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Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. Parenthetical notations indicate how specific occupations and organizations can be regarded as service industries to the extent they provide an intangible service, as opposed to a tangible good. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. The following is an incomplete list of service industries, grouped into rough sectors. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. This particular usage occurs frequently in retailing. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. In a narrower sense, service refers to quality of customer service: the measured appropriateness of assistance and support provided to a customer.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. And although some utilities actually deliver physical goods — like water utilities which actually deliver water — utilities are usually treated as services. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. For example, a restaurant provides a physical good (the food), but also provides services in the form of ambience, the setting and clearing of the table, etc. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. Most products fall between these two extremes. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Most business theorists see a continuum with pure service on one terminal point and pure commodity good on the other terminal point.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. These are not discrete categories. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. The dichotomy between physical goods and intangible services should not be given too much credence. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Under English law, if a service provider is induced to deliver services to a dishonest client by a deception, this is an offence under the Theft Act 1978. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. On a daily basis, in all those fields, employees must balance the needs of any individual case against the needs of all other current cases as well as their own personal needs.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. In some service industries, especially health care, dispute resolution, and social services, a popular concept is the idea of the caseload, which refers to the total number of patients, clients, litigants, or claimants that a given employee is presently responsible for. Some are decorative. Role congruence occurs when each actor follows a script that harmonizes with the roles played by the other actors. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some service dramas are tightly scripted, others are more ad lib. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. A script is a sequence of behaviours followed by all those involved, including the client(s).

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. The location of the service delivery is referred to as the stage and the objects that facilitate the service process are called props. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Many business theorists view service provision as a performance or act (sometimes humorously referred to as dramalurgy, perhaps in reference to dramaturgy). They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. Some service managers use the term "moment of truth" to indicate that defining point in a specific service encounter where interactions are most intense. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. The service encounter is defined as all activities involved in the service delivery process.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. The delivery of a service typically involves five factors:. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. Services can be described in terms of their main attributes. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. . Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). Providers of services make up the Tertiary sector of industry.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. On the other hand, their investment in expertise does require marketing and upgrading in the face of competition which has equally few physical restrictions. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. By supplying some level of skill, ingenuity, and experience, providers of a service participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying stock (inventory) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. It is claimed to be a process that creates benefits by facilitating either a change in customers, a change in their physical possessions, or a change in their intangible assets. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Service provision has been defined as an economic activity that does not result in ownership, and this is what differentiates it from providing physical goods.

It specifies things like[4]:. In economics and marketing, a service is the non-material equivalent of a good. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. For other uses, see service (disambiguation).. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. This article is about a term used in economics. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. water industry.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. waste management. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. telecommunications. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. natural gas. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. electric power.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. utilities

    . Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. transport. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. social work. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. social services
      .

      Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. security. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. insurance. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. risk management

        . Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. language translation.

        in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. language interpretation. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. database services. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. data processing. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. information services

          .

          Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. health care (all health care professions provide services). Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). hairdressing. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. foodservice industry. A chair may or may not have armrests. tax return preparation.

          For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. stock brokerages. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. real estate. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. banks and building societies (offering lending services and safekeeping of money and valuables). The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. accounting.

          Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. financial services

            . Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. laundromat (offering the service of automated fabric cleaning). Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. dry cleaning. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. fabric care
              .

              This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. television. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. sports. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. sexual services (where legal). The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. performing arts productions.

              (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. movie theatres (providing the service of showing a movie on a big screen). It is sometimes called the "stool height". gambling. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. entertainment (when provided live or within a highly specialized facility)

                . The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. school.

                Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. museum. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. library. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. education (institutions offering the services of teaching and access to information)

                  . By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. negotiation (not really a service unless someone is negotiating on behalf of another).

                  A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. military (performs the service of protecting states in disputes with other states). Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. mediation. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. lawyers (who perform the services of advocacy and decisionmaking in many dispute resolution and prevention processes). There may be cases where padding is not desirable. law enforcement (provides the service of identifying and apprehending criminals).

                  Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. incarceration (provides the service of keeping criminals out of society). Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. diplomacy. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. courts of law (who perform the service of dispute resolution backed by the power of the state). Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. arbitration.

                  The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. dispute resolution and prevention services

                    . A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. funeral homes (who prepare corpses for public display, cremation or burial). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. coroners (who provide the service of identifying corpses and determining time and cause of death). Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). death care
                      .

                      Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. plumbing. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. electricians (offering the service of making wiring work properly). A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. carpentry. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. construction

                        .

                        A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. mechanics. Some chairs have foot rests. gardeners. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. janitors (who provide cleaning services). Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. cleaning, repair and maintenance services

                          .

                          Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. child care. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. human resources administrators (providing services like ensuring that employees are paid accurately). The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. customer service. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. consulting.

                          In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. business functions (that apply to all organizations in general)

                            . This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. Other customers at the service delivery location. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. The client. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities"). buildings, parking, waiting rooms).

                            It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. The physical facilities (e.g. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). vehicles, cash registers). Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. Equipment used to provide the service (e.g. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. the people).

                            Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. The service providers (e.g. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Buyer involvement - Most service provision requires a high degree of interaction between client and service provider. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. Demand can vary by season, time of day, business cycle, etc. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Demand fluctuations - It is very difficult to estimate demand.

                            . It is difficult to achieve economies of scale or gain dominant market share. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. The human factor is often the key success factor in service industries. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. Human resource management is important. There may be separate headrests. Labour intensity - Services usually involve considerable human activity, rather than precisely determined process.

                            The back may extend above the height of the head. Both inputs and outputs to the processes involved providing services are highly variable, as are the relationships between these processes, making it difficult to maintain consistent quality. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. This can be seen as a problem of inconsistent quality. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Mass production of services is very difficult. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved. Lack of homogeneity - Services are typically modified for each client or each new situation (customised).

                            A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Lack of transportability - Services must be consumed at the point of "production". A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. Other service examples are airplane seats (once the plane departs, those empty seats cannot be sold), and theatre seats (sales end at a certain point). A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. For example a doctor that is booked for only two hours a day cannot later work those hours— she has lost her economic opportunity. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. It is a lost economic opportunity.

                            Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Perishability - Unsold service time is "lost", that is, it cannot be regained. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. From the customer's point of view, this attribute makes it difficult to evaluate or compare services prior to experiencing the service. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. Because services are difficult to conceptualize, marketing them requires creative visualization to effectively evoke a concrete image in the customer's mind. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat. There is no need for storage.

                            leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. Intangibility - They cannot be seen, handled, smelled, etc. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat.

                            Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Fabric, simple covering without support.

                            Leather, may be tooled with a design. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Stone, often marble. Molded plastic.

                            Metal seats of solid or open design. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs.

                            Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.

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