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Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. Other solutions include:. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. See List of Linux distributions, BSD, Unix-like for more. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. The list includes only some examples that specialise in routing. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. Most Unix-like operating systems include all necessary software to perform routing:.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. With the proper software, ordinary PCs can be made into routers. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. There are a number manufacturers of routers including:. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. Typically they are used in conjunction with either a cable modem or DSL modem, but that function can also be built-in. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Sometimes these routers can provide content filtering and VPN.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. In addition, these routers typically provide DHCP, NAT, DMZ and Firewall services. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. Often these small routers support the RIP protocol, although in a home application the routing function does not serve much purpose since there are only two ways to go - the WAN and the LAN. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. These are routers in the true sense because they join two networks together - the WAN and the LAN – and have a routing table. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. This application is mainly where the Internet connection is an always-on broadband connection like cable modem or DSL.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Routers are also now being implemented as Internet gateways, primarily for small networks like those used in homes and small offices. Some are decorative. In recent times many routing functions have been added to LAN switches (a marketing term for high-speed bridges), creating "Layer 2/3 Switches" which route traffic at near wire speed. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. In mobile ad-hoc networks every host performs routing and forwarding by itself, while in wired networks there is usually just one router for a whole broadcast domain. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. In the case of a one-armed router the multiple attachments to different networks are all over the same physical link.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. A router is normally used to connect at least two networks, but a special variety of router is the one-armed router, used to route packets in a virtual LAN environment. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. inside the network of an Internet service provider, is called a core router. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. A router that serves solely to transmit data between other routers, e.g. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. A router that connects clients to the Internet is called an edge router.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. Large modern routers have thus come to resemble telephone switches, with whose technology they are currently converging and may eventually replace, whilst small routers have become a common household item. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. Other changes also improve reliability, such as using DC power rather than line power (which can be provided from batteries in data centers), and using solid-state rather than magnetic storage for program loading. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. Although general-purpose computers can perform routing, modern high-speed routers are highly specialised computers, generally with extra hardware added to accelerate both common routing functions such as packet forwarding and specialised functions such as IPsec encryption. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). In the original era of routing (from the mid-1970s through the 1980s), general-purpose mini-computers served as routers.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Routing is most commonly associated with the Internet Protocol, although other less-popular routed protocols are in use. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. See the routing article for a more detailed discussion of how this works. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. The routing table stores the best routes to certain network destinations, the "routing metrics" associated with those routes, and the path to the next hop router. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. In order to route packets, a router communicates with other routers using routing protocols and using this information creates and maintains a routing table.

It specifies things like[4]:. Sometimes the switch and the router are combined together in one single package sold as a multiple port router. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. The switch connects devices together to form the LAN. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. So for example, a router at home connects the Internet Service Provider's (ISP) network (usually on an Internet address) together with the LAN in the home (typically using a range of private IP addresses) and a single broadcast domain. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. The street signs at the intersection (routing table) show which way the packets need to flow.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. Routers connect networks together the way that onramps or major intersections connect streets to both highways and freeways, etc. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. However, the switch knows nothing about IP addresses except its own management address. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. In the same way, a switch connects various devices each with their own IP address(es) on a LAN. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Each house on the street has an address within a range on the block.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. One easy illustration for the different functions of routers and switches is to think of switches as neighborhood streets, and the router as the intersections with the street signs. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. A router is essentially different from a switch that connects devices to form a Local Area Network (LAN). Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. In nontechnical terms, a router acts as a junction between two networks to transfer data packets among them. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. .

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. IP) of the OSI seven-layer model. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. Routing occurs at layer 3 (the Network layer e.g. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.
A router is a computer networking device that forwards data packet across an internetwork toward their destinations, through a process known as routing. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A wood router is a kind of rotating cutting tool..

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. This article describes the computer networking device. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. Mac OS X Internet Sharing. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. WOOWEB-PRO (Windows software). Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. Microsoft Internet Connection Sharing (only some routing capabilities).

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Basic Internet Routing Daemon (bird.network.cz). Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). fdgw (www.fml.org/software/fdgw/). If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. The Linux Router Project (www.linuxrouter.org). A chair may or may not have armrests. IPCop (www.ipcop.org).

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. OpenBSD (www.openbsd.org). In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. NetBSD (www.netbsd.org). "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. FreeBSD (www.freebsd.org). The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. m0n0wall (m0n0.ch/wall).

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. SmoothWall (smoothwall.org). Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. GNU Zebra (www.zebra.org). Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. FREESCO (www.freesco.org/). Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. Coyote Linux (www.coyotelinux.com).

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. LEAF Project (leaf.sourceforge.net). For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. S 7 [1]. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. ZyXEL (www.us.zyxel.com). The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Trendware (www.trendware.com).

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. Zoom Telephonics (www.zoom.com). It is sometimes called the "stool height". MRV Communications. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. Tellabs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. SMC Networks.

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. Siemens AG. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Redback Networks. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Pivotal Networking. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. Nortel.

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. NETGEAR. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. Motorola. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Mikrotik. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. Linksys.

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. Juniper Networks. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Huawei Technologies. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Hewlett-Packard. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Hawking Technologies.

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Enterasys Networks. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. D-Link Systems. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. Cisco Systems, Inc. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). Buffalo Technology.

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Belkin. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Alcatel. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. 3Com. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. Some chairs have foot rests. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design.

. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. There may be separate headrests.

The back may extend above the height of the head. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool.

Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat.

leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat.

Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Fabric, simple covering without support.

Leather, may be tooled with a design. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Stone, often marble. Molded plastic.

Metal seats of solid or open design. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs.

Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.

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