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Ricin

Castor beans

The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom.

Toxicity and manufacture

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. (See abrin).

Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. [2]. Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]

Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:

  • Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis
  • Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component.

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.

Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin.

As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child.

In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison.

Potential medicinal use

Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines

Use as a chemical/biological warfare agent

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. The War ended before it was weaponized.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). Ricin was given the military symbol W.

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378).

Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4].

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq.

To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.)

Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult.

The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain.

Ricin patent

"Preparation of Toxic Ricin",
patent application.

The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Craig, O.H. Alderks, Alsoph H. Corwin, Sally H. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel.

The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases.

Ricin extraction process

The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates

Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it.

The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air.

Ricin-related arrests in Britain in 2003

It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed.

Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. They were not convicted of any poisons related crime.

Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously.

On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested.

On February 5, 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7].

In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts.

Ricin in Washington, D.C.

Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. in November of 2003. The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution.

Ricin in popular culture

Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime.

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure.

Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner

The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The book explains that ricin is a poison.


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The book explains that ricin is a poison. Hellboy: The Chained Coffin and Others was a top vote getter for their Award for Favorite Reprint Graphic Album for 1999. One of these is a sticker reading "With all-natural ricin!". The miniseries Hellboy: Wake the Devil was a top vote getter for the Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for Favorite Limited Series for 1997, and the trade paperback collection was a top vote getter for their Award for Favorite Reprint Graphic Album for 1998. The Penn and Teller book How To Play With Your Food (ISBN 0679743111) includes a "gimmicks envelope" of small objects related to the tricks inside the book. Hellboy: Almost Colossus was a top vote getter for the Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Award for Favorite Limited Series for 1998. Ricin was mentioned in the "call me the prankster" comic at toothpaste for dinner. Mignola won a 2000 Harvey Award for Best Artist based on Hellboy: Box Full of Evil..

Ricin was used as the poison of choice of the murderer in the 1962 comedy film Kill or Cure. The miniseries Hellboy: Conqueror Worm won a 2002 Eisner Award for Best Limited Series, while The Art of Hellboy won an Eisner in 2004 for Best Comics-Related Book. Ricin was the poison used in the Agatha Christie Tommy and Tuppence whodunnit The House of Lurking Death in a 1929 collection of short stories called Partners in Crime. The character and titles have received a good deal of recognition. Several Senate office buildings were closed as a precaution. There is also the parodic Hellboy Junior comic book by Bill Wray (with contributions by Mike Mignola), but it exists outside the normal continuity. There were no signs that anyone who was near the contaminated area developed any medical problems. While no official announcement has been made regarding when and where the show will run, rumored plans include two 70-minute animated movies that will air on the Cartoon Network and then be released on DVD, with the first one to air October 2006.

Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist's office. Doug Jones will be voicing his animated alter-ego from the film, Abe Sapien. This information was not made public until February 3, 2004, when preliminary tests showed the presence of ricin in an office mailroom of U.S. Ron Perlman, who played Hellboy in the feature film, will provide the voice for the animated Hellboy, and Selma Blair, who played Liz Sherman in the film, will provide the voice for her character. Investigators said it was low potency and was not considered a health risk. On November 9, 2005, IDT Entertainment issued a press release announcing that the company had licensed the rights to develop "animated content for television and home entertainment" based on the Hellboy comic. The letter contained a fine powdery substance that later tested positive for ricin. A Hellboy sourcebook and role playing game was also published by Steve Jackson Games, using the GURPS system.

The letter containing it was intercepted at a mail handling facility off the grounds of the White House, and it never reached its intended destination. On April 6, 2005, Hellboy movie director Guillermo Del Toro announced on his official site that he had made a deal with developer Konami to create a new Hellboy videogame based on the movie version of the character and his world, featuring new monsters, new villains, and a new storyline. in November of 2003. It has no relation with the recent movie. Ricin was detected in the mail at the White House in Washington, D.C. A Hellboy videogame called Hellboy: Asylum Seeker was also previously released for the PC and the PlayStation, by Cryo Interactive. All others accused in connection with the Wood Green flat were acquitted on all counts. Interestingly, Roger can be seen as a lifeless statue in the background of certain shots in Professor Brutenholm's study in the first movie.

He was also jailed for life following a conviction for murdering the Special Branch policeman who went to arrest him. It is also noted that the character of Johann Kraus has been added to the team, but Roger has not (he was, however, written into the plot as a very prominent character in early drafts of the script). In April 2005 31-year-old Kamel Bourgass was jailed for 17 years after being convicted of conspiracy to commit a public nuisance "by the use of poisons and explosives to cause disruption, fear or injury". The only plot details given so far have alluded to a shift to more folklore rather than action, with heavy European overtones. Secretary of State Colin Powell presented those arrested as the "UK Poison Cell" of a global terrorist network in making the case for military intervention in Iraq to the UN Security Council [7]. A sequel to this movie, Hellboy 2, is currently under development by director del Toro, and will feature the returning talents of Perlman, Blair, Jones, and Hurt. On February 5, 2003, U.S. Kroenen is also a more prominent character in the movie than in the comics.

A number of men who were apparently living at the mosque were arrested. The movie makes a passing reference to the Spear of Longinus, supposedly acquired by Hitler in 1938, and now safeguarded by the B.P.R.D. On January 20, 2003 Finsbury Park mosque was raided by police, apparently as part of the investigation into the alleged discovery of ricin in Wood Green. The plot draws mostly from the comic storyline Seed of Destruction, but also uses elements from other stories, most notably The Right Hand of Doom and Box Full of Evil. A Special Branch policeman, DC Stephen Oake, was fatally stabbed during the arrests, and three other officers were also injured, one seriously. as Hellboy's new "minder". Three more suspects were arrested in Manchester in England in connection with the investigation of the alleged ricin found in London, following a raid carried out pursuant to an investigation into immigration issues. The film begins with a simplified version of Hellboy's origin (see above) and then jumps to the present day, when FBI Agent John Myers joins the B.P.R.D.

They were not convicted of any poisons related crime. According to Guillermo del Toro's DVD commentary, some theaters would re-title the film on their signs, or outright refuse to play it to avoid running a "devil" movie against Passion. Six more suspects were arrested in Bournemouth in England in connection with the investigation into the alleged ricin incident in London. However, the film debuted in theaters at the same time The Passion of the Christ debuted, citing conservative criticism. The analytic confusion was caused by the similarity of many plant proteins to one of the ricin components, which suggests that higher quality (better specificity and sensitivity) analytic tests for ricin are needed. The film received mixed but generally positive reviews and a fair performance at the box office. Further analysis identified the material as ground wheat germ. Trevor Bruttenholm, Doug Jones as Abe Sapien (voiced by an uncredited David Hyde Pierce), Karel Roden as Rasputin, and Jeffrey Tambor as FBI Senior Special Agent Thomas Manning.

A little later several arrests were made in France and a bottle of something that tested positive for ricin was found. The film starred Ron Perlman as Hellboy (the favourite of both del Toro and Mike Mignola for the role), Selma Blair as Liz Sherman, Rupert Evans as FBI Special Agent John Myers (a character invented for the film), John Hurt as Prof. It appears that an individual conducting amateur research on poisons was found in this raid. Del Toro, a fan of Mignola's work, had previously written the preface to Hellboy: Conqueror Worm. Some acetone, 22 castor beans, and poor recipes for ricin and other poisons copied from the Internet were found. Guillermo del Toro directed a film adaptation titled Hellboy in 2004, a screenplay was originally written by Peter Briggs in 1997. However at the trial of Kamel Bourgass in 2005 it became apparent that within a few days of the raid the leader of the Biological Weapon Identification Group at the Porton Down Defence Science and Technology Laboratory had concluded that ricin was not present at Wood Green [5] [6]. The crown is kept for Hellboy by Astaroth, in Pandemonium the capital city of Hell, in the House of the Fly, where a seat is reserved for him.

Media reports stated that a group was suspected of intending to use the poison in an attack on the London Underground. Ualac is defeated. It was widely reported in the media that traces of ricin were detected by British police in a flat in Wood Green, North London after a raid on a suspected ring of terrorists on 5 January 2003. This is not who he is, and so not his name any longer. An aerosol powder may be prepared by spray drying or air grinding the purified ricin using cold air. Hellboy finds out what his name means: "Anung Un Rama, World Destroyer, The Great Beast…" "…and upon his brow is set a crown of fire…". The final ricin precipitate is dried and then purified by floatation in carbon tetrachloride. In taking the crown, Ualac is changed into a much more powerful demon.

The precipitated ricin may be reextracted once to further purify it. Hellboy is also bound by his name, "Anung Un Rama", and the Crown of the Apocalypse, which he wears but is invisible to him, is taken. After precipitation, the crude ricin cake is washed with a 16.7% solution of sodium sulfate to remove extranious nitrogenous substances. In Box Full of Evil (collected in the The Right Hand of Doom TPB.), Igor Bromhead gains power over a demon, Ualac, by using that demon's name. The leachate is filtered to remove insoluble matter and the crude ricin then precipitated by the addition of a 12% solution of sodium sulfate with a pH of 7.0-8.0. Again Hellboy refuses, this time breaking off his newly regrown horns, revealing what those two circles on his forehead are. Ricin is initially extracted from defatted castor beans by aquous extraction at pH 3.8 to yield a leachate containing solubilized ricin. At the climax of the story Hellboy is swallowed by Hecate in the form of an iron maiden and some kind of other-worldly conflict ensues, in which he is told that his right hand is a key to open the pit.

Modern extraction plants might use membrane filtration to make highly purified ricin isolates. Hellboy, addressed as "Anung Un Rama", is told that his arrival on Earth signals its end. The extraction of ricin from castor beans is very similar to the prepartion of soy protein isolates. In Wake the Devil, Hellboy meets the Goddess Hecate. The patent was removed from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database sometime in 2004, but is still available online through international patent databases. Attempting to release the Ogdru Jahad, Rasputin is killed, harpooned through the chest by Abe Sapien under the control of the ghost of Elihu Cavendish. Dieke, and Charlotte Karel. Hellboy denies this version of his destiny and refuses to be controlled.

Corwin, Sally H. Hellboy's purpose will be to command the powers that Rasputin is about to unleash upon the world. Alderks, Alsoph H. In Seed of Destruction, Hellboy is confronted by a fictional version of Rasputin and begins to find out what he is doing on Earth and who summoned him there. Craig, O.H. Several of the storylines deal with Hellboy's Right Hand of Doom and its purpose in initiating the Apocalypse. Secretary of the Army, are Harry L. Hellboy's adventures in the comics span the 1940s to the present day and involve elements such as sorcerers, Nazis, the Thule Society, hollow earth explorers, werewolves, vampires, ghosts, and other oddities such as the Ogdru Jahad.

The inventors named in US Patent 3,060,165 (granted October 23, 1962) "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", assigned to the U.S. His fellow agents include Abe Sapien, an amphibian humanoid ("icthyo sapien"); Liz Sherman, a pyrokinetic; Roger, an unusually large homunculus; and Johann Kraus, a disembodied spiritualist. The process for creating ricin is well-known, in part because a patent was granted for it in 1952. As an adult, Hellboy became the primary agent for the B.P.R.D., alongside several other human and quasi-human agents. Ricin is actually several orders of magnitude less toxic than botulinum or tetanus toxins, but those are more difficult to obtain. He was granted honorary human status by the United Nations in 1952. The major reason it is dangerous is that there is no specific antidote, and that it is very easy to obtain (the castor bean plant is a common ornamental, and can be grown at home without any special care). agency dedicated to combating occult threats.

Presumably it could be sealed inside some sort of dust particle that would dissolve in water, but this would be difficult. forces to an Air Force base somewhere in New Mexico, Hellboy was raised by the United States Army and by the Bureau of Paranormal Research and Defense, a U.S. Since it acts as an enzyme, catalyzing destruction of ribosomes, even a single oxidation is likely to render the ricin molecule harmless. Taken by the U.S. Pure ricin could be dispersed through the air, however it would tend to be oxidized and rendered harmless by ozone, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants in a matter of hours. He proved not to be a devil, but a little boy-like creature (with red skin, horns, a tail, and a large stone right hand)—hence the name given by Professor Trevor Bruttenholm (pronounced Broom). (Jan van Aken, an expert on biological weapons explained in an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel that he judges it rather reassuring that Al Qaeda experimented with ricin as it suggests their inability to produce botulin or anthrax.). Hellboy appeared in a fireball in a ruined church in East Bromwich, England, December 23, 1944.

Ricin denatures (ie, the protein changes structure and becomes less dangerous) much more readily than anthrax spores, which may remain lethal for decades. Hellboy is a creature summoned in the final months of World War II by a fictional version of Grigori Rasputin, on a small island just off the coast of Scotland ('Tarmagent Island'), having been commissioned by the Nazis to change the tide of war ("Project Ragna Rok"). Ricin is easy to produce, but is not as practical nor likely to cause as high casualities as other agents. Hellboy remains one of the few older Dark Horse titles to remain in print, after the company's focus shifted from their own titles to licensed properties. Hence, a military willing to use biological weapons and having advanced resources would rather use either of the latter instead. Golden has also written several novels about the character. To put ricin used as weapon into perspective, it is worth noting that as a biological weapon or chemical weapon, ricin may be considered as not very powerful, if only in comparison with other poisons such as botulinum or anthrax. comics have been collected as trade paperbacks, and some later stories have been crafted by people other than Mignola, including Christopher Golden, Guy Davis and Ryan Sook.

In August of 2002, US officials asserted that the Islamic militant group Ansar al-Islam tested ricin, along with other chemical and biological agents, in northern Iraq. Most of the Hellboy and related B.P.R.D. Despite this, more than 1 million metric tonnes of castor beans are processed each year, and approximately 5% of the total is rendered into a waste containing high concentrations of ricin toxin [4]. Certain Hellboy stories also draw on folklore from Ireland, Norway, Malaysia, and Japan, among other countries. Under both the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention and the 1997 Chemical Weapons Convention, ricin is listed as a schedule 1 controlled substance. Writer Robert Bloch has praised Hellboy as one of the most innovative and entertaining comics in recent years. Despite ricin's extreme toxicity and utility as an agent of chemical/biological warfare, it is extremely difficult to limit the production of the toxin. Horror stories of the Weird Tales variety are another important influence.

Thomas, Alexander Solzhenitsyn: A Century in His Life, 368-378). Lovecraft, Jack Kirby, Edgar Allan Poe, and other authors. Earlier, Soviet dissident Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn also suffered (but survived) ricin-like symptoms after a 1971 encounter with KGB agents (D.M. P. He died in hospital a few days later; the pellet was discovered by chance during an autopsy and the poison linked back to the KGB. Mignola's stories are heavily influenced by, and have been dedicated to, H. In 1978, the Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov was assassinated by Bulgarian secret police who surreptitiously 'shot' him on a London street with a modified umbrella using compressed gas to fire a tiny pellet contaminated with ricin into his leg. Written and drawn by creator Mike Mignola, the stories have a flavor of supernatural adventure with a dark mood embodied by Mignola's unique sense of design (which may be characterized by Mignola's incisive linework, and his distinctive balance of heavy shadows and pure colors).

The best-known documented use of ricin as an agent of biological warfare was by the Soviet Union's KGB during the Cold War. Hellboy debuted in 1993 in San Diego Comic-Con Comics #2 (Dark Horse Comics). Ricin was given the military symbol W. . This conclusion was based on comparison of the final weapons rather than ricin's toxicity (LD50 <30 mg.min.m–3). The comics were adapted into a 2004 film. Though there were plans for mass production and several field trials with different bomblet concepts, the end conclusion was that it was no more economical than using phosgene. Created by Mike Mignola, Hellboy's adventures have been chronicled in a sequence of comic book mini-series published by Dark Horse Comics.

During the Second World War the United States and Canada undertook studying ricin in cluster bombs. He is a large red-skinned demon with a tail, horns broken off to stumps (which some fans mistook for goggles in early issues) and a big stone right hand (the Right Hand of Doom). The War ended before it was weaponized. Hellboy is a comic book character, dubbed the "World's Greatest Paranormal Investigator". The dust cloud concept could not be adequately developed, and researchers believed the coated bullet/shrapnel concept was unethical. Golden, Christopher (ed.) Hellboy: Odder Jobs (October 2004), a second short story anthology; contributors include Frank Darabont, Guillermo del Toro, Charles de Lint, Graham Joyce and Sharyn McCrumb. At that time it was being considered for use either as a toxic dust or coated bullets and shrapnel. Milwaukie: Dark Horse Comics, Inc., ISBN 1-56971-440-1.

The United States investigated ricin for its military potential during the First World War. Brite; with an introduction by Mike Mignola. Use of ricin as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines. Collins and Poppy Z. A promising approach is also to use the non-toxic B subunit as a vehicle for delivering antigens into cells thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Bissette, Greg Rucka, Nancy A. Genetic modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the cancer cells. Golden, Christopher (ed.) Hellboy: Odd Jobs (December 1999) an anthology of short stories by various writers including Stephen R.

Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells recognized by the antibody. Golden, Christopher Hellboy: The Lost Army. Ricin may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer. Golden, Christopher Hellboy: The Bones of Giants. In the United states, a person caught manufacturing or possessing ricin may be sentenced up to 30 years in prison. Painkiller Jane/Hellboy (variant cover by Mike Mignola). As little as one castor bean, about 0.5 grams, may be fatal in a child. Batman/Hellboy/Starman #1-2 (written by James Robinson, art by Mike Mignola).

Since 0.2 mg of purified Ricin constitutes a fatal dose, this is a considerable amount of ricin. Hellboy: The Island #1-2. The seed-pulp left over from pressing for castor oil contains on average about 5% by weight of ricin. Hellboy: The Third Wish #1-2. Ricin is easily purified from castor-oil manufacturing waste. Hellboy:On Earth as it is in Hell. Since people do not get sick from eating large amounts of such products, ricin A is of extremely low toxicity if and only if the B chain is not present.. Savage Dragon/Hellboy (collects Savage Dragon #34-35, cover by Mike Mignola).

Many plants such as barley have the A chain but not the B chain. Ghost/Hellboy Special (story, cover and layout by Mike Mignola). Ricin consists of two distinct protein chains (almost 30kDa each) that are linked to each other by disulfide bond:. 2 (cover by Mike Mignola). Typically 2.5–20 raw seeds can kill an adult human; 4 a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for cocks and ducks.[3]. Hellboy: Weird Tales Vol. [2]. 1 (cover by Mike Mignola).

Although one seed contains enough ricin to kill an adult human, they may pass harmlessly through the digestive system if swallowed whole. Hellboy: Weird Tales Vol. Modern feed-making techniques break down the ricin in castor beans by heating at 140 degrees Celsius for 20 minutes, although some studies suggest that residual toxic effects may linger. B.P.R.D.: The Dead. Although the castor bean plant has long been noted for its toxicity, ricin was first isolated and named in 1888 by Hermann Stillmark. B.P.R.D.: Plague of Frogs. (See abrin). B.P.R.D.: The Soul of Venice and Other Stories.

Ingested in larger doses, ricin causes severe diarrhea and victims can die of shock. B.P.R.D.: Hollow Earth and Other Stories. In small doses, such as the typical dose contained in a measure of castor oil, ricin causes digestive tract cramps. Scott Allie, colors by Dave Stewart, letters by Pat Brosseau) Second Edition: November 2003 Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books ISBN 1-59307-092-6. Long term organ damage is likely in survivors. Mignola, Mike Hellboy: Conqueror Worm (ed. There is no known antidote; only symptomatic and supportive treatment is available. Scott Allie, colors by Dave Stewart, letters by Pat Brosseau) Second Edition: November 2003 Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books ISBN 1-59307-093-4.

Ricin is poisonous if inhaled, injected, or ingested, acting as a toxin by the inhibition of protein synthesis. Mignola, Mike Hellboy: The Right Hand of Doom (ed. . Scott Allie, colors by Dave Stewart, letters by Pat Brosseau) Second Edition: November 2003 Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books ISBN 1-59307-091-8. It is considered to be twice as deadly as cobra venom. Mignola, Mike Hellboy: The Chained Coffin and Others (ed. Ricin can be extracted from castor beans and is known to have an average lethal dose in humans of 0.2 milligrams (1/5,000th of a gram), though some sources give higher figures [1]. Scott Allie, colors by James Sinclair, separations by Dave Stewart, letters by Pat Brosseau) Second Edition: November 2003 Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books ISBN 1-59307-095-0.

Its name comes from the seed's resemblance to the tick. Mignola, Mike Hellboy: Wake the Devil (ed. The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). Barbara Kesel with Scott Allie, Plot by Mike Mignola, Script by John Byrne) Third Edition: November 2003 Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books ISBN 1-59307-094-2. Ricin B is important in assisting ricin A's entry into a cell by binding with a cell surface component. Mignola, Mike Hellboy: Seed of Destruction (ed. Ricin A is toxic to the cell by interfering with Ribosomes, responsible for protein synthesis. Scott Allie) Milwaukie: Dark Horse Books ISBN 1-56971-910-1.

Mignola, Mike (March 2003)The Art of Hellboy (ed. (Box Full of Evil). Ualac, too, is ensnared by Astaroth, who takes Hellboy’s crown to Hell where it waits for Hellboy to retrieve it. Bromhead prays to Astaroth for deliverance, but winds up being turned into a lizard.

Ualac wanted Hellboy’s right hand, but Hellboy is spurred into action by a vision of the King of the Daoine Sidh and his two attendants, who reveal that his name no longer binds him now that the Crown has been taken from him. Ualac tricks Bromhead into summoning the Crown of Apocalypse, which sits invisibly on Hellboy’s head. Dunstan. 1999 Druggan Hill, England/Lockmaben, Scotland: Igor Bromhead releases Ualac, a minor demon trapped in a box by St.

(The Right Hand of Doom). Hellboy must keep the hand lest someone else retrieve it and use it. Hellboy relates his life story to Frost, and the two realize that Hellboy’s right hand is the key to triggering the Apocalypse. 1998 Lizarza, Spain: Hellboy meets up with the son of Malcolm Frost, Adrian Frost.

1997 Romania: The Giurescu affair (Wake the Devil). During this dream, Hellboy believes that the demon turned to acknowledge him. Hellboy lay dormant within her, until the demon returned at the end of the woman’s life to claim her and his unborn son. 1995: Hellboy returns to the ruined church where he appeared in the world, and has a dream-vision of his origin: His mother, as a young woman, had cavorted with a demon, and on Walpurgisnacht (a night of great significance to witches) conceived Hellboy as a result.

August). (The Wolves of St. Father Kelly had been there before them to investigate, but he was murdered along with the rest of the town. 1994 Griart, the Balkans: Hellboy and Kate visit a town decimated by werewolves.

1994: The Cavendish Hall affair (Seed of Destruction). 1992 Lake Okanagan, British Columbia: Hellboy and Abe search for the Ogopogo Monster. (A Christmas Underground). 1989 England: Hellboy investigates the disappearance of Ann Heath, who was lured underground by a demon.

1982 India: Hellboy works on a werewolf case. (The Varcolac). She attempts to trick him with an illusion, but he kills her. 1982 Yorkshire, England: Hellboy, after over seven years of searching, tracks down the body of the vampire Countess Ilona Kakosky.

(Goodbye Mister Tod). There are implications that this being was much like the entities in space that The Nazis and Herman von Klempt were trying to contact in Conqueror Worm. Hellboy manages to repulse the entity, but Mister Tod is destroyed in the process. 1979 Portland, Oregon: Mister Tod, a physical medium (much like Johann Kraus) whom Hellboy had met several years earlier, unwittingly opens an ectoplasmic door to an Ogdru-Jahad-like being.

The Guarinos would turn out to be Satanists. 1969 Lockmaben, Scotland: Bruttenholm and Hellboy visit the castle which would later be purchased by Count Guarino. (Heads). 1967, Kyoto, Japan: Hellboy travels to Japan, and handles a case involving floating heads called nuke-kubi (抜首).

1964 Bereznik, Russia: Hellboy tracks down the Baba Yaga, and in the ensuing encounter shoots out her left eye. 1961 Saybrook, Connecticut: Hellboy works with Father Edward Kelly on an unnamed mission. (Iron Shoes). 1961 Ireland: Hellboy ensnares the Iron Shoes demon and hands him over to Father Mike.

1959 Macapa: Hellboy stops von Klempt's experiments, but the severed head escapes. 1959 New Guinea: Hellboy works on a werewolf case. (The Corpse). This is the first (but not the last time) he will take a personal interest in Hellboy.

The King of the Daoine Sidh oversees the matter personally. 1959 Ireland: To retrieve a baby, Hellboy must bear a corpse to his final resting place. 1957 India: Hellboy works on a werewolf case. (King Vold).

Aickman is only interested in the potential reward, and manoeuvres Hellboy into completing Vold’s tasks for him. 1956, Norway: Bruttenholm sends Hellboy to help Professor Edmond Aickman (who worked with Bruttenholm in Burma and Chengdu) with the King Vold myth. (The Nature of the Beast). Bruttenholm’s complicity in this test is unknown.

In the end, they remain undecided, although the lilies that grew from his blood spatters indicate that Hellboy would not confine himself to his destiny. Hellboy is successful, but the mission was really a cover for the Club to discern Hellboy’s true allegiances. 1954, England: Hellboy is asked by the Osiris Club to slay the Saint Leonard Worm. 1952: Hellboy is granted honorary human status by the UN and becomes a field agent for the B.P.R.D.

08-01-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.