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Ricin

Castor beans

The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom.

Toxicity and manufacture

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. (See abrin).

Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. [2]. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]

Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:

  • Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis
  • Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.

Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin.

As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison.

Potential medicinal use

Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines

Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. The War ended before it was weaponized.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Ricin was given the military symbol W.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378).

Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4].

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq.

To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.)

Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult.

The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain.

Ricin patent

"Preparation of Toxic Ricin",
patent application.

The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Craig, O.H. Alderks, Alsoph H. Corwin, Sally H. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel.

The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases.

Ricin extraction process

The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates

Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it.

The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air.

Ricin-related arrests in Britain in 2003

It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed.

Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. They were not convicted of any poisons related crime.

Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously.

On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested.

On February 5, 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7].

In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts.

Ricin in Washington, D.C.

Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. in November of 2003. The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution.

Ricin in popular culture

Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure.

Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner

The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The book explains that ricin is a poison.


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The book explains that ricin is a poison.
. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!".
. The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. All statistics and accomplishments courtesy of NFL.com.[2]. Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner. [3].

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure. Brady finished third in the league in MVP votes for the 2005 season, with Shaun Alexander winning the award. Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime. Even as his Patriots shifted through a league record 44 starters, including injuries to left tackle Matt Light and center Dan Koppen for the season, the Patriots finished with a 10-6 record and clinched the AFC East for the fourth time in five years. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution. As previously mentioned, Brady finished the regular season with league-leading 4,110 yards passing and 26 touchdowns. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Looking at his statistics, one sees that the departure of offensive coordinator Charlie Weis, who became head coach of Notre Dame in 2005, did not seem to affect Brady.

Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. Brady also led the NFL in touchdown passes in 2002-2003 with 28, and total pass yardage in 2005-2006 with 4,110 yards.[2]. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. While not known for his outstanding statistics, Brady is seventh all-time in passer rating, posting an 88.5 career mark through the end of the 2005-2006 regular season. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. He has led the most (21) game-winning scoring drives in the 4th quarter or overtime in the NFL since he became a starter. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Brady has extensive experience with pressure situations.

The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. Under Tom Brady, the New England Patriots' regular season record is 48-17, and they are 10-1 in the playoffs and 7-0 in overtime. in November of 2003. Brady's defenders argue that he is a clutch player. Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. Brady's fiercest detractors have argued that he is a "system quarterback", and believe that many other quarterbacks would have enjoyed the same level of success playing for the Patriots. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts. Most notably, comparisons are often made with Peyton Manning of the Indianapolis Colts, leading to fierce and bitter controversy.

He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. This debate has existed and evolved for several years, from arguments over whether Brady was even better than average to current arguments that center on comparing Brady to only a few select and elite quarterbacks. In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". There is considerable debate, both among football fans and sportswriters, as to where exactly Tom Brady ranks in the quarterback pantheon. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7]. Despite not playing in the game, Brady was present at Super Bowl XL, as the official coin tosser prior to kickoff. On February 5, 2003, U.S. It was the first loss of Brady's playoff career.

A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested. Brady threw for 346 yards in the game and a touchdown with two interceptions, including one returned 100 yards by Denver cornerback Champ Bailey. On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. However, on January 14, 2006, the Patriots lost 27-13 against the Denver Broncos at INVESCO Field. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously. In the playoffs, Brady led the Patriots to a 28-3 victory over Jacksonville in the Wild Card Round. Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. When the Patriots hosted the Atlanta Falcons, Brady achieved a regular season-high rating of 140.3.[2] It was the fourth highest regular season single-game quarterback rating of Brady's career.

They were not convicted of any poisons related crime. Some of the highlights of the season included another game with the Steelers, in which Brady helped lead the team on the game winning drive. Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. At 92.3, his 2005-2006 passer rating was the second highest of his career, although he tied his worst interception total (14).[2] He also rushed for 89 yards and fumbled a career-low 4 times.[2] Brady and the injured Patriots finished with a 10-6 record and obtained their third straight AFC East title. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed. The results were positive; Brady finished first in the league with 4,110 passing yards and third in the league with 26 touchdowns. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. Brady also had to adjust to a new center and a new running back: Heath Evans.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. During the 2005-2006 season, the Patriots were forced to rely more on Tom Brady's passing due to injuries suffered by running backs Corey Dillon, Patrick Pass, and Kevin Faulk. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid. On February 6, 2005, the Brady-led Patriots won Super Bowl XXXIX for their third NFL championship in four years. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. Against the NFL's best defensive team, Brady recorded a quarterback passer rating of 130.5, his highest of the season.[2] 2004 also served as Brady's best year statistically; his rating, at 92.6, was a career high.[2]. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Brady played his best game of the year in Pittsburgh despite requiring IV treatment the previous night when he had a temperature of 103 degrees.

Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. In the AFC playoffs, Brady led the Patriots to victories over the Indianapolis Colts and the Pittsburgh Steelers. It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. The Patriots also won the AFC East divisional title for the third time in four years. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air. New England's 14-2 record matched that of the 2003-04 season and equalled the best record ever for a defending champion. The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. During the 2004-2005 season, Brady helped the Patriots set an NFL record with 21 straight wins dating from the previous year.

The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it. With 1:08 left in the fourth quarter and the score tied at 29, Brady engineered a drive to put the Patriots in position for the game-winning field goal. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. During the game, Brady set the record for most completions by a QB in the Super Bowl (32). The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. On February 1, 2004, Brady led the Patriots to a 32-29 victory over the NFC champion Carolina Panthers in Super Bowl XXXVIII and was named Super Bowl MVP for the second time. Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. In the first two rounds of the playoffs, the Patriots defeated the Tennessee Titans and Indianapolis Colts.

Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates. Statistically, Brady's strongest game of the season was against Buffalo, when he achieved a season-high quarterback rating of 122.9.[2]. The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. In the 2003-2004 NFL season, after a 2-2 start, Brady led the Patriots to 12 consecutive victories to finish the season and win the AFC East. The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases. Brady continues to suffer from shoulder complications, but it has not led to a missed start. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel. Although posting a career-low single-season rating of 85.7, Brady threw for a league-leading 28 touchdown passes, though his 14 interceptions ties his worst total.[2] Moreover, at Buffalo, Brady threw for a quarterback rating of 147.6, the second highest of his career.[2] Furthermore, Brady played much of the second half of the season with a shoulder injury, and New England head coach Bill Belichick has since indicated that if the Patriots had made the playoffs, Brady would not have been able to play in the first game due to that injury.

Corwin, Sally H. However the Jets won the division on the third tiebreaker, and the Patriots missed the playoffs. Alderks, Alsoph H. Tom Brady and the Patriots finished the year at 9-7, tied for the New York Jets and the Miami Dolphins for the best record in the division. Craig, O.H. Brady was named MVP of Super Bowl XXXVI while throwing for 145 yards and 1 touchdown. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. The Patriots won the game on an Adam Vinatieri field goal as time expired.

The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Instead, Brady drove the Patriots offense down the field. The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. With less than two minutes left in the Super Bowl, and the score tied, sportscaster John Madden said that he thought the Patriots should let the time run out on the clock and look to win the game in overtime. Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain. Louis Rams in Super Bowl XXXVI. The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). After defeating the Pittsburgh Steelers in the AFC Championship Game, the Patriots were considered 14-point underdogs against the NFC champion St.

Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult. Brady, who threw for 312 yards in his first NFL playoff game, led the Patriots back from a 10-point fourth quarter deficit and engineered the winning drive in overtime to beat the Raiders. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Citing the controversial "tuck rule," where a ball is ruled an incomplete pass after the quarterback starts any forward throwing motion, referee Walt Coleman overturned the decision after reviewing the instant replay, calling the drop an incomplete pass rather than a fumble (some analysts have claimed that Oakland should have been called for "roughing the passer" on that play, as the player who made contact with Brady hit his head; such a call would have rendered the "tuck rule" controversy obsolete). Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. During a 2001-2002 divisional playoff game against the Oakland Raiders (played in January 2002), Tom Brady had been ruled as having fumbled on a pass attempt, with Oakland protecting a three-point lead. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.). He also passed for his third highest single season rating (86.5).[2].

Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. However, during a mid-season matchup at Indianapolis, Brady passed for a career-high regular season rating of 148.3 in a 38-17 win.[2] Brady helped bring the Patriots to an 11-5 record and into the playoffs. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. [2]. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. In his first two games, Brady's quarterback rating was low, at 79.6 and 58.7 respectively. To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Soon after Brady was named the starting quarterback.

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq. New England lost both the game and Bledsoe. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4]. During that game, Drew Bledsoe suffered internal bleeding after colliding with Jets linebacker Mo Lewis. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. This changed on September 23, 2001, when the Patriots were playing against their AFC East division rivals, New York Jets at Foxboro Stadium. Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. After being selected in the 6th round of the 2000 Draft, Brady served as the backup quarterback to Drew Bledsoe.

Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378). In the 1999 season, Brady led Michigan in defeating Alabama in an overtime game in the Orange Bowl and threw for 400 yards in that game. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. The Wolverines won 20 of 25 games when Brady started and shared the Big Ten Conference title in 1998. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. He was All-Big Ten both seasons and team captain his senior year. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. Brady battled for the first string quarterback position with Drew Henson and ultimately started every game in the 1998 and 1999 seasons under Michigan head coach Lloyd Carr.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. Since that time, Brady has mentioned Montana as one of his inspirations and an idol[1] He played college football for, and graduated from, the University of Michigan, sitting on the bench his first two years; including a year as understudy to fellow UM teammate and future NFL quarterback Brian Griese who led the Wolverines to the 1997 National Championship. Ricin was given the military symbol W. Born near San Francisco in San Mateo, California, Brady would be regularly taken to see the 49ers play in the 1980s, where he became a fan of quarterback Joe Montana. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). . Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. Additionally, Brady was Sports Illustrated's Sportsman of the Year in 2005.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. With the Patriots, Brady has won three Super Bowls and two Super Bowl MVP awards. The War ended before it was weaponized. In the 2000 NFL Draft, Brady was selected by the New England Patriots in the 6th round (199th overall). The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. Brady attended the University of Michigan and led Michigan to an Orange Bowl victory in the 1999 season. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. Brady graduated from Junipero Serra High School, the same school that produced baseball player Barry Bonds and NFL Hall of Famer Lynn Swann.

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. Thomas Edward Brady, Jr. (born August 3, 1977) is an American football quarterback for the National Football League's New England Patriots. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines. Brady guest-starred as himself in Family Guy episode "Patriot Games" (first aired January 29, 2006). A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Brady guest-starred as himself in The Simpsons episode "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass" (first aired February 6, 2005). Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. In 2002 and 2004, his touchdown-interception ratio was identical (28-14).

Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. In his five full seasons as an NFL quarterback, Brady has thrown for either 12 or 14 interceptions per season. Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Was nominated for the FedEx Air Player of the Year Award with Peyton Manning and Carson Palmer(Winner). In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison. In the December 12, 2005 Issue of Sports Illustrated, Brady was named Sportsman of the Year; he is the fourth professional football player to receive the honor since the award was created in 1954 and the first professional football player to garner the accolade since 1990. As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child. Brady appears in a Visa commercial with his teammates from his offensive line, Brandon Gorin, Tom Ashworth, Russ Hochstein, Matt Light, and Dan Koppen in which the offensive linemen represented Visa's five layers of protection.

Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin. Brady is a lifelong Roman Catholic. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. On April 16, 2005, Brady hosted an episode of Saturday Night Live with musical guest Beck. Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. According to The Smoking Gun as of 2004, Tom Brady is a registered voter, but has not voted in any political election so far. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.. Brady declined to discuss his political views with the media.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Bush. Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:. On January 26, 2004, Tom Brady attended the annual State of the Union Address as a guest of President George W. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]. Most completions in a Super Bowl (32 in Super Bowl XXXVIII). [2]. 3 Super Bowl victories.

Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. 2 Super Bowl MVP awards. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. 3 Pro Bowls. Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. 73.7 passing attempts per interception in the post-season (lowest rate, NFL history (minimum 250 pass attempts): Bart Starr second with 71 attempts per post-season interception). (See abrin). 5 passes intercepted.

Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. 15 passing touchdowns. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. 2493 passing yards (226.6 ypg). Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. 225 passes completed. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. 367 passes attempted.

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. NFL record 10-1 in the post-season (12-1 including college). . Most consecutive post season wins (college and professional combined): 12. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom. NFL record for most consecutive wins in post season: 10 (broke record of Green Bay's Bart Starr). Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. 7-0 in overtime games.

Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. 58-20 record as a starter (.744 winning percentage). The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). 66 interceptions. Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. 123 passing touchdowns. Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis. 18,035 passing yards.

63.0% completion rate. 4110 passing yards, (1st in the NFL). 14 interceptions. 26 passing touchdowns (3rd in the NFL).

92.3 quarterback rating (2nd highest of career). Highest interception total, season (minumum 2 starts): 14 (2002, 2004, 2005). Lowest interception total, season (minimum 2 starts): 12 (2001 and 2003). Highest career quarterback rating against a team: Atlanta Falcons (140.4).

Highest single-season quarterback rating: 92.6 (2004-2005 season). Highest single-game quarterback rating: 148.3 (at Indianapolis, October 21, 2001).

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