This page will contain additional articles about scientology, as they become available.

Scientology

Scientology is a word first introduced in 1952 by author L. Ron Hubbard. He stated, "Scientology" would be "a study of knowledge." He coined the word from "-ology" (study of) and from "Scien" (from Latin scientia - knowledge). In 1954 he established today's Church of Scientology which represents itself as an applied religious philosophy.

The term Scientology is a trademark of the Religious Technology Center, which licenses its use and use of the copyrighted works of Hubbard to the Church of Scientology. The Church presents itself as a religious non-profit organization dedicated to the development of the human spirit and providing counseling and rehabilitation programs. Church spokespeople claim that Hubbard's teachings (called "technology" or "tech" in Scientology terminology) have freed them from addictions, depression, learning disabilities, mental illness and other problems.

However, the Church of Scientology has attracted much controversy and criticism. Critics — including government officials of certain countries — have characterized the Church as an unscrupulous commercial organization, and it is accused of harassing critics and exploiting members. Scientology's principles have been characterized as pseudoscientific by many mainstream medical and psychotherapeutic practitioners, and the Church has frequently been characterized as a cult.

Beliefs and practices

L. Ron Hubbard, circa 1970.

Scientology's doctrines were established by Hubbard over a period of about 34 years, beginning in 1952 and continuing until his death in January 1986. Most of the basic principles of the church were set out during the 1950s and 1960s. Scientology followed on the heels of Dianetics, an earlier system of self-improvement techniques laid out by Hubbard in his 1950 book, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. By the mid-1950s, Hubbard had relegated Dianetics to a sub-study of Scientology. A chief difference between Dianetics and Scientology is that Dianetics focuses on rehabilitating an individual's mind, giving him full conscious recall of his experiences while Scientology is more concerned with rehabilitating the human spirit. [1] Scientology also covers topics such as ethics and morality, (The Way to Happiness), drug and chemical residues as they relate to spiritual wellbeing, the (Purification Rundown), communication, marriage, raising children, dealing with work-related problems, educational matters (study technology), and the very nature of life (The Dynamics).

Scientology practices are structured in a series of levels, because Hubbard believed that rehabilitation takes place on a step by step basis. For example, the bad effects of drugs should be addressed before other issues can be addressed. The steps lead to the more advanced strata of Scientology's more esoteric knowledge. This is described as a passage along "the Bridge to Total Freedom", or simply "the Bridge," where each step of the Bridge promises a little more personal freedom in the area specified by the Bridge's definition.

Some central beliefs of Scientology:

  • A person is an immortal spiritual being (termed a thetan) who possesses a mind and a body.
  • The thetan has lived through many past lives and will continue to live beyond the death of the body.
  • A person is basically good, but becomes "aberrated" by moments of pain and unconsciousness in his life.
  • What is true is what is true for you. No beliefs should be forced as "true" on anyone. Thus, the tenets of Scientology are expected to be tested and seen to either be true, or not, by Scientology practitioners.

Scientology claims to offer an exact methodology to help a person achieve awareness of their spiritual existence and better effectiveness in the physical world. Exact methods of spiritual counseling are taught and practiced which are designed to enable this change. According to the church, the ultimate goal is to get the soul (thetan) back to its native state of total freedom, thus gaining control over matter, energy, space, time, thoughts, form, and life. This freed state is called Operating Thetan, or OT for short.

Many non-Scientologists and Critics have offered explanations of Scientology beliefs and practices. For more information regarding these explanations, see Scientology - Outsider Explanations

Auditing

A Scientology recruiter introduces an E-meter to a potential convert. Such introductory audits are typically presented as "free stress tests".

The central practice of Scientology is "auditing" (from the Latin audire,"to listen"), which is one-on-one communication with a trained Scientology counselor or "auditor". The auditor follows an exact procedure toward rehabilitating the human spirit. Most auditing uses an E-meter, a device developed to be easy to set up and to be easily interpreted in a way the user sees fit.

The auditing process is intended to help the practitioner (referred to as a preclear or PC) to unburden himself of specific traumatic incidents, prior ethical transgressions and bad decisions, which are said to collectively restrict the preclear from achieving his goals and lead to the development of a "reactive mind". The auditor asks the preclear to respond to a list of questions which are designed for specific purposes and given to the preclear in a strictly regulated way. Auditing requires that the preclear be a willing and interested participant who understands the questions, and the process goes more smoothly when he or she understands what is going on. Per Church policy, auditors are trained not to "evaluate for" their preclears, i.e. they are forbidden from suggesting, interpreting, degrading or invalidating the preclear's answers. The E-meter is used to help locate an area of concern.

Scientologists have claimed benefits from auditing including improved IQ, improve memory, alleviated dyslexia and attention deficit problems, and improved relaxation; however, no scientific studies have verified these claims. Indeed, an Australian report stated that auditing involved a kind of command hypnosis that could lead to potentially damaging delusional dissociative states. Licensed psychotherapists have alleged that the Church's auditing sessions amount to mental health treatment without a license, but the Church vehemently disputes these allegations, and claims to have established in courts of law that its practice leads to spiritual relief. So, according to the Church, the psychotherapist treats mental health and the Church treats the spiritual being.

During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from the person being audited in a manner similar to a psychotherapy session or confessional. The Church maintains that its auditing records are kept confidential, after the manner of confession in Christian churches. Auditing records are referred to within Scientology as "confessional formulary" and stored under lock and key when not being added to during auditing sessions. In some instances, former members have claimed the Church used information obtained in auditing sessions against them. While such a claim would be actionable as extortion, blackmail or harassment within most legal jurisdictions, no such claim has to date been legally confirmed against Scientology based upon use or revelation of auditing records.

The ARC Triangle

Another basic tenet of Scientology is that there are three interrelated (and intrinsically spiritual) components that make up successful "livingness": affinity (emotional responses), reality (an agreement on what is real) and communication (the exchange of ideas). Hubbard called this the "ARC Triangle". Scientologists utilize ARC as a central organizing principle in their lives, primarily based upon the belief that improving one aspect of the triangle increases the level of the other two.

The tone scale

The tone scale is a characterization of human mood and behavior by various positions on a scale. The scale ranges from -40 or "Total Failure" to +40 or "Serenity of Beingness." Positions on the tone scale are usually designated by an emotion, but Hubbard also described many other things that can be indicated by the tone scale levels, such as aspects of an individual's health, sexual behavior, survival potential, or ability to deal with truth. The tone scale is used by Scientologists in everyday life to evaluate people. According to Scientology, the lower the person is on the tone scale, the more complex and convoluted his or her day-to-day problems tend to be, and the more care and judgement should be exercised regarding communication and interchange with the individual.

Past lives

In Dianetics, Hubbard proposed that the cause of "aberrations" in the human mind was an accumulation of pain and unconscious memories of traumatic incidents, some of which predated the life of the individual. He extended this view further in Scientology, declaring that thetans have existed for tens of trillions of years. During that time, Hubbard explains, they have been exposed to a vast number of traumatic incidents, and have made a great many decisions that influence their present state. According to an early lecture of Hubbard's, it is, as a practical matter, both impossible and undesirable to recall each and every such event from such vast stretches of time. As a result, Hubbard's 30-year development of Scientology focused on streamlining of the process to address only key factors. Hubbard stated that Scientology materials as described in books, tapes, and research notes include a record of everything that was found in the course of his research. Not all things found have been experienced by all beings. (For example, not everyone was a Roman, or Chinese, etc, although each was common enough)

According to Hubbard, some of the past traumas may have been deliberately inflicted in the form of "implants" used by extraterrestrial dictatorships to brainwash and control people. Scientology doctrine includes a wide variety of beliefs in extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in Earthly events, collectively described by Hubbard as "space opera".

Operating Thetan levels and the Xenu incident

The "Hidden Truth" about the nature of the universe is taught to only the most advanced Scientologists, those who have achieved the level "clear", in a series of courses known as the Advanced Levels. The contents of these courses are held in strict confidence within Scientology. They have never been published by the Church, except for use in highly secure areas. The most advanced of all are the eight Operating Thetan levels, which require the initiate to be thoroughly prepared. The highest level, OT VIII, is only disclosed at sea, on the Scientology cruise ship Freewinds. Because Scientology is a mystery religion, the more closely guarded and esoteric teachings imparted at these higher levels may not always be entirely consistent with its entry-level teachings.

In the confidential OT levels, Hubbard describes a variety of traumas commonly experienced in past lives. He also explained how to reverse the effects of such traumas. Among these advanced teachings, one episode that is revealed to those who reach OT level III has been widely remarked upon in the press: the story of Xenu, the galactic tyrant who first kidnapped certain individuals who were deemed "excess population" and loaded these individuals into space planes for transport to the site of extermination, the planet of Teegeeack (Earth). These space planes were said to have been copies of Douglas DC-8s, with the addition of rocket engines. He then stacked hundreds of billions of these frozen victims around Earth's volcanoes 75 million years ago before blowing them up with hydrogen bombs and brainwashing them with a "three-D, super colossal motion picture" for 36 days, telling them lies of what they are and what the universe should be like and telling them that they are 3 different things: 'Jesus, God, and The Devil.' The traumatized thetans subsequently clustered around human bodies because they watched the motion picture together, making them think they are all the same thing, in effect acting as invisible spiritual parasites known as "body thetans" that can only be removed using advanced Scientology techniques. Xenu is allegedly imprisoned in a mountain by a force field powered by an eternal battery. He is said to be still alive today.

Scientologists argue that published accounts of the Xenu story and other colorful teachings are presented out of context for the purpose of ridiculing their religion. Journalists and critics of Scientology counter that Xenu is part of a much wider Scientology belief in past lives on other planets, some of which has been public knowledge for decades. For instance, Hubbard's 1958 book Have You Lived Before This Life documents past lives described by individual Scientologists during auditing sessions. These included memories of being "deceived into a love affair with a robot decked out as a beautiful blond-haired girl", being run over by a Martian bishop driving a steamroller which transformed him into an intergalactic walrus that perished after falling out of a flying saucer, after which he was "a very happy being who strayed to the planet Nostra 23,064,000,000 years ago".

Although reliable statistics are not available, it is fair to say that most Scientologists are not at a sufficiently high level on "the bridge" to learn about Xenu. Therefore, while knowledge of Xenu and Body Thetans is said to be crucial to the highest level church teachings, it cannot be regarded as a core belief of rank and file Scientologists. Thus accusations and criticisms by critics of ordinary Scientologists based on the above tend to work against the intention of the critics, since it is not published in commonly available materials, and is not part of what the vast majority of ordinary Scientologists believe. On the other hand, Scientology literature does include many references to extraterrestrial past lives, and internal Scientology publications are often illustrated with pictures of spaceships and oblique references to catastrophic events that happened "75 million years ago" (e.g. the Xenu incident).

Scientology and other religions

A Scientology Center on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, California.

Scientology teaches that it is fully compatible with all existing major religions. The Church of Scientology has publicly stated:

However, the Church of Scientology has clashed with other religious groups, including the Church of England, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Lutheran Church, all of which have at times criticized Scientology's activities and doctrines. Many members of the Roman Catholic Church reject Scientology, because of the CoS's views on Jesus, and believe Scientology to be a form of agnosticism, which many Christians regard as a heresy. The Church of Scientology has also worked closely with other religious groups on community outreach projects and campaigns against perceived persecution by governments around the world.

Scientology's claim of religious compatibility to entry-level Scientologists is soon modified by the additional teaching that the various levels of spiritual prowess which can be reached through Scientology are more advanced than those attainable in other religions. Critics maintain that, within Scientology, "spiritual abilities" tends to be synonymous with "mystical powers" rather than with "inner peace". Hubbard himself cautioned against the unwise or improper use of powers in his book History of Man.

As a sort of a confirmation of the Church's position that it is superior to other religions, in its application for tax exempt status in the United States, the Church of Scientology International states:

Critics claim that a select group of advanced practitioners eventually discovered that Hubbard had left little doubt in his writings and lectures about the dim view he took towards existing major religions. In some of the teachings Hubbard had intended only for this select group, he claimed that Jesus had never existed, but was implanted in humanity's collective memory by Xenu 75 million years ago, and that Christianity was an "entheta [evil] operation" mounted by beings called Targs (Hubbard, "Electropsychometric Scouting: Battle of the Universes", April 1952). Some critics have claimed that one of the highest levels, OT VIII, tells initiates that Jesus was a pederast (it is decidedly unclear whether the version of OT VIII in the Fishman Affidavit, where this claim originates, is genuine). Thus, critics claim, Hubbard makes clear his belief that advanced Scientologists are to identify Jesus and Christianity more as a force of evil than as a force for good. Again, it should be emphasized that even if this teaching is genuine, only a minority of Scientology adherents have learned it.

Hubbard claimed that Islam was also the result of an extraterrestrial memory implant, called the Emanator, of which the Kaaba is supposedly an artifact. Mainstream religions, in his view, had failed to realize their objectives: "It is all very well to idealize poverty and associate wisdom with begging bowls, or virtue with low estate. However, those who have done this (Buddhists, Christians, Communists and other fanatics) have dead ended or are dead ending." (Hubbard, HCOPL of January 21, 1965)

Based on an interpretation of Buddhist writings which described, among other things, a man from the west with hair like flames around his head who was said to be due to return some 2,500 years after the first Buddha, the red-haired Hubbard sometimes identified himself with Maitreya, the Buddha of the future. (Hubbard, Hymn of Asia, 1952).

In addition to the clergy of the religions not getting along beliefs in Scientology as one progresses into higher levels become increasingly contradictory with other religion. Most notably is the concept of past lives which most western religions reject, although some Scientologists believe that Christianity at one time believed in reincarnation but the idea was taken out by the early Catholic Church. Whether this comes from Hubbards theories as presented in the highest levels of Scientology or is just the belief of some Scientologists to create a way for the religion to better mesh, no proof of the claim has ever been presented. Other ideas such as the origins and age of the Earth, the root of evil, and the nature of man make it impossible to hold literal beliefs in most other religions while being a Scientologist.

Origins

Immediately prior to his first Dianetics publications, Hubbard was involved with occultist Jack Parsons in performing rites developed by Aleister Crowley. Some investigators have noted similarities in Hubbard's writings to the doctrines of Crowley,[2] though the Church of Scientology denies any such connection. An influence that Hubbard did acknowledge is the system of General Semantics developed by Alfred Korzybski in the 1930s. [3] Scientology also reflects the influence of the Hindu concept of karma, as well as the less metaphysical theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and William Sargant.

The word scientology has a history of its own. Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard's work, it was originally coined by philologist Allen Upward in 1907 as a synonym for "pseudoscience". [4] In 1934, the Argentine-German writer Anastasius Nordenholz published a book using the word positively: Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens ("Scientology, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge"). [5] Nordenholz's book is a study of consciousness, and its usage of the word is not greatly different from Hubbard's definition, "knowing how to know". However, it is not clear to what extent Hubbard was aware of these earlier uses. The word itself is a pairing of the Latin word scientia ("knowledge", "skill"), which comes from the verb scire ("to know"), and the Greek λογος lógos ("reason" or "inward thought" or "logic"). In a lecture given on July 19, 1962 entitled "The E-meter", Hubbard said:

The Church of Scientology

The official symbol of the Church of Scientology.

A Church of Scientology was first incorporated in Camden, New Jersey as a non-profit organization in 1953. Today's Church of Scientology was established in 1954. It forms the center of a complex worldwide network of corporations dedicated to the promotion of L. Ron Hubbard's philosophies in all areas of life. This includes:

  • drug treatment centers (Narconon);
  • criminal rehab programs (Criminon);
  • activities to reform the field of mental health (Citizens Commission on Human Rights);
  • projects to implement Hubbard's educational methods in schools (Applied Scholastics);
  • a "moral values" campaign (The Way to Happiness);
  • World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, or WISE, which licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses;
  • a consulting firm based on Hubbard's management techniques (Sterling Management Systems);
  • a publishing company, e-Republic, which publishes Government Technology and Converge magazines and coordinates the Center for Digital Government;
  • and a campaign directed to world leaders, as well as the general public, to implement the 1948 United Nations document "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (with particular emphasis on the religious freedom elements).

Independent Scientology groups

Although "Scientology" is most often used as shorthand for the Church of Scientology, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the official Church. Such groups are invariably breakaways from the original Church, and usually argue that it has corrupted L. Ron Hubbard's principles or otherwise become overly domineering. The Church takes an extremely hard line on breakaway groups, labeling them "apostates" (or "squirrels" in Scientology jargon) and often subjecting them to considerable legal and social pressure. Breakaway groups avoid the name "Scientology" so as to keep from being sued, instead referring to themselves collectively as the Free Zone.

Controversy and criticism

Church of Scientology on Yonge Street in Toronto, Canada.

Of the many new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, Scientology has from its inception been the most controversial. The Church has come into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany) numerous times over the years, though supporters note that many major world religions have found themselves in conflict with civil government in their early years.

Different countries have taken markedly different approaches to Scientology. Scientology is technically considered a religion in the United States and Australia, and thus enjoys and regularly cites the constitutional protections afforded in both nations to religious practice (First Amendment to the United States Constitution; Australian Constitution, s 116). In Canada the Church of Scientology is legal, but has the unique distinction of being criminally convicted as a corporation on two counts of breach of the public trust (for an organized conspiracy to infiltrate government offices) following a trial by jury. In the United States, the church obtained "public charity" status (IRS Code 501(c)(3)) and the associated preferential tax treatment after extended litigation. Applications for charity status in the UK and Canada were rejected in 1999. Some European governments (including Germany) do not consider the Church to be a bona fide religious organization, but instead a commercial enterprise or totalitarian cult.

Other countries, notably in Europe, have regarded Scientology as a potentially dangerous cult and have significantly restricted its activities at various times, or at least have not considered local branches of the Church of Scientology to meet the legal criteria for being considered religion-supporting organizations. In Germany, for instance, Scientology is not considered a religion by the government, but a commercial business. Fifteen of the sixteen German states, positing that Scientology had potentially anti-democratic tendencies, have to a greater or lesser degree and for varying periods subjected Scientology and Scientologists to state surveillance since the early 1970's. No criminal or civil charges have been brought as a result of this surveillance. Two German states and the political party, the CDU (Christian Democratic Union) have passed rules or regulations limiting the particpation of Scientologists in politics, business and public life. In several court cases Scientology lost filed complaints against continued surveillance because the court holds the opinion that Scientology still pursues anticonstituitional activities. Scientologists in August of 2005 filed complaints with the Human Rights court of the European Union in an effort to force the German government to put an end to discrimintory practices. The case is pending. The United Kingdom government does not recognize Scientology as a bona fide religion. The church has been subjected to considerable pressure from the state in Russia. In Belgium, the minister of justice refused Scientology as a candidate for the status of recognized religion. [6]

Scientology has also been the focus of criticism by anti-cult campaigners and has aroused controversy for its high-profile campaigns against psychiatry and psychiatric medication. The religious bona fides of Scientology have been repeatedly questioned. Hubbard was accused of adopting a religious façade for Scientology to allow the organization to maintain tax-exempt status and to avoid prosecution for false medical claims. These accusations continue to the present day, bolstered by numerous accounts from Hubbard's fellow science-fiction authors that on various occasions he stated that the way to get rich was to start a religion. [7]

The many legal battles fought by the Church of Scientology since its inception have given it a reputation as an extremely litigious organization, characterized by forcing litigants to enter into a lengthy and costly legal process using a number of highly trained lawyers, expert at prolonging cases.

However, a notable number of countries around the world have apparently embraced Scientology, including Italy, Spain and Thailand. Also, the number of legal battles in which the Church has engaged seems to have peaked in the early-to-mid-1990s, and has been declining since then. Since that time, many Scientologists have adopted a more relaxed view toward minor criticism. The overall attitude in the Scientology community has partially shifted to spreading Scientology through direct application to communities, rather than combating those who attempt to stop or belittle it.

The ongoing controversies involving the Church and its critics include:

  • The Gabriel Williams sexual abuse case.
  • Scientology's harassment and litigious actions against its critics and enemies.
  • Some critics charge Scientology with being a cult of personality, with much emphasis placed on the alleged accomplishments of its founder.
  • Scientologists claim that government files, such as those from the FBI, are loaded with forgeries and other false documents detrimental to Scientology, but have never substantiated this accusation.
  • Unexplained Deaths of Scientologists, most notably Lisa McPherson, allegedly due to mistreatment by other members.
  • Scientology's disconnection policy, in which members are encouraged to cut off all contact with friends or family members critical of the Church.
  • Criminal activities by Scientologists, both those committed for personal gain (Reed Slatkin, others) and those committed on behalf of the Church and directed by Church officials (Operation Snow White, Operation Freakout, Fair Game, and others).
  • Claims of brainwashing and mind control.
  • Use of high-pressure sales tactics to obtain money from members.
  • Lobbying search engines such as Google and Yahoo to omit any webpages that are critical of Scientology from their search engines (and in Google's case, AdSense), or at least the first few search pages(while Google now features pages that are critical of Scientology, one will find that the front page for a search on "Scientology" in Yahoo yields no websites critical of Scientology).
  • Differing accounts of L. Ron Hubbard's life, in particular accounts of Hubbard discussing his intent to start a religion for profit. [8]

This last criticism is referenced, among other places, in a May 1980 Reader's Digest article, which quotes Hubbard, "If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion."

The Church pursues an extensive public relations campaign arguing Scientology is a bona fide religion. The organization cites numerous scholarly sources supporting its position, many of which can be found on a website the Church has established for this purpose. [9]

Official Status as a Religion

Many critics assert that, in order to obtain its tax-exempt status in the United States, Scientologists paid private investigators to obtain compromising material on the IRS commissioner and blackmailed the IRS into submission, NYT article costing taxpayers 1-2 billion dollars. [10] Six levels of indents down in the eventually leaked "closing agreement", [11] the IRS is contractually required to discriminate in their treatment of Scientology to the exclusion of all other groups:

The Sklars, in the case MICHAEL SKLAR; MARLA SKLAR v. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL No. 00-70753, attempted to obtain the same deduction for their payments to a Jewish school. On January 29, 2002 the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the IRS's opposition. Judge Silverman concurred, [12] saying:

To date, such a suit is not known to have been filed.

Another source of controversy was Scientology's infiltration of the United States Internal Revenue Service in what Scientology termed "Operation Snow White". Eleven high-ranking Scientologists, including Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard, served time in federal prison for their involvement in this infiltration.

In Australia, critics point to a certain passage in a 1982 ruling by the High Court of Australia. They claim that in the course of litigation between the Church and the government of Victoria, even though the government of the state found that the Church practiced charlatanism, (Church of the New Faith v. Commissioner Of Pay-roll Tax [13]) nevertheless the government of Victoria, due to certain legal technicalities, could not deny the Church the right to operate in Victoria under the legal status of "religion".

Scientology and psychiatry

Scientologists regularly hold anti-psychiatry demonstrations they call "Psychbusts"

Scientology is publicly and vehemently opposed to psychiatry and psychology.

This theme appears in some of Hubbard's literary works. In Hubbard's Mission Earth series, various characters praise and criticize these methods, and the antagonists in his novel Battlefield Earth are called Psychlos, a similar allusion.

From the Church of Scientology FAQ on Psychiatry:

L. Ron Hubbard was bitterly critical of psychiatry's citation of physical causes for mental disorders, such as chemical imbalances in the brain. Although there are many questions remaining, the statements by Hubbard deny that psychiatry through the scientific method has shown some psychiatric disorders are related to anatomical and chemical cerebral anomalies. Furthermore, it is evident much of his criticism is based upon old and flawed information regarding psychiatry [15]. He regarded psychiatrists as denying human spirituality and peddling fake cures. He was also convinced psychiatrists were themselves deeply unethical individuals, committing "extortion, mayhem and murder. Our files are full of evidence on them." [16] The Church claims that psychiatry was responsible for World War I [17], the rise of Hitler and Stalin [18], the decline in education standards in the United States [19], the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo [20], and even the September 11th attacks [21]. However, for all these statements, the Church has failed to present any evidence supporting this view of psychiatry. Scientology's opposition to psychiatry has also undoubtedly been influenced by the fact that a number of psychiatrists have strongly spoken out against the Church, resulting in pressure from the media and governments. Additionally, after Hubbard's book on Dianetics was published, in which he tried to present a new form of psychotherapy, the American Psychological Association advised its members against using Hubbard's techniques with their patients until its effectiveness could be proven. Because of this critique Hubbard came to believe psychiatrists were behind a worldwide conspiracy to attack Scientology and create a "world government" run by psychiatrists on behalf of Soviet Russia:

In 1966, Hubbard declared war on psychiatry, telling Scientologists "We want at least one bad mark on every psychiatrist in England, a murder, an assault, or a rape or more than one." He committed the Church to eradicating psychiatry in 1969, announcing "Our war has been forced to become 'To take over absolutely the field of mental healing on this planet in all forms.'" [23] Not coincidentally, the Church founded the Citizens Commission on Human Rights that same year as its primary vehicle for attacking psychiatry.

Around the same time, Hubbard decided that psychiatrists were an ancient evil that had been a problem for billions of years. He cast them in the role of assisting Xenu's genocide of 75 million years ago. In a 1982 bulletin entitled "Pain and Sex", Hubbard declares that "pain and sex were the INVENTED TOOLS of degradation", having been devised eons ago by psychiatrists "who have been on the [time] track a long time and are the sole cause of decline in this universe." (Hubbard, HCO Bulletin of August 26, 1982)

Celebrity Scientologists, notably Tom Cruise, have been extremely vocal in attacking the use of psychiatric medication. [24] Their position has attracted considerable criticism from psychiatrists, physicians, and mental health patients and advocates who cite numerous scientific studies showing benefit from psychiatry. On top of that there is evidence Scientology adherents destroyed scientific data in a lengthy campaign to discredit research. [25] Nevertheless, this position is still defended and promoted by Scientologists. [26]

Scientology Versus The Internet

Scientology leaders have undertaken extensive operations on the Internet to deal with growing allegations of fraud and exposure of unscrupulousness within Scientology. The organization states that it is taking actions to prevent distribution of copyrighted Scientology documents and publications online by people whom it has called "copyright terrorists". Critics claim the organization's true motive is an attempt to suppress free speech and legitimate criticism.

In January 1995, Church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the Usenet discussion group alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group on the grounds that

In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when applied to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates.

The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copies of its copyrighted scriptures on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and pressed for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. The even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act was also strongly promoted by the Church and some of its provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers.

Beginning in the middle of 1996 and for several years after, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed "sporgery" by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Although the Church neither confirmed nor denied its involvement with the spam, some investigators claimed that some spam had been traced to Church members.

Celebrity practitioners

The Church of Scientology has concertedly attempted to convert artists and entertainers — they have special recruitment facilities for public figures designated Celebrity Centres. They can be found in Hollywood, New York, Nashville, Las Vegas, London, Paris, and Vienna, though Hollywood is the largest and most important. Scientologists give this description:

It should be noted that these sites are not celebrity exclusive. They offer Scientology courses to non-celebrites and their courses start at the most basic beginner levels. While a the Celebrity Center, or simply CC as most Scientologists refer to it, the odds of running into a celebrity are good but it is mostly full of non-famous people.

Publicity has been generated by Scientologists in the entertainment industry such as John Travolta, Kelly Preston, Kirstie Alley, Beck Hansen, Josh Pettersen, Chick Corea (pianist), Isaac Hayes, Jason Lee, Doug E. Fresh (old school hip hop artist), Tom Cruise, and Cruise's converted fiancée Katie Holmes. Cruise became known as an outspoken Scientologist in 2005, publicly criticizing Brooke Shields on national television for her use of anti-depressants in recovering from postpartum depression.

On June 24, 2005, Cruise spoke to Today Show host Matt Lauer on the supposed dangers of psychiatry and antidepressants during a promotional interview for his film War of the Worlds [28]. His intent may have backfired as late night comedians and morning radio programs frequently commented about Cruise's passionate frustration at Lauer's perceived lack of knowledge and respect for the topic's severity and mocked him as a radical celebrity. Despite the public backlash received, Cruise certainly rallied the faithful and exposed Scientology in a way that would have been difficult to attain otherwise. Katie Couric later interviewed two psychologists as to the validity of Tom Cruise’s statements. One agreed that it is still unknown if drugs can really correct chemical imbalances while the other stated that antidepressants may be over-prescribed.

Critics say the attention and care given to celebrity practitioners is vastly different from that of noncelebrity practitioners because the Church of Scientology uses the celebrities for advertisement, and thus, that the two experiences of Scientology are vastly different. [29] [30] Diana Canova, who experienced Scientology both before and during her period of TV stardom, expressed it in a September 1993 interview: "When I started, I wasn't in television yet. I was a nobody - I'd done some TV, but I was not one of the elite, not by a long shot - until I did Soap. Then it became…I mean, you really are treated like royalty." [31]


This page about scientology includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about scientology
News stories about scientology
External links for scientology
Videos for scientology
Wikis about scientology
Discussion Groups about scientology
Blogs about scientology
Images of scientology

Then it became…I mean, you really are treated like royalty." [31]. London is home to a very large film post-production and special effects industry. I was a nobody - I'd done some TV, but I was not one of the elite, not by a long shot - until I did Soap. Woody Allen's 2006 film Match Point is set and filmed on location in London. [29] [30] Diana Canova, who experienced Scientology both before and during her period of TV stardom, expressed it in a September 1993 interview: "When I started, I wasn't in television yet. And when Danny Boyle decided to make his succesfull 28 Days Later, the streets in central London were seen for the first time as deserted and unhabited. Critics say the attention and care given to celebrity practitioners is vastly different from that of noncelebrity practitioners because the Church of Scientology uses the celebrities for advertisement, and thus, that the two experiences of Scientology are vastly different. Rene Zellweger made the area of Borough Market more popular than it already was by appearing as the love seeking character Bridget Jones in Bridget Jones's Diary.

One agreed that it is still unknown if drugs can really correct chemical imbalances while the other stated that antidepressants may be over-prescribed. Adaptations of Dickens and the Sherlock Holmes novels abound. Katie Couric later interviewed two psychologists as to the validity of Tom Cruise’s statements. Gangster films such as the Krays & Let Him Have It depicted London not long after the second world war and in the late 1990s the films of Guy Ritchie showed parts of the capital more familiar to Londoners rather than the world wide audience. Despite the public backlash received, Cruise certainly rallied the faithful and exposed Scientology in a way that would have been difficult to attain otherwise. London has appeared as the setting for many films, for example Notting Hill, and the Ealing comedies. His intent may have backfired as late night comedians and morning radio programs frequently commented about Cruise's passionate frustration at Lauer's perceived lack of knowledge and respect for the topic's severity and mocked him as a radical celebrity. Among contemporary writers perhaps the most pervasively influenced by the city is Peter Ackroyd in works such as London: The Biography, The Lambs of London and Hawksmoor.

On June 24, 2005, Cruise spoke to Today Show host Matt Lauer on the supposed dangers of psychiatry and antidepressants during a promotional interview for his film War of the Worlds [28]. Eliot, The Apes of God by Wyndham Lewis, Down and Out in Paris and London by George Orwell, Fever Pitch by Nick Hornby and White Teeth by Zadie Smith. Cruise became known as an outspoken Scientologist in 2005, publicly criticizing Brooke Shields on national television for her use of anti-depressants in recovering from postpartum depression. S. Fresh (old school hip hop artist), Tom Cruise, and Cruise's converted fiancée Katie Holmes. Other famous works that feature London include A Journal of the Plague Year and Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe, The Secret Agent by Joseph Conrad, the Sherlock Holmes stories by Arthur Conan Doyle, The Waste Land by T. Publicity has been generated by Scientologists in the entertainment industry such as John Travolta, Kelly Preston, Kirstie Alley, Beck Hansen, Josh Pettersen, Chick Corea (pianist), Isaac Hayes, Jason Lee, Doug E. The famous aphorism of Samuel Johnson, "When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life!" features alongside many other sayings and quips.

While a the Celebrity Center, or simply CC as most Scientologists refer to it, the odds of running into a celebrity are good but it is mostly full of non-famous people. Most of it takes place in London. They offer Scientology courses to non-celebrites and their courses start at the most basic beginner levels. James Boswell's 'Life of Samuel Johnson' is the most notable biography in English. It should be noted that these sites are not celebrity exclusive. The two writers who are perhaps most closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys, famous among other things for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire, and Charles Dickens, whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets is a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London. Scientologists give this description:. London has been the setting for many works of literature.

They can be found in Hollywood, New York, Nashville, Las Vegas, London, Paris, and Vienna, though Hollywood is the largest and most important. Hampton Court Palace also has a celebrated garden. The Church of Scientology has concertedly attempted to convert artists and entertainers — they have special recruitment facilities for public figures designated Celebrity Centres. The leading paid entrance garden in London is the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew. Although the Church neither confirmed nor denied its involvement with the spam, some investigators claimed that some spam had been traced to Church members. Some of the other major open spaces in the suburbs, such as Hampstead Heath, Wimbledon Common and Epping Forest have a more informal, semi-natural character. Beginning in the middle of 1996 and for several years after, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed "sporgery" by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Examples include Victoria Park, Alexandra Park and Battersea Park.

The even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act was also strongly promoted by the Church and some of its provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers. Most of London's council-owned parks were developed between the mid 19th century and the Second World War. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. Many of the smaller green spaces in central London are garden squares which were built for the private use of the residents of the fashionable districts, but in some cases are now open to the public. The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copies of its copyrighted scriptures on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and pressed for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. Regents Park is on the northern edge of central London, while Greenwich Park, Bushy Park, and Richmond Park are in the suburbs. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates. Green Park, St James's Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens form a green strand through the West End.

In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when applied to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. The eight Royal Parks of London are former royal hunting grounds which are now open to the public. In January 1995, Church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the Usenet discussion group alt.religion.scientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group on the grounds that. London is well endowed with open spaces. Critics claim the organization's true motive is an attempt to suppress free speech and legitimate criticism. London also hosts the annual London Marathon, one of the largest mass-participation marathons in the world, and the Oxford v. Cambridge Boat Race. The organization states that it is taking actions to prevent distribution of copyrighted Scientology documents and publications online by people whom it has called "copyright terrorists". The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, home of the Wimbledon Tennis Championships is in Wimbledon in the south.

Scientology leaders have undertaken extensive operations on the Internet to deal with growing allegations of fraud and exposure of unscrupulousness within Scientology. Two Test cricket grounds are located in London: Lord's, home of Middlesex, in St John's Wood, and The Oval, home of Surrey, in Kennington. [26]. Twickenham Stadium in west London is the national rugby union stadium, and three Guinness Premiership sides (London Irish, Saracens and Wasps) all originate from London, although they are now all based just outside the Greater London area. [25] Nevertheless, this position is still defended and promoted by Scientologists. Wembley Stadium (which is currently being rebuilt) has traditionally been the home of the England football team, and serves as the venue for the FA Cup final, as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final. On top of that there is evidence Scientology adherents destroyed scientific data in a lengthy campaign to discredit research. Arsenal and Chelsea are regarded as two of the Premier League's "big three" alongside Manchester United, and regularly play in the UEFA Champions League; the other London clubs in the top flight are Charlton Athletic, Fulham, Tottenham Hotspur and West Ham United.

[24] Their position has attracted considerable criticism from psychiatrists, physicians, and mental health patients and advocates who cite numerous scientific studies showing benefit from psychiatry. The most popular spectator sport in London is football, and London has several of England's leading football clubs. Celebrity Scientologists, notably Tom Cruise, have been extremely vocal in attacking the use of psychiatric medication. In July 2005 London was chosen to host the Games in 2012, making it the first city in the world to host the Summer Olympics three times. In a 1982 bulletin entitled "Pain and Sex", Hubbard declares that "pain and sex were the INVENTED TOOLS of degradation", having been devised eons ago by psychiatrists "who have been on the [time] track a long time and are the sole cause of decline in this universe." (Hubbard, HCO Bulletin of August 26, 1982). London has hosted the Summer Olympics twice, in 1908 and 1948. He cast them in the role of assisting Xenu's genocide of 75 million years ago. Over two-thirds of British Jews live in London, which ranks thirteenth in the world as a Jewish population centre [11].

Around the same time, Hubbard decided that psychiatrists were an ancient evil that had been a problem for billions of years. Much of the enormously elaborate and intricate marble sculpture used in the building was carved in India. In 1966, Hubbard declared war on psychiatry, telling Scientologists "We want at least one bad mark on every psychiatrist in England, a murder, an assault, or a rape or more than one." He committed the Church to eradicating psychiatry in 1969, announcing "Our war has been forced to become 'To take over absolutely the field of mental healing on this planet in all forms.'" [23] Not coincidentally, the Church founded the Citizens Commission on Human Rights that same year as its primary vehicle for attacking psychiatry. Hare Krishna monks are a common sight in the city centre and the Hindu temple at Neasden, Neasden Temple is the largest Hindu temple outside of India, built in the traditional style. Because of this critique Hubbard came to believe psychiatrists were behind a worldwide conspiracy to attack Scientology and create a "world government" run by psychiatrists on behalf of Soviet Russia:. Southall, in West London is home to many Hindus. Additionally, after Hubbard's book on Dianetics was published, in which he tried to present a new form of psychotherapy, the American Psychological Association advised its members against using Hubbard's techniques with their patients until its effectiveness could be proven. London also has the largest Hindu population outside of India.

Scientology's opposition to psychiatry has also undoubtedly been influenced by the fact that a number of psychiatrists have strongly spoken out against the Church, resulting in pressure from the media and governments. The London Central Mosque is a well-known landmark on the edge of Regent's Park, and there are many other mosques in the city. However, for all these statements, the Church has failed to present any evidence supporting this view of psychiatry. Two London boroughs contain the highest proportion of Muslims in the UK: Tower Hamlets and Newham. Our files are full of evidence on them." [16] The Church claims that psychiatry was responsible for World War I [17], the rise of Hitler and Stalin [18], the decline in education standards in the United States [19], the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo [20], and even the September 11th attacks [21]. London is the most important centre of Islam in the United Kingdom. He was also convinced psychiatrists were themselves deeply unethical individuals, committing "extortion, mayhem and murder. In addition various evangelical churches exist.

He regarded psychiatrists as denying human spirituality and peddling fake cures. Many of London's immigrant groups have established denominations in the city, for example Greek Orthodoxy. Furthermore, it is evident much of his criticism is based upon old and flawed information regarding psychiatry [15]. Other traditional Protestant denominations whose headquarters are in London include the United Reformed Church and the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). Although there are many questions remaining, the statements by Hubbard deny that psychiatry through the scientific method has shown some psychiatric disorders are related to anatomical and chemical cerebral anomalies. The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster is generally regarded as the leader of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. Ron Hubbard was bitterly critical of psychiatry's citation of physical causes for mental disorders, such as chemical imbalances in the brain. As in the rest of the UK, religious attendance in London is low, and the Church of England has borne the brunt of this decline.

L. Important national and royal ceremonies are divided between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey, a gothic church on the scale of a cathedral. From the Church of Scientology FAQ on Psychiatry:. London's two Anglican bishops are the Bishop of London, whose see is London north of the Thames, and whose throne is in London's grandest church, the baroque St Paul's Cathedral (designed by Sir Christopher Wren), and the Bishop of Southwark, who tends to Anglicans south of the river. In Hubbard's Mission Earth series, various characters praise and criticize these methods, and the antagonists in his novel Battlefield Earth are called Psychlos, a similar allusion. Nonetheless London has been at the centre of England's religious life for much of its history, and each Archbishop of Canterbury has traditionally spent much of his time in London, where he has an official residence at Lambeth Palace. This theme appears in some of Hubbard's literary works. In the event, the saint received his most hospitable reception in the Kingdom of Kent, and the archiepiscopal see was founded at Canterbury.

Scientology is publicly and vehemently opposed to psychiatry and psychology. Augustine to bring England into the Catholic fold in 597, it was intended that the envoy should become "Archbishop of London", as the city was remembered as the capital of Roman Britain. Commissioner Of Pay-roll Tax [13]) nevertheless the government of Victoria, due to certain legal technicalities, could not deny the Church the right to operate in Victoria under the legal status of "religion". When Pope Gregory the Great sent St. They claim that in the course of litigation between the Church and the government of Victoria, even though the government of the state found that the Church practiced charlatanism, (Church of the New Faith v. The famous street markets of London, that shot to fame in the 1960s are also well known and include Carnaby Street, Notting Hill and Camden Town. In Australia, critics point to a certain passage in a 1982 ruling by the High Court of Australia. The Mayfair district, which includes Bond Street, is home to many exclusive designer stores and boutiques.

Eleven high-ranking Scientologists, including Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard, served time in federal prison for their involvement in this infiltration. Some of the world's most renowned department stores are based in London including Harrods, Selfridges and Harvey Nichols. Another source of controversy was Scientology's infiltration of the United States Internal Revenue Service in what Scientology termed "Operation Snow White". London Fashion Week takes place twice a year. To date, such a suit is not known to have been filed. Burberry, French Connection FCUK, Laura Ashley, Alexander McQueen and Stella McCartney are all famous London designers. Judge Silverman concurred, [12] saying:. London is one of the "big four" fashion capitals (alongside Paris, Milan and New York) and is home to some of the finest haute couture in the world.

On January 29, 2002 the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the IRS's opposition. As a result, London now hosts key parts of the Internet, including LINX (London INternet eXchange), the largest Internet Exchange Point in the world carrying over 82Gb/sec (12/2005) of internet traffic - an estimated 96% of UK internet traffic. 00-70753, attempted to obtain the same deduction for their payments to a Jewish school. With computers and technology playing a key part in the economy, companies have created a large number of datacentres within Greater London, many of which are in the Docklands area. COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL No. There are a vast number of local newspapers in the London area, often covering a small section of the city. The Sklars, in the case MICHAEL SKLAR; MARLA SKLAR v. Globally important media companies based in London range from publishing group Pearson, to the information agency Reuters, to the world's number two advertising business WPP Group.

[10] Six levels of indents down in the eventually leaked "closing agreement", [11] the IRS is contractually required to discriminate in their treatment of Scientology to the exclusion of all other groups:. London is one of the two leading centres of English-language publishing alongside New York. Many critics assert that, in order to obtain its tax-exempt status in the United States, Scientologists paid private investigators to obtain compromising material on the IRS commissioner and blackmailed the IRS into submission, NYT article costing taxpayers 1-2 billion dollars. London is at the centre of British film and television production industries, with major studio facilities on the western fringes of the conurbation and a large post-production industry centred in Soho. [9]. The independent weekly listings guide Time Out Magazine has been providing concert, film, theatre and arts information since 1968. The organization cites numerous scholarly sources supporting its position, many of which can be found on a website the Church has established for this purpose. London has three daily newspaper titles - the popular Evening Standard, plus two free titles, Metro and Standard Lite (published by the Evening Standard) which are distributed every morning at London tube and railway stations.

The Church pursues an extensive public relations campaign arguing Scientology is a bona fide religion. The last major news agency in Fleet Street, Reuters, moved to Canary Wharf in 2005, but Fleet Street is still commonly used as a collective term for the national press. This last criticism is referenced, among other places, in a May 1980 Reader's Digest article, which quotes Hubbard, "If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion.". The move was resisted strongly by the printing trade union SOGAT 82, and strike action at Wapping in 1986 led to violent skirmishes. The ongoing controversies involving the Church and its critics include:. Most of these are in East London, most famously the News International plant at Wapping. The overall attitude in the Scientology community has partially shifted to spreading Scientology through direct application to communities, rather than combating those who attempt to stop or belittle it. Until the 1970s, most of the national newspapers were concentrated in Fleet Street, but in the 1980s they relocated to new premises with automated printing works.

Since that time, many Scientologists have adopted a more relaxed view toward minor criticism. The London newspaper market is dominated by national newspapers, all of which are edited in London. Also, the number of legal battles in which the Church has engaged seems to have peaked in the early-to-mid-1990s, and has been declining since then. Local city-wide stations include music-based stations such as Capital FM, Heart 106.2 and Kiss 100 and popular news/talk stations include BBC London, LBC 97.3 and LBC News 1152. However, a notable number of countries around the world have apparently embraced Scientology, including Italy, Spain and Thailand. There is a huge choice of radio stations available in London. The many legal battles fought by the Church of Scientology since its inception have given it a reputation as an extremely litigious organization, characterized by forcing litigants to enter into a lengthy and costly legal process using a number of highly trained lawyers, expert at prolonging cases. Local programming including news is provided by all main networks via city-based local station variants (eg: BBC One London or ITV London).

[7]. Like the BBC, these produce some programmes elsewhere in the UK, but London is their main production centre. These accusations continue to the present day, bolstered by numerous accounts from Hubbard's fellow science-fiction authors that on various occasions he stated that the way to get rich was to start a religion. Other networks headquarted in London include ITV, Channel 4, Five and BSkyB. Hubbard was accused of adopting a religious façade for Scientology to allow the organization to maintain tax-exempt status and to avoid prosecution for false medical claims. Partly to counter complaints about London bias, the BBC announced in June 2004 that some departments are to be relocated to Manchester. The religious bona fides of Scientology have been repeatedly questioned. All the major television networks are headquartered in London including the BBC, which remains one of the world's most influential media organisations.

Scientology has also been the focus of criticism by anti-cult campaigners and has aroused controversy for its high-profile campaigns against psychiatry and psychiatric medication. The British media is concentrated in London and is sometimes accused of having a "London bias". [6]. London is a major international communications centre with a virtually unrivaled number of media outlets. In Belgium, the minister of justice refused Scientology as a candidate for the status of recognized religion. Secondly, there are other universities not part of the University of London, some of which were polytechnics until UK polytechnics were granted university status in 1992, and others which were founded much earlier. The church has been subjected to considerable pressure from the state in Russia. Constituent colleges have their own admissions procedures, and are effectively universities in their own right, although all degrees are awarded by the University of London rather than the individual colleges.

The United Kingdom government does not recognize Scientology as a bona fide religion. It comprises over 50 colleges and institutes with a high degree of autonomy. The case is pending. First, the federal University of London which, with over 100,000 students, is the largest contact teaching university in the United Kingdom and in Europe. Scientologists in August of 2005 filed complaints with the Human Rights court of the European Union in an effort to force the German government to put an end to discrimintory practices. Universities in London may be divided into two groups. In several court cases Scientology lost filed complaints against continued surveillance because the court holds the opinion that Scientology still pursues anticonstituitional activities. London has the largest student population of any British city, although not the highest per capita.

Two German states and the political party, the CDU (Christian Democratic Union) have passed rules or regulations limiting the particpation of Scientologists in politics, business and public life. This includes prominent universities such as Imperial College London, King's College London, University College London and the London School of Economics. No criminal or civil charges have been brought as a result of this surveillance. London is home to a diverse number of universities, colleges and schools, and is a leading centre of research and development. Fifteen of the sixteen German states, positing that Scientology had potentially anti-democratic tendencies, have to a greater or lesser degree and for varying periods subjected Scientology and Scientologists to state surveillance since the early 1970's. This service was a key part of the Olympic bid and will provide access from northern areas of the UK via King's Cross and Euston. In Germany, for instance, Scientology is not considered a religion by the government, but a commercial business. The new high-speed line, due to open in 2007, will be used by the regular 'Olympic Javelin' service with a journey time of 7 minutes between Stratford and St Pancras.

Other countries, notably in Europe, have regarded Scientology as a potentially dangerous cult and have significantly restricted its activities at various times, or at least have not considered local branches of the Church of Scientology to meet the legal criteria for being considered religion-supporting organizations. The main Olympic arenas will be sited close to Stratford International station, which is currently being constructed as part of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link. Some European governments (including Germany) do not consider the Church to be a bona fide religious organization, but instead a commercial enterprise or totalitarian cult. Although winning the Games has acted as a catalyst for action, most of the work would still be completed if the bid had been unsuccessful. Applications for charity status in the UK and Canada were rejected in 1999. In preparation for the 2012 London Olympic Games, a total of £7 billion (€10 billion) will be spent on refurbishment and expansion of city links, mainly on the Underground. In the United States, the church obtained "public charity" status (IRS Code 501(c)(3)) and the associated preferential tax treatment after extended litigation. It is one of the most complex transit systems anywhere on the planet, with just over 1 billion journeys each year on the Underground alone.

In Canada the Church of Scientology is legal, but has the unique distinction of being criminally convicted as a corporation on two counts of breach of the public trust (for an organized conspiracy to infiltrate government offices) following a trial by jury. The public transport network, administered by Transport for London (TfL), is one of the most extensive in the world, but faces congestion and reliability issues. Scientology is technically considered a religion in the United States and Australia, and thus enjoys and regularly cites the constitutional protections afforded in both nations to religious practice (First Amendment to the United States Constitution; Australian Constitution, s 116). Transport is one of the four areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, but the mayor's financial control is limited. Different countries have taken markedly different approaches to Scientology. The main docks are now at Tilbury, which is outside the boundary of Greater London. The Church has come into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany) numerous times over the years, though supporters note that many major world religions have found themselves in conflict with civil government in their early years. While the Port of London is now only the third-largest in the United Kingdom — rather than largest in the world, as it once was — it still handles 50 million tonnes of cargo each year.

Of the many new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, Scientology has from its inception been the most controversial. Tourism is one of the UK's largest industries, and in 2003 employed the equivalent of 350,000 full-time workers in London [10]. Breakaway groups avoid the name "Scientology" so as to keep from being sued, instead referring to themselves collectively as the Free Zone. 31% of global currency transactions occur in London, with more US Dollars traded in London than New York, and more Euros traded there than every city in Europe combined. The Church takes an extremely hard line on breakaway groups, labeling them "apostates" (or "squirrels" in Scientology jargon) and often subjecting them to considerable legal and social pressure. London is a leading global centre for professional services, and media and creative industries. Ron Hubbard's principles or otherwise become overly domineering. More than half of the UK's top 100 listed companies (the FTSE) are headquartered in central London, and more than 70% in London's metropolitan area.

Such groups are invariably breakaways from the original Church, and usually argue that it has corrupted L. James's, the Strand and elsewhere. Although "Scientology" is most often used as shorthand for the Church of Scientology, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the official Church. Some are in City of London, but more are located further west, in and around Mayfair, St. This includes:. Non-financial business headquarters are located throughout central London. Ron Hubbard's philosophies in all areas of life. This is smaller than City of London, but has equally prestigious occupants, including the global headquarters of HSBC, Reuters, Barclays and the largest law firm in the world, Clifford Chance.

It forms the center of a complex worldwide network of corporations dedicated to the promotion of L. A second financial district is developing at Canary Wharf to the east of central London. Today's Church of Scientology was established in 1954. The City of London is the largest financial centre in London, home to banks, brokers, insurers and legal and accounting firms. A Church of Scientology was first incorporated in Camden, New Jersey as a non-profit organization in 1953. London is also a large financial exporter making it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments. In a lecture given on July 19, 1962 entitled "The E-meter", Hubbard said:. If it were it a country, the London metropolitan area would be the 13th largest economy in the world - higher than the GDP of Australia.

The word itself is a pairing of the Latin word scientia ("knowledge", "skill"), which comes from the verb scire ("to know"), and the Greek λογος lógos ("reason" or "inward thought" or "logic"). The economic impact of the entire London metropolitan area is far higher, year-on-year accounting for approximately 30% of the UK's GDP [9] or $642 billion (estimate) in 2004. However, it is not clear to what extent Hubbard was aware of these earlier uses. As Europe's largest city economy, it generated $365 billion in 2004 (17% of the UK's Gross Domestic Product) although this only refers to the city proper. [5] Nordenholz's book is a study of consciousness, and its usage of the word is not greatly different from Hubbard's definition, "knowing how to know". London serves as an enormous engine for the global economy. [4] In 1934, the Argentine-German writer Anastasius Nordenholz published a book using the word positively: Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens ("Scientology, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge"). Greater London is divided into five Strategic Health Authorities [8].

Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard's work, it was originally coined by philologist Allen Upward in 1907 as a synonym for "pseudoscience". Health services in London are managed by the national government via the National Health Service (NHS). The word scientology has a history of its own. The City of London has its own police force, the City of London Police. [3] Scientology also reflects the influence of the Hindu concept of karma, as well as the less metaphysical theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and William Sargant. The territorial police force for the 32 London boroughs is the Metropolitan Police Service, more commonly referred to as the Metropolitan Police, or simply "the Met". An influence that Hubbard did acknowledge is the system of General Semantics developed by Alfred Korzybski in the 1930s. For a list of London constituencies see List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London.

Some investigators have noted similarities in Hubbard's writings to the doctrines of Crowley,[2] though the Church of Scientology denies any such connection. London is represented in Parliament by 74 MPs. Immediately prior to his first Dianetics publications, Hubbard was involved with occultist Jack Parsons in performing rites developed by Aleister Crowley. The boroughs thus enjoyed "unitary status" and a degree of autonomy when the GLC was abolished, and although losing some powers which have been repatriated to the GLA they still retain many areas they did not control under the GLC. Other ideas such as the origins and age of the Earth, the root of evil, and the nature of man make it impossible to hold literal beliefs in most other religions while being a Scientologist. When the GLC was abolished, most of its functions were devolved to the London boroughs, while others were taken over by joint-boards or other unelected bodies. Whether this comes from Hubbards theories as presented in the highest levels of Scientology or is just the belief of some Scientologists to create a way for the religion to better mesh, no proof of the claim has ever been presented. Previous London wide administrative bodies were the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) from 1855 to 1889; the London County Council (LCC) from 1889 to 1965; and the Greater London Council (GLC) from 1965 to 1986.

Most notably is the concept of past lives which most western religions reject, although some Scientologists believe that Christianity at one time believed in reincarnation but the idea was taken out by the early Catholic Church. The GLA was created in 2000 as a replacement body for the former Greater London Council (GLC) which was created in 1965 and abolished in 1986 after political disputes between the GLC (then led by Ken Livingstone) and the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher. In addition to the clergy of the religions not getting along beliefs in Scientology as one progresses into higher levels become increasingly contradictory with other religion. Readmitted by that party in 2004, he was re-elected as Mayor as an official Labour candidate in the election later that year. (Hubbard, Hymn of Asia, 1952). Livingstone was expelled from the Labour Party when he opposed the official Labour candidate Frank Dobson in the 2000 Mayoral election. Based on an interpretation of Buddhist writings which described, among other things, a man from the west with hair like flames around his head who was said to be due to return some 2,500 years after the first Buddha, the red-haired Hubbard sometimes identified himself with Maitreya, the Buddha of the future. Despite opposition from all the main political parties and the press, his popularity with Londoners has remained high.

However, those who have done this (Buddhists, Christians, Communists and other fanatics) have dead ended or are dead ending." (Hubbard, HCOPL of January 21, 1965). The incumbent Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, was elected as an independent candidate in the 2000 election. Mainstream religions, in his view, had failed to realize their objectives: "It is all very well to idealize poverty and associate wisdom with begging bowls, or virtue with low estate. The mayor is elected by the Supplementary Vote system while the assembly is elected by the Additional Member System. Hubbard claimed that Islam was also the result of an extraterrestrial memory implant, called the Emanator, of which the Kaaba is supposedly an artifact. The GLA consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. Again, it should be emphasized that even if this teaching is genuine, only a minority of Scientology adherents have learned it. The Greater London Authority (GLA) is the London-wide body responsible for co-ordinating the boroughs, strategic planning, and running some London-wide services such as policing, the fire service and transport.

Thus, critics claim, Hubbard makes clear his belief that advanced Scientologists are to identify Jesus and Christianity more as a force of evil than as a force for good. The City of London is run not by a conventional local authority, but by the historical Corporation of London. Some critics have claimed that one of the highest levels, OT VIII, tells initiates that Jesus was a pederast (it is decidedly unclear whether the version of OT VIII in the Fishman Affidavit, where this claim originates, is genuine). The boroughs are the most important unit of local government in London, and are responsible for running most local services in their respective areas. In some of the teachings Hubbard had intended only for this select group, he claimed that Jesus had never existed, but was implanted in humanity's collective memory by Xenu 75 million years ago, and that Christianity was an "entheta [evil] operation" mounted by beings called Targs (Hubbard, "Electropsychometric Scouting: Battle of the Universes", April 1952). Greater London is divided into the 32 London boroughs and the City of London. Critics claim that a select group of advanced practitioners eventually discovered that Hubbard had left little doubt in his writings and lectures about the dim view he took towards existing major religions. This region extends to cover the commuter belt, and much of South East England and East of England, for example including the cities of Brighton and Oxford [5],[6],[7].

As a sort of a confirmation of the Church's position that it is superior to other religions, in its application for tax exempt status in the United States, the Church of Scientology International states:. In 2004, the Greater London Authority defined a metropolitan region centred on London with a population of 18 million. Hubbard himself cautioned against the unwise or improper use of powers in his book History of Man. Discounting eastern Kent, northern Essex, and West Berkshire, the figure is closer to 12 million to 12.5 million people. Critics maintain that, within Scientology, "spiritual abilities" tends to be synonymous with "mystical powers" rather than with "inner peace". However, the definition used here for the metropolitan area of London should be taken with a lot of caution, as it includes areas quite far away from London, such as Dover, right by the English Channel, or Colchester, in the very north of Essex. Scientology's claim of religious compatibility to entry-level Scientologists is soon modified by the additional teaching that the various levels of spiritual prowess which can be reached through Scientology are more advanced than those attainable in other religions. If this definition is followed, then London is the largest metropolitan area of Europe, along with Moscow (whose metropolitan area has somewhere around 14 million people), and above Paris (11.5 million people in the metropolitan area in 2004).

The Church of Scientology has also worked closely with other religious groups on community outreach projects and campaigns against perceived persecution by governments around the world. One such definition describes the London metropolitan area (6,267 square miles, 16,043 km²) with a population of 13,945,000 (in 2001) [4]; larger than the combined populations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Many members of the Roman Catholic Church reject Scientology, because of the CoS's views on Jesus, and believe Scientology to be a form of agnosticism, which many Christians regard as a heresy. Without a specific national reference to London's metropolitan area, many different sources provide alternate definitions. However, the Church of Scientology has clashed with other religious groups, including the Church of England, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Lutheran Church, all of which have at times criticized Scientology's activities and doctrines. It is helped even less by confusion of the term "Greater London" with the political entity of the City of London, which is often confused with the metropolitan area. The Church of Scientology has publicly stated:. This has created much confusion when comparing London's true metropolitan area region with others around the world.

Scientology teaches that it is fully compatible with all existing major religions. This is left up to each individual city to define. the Xenu incident). Unlike many other countries, the UK does not provide national metropolitan area population figures based on commuter percentages and economic influence. On the other hand, Scientology literature does include many references to extraterrestrial past lives, and internal Scientology publications are often illustrated with pictures of spaceships and oblique references to catastrophic events that happened "75 million years ago" (e.g. London urban area is the third-largest in Europe, behind Moscow (11.7 million inhabitants in 2000) and Paris (9.6 million inhabitants in 1999). Thus accusations and criticisms by critics of ordinary Scientologists based on the above tend to work against the intention of the critics, since it is not published in commonly available materials, and is not part of what the vast majority of ordinary Scientologists believe. (External reference: [3]).

Therefore, while knowledge of Xenu and Body Thetans is said to be crucial to the highest level church teachings, it cannot be regarded as a core belief of rank and file Scientologists. The population of the urban area of London at the 2001 census, as calculated by the Office for National Statistics, was 8,278,251 inhabitants. Although reliable statistics are not available, it is fair to say that most Scientologists are not at a sufficiently high level on "the bridge" to learn about Xenu. The Irish are the largest foreign-born group in London (numbering approximately 200,000). These included memories of being "deceived into a love affair with a robot decked out as a beautiful blond-haired girl", being run over by a Martian bishop driving a steamroller which transformed him into an intergalactic walrus that perished after falling out of a flying saucer, after which he was "a very happy being who strayed to the planet Nostra 23,064,000,000 years ago". 21.8% of inhabitants were born outside the European Union. For instance, Hubbard's 1958 book Have You Lived Before This Life documents past lives described by individual Scientologists during auditing sessions. The largest religious groupings are Christian (58.2%), No Religion (15.8%), Muslim (7.2%), Hindu (4.1%), Jewish (2.1%), and Sikh (1.5%).

Journalists and critics of Scientology counter that Xenu is part of a much wider Scientology belief in past lives on other planets, some of which has been public knowledge for decades. In the 2001 census, 71% of these seven million people classed their ethnic group as white (classified as British White (60%), Irish White (3%) or "Other White" (8%) in the 2001 census), 12% as Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani or "Other Asian" (mostly Sri Lankan and other South Asian ethnicities), 5% as black African, 5% as black Caribbean, 1% as "Other Black", 3% as mixed race, 1% as Chinese and 2% as Other (mostly Filipino, Japanese, and Vietnamese). Scientologists argue that published accounts of the Xenu story and other colorful teachings are presented out of context for the purpose of ridiculing their religion. The official estimate of London's population in mid-2003 is 7,387,900 [2]. He is said to be still alive today. Subsequent reviews suggested that the returns were understated, and that the population on Census Day was closer to 7.29 million. Xenu is allegedly imprisoned in a mountain by a force field powered by an eternal battery. The city and the 32 boroughs (some 610 square miles or 1,579 km&sup2) had an estimated 7,421,228 inhabitants in 2004, making London the most populous city in Europe alongside Moscow.

He then stacked hundreds of billions of these frozen victims around Earth's volcanoes 75 million years ago before blowing them up with hydrogen bombs and brainwashing them with a "three-D, super colossal motion picture" for 36 days, telling them lies of what they are and what the universe should be like and telling them that they are 3 different things: 'Jesus, God, and The Devil.' The traumatized thetans subsequently clustered around human bodies because they watched the motion picture together, making them think they are all the same thing, in effect acting as invisible spiritual parasites known as "body thetans" that can only be removed using advanced Scientology techniques. Residents of London are known as Londoners. These space planes were said to have been copies of Douglas DC-8s, with the addition of rocket engines. London was the most populous city in the world from 1825 until 1925, when it was overtaken by New York. Among these advanced teachings, one episode that is revealed to those who reach OT level III has been widely remarked upon in the press: the story of Xenu, the galactic tyrant who first kidnapped certain individuals who were deemed "excess population" and loaded these individuals into space planes for transport to the site of extermination, the planet of Teegeeack (Earth). London had about 860,000 people in 1801 (in comparison, Paris had about 670,000 in 1802), and the population of Edo (modern-day Tokyo, Japan), at the time the largest city in the world, has been estimated at 1 million to 1.25 million people. He also explained how to reverse the effects of such traumas. Brixton, Camberwell, Lewisham and Peckham are home to many families (and their descendants) who immigrated to London from the West Indies during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, sometimes known as Afro-Caribbeans.

In the confidential OT levels, Hubbard describes a variety of traumas commonly experienced in past lives. It is also has a popular market. Because Scientology is a mystery religion, the more closely guarded and esoteric teachings imparted at these higher levels may not always be entirely consistent with its entry-level teachings. It is an historic neighbourhood and boasts a fine park and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. The highest level, OT VIII, is only disclosed at sea, on the Scientology cruise ship Freewinds. Greenwich is on the banks of the Thames where the river broadens into a wide meandering reach of muddy water. The most advanced of all are the eight Operating Thetan levels, which require the initiate to be thoroughly prepared. Redevelopment of the Elephant and Castle, a road intersection and district close to the centre, is due to start in 2006.

They have never been published by the Church, except for use in highly secure areas. South London contains such diverse districts as Wimbledon (famous as the home of the major tennis Wimbledon Championships), Bermondsey, Clapham, Eltham, Lewisham, Woolwich, Blackheath, Southwark, New Cross and Dulwich. The contents of these courses are held in strict confidence within Scientology. North London's other world-famous football team, Tottenham Hotspur, play in nearby Tottenham. The "Hidden Truth" about the nature of the universe is taught to only the most advanced Scientologists, those who have achieved the level "clear", in a series of courses known as the Advanced Levels. Islington is considered one of the more affluent areas in London, due to large scale gentrification, although it is in fact one of the most deprived boroughs in the country; it is also home to Arsenal football club. Scientology doctrine includes a wide variety of beliefs in extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in Earthly events, collectively described by Hubbard as "space opera". Many areas have significant minority populations including Stamford Hill, home to a significant community of Orthodox Jews and Muslims, the Green Lanes area of Harringay and the Finsbury Park area have large Turkish and Greek communities.

According to Hubbard, some of the past traumas may have been deliberately inflicted in the form of "implants" used by extraterrestrial dictatorships to brainwash and control people. Large parks include Hampstead Heath, which includes Parliament Hill, noted for its fine views over the city, and the Hampstead bathing ponds; and Alexandra Park, site of Alexandra Palace. (For example, not everyone was a Roman, or Chinese, etc, although each was common enough). North London is hillier than the south, and many of the hills give excellent views across the city. Not all things found have been experienced by all beings. North London includes suburbs such as Hampstead and Highgate, which retain a village atmosphere. Hubbard stated that Scientology materials as described in books, tapes, and research notes include a record of everything that was found in the course of his research. This corner of London is home to Richmond Park, London's largest, and Twickenham, the home of English rugby union.

As a result, Hubbard's 30-year development of Scientology focused on streamlining of the process to address only key factors. Considered more south-west than West London on account of its being the only London borough to straddle the River Thames, Richmond upon Thames includes the attractive riverside districts of Richmond and Twickenham. According to an early lecture of Hubbard's, it is, as a practical matter, both impossible and undesirable to recall each and every such event from such vast stretches of time. Further to the west, at White City, near Shepherd's Bush, is the principal operating centre for the BBC, while in the extreme west, in the London Borough of Hillingdon, lies Europe's largest and busiest airport, London Heathrow. During that time, Hubbard explains, they have been exposed to a vast number of traumatic incidents, and have made a great many decisions that influence their present state. The area is also famous for the Kings Road, a distinguished and attractive shopping street and thoroughfare. He extended this view further in Scientology, declaring that thetans have existed for tens of trillions of years. Kensington and Chelsea are the most expensive places to live in the country.

In Dianetics, Hubbard proposed that the cause of "aberrations" in the human mind was an accumulation of pain and unconscious memories of traumatic incidents, some of which predated the life of the individual. Within the district is the famous antique market at Portobello Road. According to Scientology, the lower the person is on the tone scale, the more complex and convoluted his or her day-to-day problems tend to be, and the more care and judgement should be exercised regarding communication and interchange with the individual. The carnival attracts up to 1.5 million people, making it the largest street festival in the world. The tone scale is used by Scientologists in everyday life to evaluate people. The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event led by members of the Caribbean community, many of whom have lived in the area since the 1950s. The scale ranges from -40 or "Total Failure" to +40 or "Serenity of Beingness." Positions on the tone scale are usually designated by an emotion, but Hubbard also described many other things that can be indicated by the tone scale levels, such as aspects of an individual's health, sexual behavior, survival potential, or ability to deal with truth. West London includes many of the traditionally fashionable and expensive residential areas such as Notting Hill, made better known in 1999 by a film of the same name starring Hugh Grant and Julia Roberts.

The tone scale is a characterization of human mood and behavior by various positions on a scale. Further east in the London Borough of Newham are London City Airport and the ExCeL Exhibition Centre. Scientologists utilize ARC as a central organizing principle in their lives, primarily based upon the belief that improving one aspect of the triangle increases the level of the other two. There has also been a great deal of gentrification and residential development in the area: North of the Thames around Limehouse Basin and toward Wapping, as well as south of the Thames in Rotherhithe where former wharfs and the old docks have been converted into high-priced loft apartments for a community of bankers, software developers and others working in the financial service industries in and around Docklands. Hubbard called this the "ARC Triangle". The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) serves the area, connecting to the London Underground at Bank, Shadwell, Canning Town and Stratford stations. Another basic tenet of Scientology is that there are three interrelated (and intrinsically spiritual) components that make up successful "livingness": affinity (emotional responses), reality (an agreement on what is real) and communication (the exchange of ideas). Attracted by this growth, restaurants, bars and nightclubs have opened, there are three interconnected shopping malls beneath the Canary Wharf structure, and a cinema complex has opened in the area.

While such a claim would be actionable as extortion, blackmail or harassment within most legal jurisdictions, no such claim has to date been legally confirmed against Scientology based upon use or revelation of auditing records. A new headquarters for HSBC and Barclays as well as the European headquarters of Citigroup, have now been completed, and are in use. In some instances, former members have claimed the Church used information obtained in auditing sessions against them. A massive-scale development within the last three or four years has added a great many more skyscrapers, and many large businesses (investment banks, law firms, etc.) have moved in. Auditing records are referred to within Scientology as "confessional formulary" and stored under lock and key when not being added to during auditing sessions. The London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was set up in 1981 to accelerate the process, and the first phases of major development started to reshape the area, culminating in Canary Wharf, whose best-known feature is the 1 Canada Square office tower (which is often incorrectly called "Canary Wharf"), which has been the UK's tallest skyscraper since 1991. The Church maintains that its auditing records are kept confidential, after the manner of confession in Christian churches. This inevitably drew the attention of property developers who gradually (and then not so gradually) moved in to take over.

During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from the person being audited in a manner similar to a psychotherapy session or confessional. For a period in the early-1980s, many warehouse buildings in Wapping had been occupied and used as artists' studios and low-cost loft living spaces. So, according to the Church, the psychotherapist treats mental health and the Church treats the spiritual being. The London Docklands, on the Isle of Dogs along the Thames in the East End, has developed enormously since the early-1980s. Licensed psychotherapists have alleged that the Church's auditing sessions amount to mental health treatment without a license, but the Church vehemently disputes these allegations, and claims to have established in courts of law that its practice leads to spiritual relief. East end of London is also home to the longest street market in europe- Walthamstow market. Indeed, an Australian report stated that auditing involved a kind of command hypnosis that could lead to potentially damaging delusional dissociative states. The area has many places of interest including many of London's markets, (for example Columbia Road Flower Market, Spitalfields Market, Brick Lane Market, Petticoat Lane Market), and several museums, including the Geffrye Museum and the Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green.

Scientologists have claimed benefits from auditing including improved IQ, improve memory, alleviated dyslexia and attention deficit problems, and improved relaxation; however, no scientific studies have verified these claims. The East End extends from the eastern side of the City of London and includes areas such as Whitechapel, Mile End, Bethnal Green, Hackney, Bow, Millwall and Poplar. The E-meter is used to help locate an area of concern. Successive waves of immigrants include the French, the Huguenots, Belgians, Jews, Gujaratis, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and many other groups. they are forbidden from suggesting, interpreting, degrading or invalidating the preclear's answers. The East End of London is closest to the original Port of London, and tended for that reason to be the area of the city where immigrants arriving into the port would settle first. Per Church policy, auditors are trained not to "evaluate for" their preclears, i.e. This is the second time in modern history that East London has seen large-scale rebuilding: it took the full force of the Blitz in World War Two, with post-war reconstruction leaving a legacy of bleak housing estates and tower blocks in several areas.

Auditing requires that the preclear be a willing and interested participant who understands the questions, and the process goes more smoothly when he or she understands what is going on. It was also key to London's successful bid to host the 2012 Olympics, and is now scheduled to undergo extensive regeneration in the run-up to the games. The auditor asks the preclear to respond to a list of questions which are designed for specific purposes and given to the preclear in a strictly regulated way. East London saw much of London's early industrial development and much of it now is being extensively redeveloped as part of the Thames Gateway. The auditing process is intended to help the practitioner (referred to as a preclear or PC) to unburden himself of specific traumatic incidents, prior ethical transgressions and bad decisions, which are said to collectively restrict the preclear from achieving his goals and lead to the development of a "reactive mind". Regent Street and Bond Street are important thoroughfares. Most auditing uses an E-meter, a device developed to be easy to set up and to be easily interpreted in a way the user sees fit. It is adjacent to Mayfair, and Green Park.

The auditor follows an exact procedure toward rehabilitating the human spirit. Piccadilly is an elegant thoroughfare running from Piccadilly Circus in the east to Hyde Park Corner in the west. The central practice of Scientology is "auditing" (from the Latin audire,"to listen"), which is one-on-one communication with a trained Scientology counselor or "auditor". Soho is also well known for its very lively club and bar scene, the notorious sex industry and as the major "gay quarter" of the city. For more information regarding these explanations, see Scientology - Outsider Explanations. South of Oxford Street's eastern end is Soho, a network of small streets crowded with restaurants, pubs, clubs, smaller shops and boutiques, and theaters and cinemas, as well as media companies and film, advertising and post-production companies. Many non-Scientologists and Critics have offered explanations of Scientology beliefs and practices. West of the City, Covent Garden is home to the Avenue of Stars, London's version of Hollywood's Walk of Fame.

This freed state is called Operating Thetan, or OT for short. Tottenham Court Road runs north from the eastern end of Oxford Street towards the north of the city centre, and is best known for its plethora of hi-fi, computer and electronics stores. According to the church, the ultimate goal is to get the soul (thetan) back to its native state of total freedom, thus gaining control over matter, energy, space, time, thoughts, form, and life. Running from Charing Cross Road in the east to Marble Arch in the west, via Oxford Circus where it crosses Regent Street, it is home to many large department stores and shops (Selfridges, John Lewis, Marks and Spencer). Exact methods of spiritual counseling are taught and practiced which are designed to enable this change. Oxford Street is one of the best-known and busiest shopping streets in the world. Scientology claims to offer an exact methodology to help a person achieve awareness of their spiritual existence and better effectiveness in the physical world. Trafalgar Square is the most prominent landmark.

Some central beliefs of Scientology:. The West End is the most popular shopping and entertainment district in London. This is described as a passage along "the Bridge to Total Freedom", or simply "the Bridge," where each step of the Bridge promises a little more personal freedom in the area specified by the Bridge's definition. Its primacy as the chief financial district has been directly challenged in recent years by Canary Wharf in East London. The steps lead to the more advanced strata of Scientology's more esoteric knowledge. 7,000) resident population, but a daytime working population of more than 300,000. For example, the bad effects of drugs should be addressed before other issues can be addressed. The City has only a small (c.

Scientology practices are structured in a series of levels, because Hubbard believed that rehabilitation takes place on a step by step basis. Once dominated by the dome of St Paul's Cathedral, it is now home to many skyscrapers, including Tower 42 (formerly, and popularly still, known as the NatWest Tower) and 30 St Mary Axe (popularly known as the "Gherkin", built in 2003). [1] Scientology also covers topics such as ethics and morality, (The Way to Happiness), drug and chemical residues as they relate to spiritual wellbeing, the (Purification Rundown), communication, marriage, raising children, dealing with work-related problems, educational matters (study technology), and the very nature of life (The Dynamics). The City also has its own police force, the City of London police. A chief difference between Dianetics and Scientology is that Dianetics focuses on rehabilitating an individual's mind, giving him full conscious recall of his experiences while Scientology is more concerned with rehabilitating the human spirit. It is governed by the Corporation of London, an ancient body headed by the Lord Mayor of London. By the mid-1950s, Hubbard had relegated Dianetics to a sub-study of Scientology. The City of London is the principal financial district of the United Kingdom, and is one of the most important in the world.

Scientology followed on the heels of Dianetics, an earlier system of self-improvement techniques laid out by Hubbard in his 1950 book, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. London is an international center of culture in all its forms - music, theater, arts, museums, festivals and much more. Most of the basic principles of the church were set out during the 1950s and 1960s. There are many other places of interest across the city. Scientology's doctrines were established by Hubbard over a period of about 34 years, beginning in 1952 and continuing until his death in January 1986. Other important tourist attractions include St Paul's Cathedral, the National Gallery; the South Bank and Bankside areas of Southwark with the Globe Theatre and the Tate Modern; London Bridge, Tower Bridge, the Tower of London, and the Tate Britain on the Embankment; and the British Museum in Bloomsbury. . James's Palace; the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea with its museums (the Science Museum, Natural History Museum, and Victoria and Albert Museum) and Hyde Park.

Scientology's principles have been characterized as pseudoscientific by many mainstream medical and psychotherapeutic practitioners, and the Church has frequently been characterized as a cult. Tourist attractions are located mainly in Central London, comprising the historic City of London; the West End with its many cinemas, bars, clubs, theaters, shops and restaurants; the City of Westminster with Westminster Abbey, the royal residences of Buckingham Palace, Clarence House and St. Critics — including government officials of certain countries — have characterized the Church as an unscrupulous commercial organization, and it is accused of harassing critics and exploiting members. London is one of the most visited cities on earth. However, the Church of Scientology has attracted much controversy and criticism. While very busy during the working week, most parts of the City tend to be quiet at weekends, since it is primarily a non-residential area. Church spokespeople claim that Hubbard's teachings (called "technology" or "tech" in Scientology terminology) have freed them from addictions, depression, learning disabilities, mental illness and other problems. The London foreign exchange market is the largest in the world, with an average daily turnover of $504 billion, more than the New York and Tokyo exchanges combined.

The Church presents itself as a religious non-profit organization dedicated to the development of the human spirit and providing counseling and rehabilitation programs. The headquarters of more than 100 of Europe’s 500 largest companies are all in London. The term Scientology is a trademark of the Religious Technology Center, which licenses its use and use of the copyrighted works of Hubbard to the Church of Scientology. The City of London (also known as the "Square Mile") is at the center of international finance, and is Europe’s main business center. In 1954 he established today's Church of Scientology which represents itself as an applied religious philosophy. The dominant centre of activity in London is the City of Westminster (including the West End) which is the main cultural, entertainment and consumer district, the location of most of London's major corporate headquarters outside of the financial services sector, and the centre of the UK's national government. He stated, "Scientology" would be "a study of knowledge." He coined the word from "-ology" (study of) and from "Scien" (from Latin scientia - knowledge). 12 of these boroughs are defined as Inner London, the remaining 20 defined as Outer London.

Ron Hubbard. Today Greater London comprises the City of London and the 32 London boroughs (including the City of Westminster). Scientology is a word first introduced in 1952 by author L. A series of attempted/fake bombings also took place on 21 July 2005; however in the latter incident there was no fatalities. [8]. The explosions came less than 24 hours after London was awarded the 2012 Summer Olympics and as the G-8 summit was underway in Gleneagles, Scotland. Ron Hubbard's life, in particular accounts of Hubbard discussing his intent to start a religion for profit. On 7 July 2005, there was a series of coordinated bomb attacks by Islamic extremist suicide bombers on three underground stations and a bus, killing 52 people and injuring over 700.

Differing accounts of L. Until their 1997 ceasefire, London was regularly a target for IRA bombers seeking to pressure the British government into negotiations with Sinn Féin on Northern Ireland. Lobbying search engines such as Google and Yahoo to omit any webpages that are critical of Scientology from their search engines (and in Google's case, AdSense), or at least the first few search pages(while Google now features pages that are critical of Scientology, one will find that the front page for a search on "Scientology" in Yahoo yields no websites critical of Scientology). The rebuilding during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s was characterised by a wide range of architectural styles and has resulted in a lack of unity in architecture that has become part of London's character. Use of high-pressure sales tactics to obtain money from members. The bombing killed over 30,000 Londoners and flattened large tracts of housing and other buildings across London. Claims of brainwashing and mind control. Probably the most significant changes to London in the last 100 years were as a result of the Blitz and other bombing by the German Luftwaffe that took place during World War II.

Criminal activities by Scientologists, both those committed for personal gain (Reed Slatkin, others) and those committed on behalf of the Church and directed by Church officials (Operation Snow White, Operation Freakout, Fair Game, and others). In 1889 the MBW was abolished, and the County of London was created and was administered by the London County Council, the first elected London-wide administrative body. Scientology's disconnection policy, in which members are encouraged to cut off all contact with friends or family members critical of the Church. In 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works was created to provide London with infrastructure to cope with its growth. Unexplained Deaths of Scientologists, most notably Lisa McPherson, allegedly due to mistreatment by other members. London's local government system struggled to cope with this rapid growth, especially in providing the city with adequate infrastructure. Scientologists claim that government files, such as those from the FBI, are loaded with forgeries and other false documents detrimental to Scientology, but have never substantiated this accusation. Rebuilding took over 10 years but London's growth accelerated in the 18th century and, by the early-19th century, was the largest city in the world.

Some critics charge Scientology with being a cult of personality, with much emphasis placed on the alleged accomplishments of its founder. In 1666, the Great Fire of London swept through and destroyed a large part of the City of London. Scientology's harassment and litigious actions against its critics and enemies. From the 16th to the early-20th century, London flourished as the capital of the British Empire. The Gabriel Williams sexual abuse case. London has grown steadily over centuries, surrounding and making suburbs of neighboring villages and towns, farmland, countryside, meadows and woodlands, spreading in every direction. and a campaign directed to world leaders, as well as the general public, to implement the 1948 United Nations document "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (with particular emphasis on the religious freedom elements). Eventually, Westminster and London grew together and formed the basis of London, becoming England's largest – though not capital – city (Winchester was the capital city of England until the 12th century).

a publishing company, e-Republic, which publishes Government Technology and Converge magazines and coordinates the Center for Digital Government;. Westminster was once a distinct town, and has been the seat of the English royal court and government since the mediæval era. a consulting firm based on Hubbard's management techniques (Sterling Management Systems);. The old Roman city (then called Lundenburh) was reoccupied during the late-9th or early-10th century because a fortified place was needed during the Viking attacks. World Institute of Scientology Enterprises, or WISE, which licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses;. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Roman Londinium was abandoned and a Saxon village named Lundenwic was established approximately one mile to the west in what is now Aldwych, in the 7th century, probably using the mouth of the River Fleet as a trading ship and fishing boat harbor. a "moral values" campaign (The Way to Happiness);. The Celts burnt the relatively new Roman town to the ground, and archaeological digs have revealed a layer of red ash beneath the City of London, which is believed to be the burnt remains of the old Roman town.

projects to implement Hubbard's educational methods in schools (Applied Scholastics);. Around AD 61 the Iceni tribe of Celts lead by Queen Boudica stormed London and took the city from the Romans. activities to reform the field of mental health (Citizens Commission on Human Rights);. His statue can be seen hidden at the church of St Dunstan's In The West, Fleet Street. criminal rehab programs (Criminon);. It was said that Lud laid out the first set of roads in the city. drug treatment centers (Narconon);. Another suggestion for where the name of the city comes from could be that of the mythical leader, King Lud.

Thus, the tenets of Scientology are expected to be tested and seen to either be true, or not, by Scientology practitioners. According to findings displayed in The Museum of London, the initial language of London was Latin with much Greek spoken due to the presence of Greek speaking Roman soldiers and businessmen. No beliefs should be forced as "true" on anyone. This fortified Roman settlement was the capital of the province of Britannia. What is true is what is true for you. overgrown or forested) place. A person is basically good, but becomes "aberrated" by moments of pain and unconsciousness in his life. The BBC History website, however, claims that the name Londinium is actually "Celtic, not Latin, and may originally have referred to a previous farmstead on the site"; the root is 'Lond' meaning 'wild' (i.e.

The thetan has lived through many past lives and will continue to live beyond the death of the body. The name London is commonly thought to have come from the Latin name Londinium, as London was founded by the Romans during their reign over the land, around AD 43– although there is some slight evidence of pre-Roman settlement. A person is an immortal spiritual being (termed a thetan) who possesses a mind and a body. London's large built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings: sometimes temperatures are 5°C (9°F) warmer in the city than in the surrounding areas. London's average annual precipitation of less than 24 inches (600 mm) is lower than that of Rome or Sydney. In recent winters, snow has rarely settled to more than an inch (25 mm).

Heavy snowfalls are almost unknown. The highest temperature ever recorded in London was 38.1°C (100.6°F), measured at Kew Gardens during the European Heat Wave of 2003. Summer temperatures rarely rise much above 33°C (91°F), though higher temperatures have become more common recently. It has regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year.

London has a temperate climate, with warm but seldom hot summers, cool but rarely severe winters. The Thames Barrier was constructed across the Thames at Woolwich in the 1970s to deal with this threat, but in early-2005 it was suggested that a ten-mile-long barrier further downstream might be required to deal with the flood risk in the future [1]. The threat has increased over time due to a slow but continuous rise in high water level and the slow 'tilting' of Britain (up in the north and down in the south) caused by post-glacial rebound. The Thames is a tidal river, and London is vulnerable to flooding.

It has been extensively embanked, and many of its London tributaries now flow underground. The Thames was once a much broader, shallower river than it is today with extensive marshlands. Today, there are a few hills in London, examples being Parliament Hill and Primrose Hill, they provide fine prospects of the city centre without significantly affecting the directions of the spread of the city and London is therefore roughly circular. When more bridges were built in the 18th century, the city expanded in all directions as the mostly flat or gently rolling countryside around the Thames floodplain presented no obstacle to growth.

As a result, the main focus of the city was on the north side of the Thames. London was founded on the north bank of the Thames and, for many centuries, there was only a single bridge, London Bridge. The river had a major influence on the development of the city. London used to be identified by its port on the Thames, which is a navigable river.

Greater London covers an area of 609 square miles (1,579 km²). The Romans may have marked the center of Londinium with the London Stone in the City. The coordinates of the center of London (traditionally considered to be Charing Cross, near the junction of Trafalgar Square, the Strand, Whitehall and the Mall) are approximately 51°30′N 0°8′W. There are other definitions of "London" which cover varying areas, such as the London postal districts; the area covered by the telephone area code 020; the area accessible by public transport using a Transport for London travelcard; the area delimited by the M25 orbital motorway; the Metropolitan Police District; and the London commuter belt.

The metropolitan area of the County of London was previously covered by the Metropolitan Board of Works. Between 1889 and 1965 it referred to the former County of London which covered the area now known as Inner London. Historically, "London" referred to the square mile of the City of London at the conurbation's heart, from which the city grew. Today, "London" usually refers to the conurbation known as Greater London, which is divided into thirty-two London Boroughs, the City of Westminster and the City of London and forms the London region of England.

. Nonetheless, it remains the de facto capital and, through common law, part of the UK's unwritten constitution. London's status as the Capital has never been granted or confirmed officially —by statute or in written form. It has many important buildings and iconic landmarks, including world-famous museums, theatres, concert halls, galleries, airports, sports stadia and palaces.

A city where cutting-edge meets tradition, London is a major tourist destination and an international transportation hub. London is the home of many global organisations, institutions and companies, and as such retains its leading role in world affairs. London is also known by other names in other languages. Over 300 languages are spoken in London, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.

A resident of London is referred to as a Londoner. London's population includes an extremely diverse range of peoples, cultures, and religions, making it one of the most cosmopolitan, vibrant and energetic cities on earth. Initially a Roman town known as Londinium, nowadays London is the most populous city in the European Union, with an estimated population on 1 January 2005 of 7.5 million and a metropolitan area population of between 12 and 14 million. London is one of the world's four major global cities (along with New York City, Tokyo and Paris).

London is a leader in international finance, politics, communications, entertainment, fashion and the arts and has considerable influence worldwide. London produces 17% of the UK's GDP, and is one of the world's major business, political and cultural centres. London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. New Year’s Day Parade.

2000 – Millennium Dome. 1951 – Festival of Britain. 1924 – British Empire Exhibition at Wembley. 1908 – Franco-British Exhibition (1908).

1899 – Greater Britain Exhibition (1899). 1886 – Colonial and Indian Exhibition (1886). 1871-74 – Four Annual International Exhibitions. 1862 – International Exhibition (1862).

1851 – Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations — The Crystal Palace. Project Gotham Racing 3. Project Gotham Racing. Tomb Raider 3.

Nightmare Creatures. Midtown Madness 2. Godzilla: Save The Earth. Grand Theft Auto: London, 1969 and Grand Theft Auto: London, 1961.

The Getaway & The Getaway: Black Monday. "Waterloo Sunset" by The Kinks (recently voted London's 'national anthem' by Time Out magazine). "No Place like London" by Stephen Sondheim from the musical Sweeney Todd, the Demon Barber of Fleet Street. "Swinging London" by London from the album Animal Games.

"Streets of London" by Ralph McTell. "Maybe It's Because I'm a Londoner" by Hubert Gregg. "London Bridge is falling down", traditional nursery rhyme. "London's Burning" by The Clash.

"London Calling" by The Clash from the album London Calling. "London" by Pet Shop Boys. "London" by The Smiths. "Doing the Lambeth Walk", Music Hall favourite.

The Young Ones. Yes Prime Minister. Yes Minister. Ultraviolet.

Spooks. Spaced. Only Fools and Horses. Minder.

Men Behaving Badly. Man About The House. London's Burning. Little Britain.

Family Affairs. EastEnders. Doctor Who. Bottom.

The Bill. Are You Being Served?. Absolutely Fabulous. Highgate Cemetery is an interesting cemetery where many famous people are buried, for example Karl Marx and Michael Faraday.

The Avenue of Stars is a walkway based on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, honouring those who have made notable achievements in the entertainments industry. The Millennium Dome will become an indoor sports hall, and Battersea Power Station will become a shopping and leisure facility. However mixed use developments centred on both buildings are due to commence in 2005. Battersea Power Station and the Millennium Dome are two architecturally interesting buildings which currently stand empty.

Now near the site of Marble Arch and Hyde Park. Tyburn was the location for many infamous executions by hanging. The Old Bailey The Central Criminal Court with famous trials but inconvenient for the unprepared tourist since personal items prohibited include bags and mobile phones. Harrods.

Covent Garden. Brick Lane Market. Petticoat Lane Market. Portobello Road Market.

Borough Market. Knightsbridge. West End. Westminster Abbey.

Tower 42 (formerly known as the Natwest Tower). Temple of Mithras. Tate Modern (formerly Bankside Power Station). Tate Gallery (now known as Tate Britain).

Syon House. Somerset House. St Paul's Cathedral. St Pancras Station.

Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Neasden. Royal Opera House. Royal Greenwich Observatory and the Greenwich Meridian. Royal Festival Hall.

Royal Exchange. Royal Courts of Justice. Royal Albert Hall. Palace of Westminster (Parliament and tower containing Big Ben).

National Gallery, London. National Portrait Gallery, London. Nelson's Column. The Monument (to the Great Fire of London).

Millennium Dome. Marble Arch. Lloyd's building. Kensington Palace.

Lambeth Palace. Hampton Court Palace. Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain. Cleopatra's Needle.

Clarence House. City Hall. Bush House. Buckingham Palace.

BT Tower (Formerly known as the Post Office Tower and Telecom Tower). Broadcasting House. British Library. Battersea Power Station.

Bank of England. Alexandra Palace. Albert Memorial. 30 St Mary Axe (Home of Swiss Re, and also known as "The Gherkin" or even the "Erotic Gherkin").

1 Canada Square (the centrepiece of Canary Wharf). Trafalgar Square. Tower of London. Tower Bridge.

Theatreland. South Bank. Piccadilly Circus. Madame Tussaud's.

London Zoo. London Planetarium. London Eye. London Aquarium.

The London Dungeon. Leicester Square. Horse Guards Parade. Downing Street.

Covent Garden. Chinatown. Camden Town. Buckingham Palace.

09-16-14 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php PAD File Directory Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Display all your websites in one place HereIam.tv Celebrity Homepages Charity Directory Google+ Directory Move your favorite Unsigned Artist to the Top of the List