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Chair

Look up chair in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Typical Western wooden chair

A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day.

Design and ergonomics

This unusual rocking chair is made of rough wood to give it an old-fashioned look.

Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some chairs have foot rests. A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.

Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced.

Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant.

Arm rests

Traditional Japanese chair with zabuton and separate armrest Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between

A chair may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Chair seats

A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat.

  • Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
  • Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs
  • Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
  • Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
  • Metal seats of solid or open design
  • Molded plastic
  • Stone, often marble

Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat.

  • Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
  • Leather, may be tooled with a design
  • Fabric, simple covering without support
  • Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs
  • Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
  • Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
  • Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. It specifies things like[4]:

  • chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
  • chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
  • leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
  • seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
  • seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel").

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them.

Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to chairs

A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging.

If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised.

Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic.

When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs.


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When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and chairs. Sega has had a long history of different slogans and ad campaigns. Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic. Though Sega lost this lawsuit, all later Sega systems seemed to incorporate a similar hardware requirement. If you nearly fell off your chair, it was because you were very surprised. If an unlicensed company included this trademark in their game, Sega could sue the company for trademark infringement. A movie or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your chair, if it is suspenseful and engaging. Sega was attempting to "lock out" game companies from making Genesis games unless they paid Sega a fee (ostensibly to maintain a consistent level of quality of games for their system.) Their strategy was to make the hardware reject any cartridge that did not include a Sega trademark.

They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control. Hardware companies often sell their systems at or below cost, and rely on other revenue streams such as in this case, game licensing. Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy chairs or sofas and used to hold remote controls. The case in question stems from the nature of the console video game market. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk. The verdict set a precedent that copyrights do not extend to non-expressive content in software that is required by another system to be present in order for that system to run the software. This allows chairs on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. Accolade case, which involved independently produced software for the Sega Genesis console that copied a small amount of Sega's code.

Chair mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. Sega lost the Sega v. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports. After the Sega-Sammy merge, he left Sega to head Q Entertainment, which has now released Meteos and Lumines for the Nintendo DS and the PlayStation Portable, respectively. Obus Forme is a major brand in this category and helped develop this market niche. 1 and 2, and Rez. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. AM9 created Sega Touring Car Championship, Sega Rally 2, Space Channel 5 pt.

In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. In 1996, he left AM3 to create AM Annex (which would later be called AM9 and finally United Game Artists). Some are decorative. He first worked with AM3 and during his time there, they released Sega Rally and Manx TT. Chair pads are cushions for chairs. Tetsuya Mizuguchi - Headed United Game Artists and created critically acclaimed games such as Sega Rally Championship, Space Channel 5, and Rez. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and chairs to protect them. He has been a regular columnist for Edge Magazine in the UK.

Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In 2003, he served as the producer for the Nintendo and Sega collaborative GameCube effort F-Zero GX alongside Shigeru Miyamoto. The chair covers may come with decorative chair ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the chair. Mainly famed for arcade titles, his credits include Daytona USA, Spikeout and Super Monkey Ball. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the chairs and decor. Toshihiro Nagoshi - Headed up Amusement Vision and is head of the Sega Creative Control centre. A chair cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side chair. In 2004 his team was merged with United Game Artists, giving the team control over Rez and Space Channel 5.

If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider. His titles since include NiGHTS Into Dreams, Phantasy Star Online and Samba de Amigo. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. Naka made a name for himself in 1991 as lead programmer of Sonic the Hedgehog, though his previous work includes Phantasy Star and Space Harrier. In place of a built-in footrest, some chairs come with a matching ottoman. Yuji Naka - Heads up Sonic Team and is responsible for internal QA procedures. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [6] on "Straight Stacking Chair, Steel"). In 2003's internal restructure, he formed a new internal studio named Digitalrex, which was reintegrated into Sega before finishing any games..

Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. In 1999, his first ever console-specific title, Shenmue, launched in Japan, and was the most expensive game ever produced. Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [5]. Yu Suzuki - Previously the head of AM2, and is attributed with being behind numerous arcade classics including Hang-On, Out Run, Space Harrier, After Burner II, and Virtua Fighter, just to name a few. Under these higher loads, the chair may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically. "AM" currently focus' on the development of games for amusement machines. The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that chairs must withstand. Amusement Software R&D, which is led by Hiroshi Kataoka.

It specifies things like[4]:. "NE" currently focus' on the development of new content for the arcade and home console markets. The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA) defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade chairs. New Entertainment R&D, which is led by each department head. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of chairs when they are stacked. "GE" currently focuses on developing video games for home consoles. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn chairs. Global Entertainment Software R&D, which is led by Yuji Naka.

ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting chairs. The merge did not affect Sega-AM2 or Sonic Team. Bean bag chairs are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. On July 1, 2004 Sammy merged the AM teams into three groups. Dental chairs are specified by ISO 6875. In 2003 United Game Artists was merged with Sonic Team. There are multiple specific standards for different types of chairs. Although the teams were separate there was a healthy sense of competition between the various teams which had resulted in some of the most remarkable and innovative gaming events.

ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern chair design. Additionally, after the first Sonic the Hedgehog game was released, Sega AM8 changed its name to Sonic Team and have since maintained this name. Design considerations for chairs have been codified into standards. Due to AM2's popularity they chose to keep their original name. Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of chair legs or between stretchers to form the seat. In 2000 Sega decided to turn their AM teams into second-party developers that would focus on software development for the Sega Dreamcast video game console. Some systems include: Solid center seats where a solid material forms the chair seat. Internally, the company is made up of various research and development teams created throughout the 1980s, called the "AM" teams.

Chair seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the chair's back. Sega developed several well-known game franchises over the last fifteen years:. See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests. In addition to home consoles and portable handhelds, Sega has been a major proponent of games and hardware in the arcades. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between. Recently it has garnered a reputation as a collector's item. Arm rests prevent or complicate both desired and undesired proximity. In a time of many hardware launches, the Nomad was lost in the shuffle and was soon found in the discount bin.

in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench or coach. It was an expensive system compared to the Game Boy and it was not heavily marketed by Sega. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. Like the Game Gear before it, the Nomad had a very short playtime of about 3 hours before the batteries died. A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. Other features included six face buttons, an extra controller port and a video adapter, so the system could be played on a TV. Hence in some chair designs, the armrest is not continuous to the chair back, but is missing in the elbow area. It came equipped with a 3-inch Active Matrix LCD screen that was backlit and allowed for higher resolutions.

Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Out of the box, the Nomad had the ability to play almost every Genesis game. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the chair easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). It was released in North America only. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. In 1995, Sega attempted to get back into the handheld market and released the Sega Nomad, which was essentially a portable Sega Genesis. A chair may or may not have armrests. The system had no screen as it connected to an LCD screen that was folded in the armrest.

For adjustable chairs, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the chair to the individual occupant. The handheld system could be rented on Japan Airlines with a choice between four games to play, one being Sonic the Hedgehog. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that there is sometimes there is no leg room for the average person. Similar to the Game Gear the Sega Mega Jet was released exclusively in Japan in 1992 for promotional use only. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. It was on the market for a good 4 years and had a respectable software library, which included versions of the popular Sonic the Hedgehog series. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of chairs. Overall, the Game Gear was an impressive piece of technology for the time.

Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The required 6 AA batteries made the Game Gear enthusiast a rare one. Hip breadth is used for chair width and armrest width. Although technically superior and having better features than Nintendo's Game Boy, the Game Gear was plagued by a short battery life of approximately 3 hours. Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a chair. Sega, impressed with the technology, purchased the rights to the adapter and marketed it as the Master Gear Converter. Mass produced chairs are typically 38-43 cm deep. Since the Master System and the Game Gear were both based on a similar Z-80 architecture, a third party released a peripheral called the Gear Master Converter, which allowed the Game Gear to play Master System cartridges.

This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Essentially the Game Gear was a portable Master System, although the color palette was larger and thus allowed for better looking graphics. For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. It also generated its own light without the need for attachments, which Nintendo did not do until the Game Boy Advance SP came out. Mass produced chairs are typically 17 inches high. It was the first mainstream handheld system to be released with a color screen, something their main competitor, Nintendo, wouldn't do for its Game Boy line until the Game Boy Color debuted in 1998. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the chair seat. Initially released in 1990 in Japan, it was later released to the North American market in 1991 and subsequently to Europe and Australia in 1992.

(The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. In response to Nintendo's Game Boy released in 1989, Sega developed and released their first handheld to the market called Game Gear. It is sometimes called the "stool height". SEGA shocked the game world by announcing the release of refurbished Dreamcasts in Japan to accompany this game. For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. Software support in Japan, however, continues into 2006, with the upcoming release of Radilgy and Under Defeat. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for chair design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length. The Dreamcast was subsequently discontinued in North America in January 2001.

Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced chairs. The complexity of the 1Mbit VMU meant that it was considered overpriced, and third-party modules without the screen but often offering larger capacity became common. Individuals may be measured for a custom chair. The functionality also created the opportunity for making secret strategy in multiplayer games - for example changing strategy via the VMU screen in a football game. Actual chair dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. The screen is viewable from the controller and some games would use it in gameplay - Virtua Tennis showed an 8-bit representation of the current play, and Skies of Arcadia would show a character and have the VMU beep to help the player find invisible items. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and pressure at any given point is reduced. Some console games allowed the player to load a mini-game onto the VMU - Skies of Arcadia's Pinta's Quest for example had the player collect items which they would receive when they went back to the full game.

A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. The Visual Memory Unit memory module used for saving game data also functioned as a portable gaming device playable away from the console. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. As of mid-2005, the PlayStation 2 and Xbox both feature online gameplay for numerous games, however, the GameCube's only online games are Phantasy Star Online Episode I & II, III, and Plus. For example, in hot climates, padding with fabric or plastic covers is often uncomfortable against the skin. For many people who only had game systems it was their first taste of the Internet, and Sega attempted to capitalize on the fact that it was the only Internet-capable console at the time by releasing games playable online such as ChuChu Rocket and Phantasy Star Online (which is still a popular online series on multiple consoles) and offering online features for other games. There may be cases where padding is not desirable. The release of the Sega Dreamcast expanded on the PlayStation's popularisation of video games by offering the first out-of-the-box Internet service.

Chairs that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees. This was in part due to a lack of faith in the system after the 32X and Saturn systems. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. The Dreamcast, however, failed to recapture Sega's lost market share that it once held during the lifespan of the Genesis prior to the major release of Sony's PlayStation , and other "next-gen" systems inc Nintendo's N64. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Considered to be "ahead of its time", the 128-bit Dreamcast rivaled the 32-bit Sony PlayStation and the 64-bit Nintendo 64. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. Sega's final video game system, the Sega Dreamcast was released in Japan in 1998 and in the United States on September 9, 1999.

The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Enthusiasts remember the Saturn as a console that failed because of poor business decisions and a changing market. A hard wood chair feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the chair is small. Either machine, in the right hands, was capable of impressive graphical feats for the time. However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the chair and the body. Though this is not true, we can conclude that both systems were capable of doing some things better than the other. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the chair is so soft that the shape is altered). In some cases, popular games like Tomb Raider looked better on the Playstation and the Saturn gained a reputation as a graphically inferior machine.

Padding can be on the seat of the chair only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the chair may have. Thus, developers found the Playstation a more attractive machine to develop for. Many chairs are padded or have cushions. Unlike Sega, Sony made programming libraries readily available to third party developers. A sit-stand chair distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet. Many programmers found the complex hardware (including dual Hitachi SH-2 central processors) difficult to master and instead opted to develop games on the Playstation. A kneeling chair adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. Another popular explanation for the Saturn's poor performance in markets outside of Japan may have to do with the system's hardware architecture.

A stool or other simple chair may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on. This is partly why the Saturn did relatively well in Japan, and more or less failed commercially in other markets. Some chairs have foot rests. Also, many strong titles were not brought overseas from Japan. Reclining chairs typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back. The Saturn never received a proper game from their mascot, Sonic, since Sonic Xtreme was canceled after a long and troubled development process. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. The system's highest points are its numerous arcade ports from their Model 2 hardware, NiGHTS Into Dreams, Dragon Force, and the Panzer Dragoon series.

Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Though Sonic Team did happen to create Burning Rangers, it was never really a success. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. In North America the Saturn was a failure partly due to its initial high $400 price tag, (compared to $300 for the PSX and $200 for the N64), its programming difficulties, and perhaps because of the poor support for previous Sega Genesis add-ons, the Sega 32X and the Sega CD. The back of the chair will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. Its main rivals were the Sony PlayStation released in 1995 and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System until 1996 when Nintendo released the Nintendo 64. However, reclining may not be suitable for chairs intended for work or eating at table. In 1994, Sega released the CD-based Sega Saturn in Japan and later in North America in 1995.

In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" chairs intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. It was only released in Japan and Brazil. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. It also released the peripheral, Sega Meganet, which was a modem for the Mega drive. A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. Throughout the lifetime of the Genesis, Sega had developed and launched two unsuccesful well-known add-ons, the Sega 32X and the Sega CD. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities"). But in 1998, Majesco released a budget version of the Genesis, called "Sega Genesis 3".

It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. In 1996, Sega discontinued support for the Genesis. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). By 1994, Nintendo had regained a lot of its lost market share by slashing Sega's share from 65% to 35%. Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. In 1993, the Genesis was redesigned and released as the "Sega Genesis 2". Easy chairs for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen. The Genesis also did well in Brazil, Europe, and Australia, however, it failed to put a dent on Nintendo's market share in Japan.

Dental chairs are necessarily reclined. By 1992, Sega slashed Nintendo's market by garnering 55% (going as high as 65% in 1993) of the market in North America. "Task chairs", or any chair intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining chairs, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Even though the Genesis was released earlier than the SNES, Sega had a hard time overcoming Nintendo's dominating foothold on the video game console market, which in the late-1980s was 95% in North America and 92% in Japan. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. In 1990, Nintendo released the Super Famicom (or Super Nintendo Entertainment System—SNES), which was Genesis' major rival throughout the 16-bit era. Chair design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stackability, foldability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. The Genesis was a 16-bit console created to rival the TurboGrafx 16.

. In 1989, Sega released its most successful console worldwide, the Sega Mega Drive also known as Sega Genesis in North America. See history of the chair for an extended look at chairs from antiquity to the modern day. The Master System III was only available in Brazil. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision. Additionally, Sega also released the Master System II and Master System III, which were less-expensive and less popular retooled successors to the Master System. There may be separate headrests. Due to its success in Europe, Sega supported the Master System there until 1996.

The back may extend above the height of the head. The Master System was discontinued in 1992 in Japan and North America, having never achieving any real foothold on the console market in these regions, however, in Europe, the Master System did exceptionally well, even having a larger market share than Nintendo's NES because it was marketed in countries that the NES wasn't. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation. The Master System was also released two years after Nintendo's NES and had a hard uphill battle. The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Although technically superior to the Nintendo Entertainment System (Famicom), the Master System never achieved the same popularity due in part to the overwhelming third-party support Nintendo had. Chairs as furniture are typically not attached to the floor and so can be moved. The system would be redesigned and introduced in North America as the Sega Master System.

A chair mounted in a vehicle or in a theatre is simply called a seat. In 1985 in an attempt to compete with Nintendo's popular Famicom, Sega updated and released the SG-1000 Mark III in Japan. A separate footrest for a chair is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. The SG-1000 and the SG-1000 Mark II, while having some minor success were both overshadowed by Nintendo's Famicom, which was released in Japan in 1983. A chair for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. Games for the SG-1000 Mark II were compatible with the SC-3000 and vice versa - provided the player also had the keyboard accessory that came with the SC-3000. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. In 1984, Sega released an updated version of the SG-1000 called the SG-1000 Mark II and a computer version called the SC-3000.

Chairs also often have legs to support the seat raised above the floor. The SG-1000 was never released in North America, however, it was released in Australia, New Zealand, and many European nations such as Italy and Spain. A chair is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Sega entered the video game console market in 1983 with the introduction of the SG-1000 in Japan after having test marketed it there since 1981. seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat. On September 12, 2005, It was announced that Sega would be working with Petroglyph to create a Modern Military/Sci-fi Real-time strategy game for PC[1]. seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat. On March 9, 2005 Sega acquired developer Creative Assembly best known for their strategy games Medieval: Total War and Rome: Total War.

leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg. Take Two subsequently announced the start of the publishing label 2K Games because of this purchase. chair stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs. The sale also came with Visual Concept's wholly-owned subsidiary Kush Games. chair backstrength of 150 pounds (68 kg). On January 25, 2005, Sega sold Visual Concepts, a second-party developer known for many Sega Sports games including the ESPN NFL Football series (formerly NFL2K) to Take Two Interactive for $24 million. Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat. Sega recently bought the rights to all output from Sports Interactive, makers of Football Manager (the old Championship Manager).

Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven. During the middle of 2004, Sammy bought a controlling share in Sega Corporation at a cost of $1.1 billion, creating the new company Sega Sammy Holdings, one of the biggest games companies in the world. Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns. With the Sammy chairman at the helm of Sega, it has been stated that Sega's activity will focus on its profit-making arcade business rather than its loss-making home software development. Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn chairs and some old chairs. In August 2003, Sammy bought the outstanding 22% of shares that CSK had, and Sammy chairman Hajime Satomi became CEO of Sega. Fabric, simple covering without support. Discussions also took place with Namco, Electronic Arts and Microsoft.

Leather, may be tooled with a design. The first suitor was Japan's Sammy who discussed a merger, but plans fell through. Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it. In 2003, Sega fell on extremely hard times, and after the death of CSK founder Isao Okawa in 2001, who spent over US$40 billion to help Sega, CSK put Sega on the auction block. Stone, often marble. The company has since evolved primarily into a platform-agnostic software company that creates games that will work on a variety of game consoles produced by other companies, including Nintendo's GameCube, Game Boy Advance, and Nintendo DS, Sony's PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable, and Microsoft's Xbox and Xbox 360. Molded plastic. 2001 would see a major shift in focus for Sega as they would move out of hardware manufacturing, at least in the home console market; the arcade Sega NAOMI units are still being produced.

Metal seats of solid or open design. In 2001 Sega discontinued the Dreamcast and ended its run as a video game hardware manufacturer. Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather. was renamed Sega Corporation. Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather. In 2000, Sega Enterprises Ltd. Wood slats, often seen on outdoor chairs. Although the Dreamcast had a relatively successful release, it failed to gather a foothold in the market against the Sony PlayStation, the Nintendo 64, and the release of the PlayStation 2, which would dominate the market until Microsoft and Nintendo entered the sixth generation of video game consoles, although the PlayStation 2 would continue its market lead throughout the era.

Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours. The Dreamcast, at the time became the fastest selling video game console until 2000's launch of Sony's PlayStation 2. 9, 1999 (with the marketing ploy 9/9/99). With one last effort for Sega to redeem themselves from overwhelming debt they launched the Sega Dreamcast in Japan in 1998 and in North America later on Sept. Although the Saturn performed well in Japan, it failed to captivate the North American audience and thus led to a long decline in the console market for Sega.

Sega also released the Sega Saturn in Japan in 1994 and later in North America in 1995. In 1994, Sega in association with TimeWarner launched The Sega Channel, a subscription-based cable network that provided video games to owners of the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis. However, Sega's share of the market would plummet in 1994 to 35% after Nintendo released key franchise titles for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System such as Donkey Kong Country and Super Metroid, as well as bad public reaction in Sega's eventual business decisions. This shift led to a wider success for the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis and would eventually propel Sega to 65% of the market in North America.

Sega also rebranded themselves with a new mascot, Sonic the Hedgehog. 1990 marked a change in Sega's market focus, changing to an older audience than that of Nintendo and marketing their products as such with slogans such as "Genesis does what Nintendon't". With the introduction of the Sega Mega Drive/Genesis in 1989, Sega launched itself internationally as the second largest vendor of consumer video game products, behind their main rival, Nintendo. Sega would also release the first Alex Kidd game, who until 1991 would be their mascot.

In 1986, Sega of America was established to take advantage of the expanding video game market in the United States. David Rosen's friend, Isao Okawa, the chairman of CSK, became chairman of Sega. In 1984, the multi-billion dollar Japanese conglomerate CSK bought Sega, and renamed it to Sega Enterprises Ltd., headquarted it in Japan, and two years later, shares of its stock were being traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Nakayama became the new CEO of Sega, and Rosen became head of its subsidiary in the United States.

The Japanese assets of Sega were purchased for $38 million by a group of investors led by Rosen and Hayao Nakayama, a Japanese businessman who owned a distribution company that had been acquired by Rosen in 1979. assets of Sega to Bally Manufacturing Corporation. Hemorrhaging money, Gulf & Western sold the U.S. In the same year, Sega was hit hard by the video game crash.

Sega's revenues would hit $214 million by 1982 and in 1983, Sega would release their first video game console; the SG-1000 and also the first laserdisc game. In the videogame arcades, Sega was known for producing Frogger and creating Zaxxon. Under Rosen's leadership, Sega continued to grow and prosper. In 1969, Gulf and Western Industries purchased Sega, and Rosen was allowed to remain CEO of the Sega division.

Within a year, the new company released a submarine-simulator game called "Periscope" that became a smash-hit worldwide. Rosen Enterprises and Service Games merged in 1965 to become Sega Enterprises. Business was booming, and Rosen Enterprises expanded by importing coin-operated electro-mechanical games. When the company imported coin-operated instant photo booths, it stumbled on a surprise hit: The booths were very popular in Japan.

In 1954, another American businessman David Rosen fell in love with Tokyo and established his own company, Rosen Enterprises, Inc., in Japan to export art. Bromely suggested that the company move to Tokyo, Japan in 1951 and in May 1952 "SErvice GAmes of Japan" was registered. Sega was originally founded in 1940 as Standard Games (later Service Games) in Honolulu, Hawaii, by Martin Bromely, Irving Bromberg, and James Humpert to provide coin-operated amusements for American servicemen on military bases. .

The North American division is partially owned by Viacom. Sega's European division, Sega of Europe, is headquartered in the Chiswick area of London, England, United Kingdom. It had moved from Redwood City, California in 1999, and San Francisco in 2003. Sega's North American division, Sega of America, is headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, United States.

Sega's main offices, as well as the main offices of its domestic division, Sega of Japan, are located in Ota, Tokyo, Japan. The company has had success in both arcades and the home console market, but in early 2001, they left the consumer console business and began concentrating on software development for multiple platforms. Sega (セガ) is an international video game software and hardware developing company, and a former home computer and console manufacturer.
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Sega's entry into and growth in the American market is documented in Terry Sanders' film The Japan Project: Made in Japan. Yahoo! Finance details for Sega of America. Yahoo! Finance details for Sega Corporation. segasammy.co.jp - Sega financial report.

Hot hits today! Hot hits on the way!. Segata Sanshiro. To be this good takes AGES, To be this good takes SEGA. Do me a favour, plug me into a Sega (talking TV).

The "Sega Scream". Sega does what Nintendon't. Welcome To The Next Level. Now, there are no limits.

Sega also owns the entertainment fun center, GameWorks, which was started in 1997. Family Entertainment, headed by Hiroshi Uemura. Sports Design R&D Dept., headed by Takayuki Kawagoe. Racing Games R&D Dept., headed by Kenji Arai.

#3, headed by Mie Kumagai. Dept. #2, headed by Hiroshi Kataoka. Dept.

#1, headed by Atsushi Seimiya. Dept. #2, headed by Yu Suzuki. Dept.

#1, headed by Toshihiro Nagoshi. Dept. Sega Studio China R&D, headed by Makoto Uchida. R&D, headed by Takashi Iizuka.

Sega Studio U.S.A. Mobile Content R&D Dept, headed by Kazunari Tsukamoto. #3, headed by Yuji Naka. Dept.

#2, headed by Akira Nishino. Dept. #1, headed by Akinori Nishiyama. Dept.

Crazy Taxi - A mission-based driving game. House of the Dead - A 3D light gun shooter with zombies. Also has games in the same universe, all with the "Shining" prefix. Shining Force - A Tactical RPG in the Steampunk style.

(brand name). Virtua Fighter - One-on-one fighting games, released in arcades and at home. Shinobi - Ninja action 2D and 3D platform games. Sonic the Hedgehog - 2D and 3D platform games starring Sega's well-known mascot, Sonic.

Sega Sports - Football, basketball, hockey, and tennis games (formerly published under the ESPN label). Phantasy Star series - Role playing games, in single player and MMORPG versions. Panzer Dragoon - 3D linear shooting series (rail shooter) similar to Star Fox in gameplay. Sega Pico - an educational computer.

Only two empty cases are known to exist. It never passed the prototype stage. Sega Neptune - A Sega Mega Drive/32X hybrid. Also known as the Sega Multi-Mega in Japan and Europe.

Sega CDX - a semi-portable Sega Genesis/Sega Mega-CD/Audio CD player console.

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