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Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. Much of the data for this article was taken from the SMS Console Database site. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. * Not released in the U.S. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. * Not released in the U.S. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. The Master System sold a total of 13 million units worldwide.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. Sega learned from its mistakes and made the succeeding Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis wildly popular in Europe, Brazil, and North America. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. Overall, the SMS was mildly successful worldwide, but failed to capture the Japanese and North American markets. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. But in Brazil it is hard to find the 3D Glasses, the Light Phaser and even cartridges, leaving most Brazilians with only built-in games. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. It uses the same design as the North American Master System II (Master System III in Brazil), but is white and comes in two versions: one with 74 games built-in and another with 105 games built-in on an internal ROM.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. The latest version is the "Master System III Collection". Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. The Sega Master System is still being produced in Brazil. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. During the Master System's final days in Brazil, games had been marketed for small children. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. The console production was familiar to the Brazilians, which explains the success in that market.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Despite the limitations of the console, the game turned out to be fairly well received. Some are decorative. Tec Toy also produced a licensed version of the wildly popular fighting game Street Fighter II for the Master System. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Later in its life in Brazil, Game Gear games had been ported to the Master System and several original Brazilian titles were made for the system. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. That title would later be ported to the Game Gear in other markets.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. Tails, one of the characters, made his worldwide debut in Sonic the Hedgehog 2 for the Master System. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Brazil was also where the first several Sonic the Hedgehog Game Gear titles started out. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The characters in the said games had been modified so that they appealed to Brazilian audiences (for example, Wonder Boy in Monster Land featured Mônica, the main character from a popular children's comic book in Brazil, created by Maurício de Sousa). A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. A Sega Master System III (and even a semi-portable SMS VI) had been released in that market and several games had been translated into Portuguese.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. It was marketed in that country by Tec Toy, Sega's Brazilian distributor. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. Brazil was one of the SMS' most successful markets. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. Sales of the SMS in Australia were not as strong as the NES enjoyed there, however the SMS was able to gain greater market share than it had in North America. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). It was discontinued so that Sega could concentrate on the new Sega Saturn console.

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. The Master System was supported until 1996 in Europe. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Nintendo was forced to get licensing for some popular SMS titles in that market. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. The Europeans had garnered lots of third party support for the SMS and as a result, it was able to outsell the NES in Europe. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. It had some success in Germany, where it was distributed by "ariolasoft" since Winter 1987.

It specifies things like[4]:. In Europe, Sega marketed the Master System in many countries, including several in which Nintendo did not sell its consoles. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. Sales were poor in Japan as well, due to the dominance of the main competitor from Nintendo, the Nintendo Family Computer. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. By 1992, the Master System's sales were virtually nonexistent in North America and production ceased. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. Sega did everything in its power to market the system, but nothing came out of it.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. They designed the Sega Master System II, a newer console which was smaller and sleeker but which, to keep production costs low, lacked the reset button and card slot of the original. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. In 1990, Sega was having success with its Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis and as a result took back the rights from Tonka for the SMS. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. The move was considered a very bad one, since Tonka had never marketed a video game system and had no idea what to do with it. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. In 1988, the rights to the Master System in North America were sold to Tonka, but its popularity continued to decline.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. Hayao Nakayama, then CEO of Sega, decided not to use too much effort to market the console in the NES-dominated market. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. Nintendo had 90% of the North American market at the time. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. In the same period, the NES would net 2,000,000. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. The Master System sold 125,000 consoles in the first four months.

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. The licensing agreement that Nintendo had with its third-party game developers may have had an impact as well; the agreement stated, in effect, that developers would exclusively produce games for the NES. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. has been attributed to various causes, among them the difference in game titles available for each platform and the slightly later release date of the Master System. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. Its lack of success in the U.S. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. Though the Master System was more technically advanced in most ways than the NES, it did not attain the same level of popularity among consumers in the United States.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. The Master System was then released in other places, including a second release in Japan in 1987 under its new name. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. The console sold for $200. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The system was redesigned and was sold in the United States under the name Sega Master System in June 1986, one year after the Nintendo Entertainment System was released. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. The mascot of the system was Alex Kidd.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. It was released in Japan on October 20, 1985. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). The SG-1000 Mark III came after the SG-1000 Mark I and SG-1000 Mark II. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. . A chair may or may not have armrests. The system ultimately failed to oust its competitor, but has enjoyed over a decade of life in secondary markets, especially Brazil.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. The Master System was released as a direct competitor to the NES/Famicom. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. In the European market, this console launched Sega onto a competitive level comparable to Nintendo, due to its wider availability, but failed to put a dent in the North American and Japanese markets. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. Its original Japanese incarnation was the SG-1000 Mark III. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. The Sega Master System (SMS for short), is an 8-bit cartridge-based gaming console that was manufactured by Sega.

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. Ys: The Vanished Omens - credited with introducing many players to the Ys series. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. *World Cup Italia '90 - First World Cup franchise. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Wonder Boy III: The Dragon's Trap. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. *Wonder Boy in Monster World.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Wonder Boy in Monster Land. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. Wonder Boy. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. Thunder Blade. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Teddy Boy.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. Space Harrier. It is sometimes called the "stool height". *Sonic the Hedgehog Chaos. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. *Sonic the Hedgehog 2. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. Sonic the Hedgehog - Integrated into one version of the console.

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. It was accessed by pressing and holding Up and buttons 1 and 2 after turning on the system without a game loaded. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Snail Maze - A simple maze game that was included on the system BIOS. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Shinobi (忍). By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. Safari Hunt - Integrated into one version of the console.

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. Rampage. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. Psycho Fox. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Phantasy Star (ファンタシースター). There may be cases where padding is not desirable. Out Run (アウトラン).

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. *Ninja Gaiden. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. *Master of Darkness. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Kenseiden (剣聖伝). Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Hang-On - Integrated into one version of the console.

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Ghouls'n Ghosts. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. *Ecco the Dolphin: The Tides of Time. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. *Ecco the Dolphin. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). Double Dragon.

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Choplifter. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. California Games. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. Astro Warrior - Along with Hang-On, integrated into one version of the console. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. *Asterix.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. Alex Kidd in Shinobi World. Some chairs have foot rests. Alex Kidd in Miracle World - Integrated into one version of the console. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. After Burner. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Expansion slot.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. The difference in cartridge style is a form of regional lockout. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. All other consoles use 50-pin cartridges with a different shape. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. Japanese and South Korean consoles use 44-pin cartridges, same shape as Mark I and Mark II. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. Game Cartridge slot

    .

    In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. Game Card slot (Mark III and Master System 1 only). This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. Video RAM: 128 kbit (16 kB). A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. Main RAM: 64 kbit (8 kB). A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities"). ROM: 64 kbit (8 kB) to 2048 kbit (256 kB), depending on built-in game.

    It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. supported by certain games only. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). available as plug-in module for Mark III. Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. built into Japanese Master System. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. 9 channel mono FM sound.

    Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Sound (FM): Yamaha YM2413

      . "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. 3 sound generators, 4 octaves each, 1 white noise generator. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. 4 channel mono sound. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Sound (PSG): Texas Instruments SN76489
        .

        . Horizontal, diagonal, vertical, and partial screen scrolling. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. 8x8 or 8x16 pixel sprites, max 64. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. 8x8 pixel characters, max 488 (due to VRAM space limitation). There may be separate headrests. PAL/SECAM also supports 256x240.

        The back may extend above the height of the head. Screen resolutions 256x192 and 256x224. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. Up to 32 simultaneous colors available (16 for sprites, 16 for background) from a palette of 64 (can also show 64 simultaneous colors using programming tricks). The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Graphics: VDP (Video Display Processor) derived from Texas Instruments TMS9918

          . Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved. 3,546,893Hz for PAL/SECAM, 3,579,545Hz for NTSC.

          A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. CPU: 8-bit Zilog Z80

            . A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool.

            Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat.

            leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat.

            Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. Fabric, simple covering without support.

            Leather, may be tooled with a design. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. Stone, often marble. Molded plastic.

            Metal seats of solid or open design. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs.

            Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.

09-02-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.