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Ricin

Castor beans

The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom.

Toxicity and manufacture

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. (See abrin).

Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. [2]. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]

Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:

  • Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis
  • Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.

Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin.

As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison.

Potential medicinal use

Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines

Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. The War ended before it was weaponized.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Ricin was given the military symbol W.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378).

Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4].

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq.

To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.)

Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult.

The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain.

Ricin patent

"Preparation of Toxic Ricin",
patent application.

The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Craig, O.H. Alderks, Alsoph H. Corwin, Sally H. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel.

The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases.

Ricin extraction process

The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates

Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it.

The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air.

Ricin-related arrests in Britain in 2003

It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed.

Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. They were not convicted of any poisons related crime.

Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously.

On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested.

On February 5, 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7].

In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts.

Ricin in Washington, D.C.

Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. in November of 2003. The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution.

Ricin in popular culture

Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure.

Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner

The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The book explains that ricin is a poison.


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The book explains that ricin is a poison. 2005 Motion Picture Sound Editors (Golden Reel Award). One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". 2005 Kids Choice Awards (Blimp Award). The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. 2005 Hugo Awards. Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner. 2005 Empire Movie Awards.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure. 2005 Cinema Audio Society. Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime. 2005 [Broadcast Film Critics Association]] Awards. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution. 2005 BMI Film & TV Awards. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. 2005 BAFTA Film Awards.

Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. 2005 Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films (Saturn Awards). This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. 2005 Academy Awards (Oscars). Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. Allmusic.com best tracks are "Hold On", "Someone to Die For" and "Spidey Suite.". The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. On the Japanese version of the soundtrack, "Web of Night" by T.M.Revolution appears and was a popular single in Japan.

The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. On the Australian version of the soundtrack, "I Am" by Killing Heidi appears as Track 17 and is a single. in November of 2003. The track listing for the US version of the soundtrack is:. Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. "I Am" debuted at #16 on the charts on July 19, 2004. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts. "I Am" by Killing Heidi has been added to the Australian version of the soundtrack and has been released as a single in the country.

He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. "Ordinary" by Train has also reached the top 20 of the US adult top 40 singles charts. In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". "Vindicated" by Dashboard Confessional reached the top of a world composite soundtrack chart in June 2004 and the top 20 of a composite world and US modern rock chart. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7]. The soundtrack for Spider-Man 2 has reached the top 10 of the US album charts and has also reached the top 40 of the Australian album charts. On February 5, 2003, U.S. It was also nominated for the Academy Award for Sound and the Academy Award for Sound Editing.

A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested. In the 77th Academy Awards, the movie won the Academy Award for Visual Effects. On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. The New Yorker rated it as average while Salon.com and Village Voice rated it as poor. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously. The movie was listed in AFI's Top Ten Films of 2004. Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. The following publications have given the film good reviews: Film Threat, LA Weekly, Los Angeles Times, TV Guide, Boston Globe, Christian Science Monitor, The Philadelphia Inquirer, ReelViews, Chicago Reader, New York Magazine, Charlotte Observer.

They were not convicted of any poisons related crime. The film received excellent critical reviews from the following newspapers: Baltimore Sun, Chicago Sun-Times, Dallas Observer, Entertainment Weekly, Miami Herald, Newsweek, The Onion, Premiere, San Francisco Chronicle, USA Today, Variety, Portland Oregonian, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, The Hollywood Reporter, The New York Times, Slate, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Austin Chronicle, Chicago Tribune, The Globe and Mail The New York Daily News, The New York Post, Rolling Stone Magazine. Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. He went on to call it the 'greatest super-hero movie since Superman'[3]. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed. Roger Ebert who panned the first film praised the second movie giving the movie four stars. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. [2].

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. [1] Rotten Tomatoes gave it a rating of 93%, based on 195 reviews. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid. Metacritic gave the film a collective rating of 80 out of 100 based on an average of 41 reviews. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. The general critical reaction to the film was enthusiastic, with many critics saying the film had a dramatic power and emotional content that many summer blockbusters lack. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Though this is not as much as its predecessor, it should still be considered excellent, considering it is a sequel to a very highly regarded movie, and those usually do not do that well in the box-office (such as Jaws 2).

Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. Worldwide, Spider-Man 2 made $783,964,497, which made it the 3rd highest grossing movie of 2004 worldwide (behind Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and Shrek 2), as well as the 16th highest grossing movie worldwide of all time. It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Altogether, Spider-man 2 made $373,585,825 in North America, making it the 2nd highest grossing movie of 2004 (beaten by $68m by Shrek 2) and the 9th highest grossing movie in the U.S of all time. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air. It generated $88 million at the box office in its first weekend of sale, and on its first day, it garnered a whopping estimate of $40 million, a record for a movie on opening (it was beat a year later by Revenge of the Sith, which grossed about $10 million more). The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. In its first six days, Spider-Man 2 generated a record $180 million at the North American box-office, which is a record as of 2005.

The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it. Harry now has the option of assuming incredible powers to take revenge on Spider-Man. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. His mental state is important, however, since he has discovered his father's villainous secrets. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. The true state of Harry's sanity is at the end of the film uncertain. Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. However, it is also possible the ghost was not a delusion.

Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates. Harry's past friendship with Peter and hostility to Spider-Man, as well as growing bitterness with Peter, haunt him, to the point where he imagines a visit from his father's ghost revealing the Green Goblin's hide out. The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. In the end, Harry discovers Spider-Man's secret identity, and for the sake of the city and for his long-time friendship with Peter, he spares Peter's life. The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases. On the other hand, Harry seems especially grateful for a compliment that he has outdone his father's accomplishments, and also blames Peter for having been more respectable than Harry himself to Harry's father. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel. On the one hand, Harry desires revenge on Spider-Man, who supposedly killed Harry's father.

Corwin, Sally H. Harry's relationship with the memory of his father is also complex. Alderks, Alsoph H. Upon consuming alcohol, a hostility to Peter surfaces, as Harry begins to blame Peter for tolerating Spider-Man, and for ruining Harry's onetime romance with M.J. Craig, O.H. Two years after his father's death, Harry has become an increasingly bitter personality, as demonstrated by his failure to laugh at jokes. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Harry's character is also further developed in Spider-Man 2.

The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. His final act of self-sacrifice redeems him, and, echoing Aunt May's speech on heroism earlier in the movie, he dies with honor. The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. It is only at the end, when Peter makes him realize the true cost of his dreams, that he turns away from the tentacles' influence and reclaims his former identity. Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain. The AI in the tentacles then offer him an escape from his failure and agony, and a chance to rebuild his experiment, since it is all he has left; and he willingly listens to them and lets them guide him. The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). His descent into villainy is often interpreted as possession by the mechanical tentacles, but it is far deeper than that: when we see him on the waterfront after the accident, he is a broken man, having lost his wife and his fusion dreams, and he is contemplating suicide ("These monstrous things [the tentacles] should be at the bottom of the river, along with me," he says).

Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult. This makes it all the more tragic and horrifying when we see what he becomes later on: a half-mechanical lunatic who is willing to risk destroying the city to realize his ambitions. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. (He tells Peter: "Intelligence is a gift, and you use it for the good of mankind."). Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. The early scenes in the movie with his wife and Peter establish him as a gentle, peace-loving man who desires to help mankind. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.). Otto Octavius is a deeply conflicted and ambiguous villain.

Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. Dr. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. As Peter joyfully swings to the rescue, Mary Jane remains, still somewhat apprehensive of the bizarre and potentially dangerous relationship they have committed themselves to. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. She - almost forcefully - persuades Peter to finally be her boyfriend while accepting the need of his vows by letting him respond to a sudden call for help. To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. She gatecrashes Peter's apartment, telling him that she has decided to live with him - despite the risks - because a full dangerous life is better than a half, carefree life.

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq. In the end, MJ runs away from her marriage with John Jameson. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4]. But Peter tells her they can never be together, as he will always have deadly enemies, and MJ should spare herself the grief of coming too close to him. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. MJ finds out that Peter is Spider-Man, and is stunned and full of joy at the same time. Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. He ends his doomsday experiment by drowning it, sacrificing his life and dying a hero("I will not die a monster!").

Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378). They fight a second time, and in the end, Doc Ock regains his sanity. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Peter finds Doc Ock in an abandoned warehouse, where he holds MJ hostage and has just launched his doomsday experiment, which is clearly going rogue, just as the one at the beginning of the film (extending flares, sucking up and incinerating anything metal). He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Peter implores him to tell him where Doc Ock went, or MJ will be killed. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. Harry unmasks him and is shellshocked that Spider-Man is Peter Parker.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. With an utmost effort, Peter stops the train before it falls from an unfinished bridge, is vanquished easily and brought before Harry. Ricin was given the military symbol W. He has a great fight with Doc Ock, and the crazy scientist forces Peter to rescue a rogue train. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). This shock brings back Peter's powers. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. Then he abducts her.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Doc Ock threatens Peter and tells him to tell Spider-Man to fight him, unless he wants MJ killed. The War ended before it was weaponized. Because he knows that Peter and Spider-Man are close (although he does not know that they are the same person), he attacks Peter. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. But before things can go on, they are attacked by Doc Ock. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. She arranges a meeting with Peter, and although she is very fond of him, Peter's secretive behaviour estranges and intrigues her.

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. MJ remembers the upside-down kiss she had with her saviour Spider-Man in the first film, and that Peter's kiss suspiciously felt the same. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines. In the meanwhile, Doc Ock and Harry Osborn make a deal: Harry supplies him with tritium for his experiment, and the Doctor agrees to capture Spider-Man for him. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Peter and MJ connect once again, but as MJ is engaged, it seems too late. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. As Peter has much more spare time now, his relationships improve.

Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Peter temporarily gives up Spider-Man. Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. announce their engagement and he loses his powers due to a form of burn-out syndrome. In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison. Peter's morale hits a nadir when Harry lashes at him in a drunken rage, MJ and Jameson Jr. As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child. "Doc Ock", as he is now called (due to the metal tentacles wired to his spine), desperately wants to rebuild his experiment, and Spider-Man must stop him from robbing a bank.

Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin. Peter's idol, a brilliant, gentle scientist named Otto Octavius becomes a mechanically-controlled lunatic as the result of a fusion accident. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. turns increasingly hostile to Peter after he fails to keep a promise to see a play in which she is the female lead. Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. M.J. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.. Jonah Jameson.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Moreover, he has learned that his potential girlfriend, M.J., has acquired a new boyfriend, John Jameson, the son of Peter's employer, J. Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:. He loses a job, is having trouble with his estranged friend, Harry Osborn, who still thinks that his father's death was the fault of Spider-Man (Harry doesn't know that Norman actually killed himself), struggles with his studies and school work, and finds that he is losing his powers. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]. It has been two years since the end of the last film, and Peter Parker is finding a double life very difficult. [2]. Stan Lee and Steve Ditko receive additional screen credit for "comic book & characters.

Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. The screenplay is credited to Alvin Sargent, with screen story credit given to Alfred Gough, Miles Millar, and Michael Chabon. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Alfred Molina plays the role of the villain, Doctor Octopus ("Doc Ock"). Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. respectively. (See abrin). Jonah Jameson.

Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. Simmons as J. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. The film, directed by Sam Raimi, stars Tobey Maguire, Kirsten Dunst and James Franco reprising their roles of Peter Parker (Spider-Man), Mary Jane Watson and Harry Osborn, J.K. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. . There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. on June 30, 2004.

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Spider-Man 2 is the sequel to the popular 2002 film Spider-Man and was released in the U.S. . Rating PG-13 for stylized action violence. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom. Running Time 127 minutes. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. Dvd Release Date November 30, 2004.

Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Release Date June 30, 2004. The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Haller, Ruben Simon, Jussi Tegelman, Lisa Hannan, Ai-Ling Lee, Martin Lopez, Bernard Weiser. Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. Ottosson, Christopher Flick, Scott G.G. Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis. Nominated - Best Sound Editing in Domestic Features: Sound Effects/Foley — Paul N.J.

Nominated - Favorite Movie Actor — Tobey Maguire. Nominated - Favorite Movie. Nominated - Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form. Nominated - Scene of the Year — Spider-Man battles Doc Ock on the train.

Nominated - Best Film. Nominated - Best Actress — Kirsten Dunst. Nominated - Best Actor — Tobey Maguire. Won - Best Director — Sam Raimi.

Haboush. Russell, Jeffrey J. Nominated - Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for Motion Pictures — Joseph Geisinger, Kevin O'Connell, Greg P. Nominated - Family Film (Live Action).

Won - Best Popular Picture. Won - BMI Film Music Award — Danny Elfman. Nominated - Outstanding Achievement in Special Visual Effects — John Dykstra, Scott Stokdyk, Anthony LaMolinara, John Frazier. Ottosson.

Haboush, Paul N.J. Russell, Jeffrey J. Nominated - Best Sound — Kevin O'Connell, Greg P. Nominated - Best Music — Danny Elfman.

Nominated - Best DVD Special Edition Release. Nominated - Best Supporting Actor (Film) — Alfred Molina. Won - Best Writing — Alvin Sargent. Won - Best Special Effects — John Dykstra, Scott Stokdyk, Anthony LaMolinara, John Frazier.

Won - Best Director — Sam Raimi. Won - Best Actor (Film) — Tobey Maguire. Ottosson. Nominated - Best Sound Editing — Paul N.J.

Haboush, Joseph Geisinger. Russell, Jeffrey J. Nominated - Best Sound Mixing — Kevin O'Connell, Greg P. Won - Best Visual Effects — John Dykstra, Scott Stokdyk, Anthony LaMolinara, John Frazier.

There is a cameo of Queer as Folk star Hal Sparks, in the elevator scene when Spider-Man had lost his powers, as a reference to the character of Michael Novotny, a comic nerd in the television series. This film is not looked at as trying to copy those, as the story stands on its own in a very profound way. The film is often compared to another superhero film, Superman II, in that there are some basic plot elements that are apparent in both films, including the hero losing his powers, the love interest finding out the secret identity, etc. The typeface used for publicity and title purposes within the film is also used for the logo of PlayStation 3, also made by Sony.

Spider-Man's costume is different from the first movie: This time his outline shines all the time, and the spider sign on his chest has increased in size. These scenes can be seen on the blooper reel of the DVD. During shootings, Simmons is wearing false teeth for Jameson's trademark scrooge smile, and whenever he tried to form the "TH", he spat out his false teeth. A THIEF!", caused much hilarity.

Jonah Jameson) shouts "Spider-Man was.. Simmons (as J. The scene in which J.K. It was also used in the first movie with the guy singing inside the subway station.

The tone and tempo was changed in the movie. That song was actually the theme song of the original early cartoon series. The woman with the violin sings a song about Spider-Man. The scene with Peter losing his powers was taken from the animated episode where he had problems with his powers, prior to turning into a six-armed monster.

The scene with Aunt May receiving bills was from the animated episode in which Peter is asked to take a photograph of the Lizard. The scene in which Peter is late for MJ's theater performance was taken from the animated episode involving the Chameleon (with the Chameleon disguising himself as Peter). Some of the ideas in this movie were also in the Spider-Man animated cartoon (with 3D buildings).

    . When Peter went up to the rooftops to test his powers, the building he was on was the same building used in the first movie, where Peter was practicing his web slinging.

    That alley was the same place he discovered his powers. The second time Spider-Man lost his spidey powers, he fell down into a back alley. Also, when he is passed back through the car afterwards, the wound Doc Ock inflicted on his side is very similar to the stigmata inflicted when a Roman guard stabbed Christ with a spear. His second attempt, when Peter fires webs against the buildings and uses himself as the lynchpin to stop the train is reminiscent of Jesus Christ's crucifixion; his physical appearance with feet down and arms outstretched is very much like a man on the cross.

    His first attempt, sticking his foot out onto the tracks, is reminiscent of Superman's usual method of stopping a train by catching it by the locomotive and planting his feet until it stops. When Peter stops the runaway subway, he makes references to two separate characters from literature/history. Jameson is portrayed next to a full moon in one scene, and in John Jameson's final scene, he makes a mildly-superhuman leap from the docks onto a platform while coming to the aid of Mary Jane. Jameson wears the same medallion that in the comics turned him into Man-Wolf.

    The movie includes multiple references to the comic story arc where John Jameson becomes Man-Wolf. That's Thomas Jane's stunt double from the Punisher, a covert reference to the character (since Sony Pictures didn't have the film rights to use him explicitly). When MJ runs through the park in her wedding dress, she passes a man in black on the right side of the screen. In the film, Peter Parker is a physics major at Columbia University, interested in experimental nuclear physics and fusion power, while his comic book counterpart studies biochemistry/biophysics at the fictitious Empire State University.

    The device he uses seems to be inspired by those used for inertial confinement fusion. Doctor Octopus (Alfred Molina) uses tritium to create nuclear fusion. The first one million copies of the US PSP included the movie free. Spider-Man 2 is the first movie to be released in UMD format for the PSP.

    A hospital scene with the attempted removal of Octavius' tentacles is an allusion to scenes in Raimi's earlier Evil Dead films. Moments later, when Peter exits the ruined cafe, the banner has reattached to the building. When Doctor Octopus kidnaps Mary Jane, he knocks down a banner attached to a building. Reports claim that the studio hopes to make at least six films.

    Before Spider-Man 2 was even released, it was announced that Spider-Man 3 would be released in 2007. When he turns to look down the enormous wall of shelves and bombs, his reflection can be seen in a mirror used to create the illusion of a wall of pumpkin bombs. At the end of the movie, when Harry Osborn, played by James Franco, discovers his father's hidden Green Goblin hideout, he walks up to a wall of shelves filled with pumpkin bombs. In the scene where Parker watches police cars go by, he is actually eating a tofu hot dog.

    Tobey Maguire is a vegetarian. He is the man in the far right during the scene where Spider-Man stops the train. Voice actor Phil LaMarr makes a cameo as an extra. Actor Bruce Campbell also makes another cameo as the usher who won't let Peter into Mary Jane's play.

    Spider-Man creator Stan Lee makes yet another cameo appearance (as he did in Spider-Man) during Spidey's first battle with Doc Ock at the side of building walls. The name of Peter's landlord, "Ditkovitch", was an obvious hat-tip to Spider-Man co-creator Steve Ditko. Throughout the whole movie, the only points when Otto Octavius is called 'Doc Ock' or 'Doctor Octopus' are when Jonah Jameson suggests the names at the Daily Bugle, and in the final battle at the docks, where Spider-Man calls him "Ock." One of the suggested names is Doctor Strange, which is Steve Ditko's other major co-creation for Marvel Comics. The controversy was rumored to have made early shooting on the movie somewhat uncomfortable, as Kirsten Dunst was dating Gyllenhaal at the time, but the actors were eventually able to put the controversy behind them.

    However, Maguire was in the end cleared to reprise his role as Peter Parker. At one point, the producers had Jake Gyllenhaal on standby to take up the part. Before the film was released, it was well-publicised that Tobey Maguire may have had to pull out of doing the film due to severe back pain. However, after the film, Molina was widely lauded for his performance.

    Octopus, because Molina has a Latino outward appearance and speaks British English, unlike his comic counterpart, who is a Caucasian American and speaks American English. Fans were somewhat skeptical when Alfred Molina was cast as Dr. Elements of the film's plot are taken from the Stan Lee written Spider-Man storylines "If this be My Destiny" (Amazing Spider-Man 31-33), Amazing Spider-Man #50, and the first Spider-Man annual. Promotion, marketing and anticipation for this film had grown so much in late 2003, Sony was considering putting webbing along with the Spider-Man 2 logo on the bases at the 2003 World Series.

    At different points in the film, Peter and Harry both sport the same outfit as Ash from the Evil Dead films. "Doc Ock Suite" by Danny Elfman. "Spidey Suite" by Danny Elfman. "Someone to Die For" by Jimmy Gnecco and Brian May.

    "We Are" by Ana Johnsson. "The Night That the Lights Went Out in NYC" by The Ataris. "Who I Am" by Smile Empty Soul. "Lucky You" by lostprophets.

    "Give it Up" by Midtown. "This Photograph Is Proof (I Know You Know)" by Taking Back Sunday. "Woman" by Maroon 5. "Gifts and Curses" by Yellowcard.

    "Hold On" by Jet. "Did You" by Hoobastank. "Ordinary" by Train. "Vindicated" by Dashboard Confessional.

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