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Ricin

Castor beans

The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom.

Toxicity and manufacture

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. (See abrin).

Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. [2]. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]

Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:

  • Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis
  • Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.

Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin.

As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison.

Potential medicinal use

Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines

Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. The War ended before it was weaponized.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Ricin was given the military symbol W.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378).

Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4].

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq.

To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.)

Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult.

The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain.

Ricin patent

"Preparation of Toxic Ricin",
patent application.

The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Craig, O.H. Alderks, Alsoph H. Corwin, Sally H. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel.

The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases.

Ricin extraction process

The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates

Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it.

The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air.

Ricin-related arrests in Britain in 2003

It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed.

Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. They were not convicted of any poisons related crime.

Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously.

On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested.

On February 5, 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7].

In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts.

Ricin in Washington, D.C.

Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. in November of 2003. The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution.

Ricin in popular culture

Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure.

Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner

The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The book explains that ricin is a poison.


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The book explains that ricin is a poison. Nevertheless, the form "daylight savings time" appears without remark as to its nonstandardness in some dictionaries, including The American Heritage Dictionary. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". Most compound adjectives are joined with a hyphen, but "daylight-saving time," too, is nonstandard. The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. In the standard form of the name, "daylight saving" is a compound adjective (part of which is a participle) that modifies "time." A common variant is daylight savings time. Although this alternate form is frequently heard in speech, it is nonstandard and appears rarely in edited writing. Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner. This is especially important in autumn, just before the heating season causes an increase in home fires.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure. For example, the Country Fire Authority of Victoria in Australia has been running a program called "Change Your Clock, Change Your Smoke Alarm Battery" for several years. Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime. Fire safety officials in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States encourage citizens to use the two annual time changes as a reminder to check the batteries in home and office fire alarms and smoke detectors. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution. Another common mnemonic of equal meaning is "spring ahead, fall behind.". There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. This uses the word "fall" to mean "autumn"; while this usage has died out in British English, it is still very common in North American English.

Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. The mnemonic "spring forward, fall back" tells us how to reset clocks when the time changes, regardless of hemisphere (although it has to be remembered that spring and autumn occur during different months in the northern and southern hemispheres). This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Different people start their day at different times (office workers start their day later than factory workers, who start their day later than farm workers), regardless of daylight saving time. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. Other critics suggest that DST is, at its heart, government paternalism and that people rise in the morning as a matter of choice because many people enjoy nighttime hours and their jobs do not require them to make the most of daylight. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. DST is particularly unpopular among people working in agriculture because the animals do not observe it, and thus the people are placed out of synchronization with the rest of the community, including school times, broadcast schedules, and the like.

The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. Opponents point to the longer hours of darkness on winter mornings, especially in Scotland, the north of England and Northern Ireland which might well cause an increase in road accidents. in November of 2003. This would make winter evenings longer, thereby reducing traffic accidents and cases of seasonal affective disorder. Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. Alternatively, some would like Britain to adopt Central European Time and jump forward another hour during the summer (adopting a Single/Double Summer Time from Britain's perspective). All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts. Some campaigners in Britain would like the country to stay on British Summer Time (BST) all year round, or in other words, adopt Central European Time and abolish BST.

He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. Some studies do show that changing the clock increases the traffic accident rate.[1] Following the spring shift to daylight saving time (when one hour of sleep is lost) there is a measurable increase in the number of traffic accidents that result in fatalities. In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". For example, during a North American time change, an autumn night where clocks are reset from 3 AM summer to 2 AM winter time, times between 2AM and 3AM will occur twice, causing confusion in transport schedules, payment systems, etc. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7]. No formal studies have been performed, but an enormous amount of time has been spent by software developers to deal with the fact that 2400 hours past 2pm is not necessarily 2pm 100 days later. On February 5, 2003, U.S. It is also speculated that one of the benefits—more afternoon sun—would also actually increase energy consumption as people get into their cars to enjoy more time for shopping and the like.

A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested. It was for this reason that Arizona rejected DST and opted to stay on standard time all year. On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. Air conditioning often uses more energy than artificial lighting. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously. When air conditioning was not widely available, the change did save energy; however, air conditioning is much more widespread now than it was several decades ago. Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. While many people use more sunlight under DST, most people also experience more heat, which prompts many people to turn on the air conditioner during the warmer afternoon hours.

They were not convicted of any poisons related crime. There is also a question whether the decrease in lighting costs justifies the increase in summertime air conditioning costs. Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. It is also noted that much effort is spent reminding everyone twice a year of the change, and thousands are inconvenienced by showing up at the wrong time when they forget. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed. The disruption in sleep patterns associated with setting clocks either forward or backward correlates with a spike in the number of severe auto accidents, as well as lost productivity as sleep-disrupted workers adjust to the schedule change. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. Opponents claim that there is not enough benefit to justify the need to adjust clocks twice every year.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. DST is not universally accepted; many localities do not observe it. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid. (Stats from this article). Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. $28 million in traffic costs. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. went on extended DST in 1974 and 1975 in response to the 1973 energy crisis, Department of Transportation studies found that observing DST in March and April saved 10,000 barrels of oil a day, and prevented about 2,000 traffic injuries and 50 fatalities saving about U.S.

Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. When the U.S. It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Other benefits cited include prevention of traffic injuries (by allowing more people to return home from work or school in daylight), and crime reduction (by reducing people's risk of being targets of crimes that are more common in dark areas). An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air. Most people plan outdoor activities during the increased hours of sunlight. The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. Another perceived benefit of DST is increased opportunities for outdoor activities.

The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it. During the summer most people would wake up after the sun rises, regardless of whether daylight saving time is in effect or not, so there is no increased need for morning lighting to offset the afternoon drop in energy usage. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. Part of the reason that it is normally observed in the late spring, summer, and early autumn is because during the winter months the amount of energy saved by moving sunset one hour later is negated by the increased need for morning lighting by moving sunrise by the same amount. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. United States Department of Transportation studies showed that DST reduces the country's electricity usage by one percent while DST is in effect. Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. Because people tend to observe the same bedtime year-round, by artificially moving sunset one hour later, the amount of energy used is theoretically reduced.

Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates. Theoretically, the amount of residential electricity needed in the evening hours is dependent both on when the sun sets and when people go to bed. The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. One of the major reasons given for observing DST is energy conservation. The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases. Starting and ending dates are variable: normally, Brazilian DST starts at 00:00 on an October (rarely November) Sunday and ends at 00:00 on a February Sunday. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel. Brazil adopted DST for the first time in 1931, but uninterruptedly since 1985 in southern states (south, southeast regions and states of Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul).

Corwin, Sally H. In specific years the starting and ending dates have been modified for political or climatic reasons. Alderks, Alsoph H. The current law which affects the entire country was enacted in 1970, but it had observed the practice as early as 1927 when the country had been divided into two distinct time zones. Craig, O.H. Chile switches to DST at 24:00 on the second Saturday in October and reverts to Local Standard Time (LST) at 24:00 on the second Sunday the following March. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of Indiana (a 139 KB pdf file) has some history, public comments from each county, the final DOT determination, and the resulting time zone boundary.

The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Currently, Pulaski and Martin counties are reconsidering their bid to join the Central time zone. The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. These counties are: Starke and Pulaski Counties in the Northwest, and Daviess, Dubois, Knox, Martin, Perry, and Pike in the Southwest. Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain. As a result of the review, the United States Department of Transportation moved eight more counties to the Central time zone, effective when DST begins on April 2, 2006. The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). The bill to observe DST also required the governor to request federal review of the time zone divisions in the state.

Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult. On April 29, 2005, the Indiana legislature voted to begin observing daylight saving time statewide in 2006. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. From 1991 until April 1, 2006 the state had three kinds of time zones and DST observances:. Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Opponents claimed that daylight saving time created costs and inconvenience associated with changing clocks twice a year and had little or no real value. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.). Some supporters claimed that some businesses had located out-of-state due to the time-related confusion.

Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. Being out of sync with neighboring states and the national changing of clocks, supporters argued, had a negative economic impact on the state. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. In the past, neighboring communities sometimes ended up one or even two hours apart. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. DST has been a long-standing controversy in Indiana, not only as an agricultural state, but also because the border separating the Eastern and Central time zones divides the state. To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hawaii does not observe DST.

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq. However, the large Navajo Indian Reservation within it does. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4]. Most of Arizona does not observe DST. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Certain types of information systems (those that schedule future events with reference to UTC, for example) are almost guaranteed to encounter serious desynchronization problems unless both computers and databases are carefully updated—in some cases by hand. Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. More difficult to quantify is the amount of labor and money that may be spent correcting errors that arise due to a failure to update computers.

Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378). A two-minute procedure for updating a computer, multiplied by a hundred million computers, represents nearly 1700 years of full-time labor. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. In order to change the dates and times at which the automatic jump to or from DST occurs, these tables must be modified, which requires some sort of manual intervention by a human being in the great majority of cases. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Most computers are programmed to adjust automatically for DST, but they do so based on static tables stored directly on the computer itself. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. An additional issue raised by this extension is that it requires reconfiguration of virtually every computer in the United States.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. The extension was greeted by criticism from the airline industry and those concerned for the safety of children traveling to school in the dark before the late sunrise. Ricin was given the military symbol W. (See this article, for example.). This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). There is very little recent research on what the actual positive effects, if any, might be. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. Department of Energy information from the 1970s, the accuracy and relevance of which the DoE no longer stands by.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Proponents claimed that the extension would save "the equivalent of" 10,000 barrels of oil per day, but this figure was based on U.S. The War ended before it was weaponized. The change was introduced by the Energy Policy Act of 2005; the House had originally approved a motion that would have extended DST even further. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. Starting March 11, 2007, daylight saving time will be extended another four to five weeks, from the second Sunday of March to the first Sunday of November. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. In response to the 1973 energy crisis, daylight saving in the United States was begun earlier in both 1974 and 1975, commencing on the first Sunday in January (January 6) in the former year and the last Sunday in February (February 23) in the latter.

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. The law was amended again in 1986 to begin daylight saving time on the first Sunday in April, to take effect the following year. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines. The law was amended in 1972 to permit states that straddle a time zone boundary to exempt the entire area of the state lying in one time zone. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Any state that wanted to be exempt from daylight saving time could do so by passing a state law, provided that it exempt the entire state. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. federal Uniform Time Act of 1966 mandated that daylight saving time begin nationwide on the last Sunday of April and end on the last Sunday of October.

Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. The U.S. Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. This resulted in a patchwork where some areas observed DST while adjacent areas did not, and it was not unheard of to have to reset one's clock several times during a relatively short trip (e.g., bus drivers operating between Moundsville, West Virginia, and Steubenville, Ohio had to reset their watches seven times over 35 miles). In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison. States and localities were free to observe daylight saving time or not. As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child. federal law did not address daylight saving time.

Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin. From 1945 to 1966, U.S. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. This remained in effect until World War II began winding down and the requirement was removed on September 30, 1945. Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. Daylight saving time was reinstated in the United States on February 9, 1942, again as a wartime measure to conserve resources. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.. Beginning in 2007, it will start DST on the second Sunday in March, and change back to standard time on the first Sunday in November.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Through the end of 2006, the United States starts its DST on the first Sunday in April, and changes back to standard time on the last Sunday in October. Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:. state of Arizona, which also does not observe DST. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]. The Mexican state of Sonora does not observe DST because it borders on the U.S. [2]. Mexico has adopted DST nationwide, even in its tropical regions, because of its increasing economic ties to the United States.

Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. Since April 2004, Cuba has remained on DST. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Cuba always starts its DST on April 1 but the end date varies. Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Saskatchewan Government Relations gives further details on Saskatchewan's time policies. (See abrin). Lloydminster and its immediately surrounding region in Saskatchewan use the same timekeeping routine used by Alberta, DST with Mountain Standard Time.

Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. The charter of the city of Lloydminster, which is bisected by the Saskatchewan–Alberta border, gives it a special exception (among areas in Saskatchewan) to use DST. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Observationally, this is equivalent to the province being on Mountain Daylight Time year-round, though officially the province is considered to be part of the Central time zone. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. (This policy was implemented when the Saskatchewan Time Act was passed in 1966, to solve the problems that arose when time zones varied from town to town.) Thus, in the summer months Saskatchewan is in sync with Mountain Daylight Time and in the winter months it is in sync with Central Standard Time. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Saskatchewan is bisected by 105° west meridian, the central meridian of the Mountain Standard Time Zone (UTC−7), yet clocks are kept at UTC−6 all year long.

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The province of Saskatchewan is the largest part of that country that does not use DST, that is, it does not adjust clocks in spring and fall. . The remaining provinces and territories will continue change time on the first Sunday of April and last Sunday of October unless they change their legislation. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom. In 2007, their DST will start on the second Sunday of March, and return to standard time on the first Sunday in November. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. rules (The Calgary Sun).

Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. The governments of Ontario, Manitoba, Quebec, and Alberta have pledged to change their daylight saving rules to match the new U.S. The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). In Canada, time is under provincial and territorial jurisdiction, not federal. Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. Also, in 1988, they experimented with Double Daylight Time, when the clocks went ahead by two hours, instead of the usual one hour. Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis. The Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador is an exception in that the time changes take place at 00:01 local standard time and 00:01 local daylight time respectively.

In 2007, the starting and ending dates for DST will change in the United States and parts of Canada (see below). North America generally follows the same procedure, going by local time in each zone, each time zone switching at 02:00 LST (local standard time) to 03:00 LDT (local daylight time) on the first Sunday in April, and again from 02:00 LDT to 01:00 LST on the last Sunday in October. Polar or near-polar locations such as Iceland often opt out, as summer in these locations usually brings nearly uninterrupted daylight. With Iceland observing UTC all year round, despite being at a longitude which would indicate UTC-1, the country may be said to be on continuous DST.

Thus in Moscow (local time = UTC+3 in winter, UTC+4 in summer), daylight-saving time commences at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in March, and ends at 23:00 UTC on the day before the last Sunday in October. In Russia, however, although the changeover dates are the same, clocks are moved forward or back at 02:00 winter time in all zones. (See also: European Summer Time). from local times of 01:00/02:00/03:00 to 02:00/03:00/04:00 in March, and vice versa in October.

In the West European (UTC), Central European (UTC+1), and East European (UTC+2) time zones the change is simultaneous: on both dates the clocks are changed everywhere at 01:00 UTC, i.e. All countries in Europe, except Iceland as noted below, observe daylight-saving time and change on the same date: moving clocks forward one hour on the last Sunday in March and back one hour on the last Sunday in October. The Department of Internal Affairs gives further historical information on their website. In New Zealand, daylight saving time begins at 2am (standard time) on the first Sunday in October each year, and ends at 2am (standard time) on the third Sunday of March.

See the Australian time zones article or this site for maps and further information on standard and daylight saving time in Australia. Queensland experimented with it for a year or two in the early 1970s, but it was not popular and was abandoned. Western Australia, Northern Territory and Queensland do not have daylight saving. Tasmania starts DST earlier than the others, usually near the beginning of October.

New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Australian Capital Territory and South Australia apply daylight saving time. Some states/territories implement it and some do not. In Australia, daylight saving time is a state/territory-based initiative. It has not used DST since then.

Pakistan experimented with DST in 2002 going from +5:00 to +6:00. For more on this subject, see Israeli Daylight Saving Law. Israel's Daylight Saving Time rules have changed repeatedly in recent years; there has been trouble reaching a consensus regarding Gregorian calendar end dates for DST as they are dependant on Jewish Holidays, which follow the lunar Hebrew calendar. Israel adopts Daylight Saving Time on the last Friday before April 2 at 02:00, and returns to standard time at 02:00 of the Sunday of the month of Tishrei between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur.

Thus, DST in Iran starts on the first day of Farvardin (around 21-22 March) and ends on the first day of Mehr (around 22 September). Iran uses the Persian calendar. India used DST briefly during its wars with Pakistan and China. The PRC now uses one universal time zone for all of the nation from Urumqi in the northwest to Fujian in the southeast; the size of the nation was a major factor why DST was not considered practical in China.

The People's Republic of China experimented with DST from 1986, but abandoned it in the 1990s. Egypt operates Daylight-Saving Time between the last Friday in April and the last Thursday in September when the clocks are 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+3). In the Southern Hemisphere, the beginning and ending dates are switched (thus the time difference between, e.g., the United Kingdom and Chile may be three, four, or five hours). DST commonly begins in the Northern Hemisphere on either the first Sunday in April or the last Sunday in March, and ends on the last Sunday in October.

With a few exceptions, switchovers between standard time and daylight saving time generally occur in the early morning hours of a Sunday morning, presumably because doing so then causes less disruption than a change on a weekday would. The dates of the beginning and ending of DST also vary by country. The amount of the time shift varies, but one hour is the most common. state in the tropics, does not observe DST.

Hawaii, the only U.S. Daylight saving time is generally a temperate zone practice; day lengths in the tropics do not vary enough to justify DST. The law, however, proved so unpopular (mostly because people rose and went to bed earlier than in current times) that the law was later repealed. It was observed for seven months in 1918 and 1919.

Congress established several time zones (which were already in use by railroads and most cities since 1883) and made daylight saving time official (which went into effect on March 31) for the remainder of World War I. Then on March 19, 1918, the U.S. Shortly afterward, the United Kingdom followed suit, first adopting DST between May 21 and October 1, 1916. The idea of daylight saving time was first put into practice by the German government during the First World War between April 30 and October 1, 1916.

It was first seriously proposed by William Willett in the "Waste of Daylight", published in 1907, but he was unable to get the British government to adopt it despite considerable lobbying. (Read the full text.) However, the article was humorous; Franklin was not proposing DST, but rather that people should get up and go to bed earlier. It is sometimes asserted that DST was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin in a letter to the editors of the Journal of Paris. .

Note that the term commonly used in the United States, daylight savings time, is incorrect, for both historic (the correct name as provided by the act which inaugurated it in the United States is daylight saving time) and grammatical reasons. DST is most commonly used in temperate regions, due to the considerable variation in the amount of daylight versus darkness through the seasons in those regions. This is intended to provide a better match between the hours of daylight and the active hours of work and school. The official time is adjusted forward, (usually) one hour from its official standard time, remaining that way for the duration of the spring and summer months.

Daylight saving time (also called DST) is a term used for a system intended to "save" daylight (It is also known as summer time in both Britain and Europe). American Journal of Public Health 85, 92–95. (1995) Daylight saving time and motor vehicle crashes: the reduction in pedestrian and vehicle occupant fatalities. et al.

^  Ferguson, S.A. Their observance of DST was unofficial in this case, as a strict reading of the Uniform Time Act would not allow for this situation, but by observing DST, they remained synchronized with the greater Louisville and Cincinnati metropolitan areas. 2 counties near Cincinnati, Ohio and 3 counties near Louisville, Kentucky were on Eastern Standard time but did observe DST. 5 northwestern counties near Chicago, Illinois and 5 southwestern counties near Evansville, Indiana were on Central Standard Time and did use DST.

77 counties — most of the state — were on Eastern Standard Time but did not use DST.

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