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Ricin

Castor beans

The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom.

Toxicity and manufacture

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. (See abrin).

Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. [2]. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]

Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:

  • Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis
  • Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.

Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin.

As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison.

Potential medicinal use

Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines

Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. The War ended before it was weaponized.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Ricin was given the military symbol W.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378).

Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4].

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq.

To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.)

Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult.

The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain.

Ricin patent

"Preparation of Toxic Ricin",
patent application.

The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Craig, O.H. Alderks, Alsoph H. Corwin, Sally H. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel.

The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases.

Ricin extraction process

The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates

Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it.

The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air.

Ricin-related arrests in Britain in 2003

It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed.

Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. They were not convicted of any poisons related crime.

Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously.

On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested.

On February 5, 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7].

In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts.

Ricin in Washington, D.C.

Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. in November of 2003. The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution.

Ricin in popular culture

Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure.

Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner

The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The book explains that ricin is a poison.


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The book explains that ricin is a poison. Here are some examples of this in Kill Bill:. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". Tarantino also features direct nods to many of his influences in his movies. The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. Some elements of the story and the character Elle Driver in particular are inspired by the Swedish movie Thriller - en grym film. Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner. There are also several references to other films either written and/or directed by Tarantino.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure. These include the spaghetti western, Blaxploitation and Kung Fu movies of the 1960s and 1970s, Chinese "Wuxia" and Japanese martial arts films, revenge-themed movies such as Lady Snowblood, Francois Truffaut's The Bride Wore Black and films like The Seven Samurai. Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime. Kill Bill relies heavily on film influences that Tarantino wished to pay tribute to. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution. It has also reached the ARIA Top 50 album charts in Australia. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Volume 2 reached #58 on the Billboard 200 and #2 on the Billboard soundtracks chart in the US.

Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. Volume 1 reached #45 on the Billboard 200 album chart and #1 on the soundtracks chart in August 2003. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. The Volume 2 soundtrack was orchestrated by fellow filmmaker and personal friend Robert Rodriguez. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. The Volume 1 soundtrack was organised (and to a certain extent, produced and orchestrated) by the RZA from the Wu-Tang Clan. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Soundtrack albums have been released for each volume.

The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. taking Nikki on to complete the story. in November of 2003. Should a sequel show Nikki grow up to kill Beatrix, the same film or another sequel could have Beatrix and Bill's daughter B.B. Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. Nikki is the daughter of character Vernita Green, whom The Bride kills at the beginning of Volume 1. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts. Tarantino told Entertainment Weekly in April 2004 that he is planning a sequel:.

He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. "I've been holding off because I've been working on it for so long that I just wanted a year off from Kill Bill and then I'll do the big supplementary DVD package." So for about another year, you'll just have to put up with the separate Volume 1 and Volume 2 DVDs". In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". It'll be coming out in theatres. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7]. He says, "I want to cut the whole movie together like one big epic with an intermission in the middle like a 60s film. On February 5, 2003, U.S. Once thats done, then he'll get to the process of putting the special edition DVD together.

A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested. "Looks like it might be a while for those of us waiting for the big Kill Bill special edition DVD because QT is going to re-release the film in 1 piece in late 2006 first. On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. The full Kill Bill would only screen in select theatres.[2]. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously. Tarantino has also aired plans of a late 2006 re-release of Kill Bill in theaters, as one complete film with an intermission in the middle. Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. There's also a French DVD set which has four discs and includes both volumes of the film.

They were not convicted of any poisons related crime. However, the Japanese Deluxe Editions are very limited and maybe a little difficult to find. Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. Japan, for example, has boxed sets of Vol.1 and Vol.2, Uncut, with not only tons of special features, but also, the Vol.1 boxed set has a t-shirt, a model of a Hattori Hanzō Sword, and a collectors Booklet. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed. Though the United States doesn't have a DVD BOXED SET of Kill Bill, other countries carry four disc boxed sets of both of these movies combined. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. In a December 2005 interview, Tarantino addressed the lack of a special edition DVD for Kill Bill by stating "I've been holding off because I've been working on it for so long that I just wanted a year off from Kill Bill and then I'll do the big supplementary DVD package."[1].

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. We couldn't do that when Disney owned the place but now Disney's the fuck outta there we can do anything we want! It's gonna be off the hook!". It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid. It's going to be NC-17 in America. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. In March 2005, Tarantino explained Kill Bill: The Whole Bloody Affair to FilmFocus, "It's the Japanese version, that's why I call it that, you know, it should probably come out in the next few months. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Yuki was using an ice-cream truck to track The Bride (the truck's music can be heard faintly when The Bride arrives at Vernita's house), and this battle resulted in The Bride's stolen pick-up truck, the Pussy Wagon, being destroyed, which relates to The Bride later telling Bill's surrogate father "My Pussy Wagon died on me.".

Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. This scene takes place right after The Bride kills Vernita Green. It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Rumors of a deluxe edition DVD entitled Kill Bill: The Whole Bloody Affair claim that there will be some slightly extended scenes, with the possible addition of the unfilmed scene "Yuki's Revenge", in which Gogo Yubari's death is avenged by her younger sister, Yuki. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air. No further DVD releases have been announced. The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. As of January 2006, only the basic DVDs have been released, with almost no special features.

The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it. These comments were heavily criticized by the online DVD community, and may have influenced DVD sales, which were lower than expected. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. And you multiply this internationally.". The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. It's called multiple bites at the apple. Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. 2 Special Edition, the two-pack, then the Tarantino collection as a boxed set out for Christmas.

Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates. 1 Special Edition, Vol. The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. 2 goes out, then Vol. The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases. 1 goes out, Vol. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel. Before the release of Volume 1, Rick Sands, chief operating officer at Miramax, commented on future multiple releases of the Kill Bill DVDs: "This is the beauty of having two volumes—Vol.

Corwin, Sally H. In the United States Kill Bill: Volume 1 was released as a DVD on April 13, 2004 while Volume 2 was released August 10, 2004. Alderks, Alsoph H.
. Craig, O.H. Beatrix stands a while, wiping the odd tear from her cheek, and returns to the house to collect her daughter and start their new life. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Bill walks unsteadily away, collapses, and dies in silence.

The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Bill accepts his fate, knowing he has lost. The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. As the victim walks away, he lasts only until his fifth step, whereupon his heart explodes inside his chest. Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain. The technique can be described as five blows to pressure points on the body, most notably the chest. The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Following a brief undeclared scuffle with swords, Beatrix disables Bill using the fatal "Five Point Palm Exploding Heart Technique", taught to her without Bill's knowledge by Pai Mei.

Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult. The poignant but established tension between their mutual intent to kill each other, and the tenderness and remains of their old romance, sets the emotional stage for the final scene, in which they talk, and realise that they are going to fight until one dies. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. He comments in explanation for his actions, "When I told you the story of when I thought you were dead, didn't you get how badly I felt?… There are consequences to breaking the heart of a murdering bastard… You experienced some of them…" (A killer herself, Beatrix probably understood this logic inside all along, and does not contest the answer). Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Bill deprecates her attempts to find a 'normal' life, and compares Beatrix with Clark Kent (Superman), saying that she was trying to hide her true, destined identity. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.). She tells him why she tried to retire: how she realized upon becoming pregnant that she must put her daughter's future above Bill, and leave behind the assassin's life.

Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. Bill, acting the gentleman-killer, says he still has questions but doubts she can be honest about the answers, and therefore abruptly shoots her with a dart containing truth serum. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. The child fallen asleep, Beatrix returns to the living room and has a strange conversation with Bill, during which they agree they have "unfinished business". Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. falls asleep. To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Met with a family scene rather than aggression, Beatrix is overcome with emotion upon finding her daughter and her mission is temporarily put on hold while her attention shifts entirely to B.B., spending hours alone with her and watching a movie with her until B.B.

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq. However, she finds that Bill is expecting her, with a surprise: B.B., their four-year-old daughter, whom Beatrix had thought was murdered during the wedding chapel attack, is alive and well, apparently delivered while Beatrix was comatose (the audience had been left with this revelation during Bill's conversation with Sofie Fatale at the very end of Volume 1). Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4]. Beatrix drives to Bill's home, prepared to kill him. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. He tells her without hesitation, saying that he does this because Bill would want him to. Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Beatrix visits, introduces herself, and asks him in a very respectful manner, where Bill is.

Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378). The story shifts to Mexico and to Esteban, a pimp who raised Bill and was a friend of his mother. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Therefore, it appears as if Tarantino is applying irony to the deaths of numbers three and four of Beatrix's death list.). He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Likewise, narrative logic might suggest that Elle fell to the same black mamba that killed Budd. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. However, considering Beatrix's codename is "Black Mamba," it could be said that she killed him after a fashion, and if she had not come after him in the first place, he would still be alive.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. (At first, it may seem disappointing that Budd was not directly killed by Beatrix. Ricin was given the military symbol W. Her pending death is implied but not stated. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Elle is left blinded and ranting, shut in Budd's isolated desert trailer with the black mamba. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. Walking past the black mamba on the floor, Beatrix takes her own sword and abandons the trailer and Elle, who is smashing things and screaming, unable to locate her enemy.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Swords locked, Beatrix's hand suddenly darts out and snatches out Elle's remaining eye, blinding her. The War ended before it was weaponized. Elle and Beatrix clash briefly but furiously with the legendary Hanzō swords. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. Elle maliciously tells Beatrix that she got her revenge when she poisoned Pai Mei's food, killing him (Pai Mei and possibly Bill were Beatrix's masters in the martial arts). At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. We learn that years before, Pai Mei had snatched out Elle's eye for insulting him.

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. Elle and Beatrix have a brief conversation while standing apart. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines. The fight is made fairer when Beatrix finds Budd's own Hanzō sword in amongst the junk, inscribed "To my brother Budd, the only man I have ever loved - Bill", which he had claimed to Bill he had pawned some years ago. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. In the ensuing fight between the two women, Elle has Beatrix's sword. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. As she opens the door, Beatrix attacks her, kicking her back inside.

Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. The phone call is over, and Elle picks up the Hanzō sword and money to leave the trailer. Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. She also says that if Bill goes to a certain cemetery, he will be standing at "the final resting place of Beatrix Kiddo." This is the first time in the series that Beatrix's name is spoken without the audio being bleeped. In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison. Bill calls her cell phone, and she feigns sympathy and tells him that his brother Budd was killed by a black mamba left in his camper by Beatrix, but that Beatrix herself is now dead and buried too. As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child. Elle lectures Budd as he dies, telling him her main regret is that "maybe the greatest warrior I have ever met, met her end at the hands of a bushwhackin', scrub, alcky [alcoholic] piece of shit like you", then bends to collect the money prior to leaving.

Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin. However, she double crosses him, planting a lethal black mamba in the suitcase with the money, and when he begins to check the payment, the angered snake strikes him three times. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Elle, along with Budd, believes her to be dead, and is meeting Budd to buy Beatrix's Hanzō sword. Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. She hikes back to Budd's isolated desert trailer in time to see Elle pulling up in her Trans Am and Budd standing in the doorway. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.. Back in the coffin, Beatrix uses one of his lessons, breaking a thick wooden board at short range, to eventually overcome her panic and drive a fist through the coffin lid before clawing her way to the surface.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. The training is extremely rigorous, with many hardships. Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:. Bill convinces him to accept Beatrix for training, though it appears he fought his former master as part of the "discussion." At first scathing about her flaws, he comes to respect her and teaches her apparently all he knows. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]. Pai Mei was revered as one of the greatest martial arts instructors (a classic example of the Elderly Martial Arts Master stock character). [2]. Flashback to many years before, Bill is taking Beatrix to Pai Mei's temple.

Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. Budd puts Beatrix in a wooden coffin and buries her alive, after subduing her by threatening to burn her eyes with mace if she does not acquiesce, but offering to bury her with a flashlight if she does. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. She agrees, with one condition: Beatrix "must suffer to her last breath.". Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Subduing her with an injection, he phones Elle Driver, commenting that having captured Beatrix, he has the "greatest sword ever made" and will sell it to her for one million dollars. (See abrin). But when she sneaks up to kill Budd after work at his isolated trailer, he is in fact ready and ambushes her with a shotgun, firing non-lethal rock salt into her chest immediately after the door is opened.

Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. He philosophically comments she knows where he is, saying "That woman deserves her revenge…and we deserve to die.". In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Budd, now retired from assassination and a small town nightclub bouncer (and a drinker according to Elle), seems unconcerned. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. He visits Budd (aka "Sidewinder", played by Michael Madsen), later revealed to be his brother -- they have not spoken for a long time and last time was on bad terms -- and warns him, telling him to be careful: she is coming. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Moving to the present, Bill hears of O-Ren Ishii's and Vernita Green's deaths, he knows Beatrix is going down the list.

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Reassured, with irony in the soundtrack and slight tears of happiness in her eyes, Beatrix dons her veil and is lost to us, as the camera tracks back and we see the remainder of her former assassin colleagues at Bill's command approaching the small Texas chapel and begin to fire…. . They talk as past lovers, Bill assures her he will "try to be nice", and even offers to attend the wedding, letting Beatrix introduce him to the bridegroom as her "father". It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom. He has tracked her down despite her attempt to leave him and her life as an assassin behind. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. Taking a break from her wedding rehearsal, Beatrix is surprised to see Bill, her former boss and lover, on the front porch of the chapel, playing his flute.

Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. The segment is shot in black-and-white, with a relaxed pace. The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). We return to the wedding chapel, and see for the first time what happened there before the attack. Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. After the same brief introduction sequence that started Vol.1, the flashback to the shooting at the wedding chapel, she begins the film by speaking directly to the camera as she is driving, reviewing the events of Kill Bill: Volume 1 and stating that she has one more death on her list, and is on her way; when she gets there she will "Kill Bill.". Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis. Kill Bill: Volume 2 continues the story of Beatrix (The Bride) and her quest for vengeance.

It is also revealed that Budd is Bill's brother.. Though this does not occur until past the halfway point, Beatrix is the name used throughout this section to avoid confusion. Note: It is revealed in Volume 2 that The Bride's real name is Beatrix Kiddo. Making a death list on the plane, The Bride then returns to the United States, to Pasadena, California which is where the film started, with the killing of Vernita Green.

O-Ren dies, her last words being, "That really was a Hattori Hanzō sword..." The Bride then tortures the half-Japanese, half-French Sofie Fatale (played by Julie Dreyfus), one of Bill's lovers and O-Ren's lawyer, second lieutenant, and best friend, leaving her mutilated but alive, to tell Bill that she is coming for him. Although injured in the exchange, The Bride finally ends the duel with a swing that slices off the top of O-Ren's head, exposing her brain (later censored in some versions). She then pursues O-Ren outside to a snow-covered zen garden. In a nightclub named the "House of Blue Leaves," The Bride kills or maims all but one of O-Ren's bodyguards, known as the Crazy 88.

Flying from Okinawa directly to Tokyo, Japan, The Bride locates O-Ren Ishii (aka "Cottonmouth", played by Lucy Liu), a half-Chinese-American, half-Japanese woman raised on an American military base, orphaned by the yakuza, and now "the boss of all bosses," ruler of the Tokyo underworld. He says, ritually presenting it to her, "If, on your journey, you should encounter God, God will be cut.". Hattori Hanzō was Bill's teacher, and despite having sworn an oath many years before, to never create "something that kills people" again, he feels an obligation to help her for having trained him and agrees to make one final weapon for her, the best sword he ever made. Once she regains her full strength, she travels to Okinawa, Japan where she asks master swordsmith Hattori Hanzō (played by Sonny Chiba) to come out of retirement to make one final katana (samurai sword) with which to accomplish her revenge.

This is far from easy - her legs are extremely weak and will barely move, much less support her body. She overcomes her physical weakness to kill her would-be rapist, then Buck, and finally takes the keys to Buck's "Pussy Wagon" (the car mentioned previously) and escapes, launching her quest to eliminate her former associates. It transpires that Buck, the hospital orderly, has been selling her body for sex while she was in a coma. She hears footsteps approaching so she pretends to be unconscious.

She awakens suddenly and almost immediately realises she has lost her baby. The Bride is still in a coma after four years. We flash back 6 months. When you grow up, if you still feel raw about it, I'll be waiting.".

But you can take my word for it, your mother had it coming. For that I'm sorry. The child, who has come in at the noise and witnessed the killing, is told by The Bride "It was not my intention to do this in front of you. Suddenly Vernita fires a concealed gun at The Bride, but misses, and The Bride responds by throwing a knife which kills her.

The child is sent to her room as both adults pretend nothing is going on, then over coffee discuss that the past betrayal of The Bride by Vernita cannot be undone, and they agree to meet up for a fight to the death. Vernita, a retired member of the same assassination squad now apparently turned mother and housewife, is shocked but rapidly recovers, their vicious fight to the death interrupted by her young child Nikki returning from elementary school. Fox) who answers. She rings on a door in a suburban street, and attacks the woman (Vernita Green, aka "Copperhead", played by Vivica A.

In the opening of the film, The Bride is driving a car identified by its body-work as the "Pussy Wagon". Elle is furious at the change, as she clearly hates Beatrix, but acquiesces. He adds that if she wakes up, then they will kill her all over again. Bill later sends Elle Driver (aka "California Mountain Snake", played by Daryl Hannah) to finish off the comatose Bride in the hospital, but recalls her as she is about to administer poison, deciding at the last second that killing her while she lies helpless would be dishonorable.

The groom and the rest of the wedding party are murdered while she herself is shot in the head by Bill, and left for dead. Bill, her former boss and lover, tracks her down and finds her about to marry, and arranges for the Vipers to gate-crash the chapel and slay those within. Beatrix Kiddo, also known as The Bride, codename "Black Mamba" is a former member of "The Deadly Viper Assassination Squad." (It is not clear if the Squad are disbanded or still active: with one in a coma, another working as a low-income bouncer, another apparently a housewife and mother, and another running her own yakuza operation, it is possible that the group had disbanded at some time after the Massacre at Two Pines).
.

As is common in Tarantino films, they are not arranged in chronological order. Kill Bill is divided into ten chapters, five chapters per volume. The film was shot over the course of eight months, with scenes filmed on location in North America, Japan, and China. Waking from a coma four years later, The Bride is determined to kill all those involved, including Bill, her former mentor, boss and lover, but does not realize her daughter is still alive and in his care.

With the rest of the wedding party slain, Bill administers the coup de grâce, a bullet in the head, cutting off her attempts to tell him she is pregnant with his baby. Uma Thurman plays Beatrix Kiddo, "The Bride", seeking bloody revenge against Bill (played by David Carradine) and her former associates the Deadly Viper Assassination Squad for their ruthless slaying of the wedding party after they gate-crashed her wedding rehearsal. . Meanwhile, some conservative critics decried its extremely graphic and exaggerated depictions of violence.

In particular, the film's unusual and pop culture-heavy dialogue was subject to heavy criticism. Others, however, felt that Tarantino's homage to Asian cinema was overly indulgent, or that it was a new low in cinematic morality. Reviews were mostly positive, with some reviewers regarding it as a cinematic masterpiece. Volume 1 grossed $70 million in its American release while Volume 2 grossed $66 million.

Volume 1 was released on October 10, 2003 and Volume 2 was released on April 16, 2004. It was written and filmed as a single movie, but was edited and released as two films, due in part to the very long running time of the original single-film version. Kill Bill is the fourth film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino, and stars Uma Thurman. ^  1 ContactMusic.com "Tarantino Brings Kill Bills Together".

Blonde, who used an identical razor to cut off a police officer's ear. When Beatrix is buried alive in "Chapter Seven: The lonely grave of Paula Schultz", the razor she pulls from her boot to escape is a reference to Michael Madsen's character in "Reservoir Dogs", Mr. When facing the shotgun-wielding assassin Karen, Beatrix calls herself "the deadliest woman in the world." In Pulp Fiction, Mia Wallace describes her character in the failed television pilot "Fox Force Five" as "the deadliest woman in the world with a knife.". The flute which Bill is seen playing both outside the chapel and prior to Beatrix's training is the same flute carried by another of David Carradine's characters, Caine, of Kung Fu fame.

During Bill's interrogation of Beatrix, he says that she is a "natural born killer," a reference to the movie Natural Born Killers, for which Tarantino wrote the initial screenplay. The prop used as Beatrix's Hattori Hanzō sword in Kill Bill was later reused as Miho's nameless sword in the screen adaptation of Sin City. In Pulp Fiction, Butch Coolidge finds a samurai sword in a Los Angeles pawn shop. Budd falsely claims to have pawned his Hattori Hanzō sword in El Paso, Texas.

Jackson's character was also rumored to be Jules from Pulp Fiction, because of that character's desire to "walk the earth.". Jackson has a cameo appearance in the movie as Rufus, an organist in the El Paso Chapel. Samuel L. When the Bride appears with Budd's sword in the fight with Elle Driver, another Ennio Morricone track is heard, one that is featured in The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

Music from Ennio Morricone's score for A Fistful of Dollars plays in a scene in Volume 2 in which Budd shoots the Bride with rock salt. Tarintino, an obvious Bruce Lee fan paying homage to the success of asian cinema with Kill Bill, has the vindicated "Game of Death" incarnation of Lee, deafeating the discriminated "Black Mask" version of Lee. This was due to the anti-Asian Hollywood at the time as Kato usually had to wear his black mask and did not get many lines or close ups with his mask off. Bruce Lee's was not succesful in the US, he was snubbed for the lead role in the Kung Fu TV series for David Carradine (Bill).

These two homages to Bruce Lee's work combine in the Crazy 88 fight to pit Bruce Lee's first screen incarnation (Kato) against his last (Game of Death). The accompanying music during the en-masse swordfight is also a nod to the series, which used Al Hirt's jazzy trumpet rendition of Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee" as its theme. The masks worn by the members of the Crazy 88 are the same style that Bruce Lee's character Kato wore in the TV series The Green Hornet. The Bride's yellow tracksuit is from Bruce Lee's Game of Death.

The scene of The Bride standing in the middle of fifty-plus people and still winning the fight is similar to the chambara scenes of countless old Japanese samurai movies. When any battle turns deadly his hands turn red and the siren-like music is played. Through sheer will and intense training the hero retrains himself and his hands as lethal weapons. The siren-like music is actually an homage to "The Five Fingers of Death," one of the first Kung Fu movies released in the United States (1973) The hero is attacked and left crippled, his hands smashed.

The "Ironside" theme music was written by Quincy Jones. The siren-like musical sequence denoting The Bride's encounters with her nemesis is from the theme of police drama Ironside (TV series), starring Raymond Burr as a detective who is confined to a wheelchair after a sniper attack. Near the end of the opening credits, a silhouette evokes Citizen Kane. It is written as "La vengeance est un plat qui se mange froid".

The earliest known use of the proverb in print is from the novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses (1782) by Pierre Choderlos de Laclos. Hot as you are, you're liable to end up with indigestion." However the origin of the proverb is difficult to determine, possibly Sicilian, Spanish or Pashtun. Lee Van Cleef's character paraphrases the quote saying, "Somebody once wrote that revenge is a dish that has to be eaten cold. It is also used in the Spaghetti Western Death Rides a Horse (1968) (Kill Bill used music from Death Rides a Horse).

"Revenge is a dish best served cold.- Old Klingon Proverb" – This proverb as it is referenced is from Star Trek VI, as well as Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan. Halicki. During the scene where the sheriff is driving to the chapel, the view from the car with the pilot glasses on the dashboard is taken from the 1974 film Gone in 60 Seconds by H.B. This decision was made at a late stage and as a result, the scene had to be reanimated.

David Carradine has confirmed at several conventions and special screenings that the killer of O-Ren's father in the anime sequence is Bill. In Volume Two Bill muses that the Crazy 88 simply "thought it [the name] sounded cool.". However, 44 and 44 make 88, a lucky number. So there's 44 Chinese people and 44 Japanese people! But that's part of the mythology I would only go into if I wrote a book." This is significant in that 4 in Japanese (shi) is a homophone for death, and is considered a very unlucky number.

In Japan, it is most often associated with the 88-temple Shikoku pilgrimage; While some critics have tried to argue that there are not actually eighty-eight members of the group, this has been contradicted by an interview given by Quentin Tarantino to Eiga HIHO magazine, "because O-Ren is half-Chinese and half-Japanese, so is her army. The Crazy 88: in China the number "88" is an auspicious number, much like 7 in the west. The "Color Cut" of this film segment is highly sought after by fanatical US Kill Bill fans, but is still currently unavailable outside Japan (other than through legally-questionable internet sharing). While the American cut of the movie shows the violent battle at the House of Blue Leaves in black and white, the Japanese cut shows it in color.

Her name is also mentioned by Bill before he shoots her in the head, and "Kiddo" turns out to be her actual last name rather than a simple mark of affection to a former lover and partner. However, The Bride's real name is present on her boarding pass for her flights to Okinawa and Tokyo. The Bride's boarding pass (click for a larger view). During this first half of Kill Bill, The Bride's real name is bleeped out when characters say it. It is directed by Kazuto Nakazawa, who also directed the Linkin Park video for "Breaking The Habit", with the animation studio Production I.G, producers of Ghost in the Shell among other works.

The film also features an anime sequence explaining O-Ren's tragic backstory. The Japanese release of Volume 1 begins with a dedication to Japanese director Kinji Fukasaku.

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