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Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.
. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. See also dress code. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. Many people in Western countries put their feet up on the seat in front of them in movie theaters, although this is considered rude by some. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. Sitting in trains it is often allowed to put one's feet on the opposite seat, provided that one takes one's shoes off or put them on a newspaper, piece of clothing, bag, etc., to avoid possible dirtying of the seat.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. Although feet touching heads is an extremely rare occurrence in any society, some Muay Thai boxers insult each other by "kicking" the opponent's head with their foot (most Muay Thai kicks are executed with the shin). Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. In addition, in Thailand, it is an extreme insult for the foot, socks, or shoes to touch someone's head or be placed over it. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. In the Middle East and Thailand, it is considered rude to show the soles of the feet to others (even accidentally, such as by crossing the legs). This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. This is true even in countries where shoes are not normally taken off.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. People wearing specialized types of shoes, such as snow boots, work boots, or high heels, often remove their shoes upon returning to their homes. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. However foot odor can develop in even a short amount of time, and depends also on the type of socks, shoes and the individual. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. People in these countries sometimes do not remove their shoes until they absolutely must, for example, bathing or going to sleep. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. It might be mentioned that foot odor results partly from wearing shoes for many hours; this is a possible explanation for the "foot odor" fear in countries where shoes are worn for most of the day.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. In almost all parts of the world, people will remove their shoes if they have been walking through snow or mud; this applies to countries where the "foot odor" stigma exists as well. Some are decorative. This practice is however unhygenic, as it exacerbates the odor by providing ideal conditions for fungal infections such as athlete's foot and other diseases of the feet. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. However, some Americans leave their shoes on when returning to their own home, even if there is no one around to offend by potential foot odor. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. It is often explained by foot odor.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. the US and Western Europe) some people are displeased if others take shoes off in their company. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. On the other hand, in some countries (e.g. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. This is because people in most countries wish to keep their homes and carpets clean. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. People do this to avoid tracking in dirt, mud, snow, or other unpleasant things stepped on in the street.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. In the US it is not a "custom", but it is very common. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. In most parts of the world (Asia, Eastern Europe, parts of the Middle East and Africa, much of Northern Europe and Canada, as well as Alaska) it is customary to remove shoes when returning to one's own home or visiting others. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. Someone who makes or repairs shoes in a shop could be called a cobbler. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). Many areas have shoe repair shops for some of these repairs.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. They come in many different styles such as rubber boots (for those muddy days) and snow boots, as well as some boots that work as work shoes. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Boots are special shoes that are used in times of thick snow or even rain. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. They are seldom, if ever, used by most people in tropical climates. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. In temperate climates, snowshoes are used for mostly recreational purposes in winter.

It specifies things like[4]:. Snowshoes are special shoes for walking in thick snow in Arctic areas. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. Protective feature may include steel-tipped toes and soles or ankle guards. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. They are commonly used for protection in industrial settings, construction, mining, and other workplaces. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. Sometimes they are used for uniforms or comfort by nurses, waitresses, police, military personnel, etc.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. They are generally made from sturdy leather uppers and non-leather outsoldes. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. Work shoes are designed to stand heavy wear, to protect the wearer, and provide high traction. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Emphasis tends to be more on function than style. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. In many cases these shoes can be worn by either sex.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. Men's and women's athletic shoes and special function shoes often have less difference between the sexes than in dress shoes. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. Casual shoes are characterized by sturdy leather uppers, non-leather outsoles, and wide profile. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. Some examples of women's dress shoe styles. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. Such shoes often have zippers to open them.

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Shoes with ankle length (covering the ankles) upper bodies are also available. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. an open toe feature in women's shoes. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. g. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. This upper part of the shoe is often made without apertures or openings, but also made with openings or even a connected series of straps, e.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. The majority of dress shoes have an upper covering, commonly made of leather, enclosing most of the lower foot, but not covering the ankles. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. Although dress shoes are commonly made to be worn by one of the sexes, such as men's shoes or women's shoes, many styles of dress shoes can be worn by either sex. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. Dress shoes are categorized by smooth and supple leather uppers, leather soles, and narrow sleek shape. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. Shoes sold in Western cultures generally fall into one of the following categories: dress, casual, work, snow, athletic and boots.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. The piece that separates the foot from the air. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult).
. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Fortified cork is sometimes used in heels or soles so the shoes are lightweight. A chair may or may not have armrests. Many plastic, rubber, or polymer materials are used these days.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. Leather was used in the past, but harder materials are usually more desirable. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. Midsole is a layer situated between the insole and outsole, found in some shoes. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. Often the heel of the sole is rubber for durability and traction, while the front is leather for style. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. The sole comprise a single piece, or may comprise separate pieces of different materials.

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. Dressier shoes have leather out soles; casual or work-oriented shoes have outsoles made of natural rubber or some synthetic immitation. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. The material of outsole varies depending on the function, dressiness, and quality of the shoe. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Th outsole is the layer in direct contact with the ground or floor. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. Insole is the layer directly beneath the foot.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. The sole is the part beneath the wearer's foot comprises the following layers:. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. . Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. A shoe is an item of footwear. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Wildsmith.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. Warmbat. It is sometimes called the "stool height". Via Spiga. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. Vegetarian Shoes. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. Vans.

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. Vagabond. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Ugg. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Tricker's. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. Steve Madden.

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. SreeLeathers. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. Sperry. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Skechers. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. ShockBlockers Insoles.

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. Sebago. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Scooter. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Sanders. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. SAS.

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Timberland. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. Prada. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. PUMA. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). Paraboot.

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Rockport. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Roos (Kangaroos). A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. Reebok. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. Proxy by Remac L.L.P.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. Oakley. Some chairs have foot rests. Naot. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. Nine West. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Nike, Inc.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. New Balance. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Neve Bianca. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. Moreschi. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. Merrill.

In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. Mephisto. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. Manolo Blahník. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. Ludwig Reiter. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities"). Loake.

It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. Lotusse. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). Louis Vuitton. Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Laszlo Vass. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. Lakhani.

Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Gear. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. L.A. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. K Swiss. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Kenneth Cole.

. Josef Seibel. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. Johnston & Murphy. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. Jimmy Choo. There may be separate headrests. Jessica Bennett.

The back may extend above the height of the head. Renee' by Remac L.L.P. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. J. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Irregular Choice. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved. ice cream (by pharrell williams and nigo).

A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Grenson. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. Gravati. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Gucci. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. Fratelli Rosetti.

Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Foster & Son. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Emporio. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. Eduard Meier. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat. Edward Green.

leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. ECCO. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. Martens. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Dr. Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat. Diesel.

Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Dansko. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Crocs. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Crockett & Jones. Fabric, simple covering without support. Coach.

Leather, may be tooled with a design. Cole Haan. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Church's. Stone, often marble. Christian Louboutin. Molded plastic. Cheaney.

Metal seats of solid or open design. Buffalo boots. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Bruno Magli. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Brooks Sports, Inc. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs. British Knights.

Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours. Bostonian. Børn. Blundstone. Birkenstock.

BATA shoe company. BAPE (bape-sta). Bally Shoe. Allen Edmonds.

Alfred Seargent. Alfani. Alden. airwalk.

action. adidas-Salomon. Shoes size is often measured using a Brannock Device, which can determine both the width and length of the foot. Men's and women's shoe sizes often have different scales.

The UK and American units are approximately one-quarter of an inch, starting at 8¼ inches. European sizes are measured in Paris Points, which are worth two-thirds of a centimetre. Units for shoe sizes vary widely around the world. Occasionally other repairs are needed too, such as reattaching or replacing inner liners, removing protruding fasteners, reattaching broken straps, etc.

Shoelace replacement - easy to do when new laces are available. Not all shoes can have their soles replaced. Sole replacement - soles also wear out. Not all shoes are designed to enable this.

Heel replacement - heels periodically wear out. Polishing - for protection, water resistance (to some extent) and appearance, especially for leather shoes and boots. The person is said to have broken in the shoes. Over time after a person wears them multiple times, the material deforms to fit the wearer's feet.

Breaking-in - Some shoes are made of relatively hard but deformable material. Tango/Flamenco dnce shoes. Pointe shoes - shoes designed for professional ballet dancing. They make the tapping noise while the tap-dancer dances.

Dance shoes - special shoes made for tap dancing. Sneaker boots and sneaker pumps - a shoe that looks like an athletic shoe, but is equiped with a high heel and thus makes it hard to be used for anything but as dress shoes. Cycling shoes are equipped with a metal cleat to interface with clipless pedals. Skateboarding shoes- used for skateboarding, but worn by many teens for fashion.

Ski boots should be covered under boots or skiing. Roller blades. Roller skates. Ice skating.

Speed skating. Figure skating. Ice Skates. They have various attachments for skating on the bottom of the shoe portion.

    .

    Skating shoes - typically called skates. Orthopedic shoes - specially designed for people with foot problems. Climbing shoes. Walking shoes - have a more flexible sole than the running shoe is much lighter weight than the hiking boot and is more likely to have air holes in it than to be water proof.

    Hiking shoes (could be boots). They are often rented or loaned at bowling alleys. They have harder rubber soles/heels so as not to damage bowling alley floors. Bowling shoes - intermediate style between ordinary dress shoes and athletic shoes.

    Golf shoes. Football shoes - have cleats. Track shoes - often have cleats. They have soft soles/heels to avoid marring or scratching a boat deck.

    Boating shoes - also similar to above. Running shoes - very similar to above. Special varieties available for basketball or tennis. Gym shoes (often called sneakers or trainers in slang) - general purpose athletic shoes; made out of rubber, cloth, and/or plastic to be lightweight, flexible, and have good traction.

    Espadrilles - a casual sandal, with a canvas top and a rope sole. Mary Jane (shoe). Moccasins - originated by American Indians. Platform shoes - shoes with very thick soles and heels, mainly worn by women in the U.S.

    Clogs - Fashionable at one time. Strap upper body shoes. Open-toed. High heels.

    Medium height heels ("kitten" heels have less than 2 inches of height). Flat shoes - usually called "flats". Normal heels. shoe bag - A bag, generally of a flannel fabric, that protects a single shoe against scuffs and dirt when it is packed.

    These include padding and inner linings. orhotic insert - various types of inserts for cushioning, improved fitting, or reduced abrasion. overshoes - rubber covering placed over shoes for rain, snow, or puddle protection. shoe polishing equipment - often used for boots also.

    shoe tree - placed inside shoe when user is not wearing. Many shoes are nearly impossible to put on without the help of a shoe horn. shoe horn - can be used to insert a foot into a shoe by keeping the shoe open and providing a smooth surface for the foot to slide upon.

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