This page will contain discussion groups about yankees, as they become available.

New York Yankees


Major league affiliations
  • American League (1901-present)
    • East Division (1969-present)
Major league titles
World Series titles (26) 2000 • 1999 • 1998 • 1996
1978 • 1977 • 1962 • 1961
1958 • 1956 • 1953 • 1952
1951 • 1950 • 1949 • 1947
1943 • 1941 • 1939 • 1938
1937 • 1936 • 1932 • 1928
1927 • 1923
AL Pennants (39) 2003 • 2001 • 2000 • 1999
1998 • 1996 • 1981 • 1978
1977 • 1976 • 1964 • 1963
1962 • 1961 • 1960 • 1958
1957 • 1956 • 1955 • 1953
1952 • 1951 • 1950 • 1949
1947 • 1943 • 1942 • 1941
1939 • 1938 • 1937 • 1936
1932 • 1928 • 1927 • 1926
1923 • 1922 • 1921
East Division titles (14) [1][2][3] 2005 • 2004 • 2003 • 2002
2001 • 2000 • 1999 • 1998
1996 • 1981 • 1980 • 1978
1977 • 1976
Wild card berths (2) 1997 • 1995

[1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore.
[2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
[3] - In 2005, the Yankees and the Boston Red Sox finished the season with identical records of 95-67 and finished tied for first place in the East Division standings. Because New York won the regular season series with Boston, New York was awarded the division championship and Boston was awarded the wild card.

Major league nicknames
  • New York Yankees (1913-present)
  • New York Highlanders (1903-1912)
  • Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902)

(Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912)

Major league home ballparks
  • Yankee Stadium (1976-present)
  • Shea Stadium (1974-1975)
  • Yankee Stadium (1923-1973)
  • Polo Grounds (IV) (1913-1922)
    • a.k.a. Brush Stadium (1913-1919)
  • Hilltop Park (1903-1912)
  • Oriole Park (Baltimore) (1901-1902)
Current uniform
Retired numbers

♦ - Hall of Famer
Jackie Robinson's #42 is retired by Major League Baseball

• This box contains major league affiliations only; National Association, Western League and other minor league affiliations are not included.
• The "Established" date indicates when major league status was gained.
• Postseasons prior to 1903 are not included as they were regarded more as exhibitions.
        edit infobox

The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball team based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. They are in the Eastern Division of the American League.

One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Yankees have been among the most storied teams in North America over their 100+ year history; along with franchises like the Boston Celtics, Dallas Cowboys, and Montreal Canadiens, the Yankees have helped exemplify the phrase "dynasty" in professional athletics. They are one of two major league franchises which operate in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League.

The Yankees have won 26 World Series in 39 appearances; the St. Louis Cardinals and the Oakland Athletics are tied for second with 9 World Series victories each, and the Los Angeles Dodgers is second in World Series appearances with 18. Among the North American major sports, the Yankees' success is only approached by the 23 Stanley Cup championships of the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League. The Yankees are also the only team that is represented at every position in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Origins

At the end of the 1900 season the American League re-organized and, with its president Ban Johnson as the driving force, decided to assert itself as a new major league. Previously a minor league (known as the Western League until 1899), the American League carried over five of its previous locations and added three more on the East Coast, including one in Baltimore, Maryland, which had lost its National League team when that league contracted the year before. The intention of Johnson and the American League had been to place a team in New York City, but their efforts had been stymied by the political connections that owners of the National League New York Giants had with Tammany Hall.

When the team began play as the Baltimore Orioles in 1901, they were managed by John McGraw. As a result of a feud with league president Ban Johnson, who rigidly enforced rules about rowdyism on the field of play, McGraw jumped leagues to manage the New York Giants in the middle of the 1902 season. A week later the owner of the Giants also gained controlling interest of the Orioles and raided the team for players, after which the league declared the team forfeit and took control, still intending to move the franchise to New York when and if possible.

In January 1903, the American and National Leagues held a "peace conference" to settle conflicts over player contract disputes and to agree on future cooperation. The NL also agreed that the "junior circuit" could establish a franchise in New York. The AL's Baltimore franchise became the New York franchise when its new owners, Frank Farrell and William Devery, were able to find a ballpark location not blocked by the Giants. Farrell and Devery both had deep ties into city politics and gambling. Farrell owned a casino and several pool halls, while Devery had served as a blatantly corrupt chief of the New York City police and had only been forced out of the department at the start of 1902.

The Highlanders

The franchise's first park in New York was located at 165th St. and Broadway in Manhattan, near the highest point on the island. Consequently the field was known as Hilltop Park and the team quickly became known as the New York Highlanders. The name was also a reference to the noted British military unit The Gordon Highlanders, as the team president from 1903 to 1906 was named Joseph Gordon. Today the site of the original Hilltop Park is occupied by buildings of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center.

As the Highlanders, the team enjoyed success only twice, finishing in second place in 1904 and 1910; but otherwise, much of their first fifteen years in New York was spent in the cellar. Their somewhat tainted ownership, along with the questionable activities of some players, notably first baseman Hal Chase, raised suspicions of game-fixing, but little of that was ever proven.

Their best chance came on the last day of the 1904 season, at the Hilltop. New York pitcher Jack Chesbro threw a wild pitch in the ninth inning which allowed the eventual pennant-winning run to score for the Boston Americans. This event had historical significance in several ways. First, the presence of the Highlanders in the race had led the Giants to announce they would not participate in the World Series against a "minor league" team. Although Boston had won the pennant, the Giants still refused to participate. The resulting tongue-lashing of the Giants by the media stung their owner, John T. Brush, who then led a committee that formalized the rules governing the World Series. 1904 was the last year a Series was not played, until the strike-truncated year of 1994. For fans of the team formally named the Red Sox in 1908, the 1904 season-ender would prove to be the last time Boston would defeat the Yankees in a pennant-deciding game for literally a century.

From 1913 to 1922 the team would play in the Polo Grounds, a park owned by their National League rivals, the Giants. Relations between the clubs had warmed when the Giants were allowed to lease Hilltop Park while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt in 1911 following a disastrous fire. During the early 1900s, the nickname "Yankees" was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on "Americans", verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald's report was headlined "Dougherty as a Yankee". That matter-of-fact wording suggests the nickname was already well-known. The New York Herald, on April 15, 1906, reported "Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1". The name grew in popularity over the team's first decade. With the change of parks in 1913, the "Highlanders" reference became obsolete, and the de facto team nickname became exclusively "Yankees". Before very long, New York Yankees had become the official nickname of the club.

By the mid 1910s, owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and both were in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert and Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston. Ruppert was heir to the Ruppert brewery fortune and had also been tied to the Tammany Hall machine, serving as a U.S. Congressman for eight years. Ruppert later said, "For $450,000 we got an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige." But now with an owner possessing deep pockets, and a willingness to dig into them to produce a winning team.

The Ruth and Gehrig era

Perhaps one of the greatest ironies of the Yankees dominance comes from its roots. The Yankees detente with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox circa 1920 (all three collectively known as the "Insurrectos") paid off well. Over the next few years the new owners would begin to enlarge the payroll. Many of the newly acquired players who would later contribute to their success came from the Boston Red Sox, whose owner, theater impresario Harry Frazee, had bought his team on credit and needed money to pay off his loans and purchase Fenway Park from the Fenway Park Trust. Further, as Frazee owned the strongest of the "Insurrectos" franchizes, which antagonized A.L. President Ban Johnson, Frazee faced most of the legal battles which proved costly[1]. From 1919 to 1922, the Yankees acquired pitchers Waite Hoyt, Carl Mays and Herb Pennock, catcher Wally Schang, shortstop Everett Scott and third baseman Joe Dugan, all from the Red Sox. However, pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the biggest of them all. Frazee traded Ruth in January of 1920, citing Ruth's demand for a raise after being paid the highest salary in baseball, and despite owning the single season homerun record at the time of the trade (hitting 29 homeruns in 1919[2]). Frazee also wished to aid the Yankees, as giving the Yankees a box office draw would strengthen a legal ally, and reduce the pressure he faced[3]. Ruth was also regarded as a problem, a carouser. That would continue during his Yankees years, but the ownership was more tolerant, provided he brought fans and championships to the ballpark. Two of the four Boston newspapers agreed with the deal at the time. The Red Sox did not win a World Series from 1919 until 2004 (see Curse of the Bambino), often finding themselves out of the World Series hunt as a result of the success of the Yankees. Harry Frazee finally found success on Broadway in 1927 with the musical comedy No No Nanette, which included the song "Tea For Two".

Babe Ruth

Other critical newcomers in this period were manager Miller Huggins and general manager Ed Barrow. Huggins was hired in 1919 by Ruppert while Huston was serving in Europe with the army (this would lead to a break between the two owners, with Ruppert eventually buying Huston out in 1923). Barrow came on board after the 1920 season, and like many of the new Yankee players had previously been a part of the Red Sox organization, having managed the team since 1918. Barrow would act as general manager or president of the Yankees for the next 25 years and may deserve the bulk of the credit for the team's success during that period. He was especially noted for development of the Yankees' farm system.

The home run hitting exploits of Ruth proved popular with the public, to the extent that the Yankees were soon outdrawing their landlords, the Giants. In 1921 the Yankees were told to move out of the Polo Grounds after the 1922 season. At that time, John McGraw was said to have commented that the Yankees should "move to some out-of-the-way place, like Queens". Instead, to McGraw's chagrin, they broke ground for a new ballpark just across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds. The construction crew moved with remarkable speed and finished the big new ballpark in less than a year. In 1923 the Yankees moved into Yankee Stadium at 161st St. and River Avenue in the Bronx. The site for the stadium was chosen because the IRT Jerome Avenue subway line, now the MTA's#4 train, went right by there, practically on top of Yankee Stadium's right-field wall. The Stadium was the first triple-deck venue in baseball and seated an astounding 58,000. It was truly "the House that Ruth Built",

From 1921 to 1928, the Yankees went through their first period of great success, winning six American League pennants and three World Series. In 1921 through 1923 they faced the Giants in the World Series, losing the first two match-ups but turning the tables in 1923 after the Big Stadium opened. Giants outfielder Casey Stengel, who even then was being called "Old Case", hit two homers to win the two games the Giants came away with. Stengel would later become a "giant" for the Yankees as a manager.

The 1927 team was so potent that it became known as "Murderers' Row" and is sometimes considered to have been the best team in the history of baseball (though similar claims have been made for other Yankee squads, notably those of 1939, 1961 and 1998). Ruth's home run total of 60 in 1927 set a single-season record which would stand for 34 years, and first baseman Lou Gehrig had his first big season with 47 round-trippers.

The Yankees would repeat as American League champions in 1928, fighting off the resurgent Philadelphia Athletics, and sweep the St. Louis Cardinals in the World Series. Babe Ruth hit .625 with 3 home runs in that series, while Lou Gehrig hit .545 and belted 4 round-trippers. After three also-ran seasons, the Yankees returned to the American League top perch under new manager Joe McCarthy in 1932 and swept the Chicago Cubs in the World Series, running their streak of consecutive World Series game wins to 12, a mark which would stand until the 2000 Yankees bested it in the World Series that year. Babe Ruth hit his famous "Called Shot" home run in Wrigley Field in Game 3 of that Series, a fitting "Swan Song" to his illustrious post-season career.

The DiMaggio era

The Yankees run during the 1930s could also be facetiously called the "McCarthy era", as manager Joe McCarthy (no relation to the infamous Senator of the same name) would guide the Yankees to new heights. Just as Gehrig stepped out of Ruth's considerable shadow, a new titan appeared on the horizon, in the person of Joe DiMaggio. The young center fielder from San Francisco was an immediate impact player, batting .323, hitting 29 homers and driving in 125 runs in his rookie season of 1936.

Behind the thundering Yankees bats of DiMaggio, Gehrig and Frank Crosetti, and a superb pitching staff led by Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez and anchored by catcher Bill Dickey, the Yankees reeled off an unprecedented four consecutive World Series wins during 1936-1939. They did it without Gehrig for most of 1939, as the superstar's retirement due to ALS saddened the baseball world.

The strongest competition for the Yankees during that stretch was the Detroit Tigers, who won two pennants before that Yankees four-year stretch, and one after. When the Yankees did get into the Series, they had little trouble. During Game 2 of the 1936 Series, they pounded the Giants 18-4, still the World Series record (through 2005) for most runs by a team in one game. They took the Giants 4 games to 2 in that Series, and 4 games to 1 the next year. They also swept the Chicago Cubs in 1938, and the Cincinnati Reds in 1939.

After an off season came the Summer of 1941, a much-celebrated year, often described by sportswriters as the last great year of the "Golden Era", before World War II and other realities intervened. Ted Williams of the Red Sox was in the hunt for the elusive .400 batting average, which he achieved on the last day of the season. Meanwhile, DiMaggio, who had once hit in 61 straight games as a minor leaguer with the San Francisco Seals, began a hitting streak on May 15 which stretched to an astonishing 56 games.

A popular song by Les Brown celebrated this event, as Betty Bonney and the band members sang it: "He tied the mark at 44 / July the First, you know / Since then he's hit a good 12 more / Joltin' Joe DiMaggio / Joe, Joe DiMaggio, we want you on our side." The last game of the streak came on July 16 at Cleveland's League Park. The streak was finally snapped in a game at Cleveland Stadium the next night before a huge crowd at the lakefront. A crucial factor in ending the streak was the fielding of Cleveland third baseman Ken Keltner, who stopped two balls that DiMaggio hit hard to the left.

Modern baseball historians regard it as unlikely that anyone will ever hit .400 again, barring a change to the way the game is played; and as virtually impossible that anyone will approach DiMaggio's 56-game streak, which is so far beyond second place (44) as to be almost a statistical anomaly.

The Yankees made short work of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 Series. Two months and one day after the final game of the Yanks' 4 to 1 win, the Pearl Harbor attacks occurred, and many of the best ballplayers went off to World War II. The war-thinned ranks of the major leagues nonetheless found the Yanks in the post-season again, as they traded World Series wins with the St. Louis Cardinals during 1942 and 1943.

The Yanks then went into a bit of a slump, and manager McCarthy was let go early in the 1946 season. After a couple of interim managers had come and gone, Bucky Harris was brought in and the Yankees righted the ship again, winning the 1947 pennant and facing a much-tougher Dodgers team than their 1941 counterparts, in a Series that went seven games and was a harbinger of things to come for much of the next decade.

Despite finishing only 3 games back of the pennant-winning Cleveland Indians in 1948, Harris was released, and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel as their manager. Casey had a reputation for being somewhat of a clown and had been associated with managing excruciatingly bad teams such as the mid-1930s Boston Braves, so his selection was met with no little skepticism. His tenure would prove to the most successful in the Yankees' history up to that point. The 1949 season is another that has been written about poetically, as a Yankees team that was seen as "underdogs" came from behind to catch and surpass the powerful Red Sox on the last two days of the season, in a faceoff that could be said to be the real beginning of the modern intense rivalry between these teams. The post-season proved to be a bit easier, as the Yankees knocked off their cross-town Flatbush rivals 4 games to 1.

By this time, the Great DiMaggio's career was winding down. It has often been reported that he said he wanted to retire before he became an "ordinary" player. He was also hampered by bone spurs in his heel, which hastened the final docking of the "Yankee Clipper". As if on cue, new superstars began arriving, including the "Oklahoma Kid", Mickey Mantle, whose first year (1951) was DiMaggio's curtain call.

The 1950s and 1960s

Bettering the McCarthy-era clubs, Stengel's squad won the World Series in his first five years as manager, 1949 through 1953. The five consecutive championships won by the Yankees during this period remains the major league record. Led by players like center fielder Mickey Mantle, pitcher Whitey Ford, and catcher Yogi Berra, Stengel's teams won 10 pennants and seven World Series titles in his twelve seasons as Yankee manager.

The 1950s were also a decade of significant individual achievement for Yankee players. In 1956, Mantle won the major league triple crown, leading both leagues in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130).

On October 8, 1956, in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series against the Dodgers, pitcher Don Larsen threw the only perfect game in World Series history. Not only was it the only perfect game to be pitched in World Series play, it remains the only no-hitter of any kind to be pitched in postseason play. The Yankees went on to win yet another World Series that season, and Larsen earned World Series MVP honors.

Yankee players also dominated the American League MVP award, with a Yankee claiming ownership six times in the decade (1950 Rizzuto, 1951 Berra, 1954 Berra, 1955 Berra, 1956 Mantle, 1957 Mantle). Pitcher Bob Turley also won the Cy Young Award in 1958, the award's third year of existence.

For the decade, the Yankees won six World Series championships ('50, 51, '52, '53, '56, '58) and eight American League pennants. Led by Mantle, Ford, Berra, Elston Howard, and the newly acquired Roger Maris, the Yankees burst into the new decade seeking to replicate the remarkable success of the 1950s.

However, the Yankees lost the 1960 World Series in heartbreaking fashion when Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning, series-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 off Ralph Terry. It remains the only Game 7, walk-off home run in World Series history. Stengel was blamed for the World Series loss for failing to start his ace, Ford, three times in the Series, and was replaced as manager with Ralph Houk prior to the 1961 season. Stengel himself, who had reached his seventh decade in July of that year, clearly thought the issue was age discrimination, remarking, "I'll never make the mistake of turning 70 again." Yogi Berra's assessment of the loss was the equally famous comment, "We made too many wrong mistakes."

During the 1960-61 offseason, a seemingly innocuous development may have marked the beginning of the end for this Yankees dynasty. In December of 1960, Chicago insurance executive Charlie Finley purchased the Kansas City Athletics from the estate of Arnold Johnson, who had died that March.

Johnson had acquired the then-Philadelphia Athletics from the family of Connie Mack in 1954. He was the owner of Yankee Stadium at the time, but was forced to sell the stadium by American League owners as a condition of purchasing the Athletics. Johnson was also a longtime business associate of then-Yankees owners Del Webb and Dan Topping. During Johnson's ownership, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. Maris had been acquired by the Yankees in one such trade. Many fans, and even other teams, frequently accused the Athletics of being operated as an effective farm team for the Yankees. Once Finley purchased the Athletics, he immediately terminated the team's "special relationship" with the Yankees.

In the meantime, 1961 was one of the greatest years in Yankee history. Throughout the summer, Mantle and reigning-MVP Roger Maris hit home runs at a record pace as both chased Babe Ruth's single season home run record of 60. The duo's home run prowess led the media and fans to christen them 'The M & M Boys.' Ultimately, Mantle was forced to bow out in mid-September with 54 home runs when a severe hip infection forced him from the lineup. On October 1, 1961, on the final day of the season, Maris broke the record when he sent a pitch from Boston's Tracy Stallard into the right field stands at Yankee Stadium for his 61st home run. However, by decree of Commissioner Ford Frick, separate single-season home run records were maintained to reflect the fact that Ruth hit his 60 home runs during a 154-game season, while Maris hit his 61 in the first year of the new 162-game season. Some 30 years later, on September 4, 1991, an 8-member Committee for Historical Accuracy appointed by Major League Baseball did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record until it was broken by Mark McGwire on September 8, 1998. (McGwire's record was later broken by Barry Bonds, whose 73 home runs in 2001 remain the major league record. Maris still holds the American League record.)

The Yankees won the pennant with a 109-53 record and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series. The 109 regular season wins posted by the '61 club remain the third highest single-season total in franchise history, behind only the 1998 team's 114 regular season wins and 1927 team's 110 wins. The 1961 Yankees also clubbed a then-major league record for most home runs by a team with 240, a total not surpassed until the 1996 Baltimore Orioles hit 257 with the aid of the designated hitter. Maris won his second consecutive MVP Award while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young.

Because of the excellence of Maris, Mantle, and World Series-MVP Ford, a fine pitching staff, stellar team defense, the team's amazing depth and power, and their overall dominance, the 1961 Yankees are universally considered to be one of the greatest teams in the history of baseball, compared often to their pinstriped-brethren, the 1927 Yankees, the 1939 Yankees, and the 1998 Yankees.

In 1962, the Yankees won their second consecutive World Series, defeating the San Francisco Giants in seven games.

The Yanks would again reach the Fall Classic in 1963, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Behind World Series-MVP Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, the Dodgers starting pitchers threw four complete games and combined to give up just four runs all Series. This was the first time the Yankees were swept in a World Series.

Feeling burnt out after the season, Houk left the manager's chair to become the team's general manager and Berra, who himself had just retired from playing, was named the new manager of the Yankees.

The aging Yankees returned to the World Series in 1964 to face the St. Louis Cardinals in a Series immortalized by David Halberstam's book, October 1964. Despite a valiant performance by Mantle, including a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth of Game 3 off Cardinals' reliever Barney Schultz, the Yankees fell to the Cardinals in seven games. It was to be the last World Series appearance by the Yankees for 12 years.

After the 1964 season, CBS purchased the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. Jokesters at the time wondered if Walter Cronkite would become the manager, perhaps with Yogi Berra doing the newscasts. Topping and Webb had owned the Yankees for 20 years, missing the World Series only 5 times, and going 10-5 in the World Series.

By contrast, the CBS-owned teams never went to the World Series, and in the first year of the new ownership - 1965 - the Yankees finished in the second division for the first time in 40 years; the introduction of the major league amateur draft in 1965 also meant that the Yankees could no longer sign any player they wanted. In 1966 the team finished last in the AL for the first time since 1912, and next-to-last the following year. After that the team's fortunes improved somewhat, but they would not become serious contenders again until 1974.

Return to glory

George Steinbrenner purchased the club for $10 million on January 3, 1973 from CBS, renovated Yankee Stadium, hired and fired Billy Martin a number of times, feuded with star outfielder Reggie Jackson, and presided over the resurgence of the Yankees in the late '70s. Jackson's three home runs in the sixth and final game of the 1977 World Series against three different Dodger pitchers (earning him the nickname "Mr. October") defined the period as much as Martin and Steinbrenner.

The race for the pennant often came to a close competition between the Yankees and the Red Sox, and for fans of both clubs, a game between the two teams (whether in the regular season or post-season championship games) was cause for a rivalry that was often bitter and ruthless, with brawls frequently erupting between both players and fans from the two clubs. The Yankees-Red Sox rivalry came to a head in the 1978 season, when the two clubs finished the regular season in a tie for first place in the AL East. A playoff game between the two teams was held to decide who would go on to the pennant, with the game being held at Boston's Fenway Park (because the Red Sox had won more head-to-head games between the two teams that season). The Yankees won the day, driving a stake through the hearts of their rivals' fans when Bucky Dent drove a game-winning home run over the "Green Monster," one of several emotional moments in the team's history that had Red Sox fans wondering if their team was under some kind of a curse.

A new dynasty

The Yankees entered the 1990s as a last-place team, having spent well but not always wisely on free-agent players since their last appearance in the World Series in 1981. During the 1980s the Yankees, led by their All-Star first baseman Don Mattingly, had the most total wins out of any major league team, but failed to win a World Series (the first such decade since the 1910s). In 1990, Yankee pitcher Andy Hawkins became the first Yankees pitcher ever to lose a no-hitter, when the third baseman (Mike Blowers) committed an error, followed by 2 walks and an error by the left fielder (Jim Leyritz) with the bases loaded, scoring all 3 runners as well as the batter. The 4-0 loss (to the White Sox) was the largest margin of any no-hitter loss in the 20th century. To add to the oddity, the Yankees (and Hawkins) were no-hit by the White Sox 11 days later.

The bad judgment and bad luck of the '80s and early '90s started to change when, while owner Steinbrenner was under suspension, management was able to implement a coherent program without interference from above. Under general managers Gene Michael and Bob Watson and manager Buck Showalter, the club shifted its emphasis from buying talent to developing talent through its farm system and then holding onto it. The first significant sign of success came in 1994, when the Yankees had the best record in the AL when the season was cut short by the players' strike. A year later, the team reached the playoffs as the wild card and was eliminated only after a memorable series against the Seattle Mariners.

Showalter left after the 1995 season due to personality clashes with Steinbrenner and his staff and was replaced by Joe Torre. Initially derided as a retread choice ("Clueless Joe" ran the headline on one of the city's tabloid newspapers), Torre's smooth manner proved out as he led the Yankees to a World Series victory in 1996, defeating the Atlanta Braves in six games. General manager Bob Watson was dismissed when the Yankees failed to repeat in 1997 and was replaced by Brian Cashman, a former Yankees intern. However, the foundation laid by Michael and Watson of players like Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, Mariano Rivera and Bernie Williams was a significant factor in the Yankees' return to prominence. Other prominent members of the late 1990s championships teams acquired through trades included Paul O'Neill, David Cone, Tino Martinez, John Wetteland, Chuck Knoblauch, and Roger Clemens, while Jimmy Key, Wade Boggs, David Wells, Mike Stanton, and Orlando "El Duque" Hernández were signed as free agents.

The 1998-2000 Yankees were the first team to "three-peat" with World Series victories since the Oakland Athletics of the early 1970s. In 1998 and 1999, they swept the San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves, respectively. In 2000, the Yankees met up with cross-town New York Mets for the first Subway Series since 1956 and won four games to one. In these four World Series victories, the Yankees won fourteen straight games. The Yankees are the most recent major league team to repeat as World Series champions.

The 1998 Yankees are widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest teams in baseball history, having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular season wins against just 48 losses en route to a World Series sweep of the Padres. The '98 Yankees went 11-2 during the playoffs and finished with a combined record of 125-50, a major league record. However, their regular season record was surpassed by the 2001 Seattle Mariners, who went 116-46 before losing to the Yankees in the American League Championship Series.

The 21st century

In the emotional October 2001, following the September 11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, the Yankees defeated the Oakland Athletics 3 games to 2 in the Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. But, the usually unhittable Mariano Rivera shockingly blew the lead - and World Series - to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the bottom of the 9th inning of Game 7. Arizona manager Bob Brenly used his pitching staff, which included Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling, very effectively. In addition, the usually potent Yankee attack turned ice-cold.

In 2003, the Yankees defeated their long-time rival the Boston Red Sox in a tough seven-game ALCS, which featured a near-brawl in Game 3 and a series-ending walk-off home run by Aaron Boone in the 11th inning of the final game, only to be defeated by the Florida Marlins - a team with a payroll a quarter of the size of the Yankees' - in the World Series, 4 games to 2.

The loss in the 2001 World Series effectively marked the end of the 1990s Yankee dynasty, as lynchpin players began to retire, not be re-signed, or traded. The Yankees' quick ejection from the 2002 playoffs at the hands of the Anaheim Angels accelerated the changes, as ownership and management began to look increasingly on free agent acquisitions and major trades. The trend continued after the 2003 World Series, culminating when the Yankees traded for the "best player in baseball", Alex Rodriguez, in February 2004. Other significant acquisitions during 2002 to 2004 included Jason Giambi, Hideki Matsui, Gary Sheffield, Kevin Brown, and Javier Vázquez.

In the 2004 American League Championship Series against the Red Sox, the Yankees became the first team in professional baseball history, and only the third team in North American pro sports history (it happened in the NHL twice), to lose a best-of-7 series after taking a 3-0 series lead. After the 2004 World Series, the Yankees needed to improve their pitching, which suffered in the huge collapse to the Red Sox. They signed pitchers Carl Pavano and Jaret Wright. The Yankees also acquired dominant lefty Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks.

The 2005 season didn't start as it expected to be, once they were in last place in the American League East division. Pavano and Wright struggled, so did Johnson. As the season went on, the Yankees got better and slugger Jason Giambi started to hit again. Most of the season, the Yankees were chasing the Boston Red Sox for the division title. The Yankees seemed destined to win the division, and they did.

In the 2005 Division Series, the Angels defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason, winning the final game by a score of 5-3. After the 2005 season, the Yankees needed to get younger and more athletic. In the 2005-2006 offseason, general manager Brian Cashman took control of the Yankees, because owner George Steinbrenner and his advisors signed older talented players after the 2001 season. From the end of the 2005 World Series to December 2005, the baseball world noticed that the Yankees were patient with signing free agents. On December 23, 2005, the Yankees stunned the baseball world by signing center fielder Johnny Damon from the rival Red Sox, where he was a marquee player.

Many explanations have been given for the lack of Yankee World Series titles since 2000. These include depletion of the Yankee farm system because of trades and free agent acquisitions, the aging or departure of the players who had formed the core of the Yankees during the late 1990s, and allegedly poor coaching (like the overuse of Mariano Rivera in the 2001 World Series). Buster Olney, in his book The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty, argues that George Steinbrenner's management style resulted in the players burning out psychologically. Several sabermetricians have argued that success in the playoffs is largely the result of luck. This argument is bolstered by the fact that the production of the Yankees' core players has decreased steadily since their 1996 World Series title.

One particularly creative explanation jokingly proposed by blogger Larry Mahnken is the "Curse of Clay Bellinger". By analogy with the Curse of the Bambino, Mahnken points to the departure of utility player Clay Bellinger from the Yankee roster following the 2001 season and asserts that the Yankees will never again win the World Series until either they make amends to Bellinger or they win the championship anyway. The tautology is part of the joke.

Despite their most recent drought in World Series championships, the Yankees have continued to perform well in the regular season, recently winning their eighth straight AL East division title. In September 2005, the club set a new American League home attendance record of 4,090,696. The Yankees are only the third franchise in sports history to draw over 4 million in regular season attendance at their own ballpark (the others being the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays with 4,057,947 and the 1993 Colorado Rockies with 4,483,350).

Controversy

The Yankees are a notable team not only for their impressive history on the field, but also for their financial situation. The current ownership spends more on player salaries than any other franchise in baseball. As of 2005, the team payroll is more than $208 million, which is $85 million more than the second-highest team, the Red Sox, and more than the five lowest-payroll teams combined [4]. Frustrated after being outbid for pitcher Jose Contreras prior to the 2003 season, Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino even went so far as to dub the Yankees the "Evil Empire," a characterization that is primarily popular among Red Sox fans.

It is a heated debate whether the Yankees' free-spending is positive or negative for baseball, and whether a strict salary cap would make the sport fairer and increase parity among the large-market and small-market teams. The following are arguments for and against these spending practices:

For:

Against:

In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that the Yankees engaged in illegal trade with Cuba and had to settle with the United States government for US$75,000 [6].

Quick facts

Postseason appearances

Baseball Hall of Famers

(Affiliation according to National Baseball Hall of Fame; R. Jackson is affiliated with the Athletics, but wears a Yankee cap[7][8][9])

Further information: New York Yankees: Award Winners and League Leaders

Current roster

40-man roster

Updated on January 27, 2006  

Coaching Staff

Manager

Coaches



Minor league affiliations


This page about yankees includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about yankees
News stories about yankees
External links for yankees
Videos for yankees
Wikis about yankees
Discussion Groups about yankees
Blogs about yankees
Images of yankees


. Source: NOAA National Weather Service Forecast Office.
. Possible Tsunamis. Coaches. Other tsunamis that have occurred include the following:. Manager. In light of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, UNESCO and other world bodies have called for a global tsunami monitoring system.

Updated on January 27, 2006  . This is in part due to the absence of major tsunami events between 1883 (the Krakatoa eruption, which killed 36,000 people) and 2004. Jackson is affiliated with the Athletics, but wears a Yankee cap[7][8][9]).
Unlike in the Pacific Ocean, there is no organized alert service covering the Indian Ocean. (Affiliation according to National Baseball Hall of Fame; R.
. In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that the Yankees engaged in illegal trade with Cuba and had to settle with the United States government for US$75,000 [6].
.

Against:. The disaster prompted a huge worldwide effort to help victims of the tragedy, with billions of dollars being raised for disaster relief. For:. The tsunami killed people over an area ranging from the immediate vicinity of the quake in Indonesia, Thailand and the north-western coast of Malaysia to thousands of kilometres away in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, the Maldives, and even as far as Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania in eastern Africa. The following are arguments for and against these spending practices:. The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which had a magnitude of 9.15, triggered a series of lethal tsunamis on December 26, 2004 that killed approximately 275,000 people (more than 168,000 in Indonesia alone), making it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. It is a heated debate whether the Yankees' free-spending is positive or negative for baseball, and whether a strict salary cap would make the sport fairer and increase parity among the large-market and small-market teams. As a result, 202 people on the small island of Okushiri lost their lives, and hundreds more were missing or injured.

Frustrated after being outbid for pitcher Jose Contreras prior to the 2003 season, Red Sox CEO Larry Lucchino even went so far as to dub the Yankees the "Evil Empire," a characterization that is primarily popular among Red Sox fans. A devastating tsunami occurred off the coast of Hokkaido in Japan as a result of an earthquake on July 12, 1993. As of 2005, the team payroll is more than $208 million, which is $85 million more than the second-highest team, the Red Sox, and more than the five lowest-payroll teams combined [4]. The total number of victims of this tragedy was 259 dead, 798 wounded and 95 missing presumed dead. The current ownership spends more on player salaries than any other franchise in baseball. When the Tumaco Tsunami hit the coast, it caused great destruction in the city of Tumaco, as well as in the small towns of El Charco, San Juan, Mosquera and Salahonda on the Pacific Coast of Colombia. The Yankees are a notable team not only for their impressive history on the field, but also for their financial situation. The earthquake was felt in Bogotá, Cali, Popayán, Buenaventura and several other cities and towns in Colombia and in Guayaquil, Esmeraldas, Quito and other parts of Ecuador.

The Yankees are only the third franchise in sports history to draw over 4 million in regular season attendance at their own ballpark (the others being the 1993 Toronto Blue Jays with 4,057,947 and the 1993 Colorado Rockies with 4,483,350). The earthquake and the resulting tsunami caused the destruction of at least six fishing villages and the death of hundreds of people in the Colombian province of Nariño. In September 2005, the club set a new American League home attendance record of 4,090,696. A magnitude 7.9 earthquake occurred on December 12, 1979 at 7:59:4.3 (UTC) along the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador. Despite their most recent drought in World Series championships, the Yankees have continued to perform well in the regular season, recently winning their eighth straight AL East division title. The tsunamis were up to 6 m tall, and killed 11 people as far away as Crescent City, California. The tautology is part of the joke. After the magnitude 9.2 Good Friday Earthquake, tsunamis struck Alaska, British Columbia, California and coastal Pacific Northwest towns, killing 121 people.

By analogy with the Curse of the Bambino, Mahnken points to the departure of utility player Clay Bellinger from the Yankee roster following the 2001 season and asserts that the Yankees will never again win the World Series until either they make amends to Bellinger or they win the championship anyway. Nearly 2,000 people were killed. One particularly creative explanation jokingly proposed by blogger Larry Mahnken is the "Curse of Clay Bellinger". A tsunami was triggered which swept over the top of the dam (without bursting it) and into the valley below. This argument is bolstered by the fact that the production of the Yankees' core players has decreased steadily since their 1996 World Series title. The reservoir behind the Vajont Dam in northern Italy was struck by an enormous landslide. Several sabermetricians have argued that success in the playoffs is largely the result of luck. The number of people killed by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami is estimated to be between 490 and 2,290.

Buster Olney, in his book The Last Night of the Yankee Dynasty, argues that George Steinbrenner's management style resulted in the players burning out psychologically. When the tsunami hit Onagawa, Japan, almost 22 hours after the quake, the wave height was 3 m above high tide. These include depletion of the Yankee farm system because of trades and free agent acquisitions, the aging or departure of the players who had formed the core of the Yankees during the late 1990s, and allegedly poor coaching (like the overuse of Mariano Rivera in the 2001 World Series). 61 lives were lost allegedly due to people's failure to heed warning sirens. Many explanations have been given for the lack of Yankee World Series titles since 2000. The highest wave at Hilo Bay was measured at around 10.7m (35 ft.). On December 23, 2005, the Yankees stunned the baseball world by signing center fielder Johnny Damon from the rival Red Sox, where he was a marquee player. The first tsunami arrived at Hilo, Hawaii approximately 14.8 hrs after it originated off the coast of South Central Chile.

From the end of the 2005 World Series to December 2005, the baseball world noticed that the Yankees were patient with signing free agents. It spread across the entire Pacific Ocean, with waves measuring up to 25 metres high. In the 2005-2006 offseason, general manager Brian Cashman took control of the Yankees, because owner George Steinbrenner and his advisors signed older talented players after the 2001 season. Its epicenter off the coast of South Central Chile, generated one of the most destructive tsunamis of the 20th century. After the 2005 season, the Yankees needed to get younger and more athletic. The Great Chilean Earthquake, at magnitude 9.5 the strongest earthquake ever recorded. In the 2005 Division Series, the Angels defeated the Yankees in five games in the first round of the postseason, winning the final game by a score of 5-3. Note: The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center was established to track these killer waves and provide warning.

The Yankees seemed destined to win the division, and they did. The tsunami is locally known in Hawaii as the April Fools Day Tsunami in Hawaii due to people thinking the warnings were an April Fools prank. Most of the season, the Yankees were chasing the Boston Red Sox for the division title. The Aleutian Island earthquake tsunami that killed 165 people on Hawaii and Alaska resulted in the creation of a tsunami warning system, established in 1949 for Pacific Ocean area countries. As the season went on, the Yankees got better and slugger Jason Giambi started to hit again. The resulting tsunami measured over 7 metres in height and took about 2½ hours to reach the Burin Peninsula on the south coast of Newfoundland, where 28 people lost their lives in various communities. Pavano and Wright struggled, so did Johnson. The quake was felt throughout the Atlantic Provinces of Canada and as far west as Ottawa, Ontario and as far south as Claymont, Delaware.

The 2005 season didn't start as it expected to be, once they were in last place in the American League East division. On November 18, 1929, an earthquake of magnitude 7.2 occurred beneath the Laurentian Slope on the Grand Banks. The Yankees also acquired dominant lefty Randy Johnson from the Arizona Diamondbacks. On the facing coasts of Java and Sumatra the sea flood went many miles inland and caused such vast loss of life that one area was never resettled but went back to the jungle and is now the Ujung Kulon nature reserve. They signed pitchers Carl Pavano and Jaret Wright. Tsunami waves were observed throughout the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the American West Coast, South America, and even as far away as the English Channel. After the 2004 World Series, the Yankees needed to improve their pitching, which suffered in the huge collapse to the Red Sox. A series of large tsunami waves was generated from the explosion, some reaching a height of over 40 metres above sea level.

In the 2004 American League Championship Series against the Red Sox, the Yankees became the first team in professional baseball history, and only the third team in North American pro sports history (it happened in the NHL twice), to lose a best-of-7 series after taking a 3-0 series lead. The island volcano of Krakatoa in Indonesia exploded with devastating fury in 1883, blowing its underground magma chamber partly empty so that much overlying land and seabed collapsed into it. Other significant acquisitions during 2002 to 2004 included Jason Giambi, Hideki Matsui, Gary Sheffield, Kevin Brown, and Javier Vázquez. The philosophical concept of the sublime, as described by philosopher Immanuel Kant in the Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, took inspiration in part from attempts to comprehend the enormity of the Lisbon quake and tsunami. The trend continued after the 2003 World Series, culminating when the Yankees traded for the "best player in baseball", Alex Rodriguez, in February 2004. Philosophers of the Enlightenment, notably Voltaire, wrote about the event. The Yankees' quick ejection from the 2002 playoffs at the hands of the Anaheim Angels accelerated the changes, as ownership and management began to look increasingly on free agent acquisitions and major trades. Europeans of the 18th century struggled to understand the disaster within religious and rational belief systems.

The loss in the 2001 World Series effectively marked the end of the 1990s Yankee dynasty, as lynchpin players began to retire, not be re-signed, or traded. Historical records of explorations by Vasco da Gama and other early navigators were lost, and countless buildings were destroyed (including most examples of Portugal's Manueline architecture). In 2003, the Yankees defeated their long-time rival the Boston Red Sox in a tough seven-game ALCS, which featured a near-brawl in Game 3 and a series-ending walk-off home run by Aaron Boone in the 11th inning of the final game, only to be defeated by the Florida Marlins - a team with a payroll a quarter of the size of the Yankees' - in the World Series, 4 games to 2. The earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent fires killed more than a third of Lisbon's pre-quake population of 275,000. In addition, the usually potent Yankee attack turned ice-cold. Before the great wall of water hit the harbour, waters retreated, revealing lost cargo and forgotten shipwrecks. Arizona manager Bob Brenly used his pitching staff, which included Randy Johnson and Curt Schilling, very effectively. Many townspeople fled to the waterfront, believing the area safe from fires and from falling debris from aftershocks.

But, the usually unhittable Mariano Rivera shockingly blew the lead - and World Series - to the Arizona Diamondbacks in the bottom of the 9th inning of Game 7. Tens of thousands of Portuguese who survived the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake were killed by a tsunami which followed a half hour later. In the emotional October 2001, following the September 11 attack on New York City's World Trade Center, the Yankees defeated the Oakland Athletics 3 games to 2 in the Division Series, and then the Seattle Mariners in the ALCS, 4 games to 1. January 26 - The Cascadia Earthquake, one of the largest earthquakes on record, ruptures the Cascadia Subduction Zone offshore from Vancouver Island to northern California, creating a tsunami logged in Japan and oral traditions of the American First Nations. However, their regular season record was surpassed by the 2001 Seattle Mariners, who went 116-46 before losing to the Yankees in the American League Championship Series. In 2002 it was suggested that the Bristol Channel floods of 1607 in England and Wales, UK, may have been caused by a tsunami. The '98 Yankees went 11-2 during the playoffs and finished with a combined record of 125-50, a major league record. Santorini is regarded as the most likely source for Plato's literary parable of Atlantis.

The 1998 Yankees are widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest teams in baseball history, having compiled a then-AL record of 114 regular season wins against just 48 losses en route to a World Series sweep of the Padres. At some time between 1650 BC and 1600 BC (still debated), the volcanic Greek island Santorini erupted, causing a 100 m to 150 m high tsunami that devastated the north coast of Crete, 70 km (45 miles) away, and would certainly have wiped out the Minoan civilization along Crete's northern shore. The Yankees are the most recent major league team to repeat as World Series champions. In the North Atlantic Ocean (Norwegian Sea), the Storegga Slides were a major series of sudden underwater land movements over the course of tens of thousands of years, which caused tsunamis and megatsunamis across a wide area. In these four World Series victories, the Yankees won fourteen straight games. Very small tsunamis, non-destructive and undetectable without specialized equipment, occur frequently as a result of minor earthquakes and other events. In 2000, the Yankees met up with cross-town New York Mets for the first Subway Series since 1956 and won four games to one. Tsunamis occur most frequently in the Pacific Ocean, but are a global phenomenon; they are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes, where they can be caused by landslides.

In 1998 and 1999, they swept the San Diego Padres and Atlanta Braves, respectively. See also List of historic tsunamis by death toll.. The 1998-2000 Yankees were the first team to "three-peat" with World Series victories since the Oakland Athletics of the early 1970s. While it would take some years for the trees to grow to a useful size, such plantations could offer a much cheaper and longer-lasting means of tsunami mitigation than the costly and environmentally destructive method of erecting artificial barriers. Other prominent members of the late 1990s championships teams acquired through trades included Paul O'Neill, David Cone, Tino Martinez, John Wetteland, Chuck Knoblauch, and Roger Clemens, while Jimmy Key, Wade Boggs, David Wells, Mike Stanton, and Orlando "El Duque" Hernández were signed as free agents. [5] Environmentalists have suggested tree planting along stretches of sea coast which are prone to tsunami risks. However, the foundation laid by Michael and Watson of players like Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, Mariano Rivera and Bernie Williams was a significant factor in the Yankees' return to prominence. In one striking example, the village of Naluvedapathy in India's Tamil Nadu region suffered minimal damage and few deaths as the wave broke up on a forest of 80,244 trees planted along the shoreline in 2002 in a bid to enter the Guinness Book of Records.

General manager Bob Watson was dismissed when the Yankees failed to repeat in 1997 and was replaced by Brian Cashman, a former Yankees intern. Some locations in the path of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami escaped almost unscathed as a result of the tsunami's energy being sapped by a belt of trees such as coconut palms and mangroves. Initially derided as a retread choice ("Clueless Joe" ran the headline on one of the city's tabloid newspapers), Torre's smooth manner proved out as he led the Yankees to a World Series victory in 1996, defeating the Atlanta Braves in six games. The effects of a tsunami can be mitigated by natural factors such as tree cover on the shoreline. Showalter left after the 1995 season due to personality clashes with Steinbrenner and his staff and was replaced by Joe Torre. The wall may have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami but it did not prevent major destruction and loss of life. A year later, the team reached the playoffs as the wild card and was eliminated only after a memorable series against the Seattle Mariners. The port town of Aonae was completely surrounded by a tsunami wall, but the waves washed right over the wall and destroyed all the wood-framed structures in the area.

The first significant sign of success came in 1994, when the Yankees had the best record in the AL when the season was cut short by the players' strike. For instance, the tsunami which hit the island of Hokkaido on July 12, 1993 created waves as much as 30m (100 ft) tall - as high as a 10-story building. Under general managers Gene Michael and Bob Watson and manager Buck Showalter, the club shifted its emphasis from buying talent to developing talent through its farm system and then holding onto it. However, their effectiveness has been questioned, as tsunamis are often higher than the barriers. The bad judgment and bad luck of the '80s and early '90s started to change when, while owner Steinbrenner was under suspension, management was able to implement a coherent program without interference from above. Other localities have built floodgates and channels to redirect the water from incoming tsunamis. To add to the oddity, the Yankees (and Hawkins) were no-hit by the White Sox 11 days later. Japan has implemented an extensive programme of building tsunami walls of up to 4.5m (13.5 ft) high in front of populated coastal areas.

The 4-0 loss (to the White Sox) was the largest margin of any no-hitter loss in the 20th century. While it is not possible to prevent a tsunami, in some particularly tsunami-prone countries some measures have been taken to reduce the damage caused on shore. In 1990, Yankee pitcher Andy Hawkins became the first Yankees pitcher ever to lose a no-hitter, when the third baseman (Mike Blowers) committed an error, followed by 2 walks and an error by the left fielder (Jim Leyritz) with the bases loaded, scoring all 3 runners as well as the batter. Some scientists speculate that animals may have an ability to sense subsonic Rayleigh waves from an earthquake minutes or hours before a tsunami strikes shore (Kenneally, [4]).. During the 1980s the Yankees, led by their All-Star first baseman Don Mattingly, had the most total wins out of any major league team, but failed to win a World Series (the first such decade since the 1910s). The phenomenon was also noted in Sri Lanka in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake ([3]). The Yankees entered the 1990s as a last-place team, having spent well but not always wisely on free-agent players since their last appearance in the World Series in 1981. The Lisbon quake is the first documented case of such a phenomenon in Europe.

The Yankees won the day, driving a stake through the hearts of their rivals' fans when Bucky Dent drove a game-winning home run over the "Green Monster," one of several emotional moments in the team's history that had Red Sox fans wondering if their team was under some kind of a curse. Many animals sense danger and flee to higher ground before the water arrives. A playoff game between the two teams was held to decide who would go on to the pennant, with the game being held at Boston's Fenway Park (because the Red Sox had won more head-to-head games between the two teams that season). One of the early warnings comes from nearby animals. The Yankees-Red Sox rivalry came to a head in the 1978 season, when the two clubs finished the regular season in a tie for first place in the AL East. Computer models can roughly predict tsunami arrival and impact based on information about the event that triggered it and the shape of the seafloor (bathymetry) and coastal land (topography).[2]. The race for the pennant often came to a close competition between the Yankees and the Red Sox, and for fans of both clubs, a game between the two teams (whether in the regular season or post-season championship games) was cause for a rivalry that was often bitter and ruthless, with brawls frequently erupting between both players and fans from the two clubs. In some communities on the west coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunamis, warning signs advise people where to run in the event of an incoming tsunami.

October") defined the period as much as Martin and Steinbrenner. Regions with a high risk of tsunamis may use tsunami warning systems to detect tsunamis and warn the general population before the wave reaches land. Jackson's three home runs in the sixth and final game of the 1977 World Series against three different Dodger pitchers (earning him the nickname "Mr. In a low-lying coastal area, a strong earthquake is a major warning sign that a tsunami may be produced. George Steinbrenner purchased the club for $10 million on January 3, 1973 from CBS, renovated Yankee Stadium, hired and fired Billy Martin a number of times, feuded with star outfielder Reggie Jackson, and presided over the resurgence of the Yankees in the late '70s. Again, being educated about a tsunami is important, to realise that when the water level drops the first time, the danger is not yet over. After that the team's fortunes improved somewhat, but they would not become serious contenders again until 1974. In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami is its first peak, succeeding waves can lead to further flooding.

In 1966 the team finished last in the AL for the first time since 1912, and next-to-last the following year. People unaware of the danger may remain at the shore due to curiosity, or for collecting fish from the exposed sea bed. By contrast, the CBS-owned teams never went to the World Series, and in the first year of the new ownership - 1965 - the Yankees finished in the second division for the first time in 40 years; the introduction of the major league amateur draft in 1965 also meant that the Yankees could no longer sign any player they wanted. If the slope is shallow, this recession can exceed many hundreds of metres. Topping and Webb had owned the Yankees for 20 years, missing the World Series only 5 times, and going 10-5 in the World Series. In instances where the leading edge of the tsunami wave is its trough, the sea will recede from the coast half of the wave's period before the wave's arrival. Jokesters at the time wondered if Walter Cronkite would become the manager, perhaps with Yogi Berra doing the newscasts. Tsunamis cannot be prevented or precisely predicted, but there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami, and there are many systems being developed and in use to reduce the damage from tsunamis.

After the 1964 season, CBS purchased the Yankees from Topping and Webb for $11.2 million. The following have at various times been associated with a tsunami [1]:. It was to be the last World Series appearance by the Yankees for 12 years. As a result, Hilo suffered worse damage than any other place in Hawaii, with the tsunami/seiche reaching a height of 14 m and killing 159 inhabitants. Despite a valiant performance by Mantle, including a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth of Game 3 off Cardinals' reliever Barney Schultz, the Yankees fell to the Cardinals in seven games. That meant that every second wave was in phase with the motion of Hilo Bay, creating a seiche in the bay. Louis Cardinals in a Series immortalized by David Halberstam's book, October 1964. The natural resonant period of Hilo Bay is about thirty minutes.

The aging Yankees returned to the World Series in 1964 to face the St. For instance, the tsunami that hit Hawaii on April 1, 1946 had a fifteen-minute interval between wave fronts. Feeling burnt out after the season, Houk left the manager's chair to become the team's general manager and Berra, who himself had just retired from playing, was named the new manager of the Yankees. Local geographic peculiarities can lead to seiche or standing waves forming, which can amplify the onshore damage. This was the first time the Yankees were swept in a World Series. They also need not be symmetrical; tsunami waves may be much stronger in one direction than another, depending on the nature of the source and the surrounding geography. Behind World Series-MVP Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, the Dodgers starting pitchers threw four complete games and combined to give up just four runs all Series. However, tsunami waves can diffract around land masses (as shown in this Indian Ocean tsunami animation as the waves reach southern Sri Lanka and India).

The Yanks would again reach the Fall Classic in 1963, but were swept in four games by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Tsunamis propagate outward from their source, so coasts in the "shadow" of affected land masses are usually fairly safe. In 1962, the Yankees won their second consecutive World Series, defeating the San Francisco Giants in seven games. There is no proof for this. Because of the excellence of Maris, Mantle, and World Series-MVP Ford, a fine pitching staff, stellar team defense, the team's amazing depth and power, and their overall dominance, the 1961 Yankees are universally considered to be one of the greatest teams in the history of baseball, compared often to their pinstriped-brethren, the 1927 Yankees, the 1939 Yankees, and the 1998 Yankees. This gives the transient pressure built up during the quake as equal to twice and in addition to the hydrostatic pressure. Maris won his second consecutive MVP Award while Whitey Ford captured the Cy Young. The passing "hump" mentioned earlier is a "momentum flux" equal to density multiplied by the square of the velocity.

The 1961 Yankees also clubbed a then-major league record for most home runs by a team with 240, a total not surpassed until the 1996 Baltimore Orioles hit 257 with the aid of the designated hitter. However a conjecture exists for velocities. The 109 regular season wins posted by the '61 club remain the third highest single-season total in franchise history, behind only the 1998 team's 114 regular season wins and 1927 team's 110 wins. At a water depth of 40 m, the speed would be 20 m/s (about 72 km/h or 45 mi/h), which is much slower than the speed in the open ocean but the wave would still be difficult to outrun. The Yankees won the pennant with a 109-53 record and went on to defeat the Cincinnati Reds in five games to win the 1961 World Series. For example, in the Pacific Ocean, where the typical water depth is about 4000 m, a tsunami travels at about 200 m/s (720 km/h or 450 mi/h) with little energy loss, even over long distances. Maris still holds the American League record.). Shallow-water waves move at a speed that is equal to the square root of the product of the acceleration of gravity (9.8 m/s2) and the water depth.

(McGwire's record was later broken by Barry Bonds, whose 73 home runs in 2001 remain the major league record. A wave becomes a 'shallow-water wave' when the ratio between the water depth and its wavelength gets very small, and since a tsunami has an extremely large wavelength (hundreds of kilometres), tsunamis act as a shallow-water wave even in deep oceanic water. Some 30 years later, on September 4, 1991, an 8-member Committee for Historical Accuracy appointed by Major League Baseball did away with the dual records, giving Maris sole possession of the single-season home run record until it was broken by Mark McGwire on September 8, 1998. As a wave goes down the whip from handle to tip, the same energy is deposited in less and less material, which then moves more violently as it receives this energy. However, by decree of Commissioner Ford Frick, separate single-season home run records were maintained to reflect the fact that Ruth hit his 60 home runs during a 154-game season, while Maris hit his 61 in the first year of the new 162-game season. The steepening process is analogous to the cracking of a tapered whip. On October 1, 1961, on the final day of the season, Maris broke the record when he sent a pitch from Boston's Tracy Stallard into the right field stands at Yankee Stadium for his 61st home run. While a person at the surface of deep water would probably not even notice the tsunami, the wave can increase to a height of 30 m or more as it approaches the coastline and compresses.

The duo's home run prowess led the media and fans to christen them 'The M & M Boys.' Ultimately, Mantle was forced to bow out in mid-September with 54 home runs when a severe hip infection forced him from the lineup. As the wave approaches land, the sea shallows and the wave no longer travels as quickly, so it begins to 'pile-up'; the wave-front becomes steeper and taller, and there is less distance between crests. Throughout the summer, Mantle and reigning-MVP Roger Maris hit home runs at a record pace as both chased Babe Ruth's single season home run record of 60. The wave travels across the ocean at speeds from 500 to 1,000 km/h. In the meantime, 1961 was one of the greatest years in Yankee history. The energy of a tsunami passes through the entire water column to the sea bed, unlike surface waves, which typically reach only down to a depth of 10 m or so. Once Finley purchased the Athletics, he immediately terminated the team's "special relationship" with the Yankees. This is often practically unnoticeable to people on ships.

Many fans, and even other teams, frequently accused the Athletics of being operated as an effective farm team for the Yankees. The actual height of a tsunami wave in open water is often less than one metre. Maris had been acquired by the Yankees in one such trade. This is very different from typical wind-generated swells on the ocean, which might have a period of about 10 seconds and a wavelength of 150 metres. During Johnson's ownership, the Athletics traded many young players to the Yankees for cash and aging veterans. In open water, tsunamis have extremely long periods (the time for the next wave top to pass a point after the previous one), from minutes to hours, and long wavelengths of up to several hundred kilometres. Johnson was also a longtime business associate of then-Yankees owners Del Webb and Dan Topping. A single tsunami event may involve a series of waves of varying heights; the set of waves is called a train.

He was the owner of Yankee Stadium at the time, but was forced to sell the stadium by American League owners as a condition of purchasing the Athletics. This is the two-dimensional equivalent of the inverse square law in three dimensions. Johnson had acquired the then-Philadelphia Athletics from the family of Connie Mack in 1954. Although the total or overall loss of energy is small, the total energy is spread over a larger and larger circumference as the wave travels, so the energy per linear meter in the wave decreases as the inverse power of the distance from the source. In December of 1960, Chicago insurance executive Charlie Finley purchased the Kansas City Athletics from the estate of Arnold Johnson, who had died that March. A tsunami can cause damage thousands of kilometres from its origin, so there may be several hours between its creation and its impact on a coast, arriving long after the seismic wave generated by the originating event arrives. During the 1960-61 offseason, a seemingly innocuous development may have marked the beginning of the end for this Yankees dynasty. Tsunamis act very differently from typical surf swells; they are phenomena which move the entire depth of the ocean (often several kilometres deep) rather than just the surface, so they contain immense energy, propagate at high speeds and can travel great trans-oceanic distances with little overall energy loss.

Stengel himself, who had reached his seventh decade in July of that year, clearly thought the issue was age discrimination, remarking, "I'll never make the mistake of turning 70 again." Yogi Berra's assessment of the loss was the equally famous comment, "We made too many wrong mistakes.". Large objects such as ships and boulders can be carried several miles inland before the tsunami subsides. Stengel was blamed for the World Series loss for failing to start his ace, Ford, three times in the Series, and was replaced as manager with Ralph Houk prior to the 1961 season. The sheer weight of water is enough to pulverise objects in its path, often reducing buildings to their foundations and scouring exposed ground to the bedrock. It remains the only Game 7, walk-off home run in World Series history. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. However, the Yankees lost the 1960 World Series in heartbreaking fashion when Bill Mazeroski hit a game-winning, series-winning home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 7 off Ralph Terry. Instead it looks rather like an endlessly onrushing tide which forces its way around and through any obstacle.

Led by Mantle, Ford, Berra, Elston Howard, and the newly acquired Roger Maris, the Yankees burst into the new decade seeking to replicate the remarkable success of the 1950s. Although often referred to as "tidal waves", a tsunami does not look like the popular impression of "a normal wave only much bigger". For the decade, the Yankees won six World Series championships ('50, 51, '52, '53, '56, '58) and eight American League pennants. However, an extremely large landslide could generate a megatsunami that might have ocean-wide impacts. Pitcher Bob Turley also won the Cy Young Award in 1958, the award's third year of existence. These events can give rise to much larger local shock waves (solitons), such as the landslide at the head of Lituya Bay which produced a water wave estimated at 50 – 150 m and reached 524 m up local mountains. Yankee players also dominated the American League MVP award, with a Yankee claiming ownership six times in the decade (1950 Rizzuto, 1951 Berra, 1954 Berra, 1955 Berra, 1956 Mantle, 1957 Mantle). Tsunamis caused by these mechanisms, unlike the ocean-wide tsunamis caused by some earthquakes, generally dissipate quickly and rarely affect coastlines distant from the source due to the small area of sea affected.

The Yankees went on to win yet another World Series that season, and Larsen earned World Series MVP honors. These phenomena rapidly displace large volumes of water, as energy from falling debris or expansion is transferred to the water into which the debris falls. Not only was it the only perfect game to be pitched in World Series play, it remains the only no-hitter of any kind to be pitched in postseason play. In the 1950s it was discovered that larger tsunamis than previously believed possible could be caused by landslides, explosive volcanic action and impact events. On October 8, 1956, in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series against the Dodgers, pitcher Don Larsen threw the only perfect game in World Series history. Waves are formed as the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium and radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. In 1956, Mantle won the major league triple crown, leading both leagues in batting average (.353), home runs (52), and RBIs (130). Similarly, a violent submarine volcanic eruption can uplift the water column and form a tsunami.

The 1950s were also a decade of significant individual achievement for Yankee players. Sub-marine landslides; which are sometimes triggered by large earthquakes; as well as collapses of volcanic edifices, may also disturb the overlying water column as sediment and rocks slide downslope and are redistributed across the sea floor. Led by players like center fielder Mickey Mantle, pitcher Whitey Ford, and catcher Yogi Berra, Stengel's teams won 10 pennants and seven World Series titles in his twelve seasons as Yankee manager. Subduction earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates in a process known as subduction. The five consecutive championships won by the Yankees during this period remains the major league record. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Bettering the McCarthy-era clubs, Stengel's squad won the World Series in his first five years as manager, 1949 through 1953. Tsunamis can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.

As if on cue, new superstars began arriving, including the "Oklahoma Kid", Mickey Mantle, whose first year (1951) was DiMaggio's curtain call. An earthquake which is too small to create a tsunami by itself may trigger an undersea landslide quite capable of generating a tsunami. He was also hampered by bone spurs in his heel, which hastened the final docking of the "Yankee Clipper". However, the most common cause is an undersea earthquake. It has often been reported that he said he wanted to retire before he became an "ordinary" player. A tsunami can be generated by any disturbance that rapidly moves a large mass of water, such as an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteorite impact. By this time, the Great DiMaggio's career was winding down. .

The post-season proved to be a bit easier, as the Yankees knocked off their cross-town Flatbush rivals 4 games to 1. However, since they are not actually related to tides the term is considered misleading and its usage is discouraged by oceanographers. The 1949 season is another that has been written about poetically, as a Yankees team that was seen as "underdogs" came from behind to catch and surpass the powerful Red Sox on the last two days of the season, in a faceoff that could be said to be the real beginning of the modern intense rivalry between these teams. Tsunamis have been historically referred to as tidal waves because as they approach land they take on the characteristics of a violent onrushing tide rather than the sort of cresting waves that are formed by wind action upon the ocean (with which people are more familiar). His tenure would prove to the most successful in the Yankees' history up to that point. A tsunami is not a sub-surface event in the deep ocean; it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometres long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing "hump" in the ocean. Casey had a reputation for being somewhat of a clown and had been associated with managing excruciatingly bad teams such as the mid-1930s Boston Braves, so his selection was met with no little skepticism. The term was created by fishermen who returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbour devastated, although they had not been aware of any wave in the open water.

Despite finishing only 3 games back of the pennant-winning Cleveland Indians in 1948, Harris was released, and the Yankees brought in Casey Stengel as their manager. Although in Japanese tsunami is used for both the singular and plural, in English tsunamis is well-established as the plural. After a couple of interim managers had come and gone, Bucky Harris was brought in and the Yankees righted the ship again, winning the 1947 pennant and facing a much-tougher Dodgers team than their 1941 counterparts, in a Series that went seven games and was a harbinger of things to come for much of the next decade. The term tsunami comes from the Japanese language meaning harbour ("tsu", 津) and wave ("nami", 波 or 浪). The Yanks then went into a bit of a slump, and manager McCarthy was let go early in the 1946 season. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating. Louis Cardinals during 1942 and 1943. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami.

The war-thinned ranks of the major leagues nonetheless found the Yanks in the post-season again, as they traded World Series wins with the St. A tsunami (IPA pronunciation /suˈnɑːmi/ or /tsuˈnɑːmi/]) is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Two months and one day after the final game of the Yanks' 4 to 1 win, the Pearl Harbor attacks occurred, and many of the best ballplayers went off to World War II. 16 October 1979 23 people died when the coast of Nice, France, was hit by a tsunami. The Yankees made short work of the Brooklyn Dodgers in the 1941 Series. 4 July 1992 - Daytona Beach, FL. Modern baseball historians regard it as unlikely that anyone will ever hit .400 again, barring a change to the way the game is played; and as virtually impossible that anyone will approach DiMaggio's 56-game streak, which is so far beyond second place (44) as to be almost a statistical anomaly. 19 May 1964 - Northeast USA.

A crucial factor in ending the streak was the fielding of Cleveland third baseman Ken Keltner, who stopped two balls that DiMaggio hit hard to the left. 21 September 1938 - Hurricane, NJ coast. The streak was finally snapped in a game at Cleveland Stadium the next night before a huge crowd at the lakefront. 19 August 1931 - Atlantic City, NJ. A popular song by Les Brown celebrated this event, as Betty Bonney and the band members sang it: "He tied the mark at 44 / July the First, you know / Since then he's hit a good 12 more / Joltin' Joe DiMaggio / Joe, Joe DiMaggio, we want you on our side." The last game of the streak came on July 16 at Cleveland's League Park. 8 August 1924 - Coney Island, NY . Meanwhile, DiMaggio, who had once hit in 61 straight games as a minor leaguer with the San Francisco Seals, began a hitting streak on May 15 which stretched to an astonishing 56 games. 6 August 1923 - Rockaway Park, Queens, NY .

Ted Williams of the Red Sox was in the hunt for the elusive .400 batting average, which he achieved on the last day of the season. 9 June 1913 - Longport, NJ. After an off season came the Summer of 1941, a much-celebrated year, often described by sportswriters as the last great year of the "Golden Era", before World War II and other realities intervened. 35 Million years ago - Chesapeake Bay impact crater, Chesapeake Bay. They also swept the Chicago Cubs in 1938, and the Cincinnati Reds in 1939. 18 August 1946 - Dominican Republic. They took the Giants 4 games to 2 in that Series, and 4 games to 1 the next year. 4 August 1946 - Dominican Republic.

During Game 2 of the 1936 Series, they pounded the Giants 18-4, still the World Series record (through 2005) for most runs by a team in one game. 9 January 1926 - Maine. When the Yankees did get into the Series, they had little trouble. 18 November 1929 - Newfoundland. The strongest competition for the Yankees during that stretch was the Detroit Tigers, who won two pennants before that Yankees four-year stretch, and one after. 11 October 1918 - Puerto Rico. They did it without Gehrig for most of 1939, as the superstar's retirement due to ALS saddened the baseball world. 17 November 1872 - Maine.

Behind the thundering Yankees bats of DiMaggio, Gehrig and Frank Crosetti, and a superb pitching staff led by Red Ruffing and Lefty Gomez and anchored by catcher Bill Dickey, the Yankees reeled off an unprecedented four consecutive World Series wins during 1936-1939. 18 November 1867 - Virgin Islands. The young center fielder from San Francisco was an immediate impact player, batting .323, hitting 29 homers and driving in 125 runs in his rookie season of 1936. 14 November 1840 - Great Swell on the Delaware River. Just as Gehrig stepped out of Ruth's considerable shadow, a new titan appeared on the horizon, in the person of Joe DiMaggio. The villages of Arop and Warapu were destroyed. The Yankees run during the 1930s could also be facetiously called the "McCarthy era", as manager Joe McCarthy (no relation to the infamous Senator of the same name) would guide the Yankees to new heights. While the magnitude of the quake was not large enough to create these waves directly, it is believed the earthquake generated an undersea landslide, which in turn caused the tsunami.

Babe Ruth hit his famous "Called Shot" home run in Wrigley Field in Game 3 of that Series, a fitting "Swan Song" to his illustrious post-season career. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake 24 km offshore was followed within 11 minutes by a tsunami about 12 m tall. After three also-ran seasons, the Yankees returned to the American League top perch under new manager Joe McCarthy in 1932 and swept the Chicago Cubs in the World Series, running their streak of consecutive World Series game wins to 12, a mark which would stand until the 2000 Yankees bested it in the World Series that year. 17 July, 1998: A Papua New Guinea tsunami killed approximately 2200 people [7]. Babe Ruth hit .625 with 3 home runs in that series, while Lou Gehrig hit .545 and belted 4 round-trippers. May 26, 1983: 104 people in western Japan were killed by a tsunami spawned from a nearby earthquake. Louis Cardinals in the World Series. 1976: On 16 August (midnight) a tsunami killed more than 5000 people in the Moro Gulf region (Cotabato City) of the Philippines.

The Yankees would repeat as American League champions in 1928, fighting off the resurgent Philadelphia Athletics, and sweep the St. It travelled at over 150 kph. Ruth's home run total of 60 in 1927 set a single-season record which would stand for 34 years, and first baseman Lou Gehrig had his first big season with 47 round-trippers. This happened in the fjord shaped Lituya Bay, Alaska, USA. The 1927 team was so potent that it became known as "Murderers' Row" and is sometimes considered to have been the best team in the history of baseball (though similar claims have been made for other Yankee squads, notably those of 1939, 1961 and 1998). July 9, 1958: A huge landslip caused the highest ever reported tsunami which was 524 metres high. Stengel would later become a "giant" for the Yankees as a manager. 1946: An earthquake in the Aleutian Islands sent a tsunami to Hawaii, killing 159 people (five died in Alaska).

Giants outfielder Casey Stengel, who even then was being called "Old Case", hit two homers to win the two games the Giants came away with. A wave more than seven stories tall (about 20 m) drowned some 26,000 people. In 1921 through 1923 they faced the Giants in the World Series, losing the first two match-ups but turning the tables in 1923 after the Big Stadium opened. One of the worst tsunami disasters engulfed whole villages along Sanriku, Japan, in 1896. From 1921 to 1928, the Yankees went through their first period of great success, winning six American League pennants and three World Series. January 26, 1700: the Cascadia Earthquake (estimated 9.0 magnitude) caused massive tsunamis across the Pacific Northwest. It was truly "the House that Ruth Built",. The cause of the flood remains disputed, it is quite possible that it was caused by a combination of meteorological extremes and tidal peaks (discussion).

The Stadium was the first triple-deck venue in baseball and seated an astounding 58,000. January 20, 1606/1607: along the coast of the Bristol Channel (main article) thousands of people were drowned, houses and villages swept away, farmland was inundated and flocks were destroyed by a flood that might have been a tsunami. The site for the stadium was chosen because the IRT Jerome Avenue subway line, now the MTA's#4 train, went right by there, practically on top of Yankee Stadium's right-field wall. circa 500 C.E.: Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu, India, Maldives. and River Avenue in the Bronx. As the wave approaches, the top of the wave may glow red. In 1923 the Yankees moved into Yankee Stadium at 161st St. A flash of red light might be seen near the horizon.

The construction crew moved with remarkable speed and finished the big new ballpark in less than a year. The sea may recede to a considerable distance. Instead, to McGraw's chagrin, they broke ground for a new ballpark just across the Harlem River from the Polo Grounds. or a whistling sound. At that time, John McGraw was said to have commented that the Yankees should "move to some out-of-the-way place, like Queens". or a noise akin to the periodic whop-whop of a helicopter,. In 1921 the Yankees were told to move out of the Polo Grounds after the 1922 season. a roaring noise as of a jet plane.

The home run hitting exploits of Ruth proved popular with the public, to the extent that the Yankees were soon outdrawing their landlords, the Giants. A thunderous boom may be heard followed by

    . He was especially noted for development of the Yankees' farm system. The water may sting the skin. Barrow would act as general manager or president of the Yankees for the next 25 years and may deserve the bulk of the credit for the team's success during that period. The water may smell of rotten eggs (Hydrogen sulfide) or of petrol or oil. Barrow came on board after the 1920 season, and like many of the new Yankee players had previously been a part of the Red Sox organization, having managed the team since 1918. The water in the waves may be unusually hot.

    Huggins was hired in 1919 by Ruppert while Huston was serving in Europe with the army (this would lead to a break between the two owners, with Ruppert eventually buying Huston out in 1923). Large quantities of gas may bubble to the water surface and make the sea look as if it is boiling. Other critical newcomers in this period were manager Miller Huggins and general manager Ed Barrow. An earthquake may be felt. Harry Frazee finally found success on Broadway in 1927 with the musical comedy No No Nanette, which included the song "Tea For Two". The Red Sox did not win a World Series from 1919 until 2004 (see Curse of the Bambino), often finding themselves out of the World Series hunt as a result of the success of the Yankees.

    Two of the four Boston newspapers agreed with the deal at the time. That would continue during his Yankees years, but the ownership was more tolerant, provided he brought fans and championships to the ballpark. Ruth was also regarded as a problem, a carouser. Frazee also wished to aid the Yankees, as giving the Yankees a box office draw would strengthen a legal ally, and reduce the pressure he faced[3].

    Frazee traded Ruth in January of 1920, citing Ruth's demand for a raise after being paid the highest salary in baseball, and despite owning the single season homerun record at the time of the trade (hitting 29 homeruns in 1919[2]). However, pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the biggest of them all. From 1919 to 1922, the Yankees acquired pitchers Waite Hoyt, Carl Mays and Herb Pennock, catcher Wally Schang, shortstop Everett Scott and third baseman Joe Dugan, all from the Red Sox. President Ban Johnson, Frazee faced most of the legal battles which proved costly[1].

    Further, as Frazee owned the strongest of the "Insurrectos" franchizes, which antagonized A.L. Many of the newly acquired players who would later contribute to their success came from the Boston Red Sox, whose owner, theater impresario Harry Frazee, had bought his team on credit and needed money to pay off his loans and purchase Fenway Park from the Fenway Park Trust. Over the next few years the new owners would begin to enlarge the payroll. The Yankees detente with the Boston Red Sox and Chicago White Sox circa 1920 (all three collectively known as the "Insurrectos") paid off well.

    Perhaps one of the greatest ironies of the Yankees dominance comes from its roots. Ruppert later said, "For $450,000 we got an orphan ball club, without a home of its own, without players of outstanding ability, without prestige." But now with an owner possessing deep pockets, and a willingness to dig into them to produce a winning team. Congressman for eight years. Ruppert was heir to the Ruppert brewery fortune and had also been tied to the Tammany Hall machine, serving as a U.S.

    At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert and Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston. By the mid 1910s, owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and both were in need of money. Before very long, New York Yankees had become the official nickname of the club. With the change of parks in 1913, the "Highlanders" reference became obsolete, and the de facto team nickname became exclusively "Yankees".

    The name grew in popularity over the team's first decade. The New York Herald, on April 15, 1906, reported "Yankees win opening game from Boston, 2-1". That matter-of-fact wording suggests the nickname was already well-known. During the early 1900s, the nickname "Yankees" was occasionally applied to the club, as a variant on "Americans", verifiably as early as June 21, 1904, when Patsy Dougherty was traded from Boston to New York, and the Boston Herald's report was headlined "Dougherty as a Yankee".

    Relations between the clubs had warmed when the Giants were allowed to lease Hilltop Park while the Polo Grounds was being rebuilt in 1911 following a disastrous fire. From 1913 to 1922 the team would play in the Polo Grounds, a park owned by their National League rivals, the Giants. For fans of the team formally named the Red Sox in 1908, the 1904 season-ender would prove to be the last time Boston would defeat the Yankees in a pennant-deciding game for literally a century. 1904 was the last year a Series was not played, until the strike-truncated year of 1994.

    Brush, who then led a committee that formalized the rules governing the World Series. The resulting tongue-lashing of the Giants by the media stung their owner, John T. Although Boston had won the pennant, the Giants still refused to participate. First, the presence of the Highlanders in the race had led the Giants to announce they would not participate in the World Series against a "minor league" team.

    This event had historical significance in several ways. New York pitcher Jack Chesbro threw a wild pitch in the ninth inning which allowed the eventual pennant-winning run to score for the Boston Americans. Their best chance came on the last day of the 1904 season, at the Hilltop. Their somewhat tainted ownership, along with the questionable activities of some players, notably first baseman Hal Chase, raised suspicions of game-fixing, but little of that was ever proven.

    As the Highlanders, the team enjoyed success only twice, finishing in second place in 1904 and 1910; but otherwise, much of their first fifteen years in New York was spent in the cellar. Today the site of the original Hilltop Park is occupied by buildings of the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. The name was also a reference to the noted British military unit The Gordon Highlanders, as the team president from 1903 to 1906 was named Joseph Gordon. Consequently the field was known as Hilltop Park and the team quickly became known as the New York Highlanders.

    and Broadway in Manhattan, near the highest point on the island. The franchise's first park in New York was located at 165th St. Farrell owned a casino and several pool halls, while Devery had served as a blatantly corrupt chief of the New York City police and had only been forced out of the department at the start of 1902. Farrell and Devery both had deep ties into city politics and gambling.

    The AL's Baltimore franchise became the New York franchise when its new owners, Frank Farrell and William Devery, were able to find a ballpark location not blocked by the Giants. The NL also agreed that the "junior circuit" could establish a franchise in New York. In January 1903, the American and National Leagues held a "peace conference" to settle conflicts over player contract disputes and to agree on future cooperation. A week later the owner of the Giants also gained controlling interest of the Orioles and raided the team for players, after which the league declared the team forfeit and took control, still intending to move the franchise to New York when and if possible.

    As a result of a feud with league president Ban Johnson, who rigidly enforced rules about rowdyism on the field of play, McGraw jumped leagues to manage the New York Giants in the middle of the 1902 season. When the team began play as the Baltimore Orioles in 1901, they were managed by John McGraw. The intention of Johnson and the American League had been to place a team in New York City, but their efforts had been stymied by the political connections that owners of the National League New York Giants had with Tammany Hall. Previously a minor league (known as the Western League until 1899), the American League carried over five of its previous locations and added three more on the East Coast, including one in Baltimore, Maryland, which had lost its National League team when that league contracted the year before.

    At the end of the 1900 season the American League re-organized and, with its president Ban Johnson as the driving force, decided to assert itself as a new major league. . The Yankees are also the only team that is represented at every position in the Baseball Hall of Fame. Among the North American major sports, the Yankees' success is only approached by the 23 Stanley Cup championships of the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League.

    Louis Cardinals and the Oakland Athletics are tied for second with 9 World Series victories each, and the Los Angeles Dodgers is second in World Series appearances with 18. The Yankees have won 26 World Series in 39 appearances; the St. They are one of two major league franchises which operate in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Yankees have been among the most storied teams in North America over their 100+ year history; along with franchises like the Boston Celtics, Dallas Cowboys, and Montreal Canadiens, the Yankees have helped exemplify the phrase "dynasty" in professional athletics.

    They are in the Eastern Division of the American League. The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball team based in The Bronx, New York City, New York. ♦ - Hall of Famer
    Jackie Robinson's #42 is retired by Major League Baseball
    . (Also referred to as "Americans" 1903-1909 and "Yankees" 1910-1912).

    Because New York won the regular season series with Boston, New York was awarded the division championship and Boston was awarded the wild card.. No official titles were awarded in 1994.
    [3] - In 2005, the Yankees and the Boston Red Sox finished the season with identical records of 95-67 and finished tied for first place in the East Division standings. New York was in first place in the East Division by six and a half games when play was stopped. The Yankees had the third best record in the division when considering the entire season, two games behind Milwaukee and Baltimore.
    [2] - In 1994, a players' strike wiped out the last eight weeks of the season and all post-season.

    New York had the best record in the East Division when play was stopped and was declared the first-half division winner. [1] - In 1981, a players' strike in the middle of the season forced the season to be split into two halves. Rookie: GCL Yankees, Gulf Coast League. Short A: Staten Island Yankees, New York-Penn League.

    A: Charleston RiverDogs, South Atlantic League. Advanced A: Tampa Yankees, Florida State League. AA: Trenton Thunder, Eastern League. AAA: Columbus Clippers, International League.

    54 Rob Thomson (special assignment instructor). -- Tony Peña (first base). 50 Rich Monteleone (special pitching instructor). -- Lee Mazzilli (bench).

    23 Don Mattingly (hitting). -- Joe Kerrigan (bullpen pitching). 49 Ron Guidry (pitching). -- Larry Bowa (third base).

    99 Mike Borzello (bullpen catching).  6 Joe Torre. The Yankee Stadium grounds crew has become famous in their own right for their infield sweeping in the middle of the fifth inning when they dance to the popular 70's hit YMCA by the Village People. The Yankee fans who sit behind the right-field portion of the bleacher seats in Yankee Stadium have become so well known for their rowdy behavior that they are often referred to as the "bleacher creatures." They have also popularized a type of chant called "Role Call" where, in the top of the first inning, they chant each field player's name on the Yankees repeatedly until the player acknowledges the chant.

    The Yankees have teamed up with New Era and Adidas to make caps for sale. Under George Steinbrenner, the team has a strict dress code that forbids long hair and facial hair below the lip. American football's example of balanced salaries, correlated with its now-massive parity and mainstream impact, demonstrates that keeping athletic salaries fair is good for the sport and therefore everyone - TV outlets, owners, fans. Manny Ramírez, Pedro Martínez), who might otherwise freely use the potentiality as a bargaining chip.

    This phenomenon even causes the Yankees to announce their intentions not to pursue certain free agents (e.g. The willingness of the Yankees to pay premium prices for top talent encourages players and their agents to demand unreasonably high prices, further diluting talent throughout the rest of the league. Allowing one team to bid highly for the best talent makes it more difficult for lower-spending teams (primarily in smaller metropolitan areas) to compete. In a free-market society, an owner who wishes to spend as much as he wants should not be restricted from doing so.

    The Yankees drive attendance, merchandise sales and TV revenues, helping to subsidize less-profitable teams. It has also been argued that the New York Mets, because they share the same market, could spend at a higher level if their owner was inclined to do so, and therefore the Yankees spending reflects Steinbrenner's greater commitment to winning rather than a singular advantage over all other teams.[5]. New York, as the largest market with the highest revenues, should spend in accordance with their vast resources. As "America's Team" the Yankees give other baseball fans a team to "hate" or root against, thereby further generating interest in baseball games involving the Yankees and baseball in general.

    The Yankees are "America's Team" They give the casual, or "bandwagon," baseball fan someone to root for when he/she does not have a local favorite, or when their local team is playing poorly. Won ALDS (3-0) over Texas Rangers. Won ALCS (4-2) over Cleveland Indians. Won 1998 World Series (4-0) over San Diego Padres.

    Oriole Park (Baltimore) (1901-1902). Hilltop Park (1903-1912). Brush Stadium (1913-1919). a.k.a.

    Polo Grounds (IV) (1913-1922)

      . Yankee Stadium (1923-1973). Shea Stadium (1974-1975). Yankee Stadium (1976-present).

      Baltimore Orioles (1901-1902). New York Highlanders (1903-1912). New York Yankees (1913-present). East Division (1969-present).

      American League (1901-present)

        .

09-19-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List