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New York Yankees


Major league affiliations
  • American League (1901-present)
    • East Division (1969-present)
Major league titles
World Series titles (26) 2000 • 1999 • 1998 • 1996
1978 • 1977 • 1962 • 1961
1958 • 1956 • 1953 • 1952
1951 • 1950 • 1949 • 1947
1943 • 1941 • 1939 • 1938
1937 • 1936 • 1932 • 1928
1927 • 1923
AL Pennants (39) 2003 • 2001 • 2000 • 1999
1998 • 1996 • 1981 • 1978
1977 • 1976 • 1964 • 1963
1962 • 1961 • 1960 • 1958
1957 • 1956 • 1955 • 1953
1952 • 1951 • 1950 • 1949
1947 • 1943 • 1942 • 1941
1939 • 1938 • 1937 • 1936
1932 • 1928 • 1927 • 1926
1923 • 1922 • 1921
East Division titles (14) [1][2][3] 2005 • 2004 • 2003 • 2002
2001 • 2000 • 1999 • 1998
1996 • 1981 • 1980 • 1978
1977 • 1976
Wild card berths (2) 1997 • 1995

[1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore.
[2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
[3] - In 2005, the Yankees and the Boston Red Sox finished the season with identical records of 95-67 and finished tied for first place in the East Division standings. Because New York won the regular season series with Boston, New York was awarded the division championship and Boston was awarded the wild card.

Major league nicknames
  • New York Yankees (1913-present)
  • New York Highlanders (1903-1912)
  • Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902)

(Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912)

Major league home ballparks
  • Yankee Stadium (1976-present)
  • Shea Stadium (1974-1975)
  • Yankee Stadium (1923-1973)
  • Polo Grounds (IV) (1913-1922)
    • a.k.a. Brush Stadium (1913-1919)
  • Hilltop Park (1903-1912)
  • Oriole Park (Baltimore) (1901-1902)
Current uniform
Retired numbers

♦ - Hall of Famer
Jackie Robinson's #42 is retired by Major League Baseball

• This box contains major league affiliations only; National Association, Western League and other minor league affiliations are not included.
• The "Established" date indicates when major league status was gained.
• Postseasons prior to 1903 are not included as they were regarded more as exhibitions.
        edit infobox

The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball team based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. They are in the Eastern Division of the American League.

One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Yankees have been among the most storied teams in North America over their 100+ year history; along with franchises like the Boston Celtics, Dallas Cowboys, and Montreal Canadiens, the Yankees have helped exemplify the phrase "dynasty" in professional athletics. They are one of two major league franchises which operate in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League.

The Yankees have won 26 World Series in 39 appearances; the St. Louis Cardinals and the Oakland Athletics are tied for second with 9 World Series victories each, and the Los Angeles Dodgers is second in World Series appearances with 18. Among the North American major sports, the Yankees' success is only approached by the 23 Stanley Cup championships of the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League. The Yankees are also the only team that is represented at every position in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Origins

At the end of the 1900 season the American League re-organized and, with its president Ban Johnson as the driving force, decided to assert itself as a new major league. Previously a minor league (known as the Western League until 1899), the American League carried over five of its previous locations and added three more on the East Coast, including one in Baltimore, Maryland, which had lost its National League team when that league contracted the year before. The intention of Johnson and the American League had been to place a team in New York City, but their efforts had been stymied by the political connections that owners of the National League New York Giants had with Tammany Hall.

When the team began play as the Baltimore Orioles in 1901, they were managed by John McGraw. As a result of a feud with league president Ban Johnson, who rigidly enforced rules about rowdyism on the field of play, McGraw jumped leagues to manage the New York Giants in the middle of the 1902 season. A week later the owner of the Giants also gained controlling interest of the Orioles and raided the team for players, after which the league declared the team forfeit and took control, still intending to move the franchise to New York when and if possible.

In January 1903, the American and National Leagues held a "peace conference" to settle conflicts over player contract disputes and to agree on future cooperation. The NL also agreed that the "junior circuit" could establish a franchise in New York. The AL's Baltimore franchise became the New York franchise when its new owners, Frank Farrell and William Devery, were able to find a ballpark location not blocked by the Giants. Farrell and Devery both had deep ties into city politics and gambling. Farrell owned a casino and several pool halls, while Devery had served as a blatantly corrupt chief of the New York City police and had only been forced out of the department at the start of 1902.

The Highlanders

The franchise's first park in New York was located at 165th St. and Broadway in Manhattan, near the highest point on the island. Consequently the field was known as Hilltop Park and the team quickly became known as the New York Highlanders. The name was also a reference to the noted British military unit The Gordon Highlanders, as the team president from 1903 to 1906 was named Joseph Gordon. Today the site of the original Hilltop Park is occupied by buildings of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.

As the Highlanders, the team enjoyed success only twice, finishing in second place in 1904 and 1910; but otherwise, much of their first fifteen years in New York was spent in the cellar. Their somewhat tainted ownership, along with the questionable activities of some players, notably first baseman Hal Chase, raised suspicions of game-fixing, but little of that was ever proven.

Their best chance came on the last day of the 1904 season, at the Hilltop. New York pitcher Jack Chesbro threw a wild pitch in the ninth inning which allowed the eventual pennant-winning run to score for the Boston Americans. This event had historical significance in several ways. First, the presence of the Highlanders in the race had led the Giants to announce they would not participate in the World Series against a "minor league" team. Although Boston had won the pennant, the Giants still refused to participate. The resulting tongue-lashing of the Giants by the media stung their owner, John T. Brush, who then led a committee that formalized the rules governing the World Series. 1904 was the last year a Series was not played, until the strike-truncated year of 1994. For fans of the team formally named the Red Sox in 1908, the 1904 season-ender would prove to be the last time Boston would defeat the Yankees in a pennant-deciding game for literally a century.

From 1913 to 1922 the team would play in the Polo Grounds, a park owned by their National League rivals, the Giants. Relations between the clubs had warmed when the Giants were allowed to lease Hilltop Park while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt in 1911 following a disastrous fire. During the early 1900s, the nickname "Yankees" was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on "Americans", verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald's report was headlined "Dougherty as a Yankee". That matter-of-fact wording suggests the nickname was already well-known. The New York Herald, on April 15, 1906, reported "Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1". The name grew in popularity over the team's first decade. With the change of parks in 1913, the "Highlanders" reference became obsolete, and the de facto team nickname became exclusively "Yankees". Before very long, New York Yankees had become the official nickname of the club.

By the mid 1910s, owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and both were in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert and Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston. Ruppert was heir to the Ruppert brewery fortune and had also been tied to the Tammany Hall machine, serving as a U.S. Congressman for eight years. Ruppert later said, "For $450,000 we got an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige." But now with an owner possessing deep pockets, and a willingness to dig into them to produce a winning team.

The Ruth and Gehrig era

Perhaps one of the greatest ironies of the Yankees dominance comes from its roots. The Yankees detente with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox circa 1920 (all three collectively known as the "Insurrectos") paid off well. Over the next few years the new owners would begin to enlarge the payroll. Many of the newly acquired players who would later contribute to their success came from the Boston Red Sox, whose owner, theater impresario Harry Frazee, had bought his team on credit and needed money to pay off his loans and purchase Fenway Park from the Fenway Park Trust. Further, as Frazee owned the strongest of the "Insurrectos" franchizes, which antagonized A.L. President Ban Johnson, Frazee faced most of the legal battles which proved costly[1]. From 1919 to 1922, the Yankees acquired pitchers Waite Hoyt, Carl Mays and Herb Pennock, catcher Wally Schang, shortstop Everett Scott and third baseman Joe Dugan, all from the Red Sox. However, pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the biggest of them all. Frazee traded Ruth in January of 1920, citing Ruth's demand for a raise after being paid the highest salary in baseball, and despite owning the single season homerun record at the time of the trade (hitting 29 homeruns in 1919[2]). Frazee also wished to aid the Yankees, as giving the Yankees a box office draw would strengthen a legal ally, and reduce the pressure he faced[3]. Ruth was also regarded as a problem, a carouser. That would continue during his Yankees years, but the ownership was more tolerant, provided he brought fans and championships to the ballpark. Two of the four Boston newspapers agreed with the deal at the time. The Red Sox did not win a World Series from 1919 until 2004 (see Curse of the Bambino), often finding themselves out of the World Series hunt as a result of the success of the Yankees. Harry Frazee finally found success on Broadway in 1927 with the musical comedy No No Nanette, which included the song "Tea For Two".

Babe Ruth

Other critical newcomers in this period were manager Miller Huggins and general manager Ed Barrow. Huggins was hired in 1919 by Ruppert while Huston was serving in Europe with the army (this would lead to a break between the two owners, with Ruppert eventually buying Huston out in 1923). Barrow came on board after the 1920 season, and like many of the new Yankee players had previously been a part of the Red Sox organization, having managed the team since 1918. Barrow would act as general manager or president of the Yankees for the next 25 years and may deserve the bulk of the credit for the team's success during that period. He was especially noted for development of the Yankees' farm system.

The home run hitting exploits of Ruth proved popular with the public, to the extent that the Yankees were soon outdrawing their landlords, the Giants. In 1921 the Yankees were told to move out of the Polo Grounds after the 1922 season. At that time, John McGraw was said to have commented that the Yankees should "move to some out-of-the-way place, like Queens". Instead, to McGraw's chagrin, they broke ground for a new ballpark just across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds. The construction crew moved with remarkable speed and finished the big new ballpark in less than a year. In 1923 the Yankees moved into Yankee Stadium at 161st St. and River Avenue in the Bronx. The site for the stadium was chosen because the IRT Jerome Avenue subway line, now the MTA's#4 train, went right by there, practically on top of Yankee Stadium's right-field wall. The Stadium was the first triple-deck venue in baseball and seated an astounding 58,000. It was truly "the House that Ruth Built",

From 1921 to 1928, the Yankees went through their first period of great success, winning six American League pennants and three World Series. In 1921 through 1923 they faced the Giants in the World Series, losing the first two match-ups but turning the tables in 1923 after the Big Stadium opened. Giants outfielder Casey Stengel, who even then was being called "Old Case", hit two homers to win the two games the Giants came away with. Stengel would later become a "giant" for the Yankees as a manager.

The 1927 team was so potent that it became known as "Murderers' Row" and is sometimes considered to have been the best team in the history of baseball (though similar claims have been made for other Yankee squads, notably those of 1939, 1961 and 1998). Ruth's home run total of 60 in 1927 set a single-season record which would stand for 34 years, and first baseman Lou Gehrig had his first big season with 47 round-trippers.

The Yankees would repeat as American League champions in 1928, fighting off the resurgent Philadelphia Athletics, and sweep the St. Louis Cardinals in the World Series. Babe Ruth hit .625 with 3 home runs in that series, while Lou Gehrig hit .545 and belted 4 round-trippers. After three also-ran seasons, the Yankees returned to the American League top perch under new manager Joe McCarthy in 1932 and swept the Chicago Cubs in the World Series, running their streak of consecutive World Series game wins to 12, a mark which would stand until the 2000 Yankees bested it in the World Series that year. Babe Ruth hit his famous "Called Shot" home run in Wrigley Field in Game 3 of that Series, a fitting "Swan Song" to his illustrious post-season career.

The DiMaggio era

The Yankees run during the 1930s could also be facetiously called the "McCarthy era", as manager Joe McCarthy (no relation to the infamous Senator of the same name) would guide the Yankees to new heights. Just as Gehrig stepped out of Ruth's considerable shadow, a new titan appeared on the horizon, in the person of Joe DiMaggio. The young center fielder from San Francisco was an immediate impact player, batting .323, hitting 29 homers and driving in 125 runs in his rookie season of 1936.

Behind the thundering Yankees bats of DiMaggio, Gehrig and Frank Crosetti, and a superb pitching staff led by Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez and anchored by catcher Bill Dickey, the Yankees reeled off an unprecedented four consecutive World Series wins during 1936-1939. They did it without Gehrig for most of 1939, as the superstar's retirement due to ALS saddened the baseball world.

The strongest competition for the Yankees during that stretch was the Detroit Tigers, who won two pennants before that Yankees four-year stretch, and one after. When the Yankees did get into the Series, they had little trouble. During Game 2 of the 1936 Series, they pounded the Giants 18-4, still the World Series record (through 2005) for most runs by a team in one game. They took the Giants 4 games to 2 in that Series, and 4 games to 1 the next year. They also swept the Chicago Cubs in 1938, and the Cincinnati Reds in 1939.

After an off season came the Summer of 1941, a much-celebrated year, often described by sportswriters as the last great year of the "Golden Era", before World War II and other realities intervened. Ted Williams of the Red Sox was in the hunt for the elusive .400 batting average, which he achieved on the last day of the season. Meanwhile, DiMaggio, who had once hit in 61 straight games as a minor leaguer with the San Francisco Seals, began a hitting streak on May 15 which stretched to an astonishing 56 games.

A popular song by Les Brown celebrated this event, as Betty Bonney and the band members sang it: "He tied the mark at 44 / July the First, you know / Since then he's hit a good 12 more / Joltin' Joe DiMaggio / Joe, Joe DiMaggio, we want you on our side." The last game of the streak came on July 16 at Cleveland's League Park. The streak was finally snapped in a game at Cleveland Stadium the next night before a huge crowd at the lakefront. A crucial factor in ending the streak was the fielding of Cleveland third baseman Ken Keltner, who stopped two balls that DiMaggio hit hard to the left.

Modern baseball historians regard it as unlikely that anyone will ever hit .400 again, barring a change to the way the game is played; and as virtually impossible that anyone will approach DiMaggio's 56-game streak, which is so far beyond second place (44) as to be almost a statistical anomaly.

The Yankees made short work of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 Series. Two months and one day after the final game of the Yanks' 4 to 1 win, the Pearl Harbor attacks occurred, and many of the best ballplayers went off to World War II. The war-thinned ranks of the major leagues nonetheless found the Yanks in the post-season again, as they traded World Series wins with the St. Louis Cardinals during 1942 and 1943.

The Yanks then went into a bit of a slump, and manager McCarthy was let go early in the 1946 season. After a couple of interim managers had come and gone, Bucky Harris was brought in and the Yankees righted the ship again, winning the 1947 pennant and facing a much-tougher Dodgers team than their 1941 counterparts, in a Series that went seven games and was a harbinger of things to come for much of the next decade.

Despite finishing only 3 games back of the pennant-winning Cleveland Indians in 1948, Harris was released, and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel as their manager. Casey had a reputation for being somewhat of a clown and had been associated with managing excruciatingly bad teams such as the mid-1930s Boston Braves, so his selection was met with no little skepticism. His tenure would prove to the most successful in the Yankees' history up to that point. The 1949 season is another that has been written about poetically, as a Yankees team that was seen as "underdogs" came from behind to catch and surpass the powerful Red Sox on the last two days of the season, in a faceoff that could be said to be the real beginning of the modern intense rivalry between these teams. The post-season proved to be a bit easier, as the Yankees knocked off their cross-town Flatbush rivals 4 games to 1.

By this time, the Great DiMaggio's career was winding down. It has often been reported that he said he wanted to retire before he became an "ordinary" player. He was also hampered by bone spurs in his heel, which hastened the final docking of the "Yankee Clipper". As if on cue, new superstars began arriving, including the "Oklahoma Kid", Mickey Mantle, whose first year (1951) was DiMaggio's curtain call.

The 1950s and 1960s

Bettering the McCarthy-era clubs, Stengel's squad won the World Series in his first five years as manager, 1949 through 1953. The five consecutive championships won by the Yankees during this period remains the major league record. Led by players like center fielder Mickey Mantle, pitcher Whitey Ford, and catcher Yogi Berra, Stengel's teams won 10 pennants and seven World Series titles in his twelve seasons as Yankee manager.

The 1950s were also a decade of significant individual achievement for Yankee players. In 1956, Mantle won the major league triple crown, leading both leagues in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130).

On October 8, 1956, in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series against the Dodgers, pitcher Don Larsen threw the only perfect game in World Series history. Not only was it the only perfect game to be pitched in World Series play, it remains the only no-hitter of any kind to be pitched in postseason play. The Yankees went on to win yet another World Series that season, and Larsen earned World Series MVP honors.

Yankee players also dominated the American League MVP award, with a Yankee claiming ownership six times in the decade (1950 Rizzuto, 1951 Berra, 1954 Berra, 1955 Berra, 1956 Mantle, 1957 Mantle). Pitcher Bob Turley also won the Cy Young Award in 1958, the award's third year of existence.

For the decade, the Yankees won six World Series championships ('50, 51, '52, '53, '56, '58) and eight American League pennants. Led by Mantle, Ford, Berra, Elston Howard, and the newly acquired Roger Maris, the Yankees burst into the new decade seeking to replicate the remarkable success of the 1950s.

However, the Yankees lost the 1960 World Series in heartbreaking fashion when Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning, series-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 off Ralph Terry. It remains the only Game 7, walk-off home run in World Series history. Stengel was blamed for the World Series loss for failing to start his ace, Ford, three times in the Series, and was replaced as manager with Ralph Houk prior to the 1961 season. Stengel himself, who had reached his seventh decade in July of that year, clearly thought the issue was age discrimination, remarking, "I'll never make the mistake of turning 70 again." Yogi Berra's assessment of the loss was the equally famous comment, "We made too many wrong mistakes."

During the 1960-61 offseason, a seemingly innocuous development may have marked the beginning of the end for this Yankees dynasty. In December of 1960, Chicago insurance executive Charlie Finley purchased the Kansas City Athletics from the estate of Arnold Johnson, who had died that March.

Johnson had acquired the then-Philadelphia Athletics from the family of Connie Mack in 1954. He was the owner of Yankee Stadium at the time, but was forced to sell the stadium by American League owners as a condition of purchasing the Athletics. Johnson was also a longtime business associate of then-Yankees owners Del Webb and Dan Topping. During Johnson's ownership, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. Maris had been acquired by the Yankees in one such trade. Many fans, and even other teams, frequently accused the Athletics of being operated as an effective farm team for the Yankees. Once Finley purchased the Athletics, he immediately terminated the team's "special relationship" with the Yankees.

In the meantime, 1961 was one of the greatest years in Yankee history. Throughout the summer, Mantle and reigning-MVP Roger Maris hit home runs at a record pace as both chased Babe Ruth's single season home run record of 60. The duo's home run prowess led the media and fans to christen them 'The M & M Boys.' Ultimately, Mantle was forced to bow out in mid-September with 54 home runs when a severe hip infection forced him from the lineup. On October 1, 1961, on the final day of the season, Maris broke the record when he sent a pitch from Boston's Tracy Stallard into the right field stands at Yankee Stadium for his 61st home run. However, by decree of Commissioner Ford Frick, separate single-season home run records were maintained to reflect the fact that Ruth hit his 60 home runs during a 154-game season, while Maris hit his 61 in the first year of the new 162-game season. Some 30 years later, on September 4, 1991, an 8-member Committee for Historical Accuracy appointed by Major League Baseball did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record until it was broken by Mark McGwire on September 8, 1998. (McGwire's record was later broken by Barry Bonds, whose 73 home runs in 2001 remain the major league record. Maris still holds the American League record.)

The Yankees won the pennant with a 109-53 record and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series. The 109 regular season wins posted by the '61 club remain the third highest single-season total in franchise history, behind only the 1998 team's 114 regular season wins and 1927 team's 110 wins. The 1961 Yankees also clubbed a then-major league record for most home runs by a team with 240, a total not surpassed until the 1996 Baltimore Orioles hit 257 with the aid of the designated hitter. Maris won his second consecutive MVP Award while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young.

Because of the excellence of Maris, Mantle, and World Series-MVP Ford, a fine pitching staff, stellar team defense, the team's amazing depth and power, and their overall dominance, the 1961 Yankees are universally considered to be one of the greatest teams in the history of baseball, compared often to their pinstriped-brethren, the 1927 Yankees, the 1939 Yankees, and the 1998 Yankees.

In 1962, the Yankees won their second consecutive World Series, defeating the San Francisco Giants in seven games.

The Yanks would again reach the Fall Classic in 1963, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Behind World Series-MVP Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, the Dodgers starting pitchers threw four complete games and combined to give up just four runs all Series. This was the first time the Yankees were swept in a World Series.

Feeling burnt out after the season, Houk left the manager's chair to become the team's general manager and Berra, who himself had just retired from playing, was named the new manager of the Yankees.

The aging Yankees returned to the World Series in 1964 to face the St. Louis Cardinals in a Series immortalized by David Halberstam's book, October 1964. Despite a valiant performance by Mantle, including a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth of Game 3 off Cardinals' reliever Barney Schultz, the Yankees fell to the Cardinals in seven games. It was to be the last World Series appearance by the Yankees for 12 years.

After the 1964 season, CBS purchased the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. Jokesters at the time wondered if Walter Cronkite would become the manager, perhaps with Yogi Berra doing the newscasts. Topping and Webb had owned the Yankees for 20 years, missing the World Series only 5 times, and going 10-5 in the World Series.

By contrast, the CBS-owned teams never went to the World Series, and in the first year of the new ownership - 1965 - the Yankees finished in the second division for the first time in 40 years; the introduction of the major league amateur draft in 1965 also meant that the Yankees could no longer sign any player they wanted. In 1966 the team finished last in the AL for the first time since 1912, and next-to-last the following year. After that the team's fortunes improved somewhat, but they would not become serious contenders again until 1974.

Return to glory

George Steinbrenner purchased the club for $10 million on January 3, 1973 from CBS, renovated Yankee Stadium, hired and fired Billy Martin a number of times, feuded with star outfielder Reggie Jackson, and presided over the resurgence of the Yankees in the late '70s. Jackson's three home runs in the sixth and final game of the 1977 World Series against three different Dodger pitchers (earning him the nickname "Mr. October") defined the period as much as Martin and Steinbrenner.

The race for the pennant often came to a close competition between the Yankees and the Red Sox, and for fans of both clubs, a game between the two teams (whether in the regular season or post-season championship games) was cause for a rivalry that was often bitter and ruthless, with brawls frequently erupting between both players and fans from the two clubs. The Yankees-Red Sox rivalry came to a head in the 1978 season, when the two clubs finished the regular season in a tie for first place in the AL East. A playoff game between the two teams was held to decide who would go on to the pennant, with the game being held at Boston's Fenway Park (because the Red Sox had won more head-to-head games between the two teams that season). The Yankees won the day, driving a stake through the hearts of their rivals' fans when Bucky Dent drove a game-winning home run over the "Green Monster," one of several emotional moments in the team's history that had Red Sox fans wondering if their team was under some kind of a curse.

A new dynasty

The Yankees entered the 1990s as a last-place team, having spent well but not always wisely on free-agent players since their last appearance in the World Series in 1981. During the 1980s the Yankees, led by their All-Star first baseman Don Mattingly, had the most total wins out of any major league team, but failed to win a World Series (the first such decade since the 1910s). In 1990, Yankee pitcher Andy Hawkins became the first Yankees pitcher ever to lose a no-hitter, when the third baseman (Mike Blowers) committed an error, followed by 2 walks and an error by the left fielder (Jim Leyritz) with the bases loaded, scoring all 3 runners as well as the batter. The 4-0 loss (to the White Sox) was the largest margin of any no-hitter loss in the 20th century. To add to the oddity, the Yankees (and Hawkins) were no-hit by the White Sox 11 days later.

The bad judgment and bad luck of the '80s and early '90s started to change when, while owner Steinbrenner was under suspension, management was able to implement a coherent program without interference from above. Under general managers Gene Michael and Bob Watson and manager Buck Showalter, the club shifted its emphasis from buying talent to developing talent through its farm system and then holding onto it. The first significant sign of success came in 1994, when the Yankees had the best record in the AL when the season was cut short by the players' strike. A year later, the team reached the playoffs as the wild card and was eliminated only after a memorable series against the Seattle Mariners.

Showalter left after the 1995 season due to personality clashes with Steinbrenner and his staff and was replaced by Joe Torre. Initially derided as a retread choice ("Clueless Joe" ran the headline on one of the city's tabloid newspapers), Torre's smooth manner proved out as he led the Yankees to a World Series victory in 1996, defeating the Atlanta Braves in six games. General manager Bob Watson was dismissed when the Yankees failed to repeat in 1997 and was replaced by Brian Cashman, a former Yankees intern. However, the foundation laid by Michael and Watson of players like Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, Mariano Rivera and Bernie Williams was a significant factor in the Yankees' return to prominence. Other prominent members of the late 1990s championships teams acquired through trades included Paul O'Neill, David Cone, Tino Martinez, John Wetteland, Chuck Knoblauch, and Roger Clemens, while Jimmy Key, Wade Boggs, David Wells, Mike Stanton, and Orlando "El Duque" Hernández were signed as free agents.

The 1998-2000 Yankees were the first team to "three-peat" with World Series victories since the Oakland Athletics of the early 1970s. In 1998 and 1999, they swept the San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves, respectively. In 2000, the Yankees met up with cross-town New York Mets for the first Subway Series since 1956 and won four games to one. In these four World Series victories, the Yankees won fourteen straight games. The Yankees are the most recent major league team to repeat as World Series champions.

The 1998 Yankees are widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest teams in baseball history, having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular season wins against just 48 losses en route to a World Series sweep of the Padres. The '98 Yankees went 11-2 during the playoffs and finished with a combined record of 125-50, a major league record. However, their regular season record was surpassed by the 2001 Seattle Mariners, who went 116-46 before losing to the Yankees in the American League Championship Series.

The 21st century

In the emotional October 2001, following the September 11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, the Yankees defeated the Oakland Athletics 3 games to 2 in the Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. But, the usually unhittable Mariano Rivera shockingly blew the lead - and World Series - to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the bottom of the 9th inning of Game 7. Arizona manager Bob Brenly used his pitching staff, which included Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling, very effectively. In addition, the usually potent Yankee attack turned ice-cold.

In 2003, the Yankees defeated their long-time rival the Boston Red Sox in a tough seven-game ALCS, which featured a near-brawl in Game 3 and a series-ending walk-off home run by Aaron Boone in the 11th inning of the final game, only to be defeated by the Florida Marlins - a team with a payroll a quarter of the size of the Yankees' - in the World Series, 4 games to 2.

The loss in the 2001 World Series effectively marked the end of the 1990s Yankee dynasty, as lynchpin players began to retire, not be re-signed, or traded. The Yankees' quick ejection from the 2002 playoffs at the hands of the Anaheim Angels accelerated the changes, as ownership and management began to look increasingly on free agent acquisitions and major trades. The trend continued after the 2003 World Series, culminating when the Yankees traded for the "best player in baseball", Alex Rodriguez, in February 2004. Other significant acquisitions during 2002 to 2004 included Jason Giambi, Hideki Matsui, Gary Sheffield, Kevin Brown, and Javier Vázquez.

In the 2004 American League Championship Series against the Red Sox, the Yankees became the first team in professional baseball history, and only the third team in North American pro sports history (it happened in the NHL twice), to lose a best-of-7 series after taking a 3-0 series lead. After the 2004 World Series, the Yankees needed to improve their pitching, which suffered in the huge collapse to the Red Sox. They signed pitchers Carl Pavano and Jaret Wright. The Yankees also acquired dominant lefty Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks.

The 2005 season didn't start as it expected to be, once they were in last place in the American League East division. Pavano and Wright struggled, so did Johnson. As the season went on, the Yankees got better and slugger Jason Giambi started to hit again. Most of the season, the Yankees were chasing the Boston Red Sox for the division title. The Yankees seemed destined to win the division, and they did.

In the 2005 Division Series, the Angels defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason, winning the final game by a score of 5-3. After the 2005 season, the Yankees needed to get younger and more athletic. In the 2005-2006 offseason, general manager Brian Cashman took control of the Yankees, because owner George Steinbrenner and his advisors signed older talented players after the 2001 season. From the end of the 2005 World Series to December 2005, the baseball world noticed that the Yankees were patient with signing free agents. On December 23, 2005, the Yankees stunned the baseball world by signing center fielder Johnny Damon from the rival Red Sox, where he was a marquee player.

Many explanations have been given for the lack of Yankee World Series titles since 2000. These include depletion of the Yankee farm system because of trades and free agent acquisitions, the aging or departure of the players who had formed the core of the Yankees during the late 1990s, and allegedly poor coaching (like the overuse of Mariano Rivera in the 2001 World Series). Buster Olney, in his book The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty, argues that George Steinbrenner's management style resulted in the players burning out psychologically. Several sabermetricians have argued that success in the playoffs is largely the result of luck. This argument is bolstered by the fact that the production of the Yankees' core players has decreased steadily since their 1996 World Series title.

One particularly creative explanation jokingly proposed by blogger Larry Mahnken is the "Curse of Clay Bellinger". By analogy with the Curse of the Bambino, Mahnken points to the departure of utility player Clay Bellinger from the Yankee roster following the 2001 season and asserts that the Yankees will never again win the World Series until either they make amends to Bellinger or they win the championship anyway. The tautology is part of the joke.

Despite their most recent drought in World Series championships, the Yankees have continued to perform well in the regular season, recently winning their eighth straight AL East division title. In September 2005, the club set a new American League home attendance record of 4,090,696. The Yankees are only the third franchise in sports history to draw over 4 million in regular season attendance at their own ballpark (the others being the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays with 4,057,947 and the 1993 Colorado Rockies with 4,483,350).

Controversy

The Yankees are a notable team not only for their impressive history on the field, but also for their financial situation. The current ownership spends more on player salaries than any other franchise in baseball. As of 2005, the team payroll is more than $208 million, which is $85 million more than the second-highest team, the Red Sox, and more than the five lowest-payroll teams combined [4]. Frustrated after being outbid for pitcher Jose Contreras prior to the 2003 season, Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino even went so far as to dub the Yankees the "Evil Empire," a characterization that is primarily popular among Red Sox fans.

It is a heated debate whether the Yankees' free-spending is positive or negative for baseball, and whether a strict salary cap would make the sport fairer and increase parity among the large-market and small-market teams. The following are arguments for and against these spending practices:

For:

Against:

In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that the Yankees engaged in illegal trade with Cuba and had to settle with the United States government for US$75,000 [6].

Quick facts

Postseason appearances

Baseball Hall of Famers

(Affiliation according to National Baseball Hall of Fame; R. Jackson is affiliated with the Athletics, but wears a Yankee cap[7][8][9])

Further information: New York Yankees: Award Winners and League Leaders

Current roster

40-man roster

Updated on January 27, 2006  

Coaching Staff

Manager

Coaches



Minor league affiliations


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. Hanukkah begins at sundown on the evening before the date shown.
. The holiday will end after sundown on December 23. Coaches. Three candles will be lit after dark on Sunday, and so on for the rest of the week, except for the following Friday, December 22, when the last 8 candles are lit, again shortly before sunset. Manager. Two candles will be lit on Saturday night after dark and the end of Shabbat.

Updated on January 27, 2006  . For example, in 2006 Gregorian calendars will likely list Hanukkah on Saturday, December 16, but 25 Kislev actually begins at sunset on December 15 and so the first candle will be lit on that Friday evening, shortly before sunset since it is also the start of Shabbat. Jackson is affiliated with the Athletics, but wears a Yankee cap[7][8][9]). So, the first day of Hanukkah actually begins at sunset of the day immediately before the date noted on Gregorian calendars. (Affiliation according to National Baseball Hall of Fame; R. The Jewish day begins at sunset, whereas the Gregorian Calendar begins the day at midnight. In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that the Yankees engaged in illegal trade with Cuba and had to settle with the United States government for US$75,000 [6]. Hanukkah begins at the 25th day of Kislev and concluding on the 2nd or 3rd day of Tevet (Kislev can have 29 or 30 days).

Against:. The dates of Hanukkah are determined by the Hebrew Calendar. For:. There were a number of key battles between the Maccabees and the Seleucid Syrian-Greeks:. The following are arguments for and against these spending practices:. But as 'ch' is pronounced differently in English than it is in the traditional Romanisation of Hebrew (which was based upon analogies to German and Latin spelling), and the 'kaf' consonant is part of a long syllable instead of a short one, "Hanukkah" (technically with a small dot under the first 'H,' to show it is pronounced like broad Latin and German 'ch') emerged as an alternative that is more pronounceable to the Anglophone eye. It is a heated debate whether the Yankees' free-spending is positive or negative for baseball, and whether a strict salary cap would make the sport fairer and increase parity among the large-market and small-market teams. Thus, the most accurate transliteration to English is 'Ch(a)n(u)k(a)h'.

Frustrated after being outbid for pitcher Jose Contreras prior to the 2003 season, Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino even went so far as to dub the Yankees the "Evil Empire," a characterization that is primarily popular among Red Sox fans. The only standard spelling of Hanukkah is the hebrew five letters - Chet(Ch,H,K) Nun Vav Kaf Hey - plus the vowels, which are not written in advanced Hebrew. As of 2005, the team payroll is more than $208 million, which is $85 million more than the second-highest team, the Red Sox, and more than the five lowest-payroll teams combined [4]. As mentioned above, there is a frequent confusion over the many alternative spellings of Hanukkah in the English language. The current ownership spends more on player salaries than any other franchise in baseball. A decorated tree has come to be called a "Hanukkah bush". The Yankees are a notable team not only for their impressive history on the field, but also for their financial situation. In recent years, an amalgam of Christmas and Hanukkah has emerged — dubbed "Chrismukkah" — celebrated by some mixed-faith families, particularly in the United States.

The Yankees are only the third franchise in sports history to draw over 4 million in regular season attendance at their own ballpark (the others being the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays with 4,057,947 and the 1993 Colorado Rockies with 4,483,350). Hanukkah gained increased importance with many Jewish families in the twentieth century, including large numbers of secular Jews who wanted a Jewish alternative to the Christmas celebrations that often overlap with Hanukkah. In September 2005, the club set a new American League home attendance record of 4,090,696. Traditionally, gelt came in the form of genuine coins, but most modern games are played using coins made of solid chocolate wrapped in gold-colored foil. Despite their most recent drought in World Series championships, the Yankees have continued to perform well in the regular season, recently winning their eighth straight AL East division title. It is a term used for the money used in playing the game of dreidel. The tautology is part of the joke. Chanukkah gelt ("Hanukkah money") is used as part of a game on the festival of Hanukkah.

By analogy with the Curse of the Bambino, Mahnken points to the departure of utility player Clay Bellinger from the Yankee roster following the 2001 season and asserts that the Yankees will never again win the World Series until either they make amends to Bellinger or they win the championship anyway. When a lookout gave a signal, the children would put away the scrolls they were learning from, and take out top's (Dreidel's) and spin them, as if they had been playing a game. One particularly creative explanation jokingly proposed by blogger Larry Mahnken is the "Curse of Clay Bellinger". The jewish children would hide in caves, and leave a lookout for Greek soldiers. This argument is bolstered by the fact that the production of the Yankees' core players has decreased steadily since their 1996 World Series title. The Greeks had made a law that the learning of Torah be forbidden. Several sabermetricians have argued that success in the playoffs is largely the result of luck. The game is played in part to commemorate the jewish children of that time.

Buster Olney, in his book The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty, argues that George Steinbrenner's management style resulted in the players burning out psychologically. Another version differs in that nun is "nem" - "take", while gimel is "gib" - "give." The game may last until one person has won everything. These include depletion of the Yankee farm system because of trades and free agent acquisitions, the aging or departure of the players who had formed the core of the Yankees during the late 1990s, and allegedly poor coaching (like the overuse of Mariano Rivera in the 2001 World Series). The dreidel stops and lands with one of the symbols facing up and the appropriate action is taken, corresponding to one of the following Yiddish words:. Many explanations have been given for the lack of Yankee World Series titles since 2000. Before beginning, each player starts with 10 or 15 coins (gelt), and then each player puts one in the pot. On December 23, 2005, the Yankees stunned the baseball world by signing center fielder Johnny Damon from the rival Red Sox, where he was a marquee player. In Israel, the fourth letter is פ-Pe instead of shin, stading for "Po", meaning "here", and the entire phrase is therefore "A great miracle happened here." This is done in recognition that the miracle of Hannukah occurred in the land of Israel.

From the end of the 2005 World Series to December 2005, the baseball world noticed that the Yankees were patient with signing free agents. These letters also stand for the words Nes Gadol Haya Sham meaning "a great miracle happened there," or, without the nikkud (vowel marks), נס גדול היה שם. In the 2005-2006 offseason, general manager Brian Cashman took control of the Yankees, because owner George Steinbrenner and his advisors signed older talented players after the 2001 season. It has four sides:. After the 2005 season, the Yankees needed to get younger and more athletic. The dreidel (a four-sided "top") is associated with Hanukkah. In the 2005 Division Series, the Angels defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason, winning the final game by a score of 5-3. Many Sephardim as well as Polish Ashkenazim and Israelis have the custom to eat all kinds of doughnuts (bimuelos or sufganiyot) which are deep-fried in kosher (mainly non animal-fat) oils.

The Yankees seemed destined to win the division, and they did. Many Ashkenazi families make potato pancakes, known as latkes in Yiddish. Most of the season, the Yankees were chasing the Boston Red Sox for the division title. There is a custom to have Hanukkah parties and to eat foods fried or baked in oil, preferably olive oil, as the original miracle of the Hanukkah menorah involved the discovery of the small flask of oil used by the Jewish High Priest (the Kohen Gadol). As the season went on, the Yankees got better and slugger Jason Giambi started to hit again. The weekly Torah portion for the first Sabbath is almost always Miketz, telling of Joseph's dream and his enslavement in Egypt. Pavano and Wright struggled, so did Johnson. Since Hanukkah lasts eight days it includes at least one, and sometimes two, Sabbaths.

The 2005 season didn't start as it expected to be, once they were in last place in the American League East division. In addition, the Hallel Psalms are sung during each morning service and the Tachanun penitential prayers are omitted. The Yankees also acquired dominant lefty Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks. The same prayer is added to the grace after meals. They signed pitchers Carl Pavano and Jaret Wright. Translation:. After the 2004 World Series, the Yankees needed to improve their pitching, which suffered in the huge collapse to the Red Sox. Transliteration:.

In the 2004 American League Championship Series against the Red Sox, the Yankees became the first team in professional baseball history, and only the third team in North American pro sports history (it happened in the NHL twice), to lose a best-of-7 series after taking a 3-0 series lead. (The erroneous designation of Mattathias as son of Johanan the high priest seems to rest upon the late Hebrew apocryphal "Megillat Antiokhos" or "Megillat Hanukkah," which has other names and dates strangely mixed.) The liturgical part inserted reads as follows:. Other significant acquisitions during 2002 to 2004 included Jason Giambi, Hideki Matsui, Gary Sheffield, Kevin Brown, and Javier Vázquez. This addition refers to the victory achieved over the Syrians by the Hasmonean Mattathias and his sons. The trend continued after the 2003 World Series, culminating when the Yankees traded for the "best player in baseball", Alex Rodriguez, in February 2004. An addition is made to the "hoda'ah" (thanksgiving) benediction in the Amidah, called Al ha-Nissim ("On/about the Miracles"). The Yankees' quick ejection from the 2002 playoffs at the hands of the Anaheim Angels accelerated the changes, as ownership and management began to look increasingly on free agent acquisitions and major trades. It is also common to sing just the first and fifth verses, the fifth dealing specifically with Hanukkah.

The loss in the 2001 World Series effectively marked the end of the 1990s Yankee dynasty, as lynchpin players began to retire, not be re-signed, or traded. Many Jews sing only the first verse, repeating the lines to form the Hanukkah melody. In 2003, the Yankees defeated their long-time rival the Boston Red Sox in a tough seven-game ALCS, which featured a near-brawl in Game 3 and a series-ending walk-off home run by Aaron Boone in the 11th inning of the final game, only to be defeated by the Florida Marlins - a team with a payroll a quarter of the size of the Yankees' - in the World Series, 4 games to 2. It lists a number of events of persecution in Jewish history, and praises God for survival despite these tragedies. In addition, the usually potent Yankee attack turned ice-cold. Each night immediately after the lighting of the candles, while remaining within eyeshot of the candles, Ashkenazim (and, in recent decades, some Sephardim and Mizrahim in Western countries, then usually sing the following hymn written in Medieval Ashkenaz (Germany). Arizona manager Bob Brenly used his pitching staff, which included Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling, very effectively. During all eight days of Hanukkah these lights are sacred, and we are not permitted to make them serve except for to look at them in order to express thanks and praise to Your great Name for your miracles, Your wonders and Your salvations.".

But, the usually unhittable Mariano Rivera shockingly blew the lead - and World Series - to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the bottom of the 9th inning of Game 7. Translation: "We light these lights For the miracles and the wonders, for the redemption and the battles that you made for our forefathers, in those days at this season, through your holy priests. In the emotional October 2001, following the September 11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, the Yankees defeated the Oakland Athletics 3 games to 2 in the Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. (Ashkenazic version):. However, their regular season record was surpassed by the 2001 Seattle Mariners, who went 116-46 before losing to the Yankees in the American League Championship Series. When the lights are kindled the Hanerot Halalu prayer is subsequently recited:. The '98 Yankees went 11-2 during the playoffs and finished with a combined record of 125-50, a major league record. Translation: "Praised are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who has kept us in life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this season.".

The 1998 Yankees are widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest teams in baseball history, having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular season wins against just 48 losses en route to a World Series sweep of the Padres. Recited only on the first night just prior to lighting the candles:. The Yankees are the most recent major league team to repeat as World Series champions. Translation: "Praised are You, Lord our God, King of the universe, Who performed wondrous deeds for our ancestors, in those days, at this season.". In these four World Series victories, the Yankees won fourteen straight games. Recited all eight nights just prior to lighting the candles:. In 2000, the Yankees met up with cross-town New York Mets for the first Subway Series since 1956 and won four games to one. Translation: "Praised are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to kindle the Hanukkah lights.".

In 1998 and 1999, they swept the San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves, respectively. Recited all eight nights just prior to lighting the candles:. The 1998-2000 Yankees were the first team to "three-peat" with World Series victories since the Oakland Athletics of the early 1970s. On the first night of Hanukkah one light (candle, lamp, or electric) is lit on the right side of the Menorah, on the following night a second light is placed to the left of the first and is lit first proceeding from left to right, and so on each night. Other prominent members of the late 1990s championships teams acquired through trades included Paul O'Neill, David Cone, Tino Martinez, John Wetteland, Chuck Knoblauch, and Roger Clemens, while Jimmy Key, Wade Boggs, David Wells, Mike Stanton, and Orlando "El Duque" Hernández were signed as free agents. The blessings are said before or after the candles are lit depending on tradition. However, the foundation laid by Michael and Watson of players like Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, Mariano Rivera and Bernie Williams was a significant factor in the Yankees' return to prominence. On the first night of Hanukkah, Jews recite all three blessings, on all subsequent nights, they recite only the first two.

General manager Bob Watson was dismissed when the Yankees failed to repeat in 1997 and was replaced by Brian Cashman, a former Yankees intern. Typically three blessings (Berakhot singular Berakhah) are recited during this eight-day festival. Initially derided as a retread choice ("Clueless Joe" ran the headline on one of the city's tabloid newspapers), Torre's smooth manner proved out as he led the Yankees to a World Series victory in 1996, defeating the Atlanta Braves in six games. A simple solution is to use "tea lights" or Shabbat candles, arranging them in a straight line and setting the shammus candle apart and above the rest. Showalter left after the 1995 season due to personality clashes with Steinbrenner and his staff and was replaced by Joe Torre. Candles must be lit before the start of Shabbat and inexpensive Hanukkah candles do not burn long enough to meet the requirement. A year later, the team reached the playoffs as the wild card and was eliminated only after a memorable series against the Seattle Mariners. Friday night presents a problem, however.

The first significant sign of success came in 1994, when the Yankees had the best record in the AL when the season was cut short by the players' strike. The standard candles sold for Hanukkah burn for half an hour, so on most days this requirement can be met by lighting the candles when it is dark out. Under general managers Gene Michael and Bob Watson and manager Buck Showalter, the club shifted its emphasis from buying talent to developing talent through its farm system and then holding onto it. Hanukkah lights should burn for at least one half hour after it gets dark. The bad judgment and bad luck of the '80s and early '90s started to change when, while owner Steinbrenner was under suspension, management was able to implement a coherent program without interference from above. Chabad-Lubavitch, light lamps near an inside doorway, not in public view. To add to the oddity, the Yankees (and Hawkins) were no-hit by the White Sox 11 days later. However, some groups, e.g.

The 4-0 loss (to the White Sox) was the largest margin of any no-hitter loss in the 20th century. Only when there was danger of anti-semitic persecution were lamps supposed to be hidden from public view, as was the case in Persia under the rule of the fire-worshipers, or in parts of Europe before and during World War II. In 1990, Yankee pitcher Andy Hawkins became the first Yankees pitcher ever to lose a no-hitter, when the third baseman (Mike Blowers) committed an error, followed by 2 walks and an error by the left fielder (Jim Leyritz) with the bases loaded, scoring all 3 runners as well as the batter. It is customary amongst some Ashkenazim to have a separate menorah for each family member (customs vary), whereas most Sephardim light one hanukkah for the whole household. During the 1980s the Yankees, led by their All-Star first baseman Don Mattingly, had the most total wins out of any major league team, but failed to win a World Series (the first such decade since the 1910s). Accordingly lamps are set up at a prominent window or near the door leading to the street. The Yankees entered the 1990s as a last-place team, having spent well but not always wisely on free-agent players since their last appearance in the World Series in 1981. The reason for the lights is not for the "lighting of the house within", but rather for the "illumination of the house without", so that passers-by should see it and be reminded of the holiday's miracle.

The Yankees won the day, driving a stake through the hearts of their rivals' fans when Bucky Dent drove a game-winning home run over the "Green Monster," one of several emotional moments in the team's history that had Red Sox fans wondering if their team was under some kind of a curse. Some use the "guard" candle to light the others. A playoff game between the two teams was held to decide who would go on to the pennant, with the game being held at Boston's Fenway Park (because the Red Sox had won more head-to-head games between the two teams that season). Hence, if one were to need extra illumination, the extra "servant" candle would be available and one would avoid using the prohibited lights, as derived from the Talmud (Tracate Shabbat 21b-23a). The Yankees-Red Sox rivalry came to a head in the 1978 season, when the two clubs finished the regular season in a tie for first place in the AL East. The purpose of this is to adhere to the prohibition of using the Hanukkah lights for anything other than publicizing - and meditating on - the Hanukkah story (in contrast to Sabbath candles which are meant to be used for illumination). The race for the pennant often came to a close competition between the Yankees and the Red Sox, and for fans of both clubs, a game between the two teams (whether in the regular season or post-season championship games) was cause for a rivalry that was often bitter and ruthless, with brawls frequently erupting between both players and fans from the two clubs. An extra light is lit each night and placed near the Hanukah lights.

October") defined the period as much as Martin and Steinbrenner. In the State of Israel, the secular menorah used for Hanukkah is usually called a "hanukiah". Jackson's three home runs in the sixth and final game of the 1977 World Series against three different Dodger pitchers (earning him the nickname "Mr. Ashenazic Jews (central and east European Jews) usually call the eight-candled version a "Hanukkah menorah." Some Sephardic Jews (west European, Mediterranean and Latin American Jews) just call it "a hanukkah". George Steinbrenner purchased the club for $10 million on January 3, 1973 from CBS, renovated Yankee Stadium, hired and fired Billy Martin a number of times, feuded with star outfielder Reggie Jackson, and presided over the resurgence of the Yankees in the late '70s. (A religious menorah holds only seven candles, plus the servant candle). After that the team's fortunes improved somewhat, but they would not become serious contenders again until 1974. When a formal candelabra or menorah is used, it is the special secular menorah used for Hanukkah - which holds eight candles, plus the servant candle.

In 1966 the team finished last in the AL for the first time since 1912, and next-to-last the following year. Electric lights are sometimes used and are acceptable in places where open flame is not permitted, such as a hospital room. By contrast, the CBS-owned teams never went to the World Series, and in the first year of the new ownership - 1965 - the Yankees finished in the second division for the first time in 40 years; the introduction of the major league amateur draft in 1965 also meant that the Yankees could no longer sign any player they wanted. The lights can be candles or oil lamps. Topping and Webb had owned the Yankees for 20 years, missing the World Series only 5 times, and going 10-5 in the World Series. As a universally-practiced "beautification" of the mitzvah, an additional candle is added each night, for a total of thirty-six over the course of eight nights. Jokesters at the time wondered if Walter Cronkite would become the manager, perhaps with Yogi Berra doing the newscasts. The primary ritual, according to Jewish law and custom, is to light a single light each night for eight nights.

After the 1964 season, CBS purchased the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. Jewish law does not require one to refrain from activities on Hanukkah that would fit the Jewish definition of "work." So, children do not get out of going to school to celebrate the holiday, and parents do not get a week's vacation from employment, either. It was to be the last World Series appearance by the Yankees for 12 years. There are additions to the regular daily prayer services in the Siddur, the Jewish prayer book. Despite a valiant performance by Mantle, including a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth of Game 3 off Cardinals' reliever Barney Schultz, the Yankees fell to the Cardinals in seven games. Some aspects are practiced at home by the family, other aspects are communal. Louis Cardinals in a Series immortalized by David Halberstam's book, October 1964. Hanukkah has relatively simple religious rituals that are performed during the eight nights and days of the holiday.

The aging Yankees returned to the World Series in 1964 to face the St. Hence, Hanukkah's eight days (in celebration of monotheistic morality's victory over Hellenistic humanism) have great symbolic importance for practicing Jews. Feeling burnt out after the season, Houk left the manager's chair to become the team's general manager and Berra, who himself had just retired from playing, was named the new manager of the Yankees. Similarly, the rite of circumcision, which brings a Jewish male into God's Covenant, is performed on the eighth day. This was the first time the Yankees were swept in a World Series. Hence, the Eighth Day of the Assembly festival, mentioned above, is according to Jewish Law a festival for Jews only (unlike Sukkoth, when all peoples were welcome in Jerusalem). Behind World Series-MVP Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, the Dodgers starting pitchers threw four complete games and combined to give up just four runs all Series. Eight, being one step beyond seven, represents the Infinite (as an eight turned on its side).

The Yanks would again reach the Fall Classic in 1963, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Seven is the number of days of creation, that is, of completion of the material cosmos. In 1962, the Yankees won their second consecutive World Series, defeating the San Francisco Giants in seven games. It has also been noted that the number eight has special significance in Jewish theology, as representing transcendence and the Jewish People's special role in human history. Because of the excellence of Maris, Mantle, and World Series-MVP Ford, a fine pitching staff, stellar team defense, the team's amazing depth and power, and their overall dominance, the 1961 Yankees are universally considered to be one of the greatest teams in the history of baseball, compared often to their pinstriped-brethren, the 1927 Yankees, the 1939 Yankees, and the 1998 Yankees. The olive harvest is in November and olive oil would be ready in time for Hanukkah in December. Maris won his second consecutive MVP Award while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young. Pesach is a celebration of the barley harvest, Shavuot of the wheat, Sukkot of the figs, dates, pomegranates and grapes, and Hanukkah of the olives.

The 1961 Yankees also clubbed a then-major league record for most home runs by a team with 240, a total not surpassed until the 1996 Baltimore Orioles hit 257 with the aid of the designated hitter. It has been noted that Jewish festivals are connected to the harvesting of the Biblical seven fruits which Israel was famed for. The 109 regular season wins posted by the '61 club remain the third highest single-season total in franchise history, behind only the 1998 team's 114 regular season wins and 1927 team's 110 wins. In any event, he does report that lights were kindled in the household and the popular name of the festival was, therefore the "Festival of Lights" ("And from that time to this we celebrate this festival, and call it Lights"). The Yankees won the pennant with a 109-53 record and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series. Given that his audience was Hellenized Romans, his silence on the origin of the eight-day custom is more likely due to its miraculous nature than to it being inspired by Sukkot. Maris still holds the American League record.). 7, § 7, #323) mentions the eight-day festival and its customs, but does not tell us the origin of the eight day lighting custom.

(McGwire's record was later broken by Barry Bonds, whose 73 home runs in 2001 remain the major league record. The historian Josephus ([2] Jewish Antiquities xii. Some 30 years later, on September 4, 1991, an 8-member Committee for Historical Accuracy appointed by Major League Baseball did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record until it was broken by Mark McGwire on September 8, 1998. 16:13-15). However, by decree of Commissioner Ford Frick, separate single-season home run records were maintained to reflect the fact that Ruth hit his 60 home runs during a 154-game season, while Maris hit his 61 in the first year of the new 162-game season. 29:12; Deut. On October 1, 1961, on the final day of the season, Maris broke the record when he sent a pitch from Boston's Tracy Stallard into the right field stands at Yankee Stadium for his 61st home run. 23:33-36, Num.

The duo's home run prowess led the media and fans to christen them 'The M & M Boys.' Ultimately, Mantle was forced to bow out in mid-September with 54 home runs when a severe hip infection forced him from the lineup. However, Sukkot is in fact a seven-day holiday, the eighth day being a separate festival known as Shemini Atzeret ("the Eighth Day of the Assembly"); see Lev. Throughout the summer, Mantle and reigning-MVP Roger Maris hit home runs at a record pace as both chased Babe Ruth's single season home run record of 60. 2-4). In the meantime, 1961 was one of the greatest years in Yankee history. The theory is based on the belief that Sukkot also lasts for eight days, and was a holiday in which the lighting of lamps played a prominent part during the Second Temple period (Suk.v. Once Finley purchased the Athletics, he immediately terminated the team's "special relationship" with the Yankees. During the war the Jews were not able to celebrate Sukkot properly.

Many fans, and even other teams, frequently accused the Athletics of being operated as an effective farm team for the Yankees. 9). Maris had been acquired by the Yankees in one such trade. 6 and i. During Johnson's ownership, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. x. Johnson was also a longtime business associate of then-Yankees owners Del Webb and Dan Topping. A number of historians believe that the reason for the eight day celebration was that the first Hanukkah was in effect a belated celebration of the festival of Sukkot, the Feast of Tabernacles (Macc.

He was the owner of Yankee Stadium at the time, but was forced to sell the stadium by American League owners as a condition of purchasing the Athletics. 36). Johnson had acquired the then-Philadelphia Athletics from the family of Connie Mack in 1954. iv. In December of 1960, Chicago insurance executive Charlie Finley purchased the Kansas City Athletics from the estate of Arnold Johnson, who had died that March. (1 Macc. During the 1960-61 offseason, a seemingly innocuous development may have marked the beginning of the end for this Yankees dynasty. Other versions of the story state that an eight day celebration of songs and sacrifices was proclaimed upon rededication of the altar, but do not mention the miracle of the oil.

Stengel himself, who had reached his seventh decade in July of that year, clearly thought the issue was age discrimination, remarking, "I'll never make the mistake of turning 70 again." Yogi Berra's assessment of the loss was the equally famous comment, "We made too many wrong mistakes.". An eight day festival was declared to commemorate this miracle. Stengel was blamed for the World Series loss for failing to start his ace, Ford, three times in the Series, and was replaced as manager with Ralph Houk prior to the 1961 season. But there was only enough oil to burn for one day, yet miraculously, it burned for eight days, the time needed to prepare a fresh supply of oil for the menorah. It remains the only Game 7, walk-off home run in World Series history. According to the Talmud, oil was needed for the menorah in the Temple, which was supposed to burn throughout the night every night. However, the Yankees lost the 1960 World Series in heartbreaking fashion when Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning, series-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 off Ralph Terry. After having recovered Jerusalem and the Temple, Judah ordered the Temple to be cleansed, a new altar to be built in place of the polluted one and new holy vessels to be made.

Led by Mantle, Ford, Berra, Elston Howard, and the newly acquired Roger Maris, the Yankees burst into the new decade seeking to replicate the remarkable success of the 1950s. 59). For the decade, the Yankees won six World Series championships ('50, 51, '52, '53, '56, '58) and eight American League pennants. iv. Pitcher Bob Turley also won the Cy Young Award in 1958, the award's third year of existence. (1 Macc. Yankee players also dominated the American League MVP award, with a Yankee claiming ownership six times in the decade (1950 Rizzuto, 1951 Berra, 1954 Berra, 1955 Berra, 1956 Mantle, 1957 Mantle). The festival of Hanukkah was instituted by Judah Maccabee and his brothers to celebrate this event.

The Yankees went on to win yet another World Series that season, and Larsen earned World Series MVP honors. The Temple was liberated and rededicated. Not only was it the only perfect game to be pitched in World Series play, it remains the only no-hitter of any kind to be pitched in postseason play. By 165 BCE the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid monarchy was successful. On October 8, 1956, in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series against the Dodgers, pitcher Don Larsen threw the only perfect game in World Series history. By 166 BCE Mattathias had died, and Judah took his place as leader. In 1956, Mantle won the major league triple crown, leading both leagues in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130). Judah became known as Judah Maccabee ("Judah the Hammer").

The 1950s were also a decade of significant individual achievement for Yankee players. Mattathias, a Jewish priest, and his five sons John, Simon, Eleazar, Jonathan, and Judah led a rebellion against Antiochus. Led by players like center fielder Mickey Mantle, pitcher Whitey Ford, and catcher Yogi Berra, Stengel's teams won 10 pennants and seven World Series titles in his twelve seasons as Yankee manager. In 167 BCE Antiochus ordered an altar to Zeus erected in the Temple. The five consecutive championships won by the Yankees during this period remains the major league record. Under the reign of Antiochus IV, the Temple in Jerusalem was looted, Jews were massacred, and Judaism was effectively outlawed. Bettering the McCarthy-era clubs, Stengel's squad won the World Series in his first five years as manager, 1949 through 1953. Jews rebelled at having to do this.

As if on cue, new superstars began arriving, including the "Oklahoma Kid", Mickey Mantle, whose first year (1951) was DiMaggio's curtain call. At first little changed, but under his reign Jews were gradually forced to violate the precepts of their faith. He was also hampered by bone spurs in his heel, which hastened the final docking of the "Yankee Clipper". By 175 BCE Antiochus IV Epiphanes ascended to the Seleucid throne. It has often been reported that he said he wanted to retire before he became an "ordinary" player. The Jewish people paid taxes to Syria and accepted its legal authority, and by and large were free to follow their own faith, maintain their own jobs, and engage in trade. By this time, the Great DiMaggio's career was winding down. Around 200 BCE Jews lived as an autonomous people in the land of Israel, also referred to as Judea, which at that time was controlled by the Seleucid king of Syria.

The post-season proved to be a bit easier, as the Yankees knocked off their cross-town Flatbush rivals 4 games to 1. Indeed, Saadia Gaon's theory is highly unlikeley, as Megillat Antiokhos gives the timeframe for the story in relation to the destruction of the second Temple, which occurred over 200 years later, and could not possibly have been known to the Maccabees. The 1949 season is another that has been written about poetically, as a Yankees team that was seen as "underdogs" came from behind to catch and surpass the powerful Red Sox on the last two days of the season, in a faceoff that could be said to be the real beginning of the modern intense rivalry between these teams. Another source is the Megillat Antiokhos — a text ascribed to the Maccabees themselves by Saadia Gaon, but according to some scholars, perhaps written around the first or second century CE. His tenure would prove to the most successful in the Yankees' history up to that point. The Tanakh ends with the consequences following the events of Purim, and had already been codified many centuries earlier by the Men of the Great Assembly (Anshei Knesset HaGedolah). Casey had a reputation for being somewhat of a clown and had been associated with managing excruciatingly bad teams such as the mid-1930s Boston Braves, so his selection was met with no little skepticism. The books of the Maccabees (Sefer HaMakabim) are not part of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), but are part of deuterocanonical historical and religious material preserved in the Septuagint.

Despite finishing only 3 games back of the pennant-winning Cleveland Indians in 1948, Harris was released, and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel as their manager. A story similar in character, and obviously older in date, is the one alluded to in 2 Maccabees 1:18 et seq., according to which the relighting of the altar-fire by Nehemiah was due to a miracle which occurred on the twenty-fifth of Kislev, and which appears to be given as the reason for the selection of the same date for the rededication of the altar by Judah Maccabeus. After a couple of interim managers had come and gone, Bucky Harris was brought in and the Yankees righted the ship again, winning the 1947 pennant and facing a much-tougher Dodgers team than their 1941 counterparts, in a Series that went seven games and was a harbinger of things to come for much of the next decade. The story of Hanukkah is preserved in the books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees. The Yanks then went into a bit of a slump, and manager McCarthy was let go early in the 1946 season. Rashi, in a note to Shabbat 21b, says their purpose is to publicize the miracle. Louis Cardinals during 1942 and 1943. Josephus believed that the lights were symbolic of the liberty obtained by the Jews on the day that Hanukkah commemorates.

The war-thinned ranks of the major leagues nonetheless found the Yanks in the post-season again, as they traded World Series wins with the St. Except in times of danger, the lights were to be placed outside one's door or in the window closest to the street. Two months and one day after the final game of the Yanks' 4 to 1 win, the Pearl Harbor attacks occurred, and many of the best ballplayers went off to World War II. As is the case in most such disputes, Jews today follow Hillel. The Yankees made short work of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 Series. The followers of Shammai favored the former custom; the followers of Hillel advocated the latter. Modern baseball historians regard it as unlikely that anyone will ever hit .400 again, barring a change to the way the game is played; and as virtually impossible that anyone will approach DiMaggio's 56-game streak, which is so far beyond second place (44) as to be almost a statistical anomaly. There was a dispute over how the last option was to be performed: either display eight lamps on the first night of the festival, and reduce the number on each successive night; or begin with one lamp the first night, increasing the number till the eighth night.

A crucial factor in ending the streak was the fielding of Cleveland third baseman Ken Keltner, who stopped two balls that DiMaggio hit hard to the left. The Talmud presents three customs:. The streak was finally snapped in a game at Cleveland Stadium the next night before a huge crowd at the lakefront. They used this, and miraculously, that oil burned for eight days (the time it took to have new oil pressed and made ready). A popular song by Les Brown celebrated this event, as Betty Bonney and the band members sang it: "He tied the mark at 44 / July the First, you know / Since then he's hit a good 12 more / Joltin' Joe DiMaggio / Joe, Joe DiMaggio, we want you on our side." The last game of the streak came on July 16 at Cleveland's League Park. They found only a single container that was still sealed by the High Priest, with enough oil to keep the Menorah in the Temple lit for a single day. Meanwhile, DiMaggio, who had once hit in 61 straight games as a minor leaguer with the San Francisco Seals, began a hitting streak on May 15 which stretched to an astonishing 56 games. The Gemara, in tractate Shabbat 21b [1], says that after the occupiers had been driven from the Temple, the Maccabees discovered that almost all of the ritual olive oil had been profaned.

Ted Williams of the Red Sox was in the hunt for the elusive .400 batting average, which he achieved on the last day of the season. The miracle of Hanukkah is described in the Talmud. After an off season came the Summer of 1941, a much-celebrated year, often described by sportswriters as the last great year of the "Golden Era", before World War II and other realities intervened. In doing so, the oil becomes metaphor for the miraculous survival of the Jewish people through millenia of trials and tribulations. They also swept the Chicago Cubs in 1938, and the Cincinnati Reds in 1939. Instead, the festival commemorates the Miracle of the Oil and the positive spiritual aspects about the Temple's re-dedication. They took the Giants 4 games to 2 in that Series, and 4 games to 1 the next year. The spiritual side of Judaism shies away from commemorating military victories, the Hasmoneans later became corrupt, and civil war between Jews is considered deplorable, so Hanukkah does not formally commemorate either of these historical events.

During Game 2 of the 1936 Series, they pounded the Giants 18-4, still the World Series record (through 2005) for most runs by a team in one game. Historically, Hanukkah commemorates two events:. When the Yankees did get into the Series, they had little trouble. Miraculously, the oil burned for eight days - which was the length of time it took to press, prepare and consecrate new oil. The strongest competition for the Yankees during that stretch was the Detroit Tigers, who won two pennants before that Yankees four-year stretch, and one after. At the re-dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem following the victory of the Maccabees over the Seleucid Empire, there was only enough consecrated olive oil to fuel the eternal flame in the Temple for one day. They did it without Gehrig for most of 1939, as the superstar's retirement due to ALS saddened the baseball world. The word Hanukkah means "dedication." Spiritually, Hanukkah commemorates the Miracle of the Oil.

Behind the thundering Yankees bats of DiMaggio, Gehrig and Frank Crosetti, and a superb pitching staff led by Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez and anchored by catcher Bill Dickey, the Yankees reeled off an unprecedented four consecutive World Series wins during 1936-1939. . The young center fielder from San Francisco was an immediate impact player, batting .323, hitting 29 homers and driving in 125 runs in his rookie season of 1936. Other variations are discussed below. Just as Gehrig stepped out of Ruth's considerable shadow, a new titan appeared on the horizon, in the person of Joe DiMaggio. It is most commonly transliterated to English as Hanukkah or Chanukah. The Yankees run during the 1930s could also be facetiously called the "McCarthy era", as manager Joe McCarthy (no relation to the infamous Senator of the same name) would guide the Yankees to new heights. In Hebrew script, the word Hanukkah is written חנכה, ḥănukkāh, or חנוכה, ḥănūkkāh.

Babe Ruth hit his famous "Called Shot" home run in Wrigley Field in Game 3 of that Series, a fitting "Swan Song" to his illustrious post-season career. The festival is observed in Jewish homes by the kindling of lights on each of the festival's eight nights, one on the first night, two on the second night and so on. After three also-ran seasons, the Yankees returned to the American League top perch under new manager Joe McCarthy in 1932 and swept the Chicago Cubs in the World Series, running their streak of consecutive World Series game wins to 12, a mark which would stand until the 2000 Yankees bested it in the World Series that year. Hanukkah, also known as the Festival of Lights or Festival of Dedication, is an eight day Jewish holiday that starts on the 25th day of Kislev, which generally is in December, or sometimes, late November. Babe Ruth hit .625 with 3 home runs in that series, while Lou Gehrig hit .545 and belted 4 round-trippers. He is succeeded by Jonathan Maccabaeus and Simon Maccabaeus who continue to lead the Jews in battle.). Louis Cardinals in the World Series. Battle of Elasa (Judas Maccabeus dies in battle against the army of King Demetrius and Bacchides.

The Yankees would repeat as American League champions in 1928, fighting off the resurgent Philadelphia Athletics, and sweep the St. Dathema (A Jewish fortress saved by Judas Maccabeus.). Ruth's home run total of 60 in 1927 set a single-season record which would stand for 34 years, and first baseman Lou Gehrig had his first big season with 47 round-trippers. Battle of Emmaus (Judas Maccabeus fights the forces of Lysias and Georgias). The 1927 team was so potent that it became known as "Murderers' Row" and is sometimes considered to have been the best team in the history of baseball (though similar claims have been made for other Yankee squads, notably those of 1939, 1961 and 1998). Lysias has success in battle against the Maccabess, but allows them temporary freedom of worship.). Stengel would later become a "giant" for the Yankees as a manager. Battle of Beth-zechariah (Elazar the Maccabee is killed in battle.

Giants outfielder Casey Stengel, who even then was being called "Old Case", hit two homers to win the two games the Giants came away with. Battle of Beth Zur (Judas Maccabeus defeats the army of Lysias, recapturing Jerusalem.). In 1921 through 1923 they faced the Giants in the World Series, losing the first two match-ups but turning the tables in 1923 after the Big Stadium opened. Battle of Beth Horon (Judas Maccabeus defeats the forces of Seron.). From 1921 to 1928, the Yankees went through their first period of great success, winning six American League pennants and three World Series. Battle of Adasa (Judas Maccabeus leads the Jews to victory against the forces of Nicanor.). It was truly "the House that Ruth Built",. Rome annexes Judea.

The Stadium was the first triple-deck venue in baseball and seated an astounding 58,000. The Priests of the Temple are struck down at the Altar. The site for the stadium was chosen because the IRT Jerome Avenue subway line, now the MTA's#4 train, went right by there, practically on top of Yankee Stadium's right-field wall. Twelve thousand Jews are massacred as Romans enter Jerusalem. and River Avenue in the Bronx. The Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) is dispatched to the area. In 1923 the Yankees moved into Yankee Stadium at 161st St. 63 BCE: The Hasmonean Jewish Kingdom comes to an end due to rivalry between the brothers Aristobulus II and Hyrcanus II, both of whom appeal to the Roman Republic to intervene and settle the power struggle on their behalf.

The construction crew moved with remarkable speed and finished the big new ballpark in less than a year. 83 BCE: Consolidation of the Kingdom in territory east of the Jordan River. Instead, to McGraw's chagrin, they broke ground for a new ballpark just across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds. 96 BCE: An eight year civil war begins. At that time, John McGraw was said to have commented that the Yankees should "move to some out-of-the-way place, like Queens". Israel throws off Syrian rule completely. In 1921 the Yankees were told to move out of the Polo Grounds after the 1922 season. 131 BCE: Antiochus VII dies.

The home run hitting exploits of Ruth proved popular with the public, to the extent that the Yankees were soon outdrawing their landlords, the Giants. 130 BCE: Antiochus VII besieges Jerusalem, but withdraws. He was especially noted for development of the Yankees' farm system. 139 BCE: The Roman Senate recognizes Jewish autonomy. Barrow would act as general manager or president of the Yankees for the next 25 years and may deserve the bulk of the credit for the team's success during that period. This inaugurates a period of great geographical expansion, population growth, and religious, cultural and social development. Barrow came on board after the 1920 season, and like many of the new Yankee players had previously been a part of the Red Sox organization, having managed the team since 1918. The Seleucid kings have a formal overlordship, which the Hasmoneans acknowledged.

Huggins was hired in 1919 by Ruppert while Huston was serving in Europe with the army (this would lead to a break between the two owners, with Ruppert eventually buying Huston out in 1923). The Seleucids recognize Jewish autonomy. Other critical newcomers in this period were manager Miller Huggins and general manager Ed Barrow. 142 BCE: Establishment of the Second Jewish Commonwealth. Harry Frazee finally found success on Broadway in 1927 with the musical comedy No No Nanette, which included the song "Tea For Two". The Temple is liberated and rededicated (Hanukkah). The Red Sox did not win a World Series from 1919 until 2004 (see Curse of the Bambino), often finding themselves out of the World Series hunt as a result of the success of the Yankees. 165 BCE: The Jewish revolt against the Seleucid monarchy is successful.

Two of the four Boston newspapers agreed with the deal at the time. The Hasmonean Jewish Kingdom begins; It lasts until 63 BCE. That would continue during his Yankees years, but the ownership was more tolerant, provided he brought fans and championships to the ballpark. 166 BCE: Mattathias dies, and Judah takes his place as leader. Ruth was also regarded as a problem, a carouser. Judah becomes known as Judah Maccabe (Judah The Hammer). Frazee also wished to aid the Yankees, as giving the Yankees a box office draw would strengthen a legal ally, and reduce the pressure he faced[3]. Mattathias, and his five sons John, Simon, Eleazar, Jonathan, and Judah lead a rebellion against Antiochus.

Frazee traded Ruth in January of 1920, citing Ruth's demand for a raise after being paid the highest salary in baseball, and despite owning the single season homerun record at the time of the trade (hitting 29 homeruns in 1919[2]). 167 BCE: Antiochus orders an altar to Zeus erected in the Temple. However, pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the biggest of them all. 168 BCE: Under the reign of Antiochus IV, the Temple is looted, Jews are massacred, and Judaism is outlawed. From 1919 to 1922, the Yankees acquired pitchers Waite Hoyt, Carl Mays and Herb Pennock, catcher Wally Schang, shortstop Everett Scott and third baseman Joe Dugan, all from the Red Sox. 175 BCE: Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) ascends the Seleucid throne. President Ban Johnson, Frazee faced most of the legal battles which proved costly[1]. 198 BCE: Armies of the Seleucid King Antiochus III (Antiochus the Great) oust Ptolemy V from Judea and Samaria.

Further, as Frazee owned the strongest of the "Insurrectos" franchizes, which antagonized A.L. Jenok (rare). Many of the newly acquired players who would later contribute to their success came from the Boston Red Sox, whose owner, theater impresario Harry Frazee, had bought his team on credit and needed money to pay off his loans and purchase Fenway Park from the Fenway Park Trust. Khanike (YIVO standard transliteration from the Yiddish and/or Ashkenazic pronunciation of the Hebrew). Over the next few years the new owners would begin to enlarge the payroll. Hanukka (rare spelling). The Yankees detente with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox circa 1920 (all three collectively known as the "Insurrectos") paid off well. Channukah.

Perhaps one of the greatest ironies of the Yankees dominance comes from its roots. Hanuka (rare spelling; again, the gender would be masculine instead of feminine, in Hebrew). Ruppert later said, "For $450,000 we got an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige." But now with an owner possessing deep pockets, and a willingness to dig into them to produce a winning team. Chanukkah. Congressman for eight years. Chanuka (rare spelling; in Hebrew, dropping the final 'h' would change the gender of the word). Ruppert was heir to the Ruppert brewery fortune and had also been tied to the Tammany Hall machine, serving as a U.S. Hanukah (less common alternative in the United States).

At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert and Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston. Chanukah (common alternative in the United States). By the mid 1910s, owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and both were in need of money. Hanukkah (most common in the United States). Before very long, New York Yankees had become the official nickname of the club. Shin - shtel ayn - "put in" - the player puts one or two in the pot. With the change of parks in 1913, the "Highlanders" reference became obsolete, and the de facto team nickname became exclusively "Yankees". Hey - halb - "half" - the player takes half of the pot, rounding up if there is an odd number.

The name grew in popularity over the team's first decade. Gimel - gants - "all" - the player takes the entire pot. The New York Herald, on April 15, 1906, reported "Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1". Nun - nisht - "not" - the next player spins. That matter-of-fact wording suggests the nickname was already well-known. ש (Shin) - In Israel פ (Pe). During the early 1900s, the nickname "Yankees" was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on "Americans", verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald's report was headlined "Dougherty as a Yankee". ה (Hey),.

Relations between the clubs had warmed when the Giants were allowed to lease Hilltop Park while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt in 1911 following a disastrous fire. ג (Gimel),. From 1913 to 1922 the team would play in the Polo Grounds, a park owned by their National League rivals, the Giants. נ (Nun),. For fans of the team formally named the Red Sox in 1908, the 1904 season-ender would prove to be the last time Boston would defeat the Yankees in a pennant-deciding game for literally a century. The most pious method, where the number of candles changed each night. 1904 was the last year a Series was not played, until the strike-truncated year of 1994. One light each night for each member of the household, or,.

Brush, who then led a committee that formalized the rules governing the World Series. Lighting one light each night per household,. The resulting tongue-lashing of the Giants by the media stung their owner, John T. They defeated overwhelming forces, and re-dedicated the Second Temple. Although Boston had won the pennant, the Giants still refused to participate. The rebellion was begun by Mattathias Maccabee and continued by Judah Maccabee and his other sons. First, the presence of the Highlanders in the race had led the Giants to announce they would not participate in the World Series against a "minor league" team. The victory of the Jews over the armies of Antiochus IV.

This event had historical significance in several ways. The triumph of Judaism's spiritual values as embodied in its Torah (symbolized by the Menorah, since the Torah is compared to light) over Hellenistic civilization (considered darkness) which under Antiochus IV, had attempted to culturally assimilate the Jews away from practicing Judaism's commandments, by forcefully installing Greek religious symbols in the Second Temple. New York pitcher Jack Chesbro threw a wild pitch in the ninth inning which allowed the eventual pennant-winning run to score for the Boston Americans. Their best chance came on the last day of the 1904 season, at the Hilltop. Their somewhat tainted ownership, along with the questionable activities of some players, notably first baseman Hal Chase, raised suspicions of game-fixing, but little of that was ever proven.

As the Highlanders, the team enjoyed success only twice, finishing in second place in 1904 and 1910; but otherwise, much of their first fifteen years in New York was spent in the cellar. Today the site of the original Hilltop Park is occupied by buildings of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. The name was also a reference to the noted British military unit The Gordon Highlanders, as the team president from 1903 to 1906 was named Joseph Gordon. Consequently the field was known as Hilltop Park and the team quickly became known as the New York Highlanders.

and Broadway in Manhattan, near the highest point on the island. The franchise's first park in New York was located at 165th St. Farrell owned a casino and several pool halls, while Devery had served as a blatantly corrupt chief of the New York City police and had only been forced out of the department at the start of 1902. Farrell and Devery both had deep ties into city politics and gambling.

The AL's Baltimore franchise became the New York franchise when its new owners, Frank Farrell and William Devery, were able to find a ballpark location not blocked by the Giants. The NL also agreed that the "junior circuit" could establish a franchise in New York. In January 1903, the American and National Leagues held a "peace conference" to settle conflicts over player contract disputes and to agree on future cooperation. A week later the owner of the Giants also gained controlling interest of the Orioles and raided the team for players, after which the league declared the team forfeit and took control, still intending to move the franchise to New York when and if possible.

As a result of a feud with league president Ban Johnson, who rigidly enforced rules about rowdyism on the field of play, McGraw jumped leagues to manage the New York Giants in the middle of the 1902 season. When the team began play as the Baltimore Orioles in 1901, they were managed by John McGraw. The intention of Johnson and the American League had been to place a team in New York City, but their efforts had been stymied by the political connections that owners of the National League New York Giants had with Tammany Hall. Previously a minor league (known as the Western League until 1899), the American League carried over five of its previous locations and added three more on the East Coast, including one in Baltimore, Maryland, which had lost its National League team when that league contracted the year before.

At the end of the 1900 season the American League re-organized and, with its president Ban Johnson as the driving force, decided to assert itself as a new major league. . The Yankees are also the only team that is represented at every position in the Baseball Hall of Fame. Among the North American major sports, the Yankees' success is only approached by the 23 Stanley Cup championships of the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League.

Louis Cardinals and the Oakland Athletics are tied for second with 9 World Series victories each, and the Los Angeles Dodgers is second in World Series appearances with 18. The Yankees have won 26 World Series in 39 appearances; the St. They are one of two major league franchises which operate in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Yankees have been among the most storied teams in North America over their 100+ year history; along with franchises like the Boston Celtics, Dallas Cowboys, and Montreal Canadiens, the Yankees have helped exemplify the phrase "dynasty" in professional athletics.

They are in the Eastern Division of the American League. The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball team based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. ♦ - Hall of Famer
Jackie Robinson's #42 is retired by Major League Baseball
. (Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912).

Because New York won the regular season series with Boston, New York was awarded the division championship and Boston was awarded the wild card.. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
[3] - In 2005, the Yankees and the Boston Red Sox finished the season with identical records of 95-67 and finished tied for first place in the East Division standings. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore.
[2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season.

New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. [1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. Rookie: GCL Yankees, Gulf Coast League. Short A: Staten Island Yankees, New York-Penn League.

A: Charleston RiverDogs, South Atlantic League. Advanced A: Tampa Yankees, Florida State League. AA: Trenton Thunder, Eastern League. AAA: Columbus Clippers, International League.

54 Rob Thomson (special assignment instructor). -- Tony Peña (first base). 50 Rich Monteleone (special pitching instructor). -- Lee Mazzilli (bench).

23 Don Mattingly (hitting). -- Joe Kerrigan (bullpen pitching). 49 Ron Guidry (pitching). -- Larry Bowa (third base).

99 Mike Borzello (bullpen catching).  6 Joe Torre. The Yankee Stadium grounds crew has become famous in their own right for their infield sweeping in the middle of the fifth inning when they dance to the popular 70's hit YMCA by the Village People. The Yankee fans who sit behind the right-field portion of the bleacher seats in Yankee Stadium have become so well known for their rowdy behavior that they are often referred to as the "bleacher creatures." They have also popularized a type of chant called "Role Call" where, in the top of the first inning, they chant each field player's name on the Yankees repeatedly until the player acknowledges the chant.

The Yankees have teamed up with New Era and Adidas to make caps for sale. Under George Steinbrenner, the team has a strict dress code that forbids long hair and facial hair below the lip. American football's example of balanced salaries, correlated with its now-massive parity and mainstream impact, demonstrates that keeping athletic salaries fair is good for the sport and therefore everyone - TV outlets, owners, fans. Manny Ramírez, Pedro Martínez), who might otherwise freely use the potentiality as a bargaining chip.

This phenomenon even causes the Yankees to announce their intentions not to pursue certain free agents (e.g. The willingness of the Yankees to pay premium prices for top talent encourages players and their agents to demand unreasonably high prices, further diluting talent throughout the rest of the league. Allowing one team to bid highly for the best talent makes it more difficult for lower-spending teams (primarily in smaller metropolitan areas) to compete. In a free-market society, an owner who wishes to spend as much as he wants should not be restricted from doing so.

The Yankees drive attendance, merchandise sales and TV revenues, helping to subsidize less-profitable teams. It has also been argued that the New York Mets, because they share the same market, could spend at a higher level if their owner was inclined to do so, and therefore the Yankees spending reflects Steinbrenner's greater commitment to winning rather than a singular advantage over all other teams.[5]. New York, as the largest market with the highest revenues, should spend in accordance with their vast resources. As "America's Team" the Yankees give other baseball fans a team to "hate" or root against, thereby further generating interest in baseball games involving the Yankees and baseball in general.

The Yankees are "America's Team" They give the casual, or "bandwagon," baseball fan someone to root for when he/she does not have a local favorite, or when their local team is playing poorly. Won ALDS (3-0) over Texas Rangers. Won ALCS (4-2) over Cleveland Indians. Won 1998 World Series (4-0) over San Diego Padres.

Oriole Park (Baltimore) (1901-1902). Hilltop Park (1903-1912). Brush Stadium (1913-1919). a.k.a.

Polo Grounds (IV) (1913-1922)

    . Yankee Stadium (1923-1973). Shea Stadium (1974-1975). Yankee Stadium (1976-present).

    Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902). New York Highlanders (1903-1912). New York Yankees (1913-present). East Division (1969-present).

    American League (1901-present)

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