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Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. a tube top cannot have a collar. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. Some combinations are not applicable, of course, e.g. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. one can disinguish:. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. For such clothing, including vests, sweaters, jackets, etc.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. These can be screen printed or embroidered. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. Recently, (late 20th century) it has become common to use tops to carry messages or advertising. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. The smallest differences may have significance to a cultural or occupational group. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Many terms are used to describe and differentiate types of shirts and their construction.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. Other tops which are not generally referred to as shirts include vests, sweaters, jackets and coats. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. Tops which would generally not be called shirts:. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Some common types or synonyms of shirts and tops:. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. In the US it tends to have a vaguer meaning, being applied to many types of (mainly men's) tops, leaving the word "top" generally for ladieswear.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. In the UK, it refers most often to what Americans call a dress shirt or tailored shirt, i.e., a garment with a collar, cuffs, and a full vertical opening with buttons. Some are decorative. A shirt is a piece of clothing for the trunk of the body. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. With or without hood. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. With regard to pockets: how many (if any), where, and with regard to closure: not closable, just a flap, or with a button or zipper.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. without collar. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. turtle neck collar A collar that covers most of the throat. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. Also casual. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. Rarely seen in modern fashion.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. band collar — essentially the lower part of a normal collar, first used as the original collar to which a separate collarpiece was attached. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. The most casual of collars worn with a tie. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. button-down collar — A collar with buttons that fasten the points or tips to a shirt. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). A moderate dress collar.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. straight collar — or point collar, a version of the windsor collar that is distinguished by a narrower spread to better accommodate the four-in-hand knot, pratt knot, and the half-windsor knot. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. wing collar — best suited for the bow tie, often only worn for very formal occaisions. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. tab collar — a collar with two small fabric tabs that fasten together behind a tie to maintain collar spread. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. The standard business collar.

It specifies things like[4]:. windsor collar— or spread collar, a dressier collar designed with a wide distance between points (the spread) to accommodate the windsor knot tie. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. with collar

    . ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. with open or tassel neck. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. with plunging neck.

    ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. with v-neck. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. with polo-neck. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. With regard to the neck:

      . There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. men's shirts are often buttoned on the right whereas women's are often buttoned on the left.

      ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. vertical opening on the upper front side with buttons or zipper

        . Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. no opening at the upper front side. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. V-shaped permanent opening on the top of the front side. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. left and right front side not separable, put on over the head; with regard to upper front side opening:
          .

          Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. When fastened with buttons, this opening is often called the placket front. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. vertical opening on the front side, all the way down, with buttons or zipper. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. With regard to opening or front:

            . Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. covering part of the legs (essentially this is a dress; however, a piece of clothing is either perceived as a shirt (worn with trousers) or as a dress (in Western culture mainly worn by women)).

            in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. covering the crotch. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. until the waist. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. See halfshirt. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. leaving the belly button area bare (much more common for women than for men.

            Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. With regard to level of the lower edge:

              . Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). A link cuff is fastened like a french cuff, except is not folded over, but instead hemmed, at the edge of the sleeve. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. More formally, a link cuff is worn. A chair may or may not have armrests. This type of cuff has four buttons and a short placket.

              For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. Typically a french cuff, where the end half of the cuff is folded over the cuff itself and fastened with a cufflink. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. buttonholes only for use with cufflinks.

                . "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. Multiple buttons aligned perpendicular to the cuff hem, or parallel to the placket constitute a barrel cuff. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. A single button or pair aligned parallel with the cuff hem is considered a button cuff.

                Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. buttons — single or multiple. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. See closed placket cuff. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. no buttons. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. with long sleeves, may further be distinguished by the cuffs:

                  .

                  This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. with half-long sleeves. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. with short sleeves. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. covering the shoulders, but without sleeves. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. with only bands on the shoulders.

                  (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. with no covering of the shoulders or arms — a tube top (not reaching higher than the armpits, staying in place by elasticity, see e.g [3]). It is sometimes called the "stool height". With regard to covering the shoulders and arms:

                    . For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. diaper shirt — a shirt for infants which includes a long tail that is wrapped between the legs and buttoned to the front of the shirt. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. It is mechanically analogous to an apron with a string around the back of the neck and across the lower back holding it in place.

                    Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. halter top — a shoulderless, sleeveless, backless garment for women. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. see e.g [2]). Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. tube top or boob tube — a shoulderless, sleeveless "tube" that wraps the torso (not reaching higher than the armpits, staying in place by elasticity or by a single strap that is attached to the front of the tube. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. [1].

                    A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. See e.g. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. fishnet shirt, transparent, initially popular fashion item of punk culture or goth culture. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. baseball shirt — usually distinguished by a three quarters sleeve, team insignia, and flat waistseam. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. halfshirt — a high-hemmed t-shirt.

                    Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. Often worn with a sweater vest. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. golf shirt — same as polo shirt, typically embroidered with club or designer insignia; maybe be short or long-sleeved. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. guayabera — an embroidered dress shirt with four pockets. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Actually called an Aloha shirt, but is often also called a "tropical shirt," hawaiian shirts are often not fitted and are woven from very light fabric.

                    The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Hawaiian shirt — a colourful short-sleeve dress shirt. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. rugby shirt — typically a rugged long-sleeved polo shirt, of thick cotton or wool. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. sweatshirt — cotton or synthetic athletic shirt, with or without hood. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). nightshirt — often oversized, ruined or inexpensive light cloth undergarment shirt for sleeping.

                    Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. blouse — lady's shirt; the term is also used for some men's military uniform shirts. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Initially a men's garment, is normally seen in modern times being worn by women. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. tunic — primitive shirt, distinguished by two-piece construction. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. Also referred to as a cami, shelf top, spaghetti straps or strappy top.

                    A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. camisole — woman's undershirt with narrow straps, or a similar garment worn alone (often with bra). Some chairs have foot rests. Often worn by construction workers for increased movability. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. construction shirt — essentially a sleeveless t-shirt with large armholes. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. wife beater — a tank top worn as an outer layer, also called an "A-shirt" or athletic shirt.

                    Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. tank top — a sleeveless T-shirt.

                      . In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. shirt or dress shirt — a shirt with collar and full vertical opening with buttons; left and right sides of this shirt meet with the placket front. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. Short or long sleeve. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. polo shirt — a v-neck shirt with a full collar; opening often closed with buttons or zipper.

                      In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. T-shirt — a casual shirt without a collar or buttons, usually short-sleeved. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

                      It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

                      Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design.

                      . See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. There may be separate headrests.

                      The back may extend above the height of the head. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

                      A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool.

                      Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat.

                      leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat.

                      Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Fabric, simple covering without support.

                      Leather, may be tooled with a design. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Stone, often marble. Molded plastic.

                      Metal seats of solid or open design. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs.

                      Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.

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