This page will contain additional articles about ricin, as they become available.

Ricin

Castor beans

The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom.

Toxicity and manufacture

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. (See abrin).

Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. [2]. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]

Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:

  • Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis
  • Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.

Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin.

As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison.

Potential medicinal use

Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines

Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. The War ended before it was weaponized.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Ricin was given the military symbol W.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378).

Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4].

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq.

To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.)

Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult.

The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain.

Ricin patent

"Preparation of Toxic Ricin",
patent application.

The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Craig, O.H. Alderks, Alsoph H. Corwin, Sally H. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel.

The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases.

Ricin extraction process

The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates

Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it.

The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air.

Ricin-related arrests in Britain in 2003

It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed.

Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. They were not convicted of any poisons related crime.

Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously.

On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested.

On February 5, 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7].

In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts.

Ricin in Washington, D.C.

Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. in November of 2003. The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution.

Ricin in popular culture

Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure.

Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner

The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The book explains that ricin is a poison.


This page about ricin includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about ricin
News stories about ricin
External links for ricin
Videos for ricin
Wikis about ricin
Discussion Groups about ricin
Blogs about ricin
Images of ricin

The book explains that ricin is a poison. It was at this time that he instituted the Lord’s Supper, making a new ordinance in commemoration of His death. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". Moreover, since Christ expected His death on Passover, the observance of the feast was performed on the prior day. The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. Furthermore, the searching out and removal of leaven from the household correlates with the searching of heart and sanctification by the blood of Christ to remove sin from the life. Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner. As the Passover lamb was to be eaten, so Christ says, “If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever, and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world.” (John 6:51) This correlates with the internal change of heart which is spoken of in Jeremiah 31:33.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure. As blood was placed on the doorposts of the house, so also the blood of Christ must be applied to the doorposts of the heart. Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime. By way of this sacrifice, a spiritual cleansing may take place. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution. As a barley sheaf of first fruits was waved on the second day of unleavened bread, so also Christ is called the first fruits of the resurrection and presented Himself before the Father, fulfilling Psalms 110:1 “The Lord said to my Lord, ‘Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool.’” Bitter herbs are eaten at Passover, and this correlates with the bitterness of the experience of the crucifixion as foretold in Isaiah 53. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. The writers of the gospels indicate that the crucifixion occurred on the day of Passover.

Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. As the Passover points backward to the deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage, it also points to salvation by way of the death of the Lamb of God. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Setting the tone of the entire law and prophets is an attack on the seed of the woman; first with Abel, then the Sons of God, Abraham, Moses and the decree to kill the male children, Saul throwing spears at David and so forth. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. It is the solution to the curse of Genesis 3:15. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. The Passover, with the accompanying first day of unleavened bread and subsequent first fruits is the single most important symbolic type, pointing to the anti-type of Christ.

The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The night goes as follows:. in November of 2003. Since Seder means "order", it is not unexpected that there is an order to the night's proceedings. Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. According to some, these sons represent the different types of Jews, as follows:. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts. Another tradition during the seder ceremony is recalling the Four Sons: the Wise son (chacham), the Wicked son (rasha), the Simple son (tam), and the son who does not know enough to inquire (eino yodei'a lish'ol).

He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. There is a dish of maror or "bitter [herbs]" which represent the bitterness of slavery. In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". There is a dish of chopped fruits, nuts, and wine called Charoset which represents the mortar used by the Jews in bondage. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7]. There is a green, leafy vegetable (usually celery (Sephardic tradition) or parsley/lettuce (Ashkenazi tradition)) called Karpas which reminds the participants that Passover corresponds with Spring and the harvest, which, in ancient times was a cause for celebration itself. On February 5, 2003, U.S. It has a roasted egg called a Beitzah which represents the second offerings given at the temple in Jerusalem on Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot.

A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested. There is a roasted shank bone of a paschal lamb called a Z'roa which represents the offerings at the Temple in Jerusalem on Passover. On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. During the seder, a platter called the "Seder Plate" (ke'ara), covered with symbols of Passover, is placed at the center of the table in view of all. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously. If the children find it, they receive a reward or ransom, as the seder cannot end until the afikomen is found. Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. In the other custom, an adult hides the afikomen and the children look for it at the end of the meal.

They were not convicted of any poisons related crime. If the parent can't find it, the child is given a reward for the return of the afikomen. Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. In one custom, a child "steals" it and the parent has to find it. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed. Two distinct customs have arisen among some Jews regarding the afikomen, both of which involve the afikomen being hidden as a means of keeping the children interested in the proceedings. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The smaller piece is returned to the set of matzohs while the larger piece is designated as the afikomen, or the "dessert" matzoh.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. During the seder, the middle matzoh is broken in two. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid. At the seder three matzohs are used. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It is traditional for a Jewish family to gather on the first two nights (only one night in Israel) for a special dinner called a seder (derived from the Hebrew word for "order", due to the very specific order of the ceremony) where the story of the Israelite exodus from Egypt is retold by the reading of the story in the seder prayer book, the Haggadah. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. The first and seventh days are observed as full holidays, as are the second and eighth days for Diaspora Jews.

Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. Passover is a family holiday and a happy one. It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. The holiday is also preceded by the fast of the firstborn. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air. Throughout the holiday, they will eat no leavened food, replacing breads, pastas, and cakes with matzoh and other specially prepared foods. The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. This tradition is called bedikat chametz ("search [for] leavened").

The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it. There is a custom to conduct a formal search for overlooked leavening, on the evening prior to the start of the holiday. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. Although many do a thorough job, so that not even a crumb remains, the law only requires the elimination of olive-sized quantities of leavening from one's possession. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. Before the holiday begins, observant Jews will remove and discard all food with leavening (called chametz) from their households. Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. Passover is a Jewish holiday central to Judaism.

Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates. Thus, to critical scholarship, rather than being connected to remembrance of an ancient plague, the modern passover festival is the combination of two similar ancient festivals celebrating successful yields in farming, one of agriculture, and the other of livestock. The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. wheat and barley), whereas the passover, interpreted as the feast of the spring lamb, is pointed to as being a festival of the firstborn of livestock farming. The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases. Critical scholarship points to the festival of unleavened bread as the festival of the firstborn of the agricultural crops (i.e. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel. It is only in the Holiness Code and the priestly source that a community sacrifice is mentioned for the day, JE does not mention such a thing.

Corwin, Sally H. According to the ancient Holiness Code, which in the documentary hypothesis is believed to pre-date much of the remainder of the priestly source portion of the torah, the festival of unleavened bread and the passover are distinguished as separate festivals (Leviticus 23). Alderks, Alsoph H. Thus, the passover festival was originally the spring lamb festival, explaining the sacrifice of a lamb, and the use of its blood. Craig, O.H. This change in interpretation would have had to happen before the Elohist wrote down its version of the tale of the plagues, which makes the connection with sparing, thus, according to the documentary hypothesis, this occurred at some time prior to 800BC. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Consequently, critical scholarship supports the idea that the original meaning of the festival becoming lost over time, and what was once a secondary interpretation of passover as meaning sparing eventually causing an association of the festival with the plagues of Egypt.

The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Critical scholarship indicates that the word now translated passover derives from a root generally meaning skipping, and thus is likely to originally have simply meant the skipping motion of a young lamb. The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The scholar Maimonides leaves a short commentary on the end of the verse ("It was Passover" "פסח היה"), indicating that it wasn't necessarily a standard practice to prepare and eat unleavened bread, but that Lot was in a rush to serve the angels, and therefore did not have time to prepare proper, leavened bread. Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain. For example, Genesis 19:3 makes reference to "unleavened bread" without any reason given. The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Although the term itself is not mentioned until the Book of Exodus, there are indications that at least parts of the feast were observed in times earlier than the writing of the Book of Exodus.

Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult. The noun form, pesach, also appears in that same chapter, in reference to that lamb (sometimes referred to as the paschal lamb), which was sacrificed earlier that day and then eaten on that night: "and ye shall eat it in haste: it is the Lord's passover." (Exodus 12:11). Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. The original verb in the Hebrew Torah is posach. Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. The Torah goes on to state, that upon seeing the blood, God would pass over the homes of the Israelites. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.). The final plague of the Plagues of Egypt, the killing of all the firstborn like the other plagues, did not affect Israelites.

Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. It came into the English language through William Tyndale's translation of the Bible, and later appeared in the King James Version as well. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. The term Passover comes from the Hebrew Bible, first mentioned in the Book of Exodus. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. . To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. While many reasons are given for eating matzoh, the book of Exodus explains that it recalls the bread the Israelites ate at the time of the Exodus: in their rush to leave Egypt, they did not have time for the bread to rise.

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq. Other customs associated with Passover include eating bitter herbs and other foods specified for the seder meal. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4]. The commandment of retelling the Exodus is fulfilled through a communal ritual called the seder, celebrated on the first two evenings of the holiday (in Israel, only on the first evening). Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. In ancient times (until today among the Samaritans) there was a fourth: the offering of a lamb in the evening on the 14th of the Hebrew month of Nisan (also known as Aviv) and the eating that night of the Passover sacrifice. Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. The three main applicable mitzvah associated with the holiday are: eating matzoh, or unleavened bread; the prohibition of eating any foods containing leavening during the holiday1; and the retelling of the Exodus (Mitzrayim).

Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378). Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday, beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan, that commemorates The Exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Ancient Egypt. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Nirtzah נירצה (Conclusion). He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Hallel הלל (Song singing, wine). In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. Barech ברך (After dinner blessing and wine; in Ashkenazi families: welcoming of Elijah the Prophet).

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. Tzafun צפון (Eating of the Afikomen). Ricin was given the military symbol W. Shulchan Orech שולחן עורך (Dinner is served; lit., "prepared table"). This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Korech כורך (Eating of Matzah, charoset, and maror). Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. Maror מרור (Eating of charoset and maror).

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Motzi/Matzah מוציא / מצה (Saying of the matzah blessing). The War ended before it was weaponized. Rachtzah רחץ (Second washing of the hands). The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. Maggid מגיד (Telling of the Passover story, including reciting the Four Questions). At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. Yachatz יחץ (Breaking the middle matzoh which becomes the Afikomen).

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. Karpas כרפס (Dipping of the Karpas in salt water). Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines. Ur'chatz ורחץ (The washing of the hands). A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Kadesh קדש (Saying of Kiddush blessing and the first cup of wine). Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. The fourth son is the Jew so unfamiliar with his heritage and traditions that he cannot relate to the subject without personal attention.

Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. The Simple son is the Jew that is unlearned;. Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. The Wicked son is the Jew that mocks his religion;. In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison. The Wise son is the learned Jew;. As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present..

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]. [2].

Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. (See abrin).

Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available.

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. . It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1].

Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis.

04-26-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/1stzip.php ftppro.com/zip ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database FunWebsites.org PressArchive.net WebExposure.us Google+ Directory