three years, she was diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) with little chance of recovery.

Frazee traded Ruth in January of 1920, citing Ruth's demand for a raise after being paid the highest salary in baseball, and despite owning the single season homerun record at the time of the trade (hitting 29 homeruns in 1919[2]). She remained in a coma for ten weeks. However, pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the biggest of them all. Schiavo experienced cardiac arrest due to a potassium imbalance and collapsed in her home in 1990, incurring massive brain damage. From 1919 to 1922, the Yankees acquired pitchers Waite Hoyt, Carl Mays and Herb Pennock, catcher Wally Schang, shortstop Everett Scott and third baseman Joe Dugan, all from the Red Sox. Petersburg, Florida whose medical circumstances and attendant legal battles fueled significant media attention and led to several high-profile court decisions and involvement by politicians and interest groups. President Ban Johnson, Frazee faced most of the legal battles which proved costly[1]. Theresa Marie "Terri" Schiavo (December 3, 1963 – March 31, 2005) was a woman from St.

Further, as Frazee owned the strongest of the "Insurrectos" franchizes, which antagonized A.L. "Schiavo abuse claims were old," Saint Petersburg Times, June 4, 2005 link. Many of the newly acquired players who would later contribute to their success came from the Boston Red Sox, whose owner, theater impresario Harry Frazee, had bought his team on credit and needed money to pay off his loans and purchase Fenway Park from the Fenway Park Trust. ^ Tisch, Chris and Krueger, Curtis. Over the next few years the new owners would begin to enlarge the payroll. "Statement from Gloria Allred, Attorney-at-Law, Representing Robert Herring, Sr.:," Christian Wire Service, March 10, 2005 link. The Yankees detente with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox circa 1920 (all three collectively known as the "Insurrectos") paid off well. ^ Allred, Gloria, Esq.

Perhaps one of the greatest ironies of the Yankees dominance comes from its roots. "Money Trail in the Schiavo Case: Bioethics for Sale?," The Daily Kos, March 22, 2005 link. Ruppert later said, "For $450,000 we got an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige." But now with an owner possessing deep pockets, and a willingness to dig into them to produce a winning team. ^ Zúniga, Markos Moulitsas. Congressman for eight years. "A REPORT TO GOVERNOR JEB BUSH AND THE 6TH JUDICIAL CIRCUIT IN THE MATTER OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO," Abstract Appeal Legal Blog, December 1, 2003 link. Ruppert was heir to the Ruppert brewery fortune and had also been tied to the Tammany Hall machine, serving as a U.S. ^ Wolfson, Jay, DrPH, JD.

At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert and Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston. 6th Judicial Circuit, February 11, 2000 link. By the mid 1910s, owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and both were in need of money. 90-2908GD-003, Fla. Before very long, New York Yankees had become the official nickname of the club. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated," File No. With the change of parks in 1913, the "Highlanders" reference became obsolete, and the de facto team nickname became exclusively "Yankees". ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge.

The name grew in popularity over the team's first decade. "The Terri Schiavo Case: Vatican official enters Schiavo feeding tube fray," Saint Petersburg Times, February 26, 2005 link. The New York Herald, on April 15, 1906, reported "Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1". ^ Moore, Waveney Ann. That matter-of-fact wording suggests the nickname was already well-known. "Schiavo's Remains Buried Amid Acrimony: Acrimony Between Terri Schiavo's Parents and Husband Continues As Her Remains Buried in Florida," Associated Press, June 21, 2005 link. During the early 1900s, the nickname "Yankees" was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on "Americans", verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald's report was headlined "Dougherty as a Yankee". ^ Stacy, Mitch.

Relations between the clubs had warmed when the Giants were allowed to lease Hilltop Park while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt in 1911 following a disastrous fire. "Schiavo's parents planning a funeral Mass for today," Saint Petersburg Times, April 5, 2005 link. From 1913 to 1922 the team would play in the Polo Grounds, a park owned by their National League rivals, the Giants. ^ By Times Staff. For fans of the team formally named the Red Sox in 1908, the 1904 season-ender would prove to be the last time Boston would defeat the Yankees in a pennant-deciding game for literally a century. "REPORT OF AUTOPSY" for Theresa Schiavo, Case #5050439, June 13, 2005 link. 1904 was the last year a Series was not played, until the strike-truncated year of 1994. ^ Thogmartin, Jon R., M.D.

Brush, who then led a committee that formalized the rules governing the World Series. "Autopsy: No sign Schiavo was abused: Findings show woman's brain 'profoundly atrophied'," CNN, June 17, 2005 link. The resulting tongue-lashing of the Giants by the media stung their owner, John T. ^ Phillips, Rich, Producer. Although Boston had won the pennant, the Giants still refused to participate. "REPORT OF AUTOPSY" for Theresa Schiavo, Case #5050439, June 13, 2005 link. First, the presence of the Highlanders in the race had led the Giants to announce they would not participate in the World Series against a "minor league" team. ^ Thogmartin, Jon R., M.D.

This event had historical significance in several ways. "Attorney: Terri's husband cradled her: 'It was a very emotional moment for many of us there'," CNN, April 1, 2005 link. New York pitcher Jack Chesbro threw a wild pitch in the ninth inning which allowed the eventual pennant-winning run to score for the Boston Americans. ^ An Unsigned News Story. Their best chance came on the last day of the 1904 season, at the Hilltop. "KCBS Report: State Tried Schiavo Grab," WCBS-TV, March 26, 2005 (WCBS-TV New York, reprinting a KCBS-TV Los Angeles Story) link. Their somewhat tainted ownership, along with the questionable activities of some players, notably first baseman Hal Chase, raised suspicions of game-fixing, but little of that was ever proven. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story.

As the Highlanders, the team enjoyed success only twice, finishing in second place in 1904 and 1910; but otherwise, much of their first fifteen years in New York was spent in the cellar. "GOP memo says issue offers political rewards," The Washington Post, April 4, 2005 link. Today the site of the original Hilltop Park is occupied by buildings of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. ^ An Unsigned News Story. The name was also a reference to the noted British military unit The Gordon Highlanders, as the team president from 1903 to 1906 was named Joseph Gordon. "Lawyers for Bush, lawmakers worked at exhausting pace on Schiavo," The Associated Press, May 24, 2005 link. Consequently the field was known as Hilltop Park and the team quickly became known as the New York Highlanders. ^ Farrington, Brendan.

and Broadway in Manhattan, near the highest point on the island. "Schiavo's Feeding Tube Removed," TBO.com News, March 18, 2005 link. The franchise's first park in New York was located at 165th St. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story. Farrell owned a casino and several pool halls, while Devery had served as a blatantly corrupt chief of the New York City police and had only been forced out of the department at the start of 1902. "Schiavo's feeding tube removed despite congressional intervention," USA Today, March 18, 2005 link. Farrell and Devery both had deep ties into city politics and gambling. ^ An Unsigned "AP" News Story.

The AL's Baltimore franchise became the New York franchise when its new owners, Frank Farrell and William Devery, were able to find a ballpark location not blocked by the Giants. "Docs Remove Terri Schiavo's Feeding Tube: Tube Was Scheduled To Be Removed Friday," CBS 2 Chicago, WBBM-TV, March 17, 2005 link. The NL also agreed that the "junior circuit" could establish a franchise in New York. ^ An Unsigned News Story. In January 1903, the American and National Leagues held a "peace conference" to settle conflicts over player contract disputes and to agree on future cooperation. House of Representatives, March 18, 2005 link. A week later the owner of the Giants also gained controlling interest of the Orioles and raided the team for players, after which the league declared the team forfeit and took control, still intending to move the franchise to New York when and if possible. "SUBPOENA," Committee on Government Reform, U.S.

As a result of a feud with league president Ban Johnson, who rigidly enforced rules about rowdyism on the field of play, McGraw jumped leagues to manage the New York Giants in the middle of the 1902 season. ^ Davis, Tom, Chairman, (for The Committee). When the team began play as the Baltimore Orioles in 1901, they were managed by John McGraw. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Guardian of Theresa Schiavo, Appellee," Case Number: SC04-925, Florida Supreme Court, September 23, 2004 link. The intention of Johnson and the American League had been to place a team in New York City, but their efforts had been stymied by the political connections that owners of the National League New York Giants had with Tammany Hall. "JEB BUSH, Governor of Florida, et al., Appellants, vs. Previously a minor league (known as the Western League until 1899), the American League carried over five of its previous locations and added three more on the East Coast, including one in Baltimore, Maryland, which had lost its National League team when that league contracted the year before. ^ Pariente, Barbara, Chief Justice (for The Court).

At the end of the 1900 season the American League re-organized and, with its president Ban Johnson as the driving force, decided to assert itself as a new major league. "Schiavo News," Abstract Appeal Legal Web Log, June 10, 2004 link. . ^ Conigliaro, Matt, Esq. The Yankees are also the only team that is represented at every position in the Baseball Hall of Fame. "Order Relinquishing Case for Entry of Final Judgment and Order to Show Cause Why this Proceeding Should Not be Certified to the Supreme Court As Requiring Immediate Resolution," Case Number: 2D04-2045, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, May 12, 2004 (Pages 6 & 7 of the 7-page Brief at the link following) link. Among the North American major sports, the Yankees' success is only approached by the 23 Stanley Cup championships of the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League. ^ Birkhold, James, Clerk (for The Court).

Louis Cardinals and the Oakland Athletics are tied for second with 9 World Series victories each, and the Los Angeles Dodgers is second in World Series appearances with 18. 6th Judicial Circuit, May 5, 2005 link. The Yankees have won 26 World Series in 39 appearances; the St. 03-008212-CI-20, Fla. They are one of two major league franchises which operate in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. Jeb BUSH, Governor of the State of Florida, and Charlie Crist, Attorney General of the State of Florida, Respondents," Case No. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Yankees have been among the most storied teams in North America over their 100+ year history; along with franchises like the Boston Celtics, Dallas Cowboys, and Montreal Canadiens, the Yankees have helped exemplify the phrase "dynasty" in professional athletics. "Michael SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of Theresa Marie Schiavo, Petitioner, v.

They are in the Eastern Division of the American League. Douglas, Circuit Judge. The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball team based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. ^ Baird, W. ♦ - Hall of Famer
Jackie Robinson's #42 is retired by Major League Baseball
. "News Coverage of Terri Schiavo's family's challenge to Mike Schiavo's guardianship," Purple Moose Marie Web log, June 16, 2004 link. (Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912). ^ Ford, Cheryl, R.N.

Because New York won the regular season series with Boston, New York was awarded the division championship and Boston was awarded the wild card.. "Case Docket," Case Number: 2D04-1528, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, link. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
[3] - In 2005, the Yankees and the Boston Red Sox finished the season with identical records of 95-67 and finished tied for first place in the East Division standings. ^ State of Florida. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. "Lakeland Appeals Court holds Oral Arguments for Terri's Law," Purple Moose Marie Web log, June 14, 2004 link. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore.
[2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. ^ Anonymous.

New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. Minnesota Governor's Council on Developmental Disabilities, March 17, 2004 link. [1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. "Judge Baird Again Denies Schindlers' Request To Intervene In "Terri's Law" Case," Fla. Rookie: GCL Yankees, Gulf Coast League. ^ Reynolds, Dave, Inclusion Daily Express. Short A: Staten Island Yankees, New York-Penn League. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Appellee," Case Number: 2D03-5200, Florida Second District Court of Appeal, February 13, 2004 link.

A: Charleston RiverDogs, South Atlantic League. "ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, parents of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Appellants, v. Advanced A: Tampa Yankees, Florida State League. ^ David, Charles A., Jr., Judge (for The Court). AA: Trenton Thunder, Eastern League. 35-E, which later was passed into Law as Florida Public Law, Chapter 2003-418, commonly known as "Terri's Law," link. AAA: Columbus Clippers, International League. House Bill No.

54 Rob Thomson (special assignment instructor). ^ State of Florida. -- Tony Peña (first base). 6th Judicial Circuit, March 9, 2005 link. 50 Rich Monteleone (special pitching instructor). 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. -- Lee Mazzilli (bench). ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No.

23 Don Mattingly (hitting). MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. -- Joe Kerrigan (bullpen pitching). "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated. 49 Ron Guidry (pitching). ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. -- Larry Bowa (third base). 6th Judicial Circuit, March 8, 2005 link.

99 Mike Borzello (bullpen catching). 90-2908-GD-003, Fla.  6 Joe Torre. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. The Yankee Stadium grounds crew has become famous in their own right for their infield sweeping in the middle of the fifth inning when they dance to the popular 70's hit YMCA by the Village People. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. The Yankee fans who sit behind the right-field portion of the bleacher seats in Yankee Stadium have become so well known for their rowdy behavior that they are often referred to as the "bleacher creatures." They have also popularized a type of chant called "Role Call" where, in the top of the first inning, they chant each field player's name on the Yankees repeatedly until the player acknowledges the chant. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

The Yankees have teamed up with New Era and Adidas to make caps for sale. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. Under George Steinbrenner, the team has a strict dress code that forbids long hair and facial hair below the lip. "EMERGENCY EXPEDITED MOTION FOR PERMISSION TO PROVIDE THERESA SCHIAVO WITH FOOD AND WATER BY NATURAL MEANS," File Number: 90-2908GD-003, February 27, 2005 link. American football's example of balanced salaries, correlated with its now-massive parity and mainstream impact, demonstrates that keeping athletic salaries fair is good for the sport and therefore everyone - TV outlets, owners, fans. ^ Gibbs, David C., III, Esq. Manny Ramírez, Pedro Martínez), who might otherwise freely use the potentiality as a bargaining chip. 6th Judicial Circuit, February 25, 2005 link.

This phenomenon even causes the Yankees to announce their intentions not to pursue certain free agents (e.g. 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. The willingness of the Yankees to pay premium prices for top talent encourages players and their agents to demand unreasonably high prices, further diluting talent throughout the rest of the league. ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. Allowing one team to bid highly for the best talent makes it more difficult for lower-spending teams (primarily in smaller metropolitan areas) to compete. MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. In a free-market society, an owner who wishes to spend as much as he wants should not be restricted from doing so. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

The Yankees drive attendance, merchandise sales and TV revenues, helping to subsidize less-profitable teams. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. It has also been argued that the New York Mets, because they share the same market, could spend at a higher level if their owner was inclined to do so, and therefore the Yankees spending reflects Steinbrenner's greater commitment to winning rather than a singular advantage over all other teams.[5]. "Judge Greer and Michael Schiavo: Collusive Law Breaking in Attempts to End Terri's Life," Liberty To The Captives, October 31, 2003 link. New York, as the largest market with the highest revenues, should spend in accordance with their vast resources. ^ Ruby, Lisa. As "America's Team" the Yankees give other baseball fans a team to "hate" or root against, thereby further generating interest in baseball games involving the Yankees and baseball in general. "Too thin a line between life, death for Schiavo," Saint Petersburg Times, September 15, 2003 link.

The Yankees are "America's Team" They give the casual, or "bandwagon," baseball fan someone to root for when he/she does not have a local favorite, or when their local team is playing poorly. ^ Troxler, Howard. Won ALDS (3-0) over Texas Rangers. "On Face the Nation, Family Research Council's Perkins misrepresented Schindler family's 33 affidavits calling for more medical treatment for Terri Schiavo," Media Matters for America, March 28, 2005 link. Won ALCS (4-2) over Cleveland Indians. ^ An Unsigned Editorial. Won 1998 World Series (4-0) over San Diego Padres. 6th Judicial Circuit, March 9, 2005 link.

Oriole Park (Baltimore) (1901-1902). 90-2908-GD-003, Fla. Hilltop Park (1903-1912). ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No. Brush Stadium (1913-1919). MICHAEL SCHIAVO, Petitioner, vs. a.k.a. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated.

Polo Grounds (IV) (1913-1922)

    . ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. Yankee Stadium (1923-1973). "RESPONDENTS' FLA.R.CIV.P.1.540(b)(5) MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM JUDGMENT PENDING CONTEMPORARY MEDICAL/PSYCHIATRIC/REHABILITATIVE EVALUATION OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO," File Number: 90-2908GD-003, February 23, 2005 link. Shea Stadium (1974-1975). ^ Gibbs, David C., III, Esq. Yankee Stadium (1976-present). "Transcript: Michael Schiavo on 'Nightline': Husband at the Heart of the 'Right to Die' Case Speaks to Chris Bury," ABC News, March 15, 2005 link.

    Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902). ^ Bury, Chris. New York Highlanders (1903-1912). 6th Judicial Circuit, September 17, 2003 link. New York Yankees (1913-present). 90-2908GD-003, Fla. East Division (1969-present). ROBERT SCHINDLER and MARY SCHINDLER, Respondents," File No.

    American League (1901-present)

      . MICHAEL SCHIAVO, as Guardian of the person of THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Petitioner, v. "IN RE: THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THERESA MARIE SCHIAVO, Incapacitated. ^ Greer, George W., Circuit Judge. "Terri Schiavo case reveals the dangers of eating disorders," The Johns Hopkins Newsletter, March 24, 2005 link.

      ^ Nair, Sandya. "The Legacy of Terri Schiavo," Newsweek, April 4, 2005 link. ^ Campo-Flores, Arian. "RESPONDENT MICHAEL SCHIAVO'S OPPOSITION TO APPLICATION FOR INJUNCTION," Case No.: 04A-825, March 24, 2005 link.

      ^ Felos, George J., Esq. note: See peace symbol. Ed.

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