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Outsourcing

Outsourcing (or contracting out) is often defined as the delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation. Outsourcing is a business decision that is often made to lower costs or focus on core competences. A related term, offshoring, means transferring work to another country, typically overseas. Offshoring is similar to outsourcing when companies hire overseas subcontractors, but differs when companies transfer work to the same company in another country. Outsourcing became a popular buzzword in business and management in the 1990s. EDS was the first company to establish the outsourcing business.

Overview

Outsourcing is defined as the management and/or day-to-day execution of an entire business function by a third party service provider.

Outsourcing and/or out-tasking involve transferring a significant amount of management control to the supplier. Buying products from another entity is not outsourcing or out-tasking, but merely a vendor relationship. Likewise, buying services from a provider is not necessarily outsourcing or out-tasking. Outsourcing always involves a considerable degree of two-way information exchange, co-ordination, and trust.

Organizations that deliver such services feel that outsourcing requires the turning over of management responsibility for running a segment of business. In theory, this business segment should not be mission-critical, but practice often dictates otherwise. Many companies look to employ expert organizations in the areas targeted for outsourcing. Business segments typically outsourced include Information Technology, Human Resources, Facilities and Real Estate Management and Accounting. Many companies also outsource customer support and call center functions, manufacturing and engineering. Outsourcing business is characterized by expertise not inherent to the core of the client organization.

The overhead costs of customer service are typically less where outsourcing has been used, leading to many companies, from utilities to manufacturers, closing their in-house customer relations departments and outsourcing their customer service to third party call centers. The logical extension of these decisions was of outsourcing labor overseas to countries with lower labor costs, this trend is often referred to as offshoring of customer service.

Due to this demand call centers have sprung up in Canada, China, Eastern Europe, India, Israel, Ireland, Pakistan, Philippines and even the Caribbean. Many companies, most notably Dell and AT&T Wireless, have gained significant negative publicity for their decisions to use non-US labor for customer service and technical support; one of the most prominent complaints being the expectation that the replacement staff will have more trouble communicating with customers.

A related term is out-tasking: turning over a narrowly-defined segment of business to another business, typically on an annual contract, or sometimes a shorter one. This usually involves continued direct or indirect management and decision-making by the client of the out-tasking business.

The term "outsourcing" became more well known largely because of a growth in the number of high-tech companies in the early 1990s that were often not large enough to be able to easily maintain large customer service departments of their own. In some cases these companies hired technical writers to simplify the usage instructions of their products, index the key points of information and contracted with temporary employment agencies to find, train and hire generally low-skilled workers to answer their telephone technical support and customer service calls. These agents generally worked in call centers where the information needed to assist the calling customer was indexed in a computer system. The agents were often not able to tell the customer they did not actually directly work for the original manufacturer. In some cases, the agents are not allowed to even give out their real name.

Outsourcing, Offshoring, and Offshore Outsourcing

Note that “outsourcing”, “offshore outsourcing” and “offshoring” are used interchangeably in public discourse despite important technical differences. To be consistent, “outsourcing”, in corporate context, represents an organizational practice that involves the transfer of an organizational function to a third party. When this third party is located in another country the term “offshore outsourcing” makes more sense. “Offshoring”, in contrast, represents the transfer of an organizational function to another country, regardless of whether the work stays in the corporation or not. In short, “outsourcing” means sharing organizational control with another organization, or a process of establishing network relations within an organizational field. "Offshoring”, on the other hand, represents a relocation of an organizational function to a foreign country, not necessarily a transformation of internal organizational control.

Arguments for Outsourcing

A recent poll of economists by the Wall Street Journal found that only 16 % of them saw outsourcing as having a significant impact on the overall job picture. [1]

One criticism of outsourcing is that product quality suffers. But the outsourcing firm has freedom to move a firm department or division back home if its profits are suffering as a result of poor quality. In fact, many American companies like Dell have moved customer service divisions back to America as a result of poor quality [2]. The decision to outsource is like any other business investment decision in that there is risk. Critics of outsourcing often talk about outsourcing failures without mentioning instances of outsourcing success. The decision to outsource is like the decision to expand a business overseas, to incorporate computer technology, or to hire new workers. If the company does it correctly, it benefits from higher profits. Proponents of outsourcing believe that arguing that outsourcing leads to lower product quality is pointless because if it were true, consumer demand will force firms to shift back to producing the good or service in-firm rather than out-firm. That many large businesses outsource and continue to outsource suggests that in many cases outsourcing is successful in that it increases product quality, lowers costs substantially, or both.

Some economists have argued that outsourcing is a form of technological innovation analogous to machines on a car assembly line. American Motor Company Ford relied heavily on workers in the past to assemble car parts. Today these workers are replaced by machines because they are cheaper in the long run, produce better quality products, or a combination of both (the firm is trying to increase its quality to cost ratio, quality being defined by the consumer and inferred from revenue). Economists argue that machines on the car assembly line must have a higher quality to cost ratio than workers because, if they didn’t, there would be no incentive for the firm to replace workers with machines. Although workers’ jobs were lost from this replacement of workers with machines, the Ford Motor Company made more money by lowering costs (or increasing quality, thereby increasing revenue). Some argue that greater profits to the labor owners lead to higher consumption, which leads to further job creation, allowing those who lost jobs to gain jobs in other sectors of the economy. However, economists do concede that labor is not always perfectly mobile and that some workers may have difficulty getting new jobs. Some economists suggest that government training programs be provided.

A firm's motivation for replacing workers with machines is identical to the motivation for outsourcing, i.e. the firm is trying to maximize the quality of its product given cost (its productivity). Because outsourcing allows for lower costs, even if quality reduces slightly or not at all, productivity increases, which benefits the economy on aggregate.

Economist Thomas Sowell from the University of Chicago said “anything that increases economic efficiency--whether by outsourcing or a hundred other things--is likely to cost somebody's job. The automobile cost the jobs of people who took care of horses or made saddles, carriages, and horseshoes.” [1] Walter Williams, another economist, said “we could probably think of hundreds of jobs that either don't exist or exist in far fewer numbers than in the past--jobs such as elevator operator, TV repairman and coal deliveryman. ‘Creative destruction’ is a discovery process where we find ways to produce goods and services more cheaply. That in turn makes us all richer.” [2]

Professor Drezner reports that for every dollar spent on outsourcing to India, the United States reaps between $1.12 and $1.14 in benefits. [3] Drezner also points out that large software companies such as Microsoft and Oracle have increased outsourcing and used the savings for investment and larger domestic payrolls. Nationally, 70,000 computer programmers lost their jobs between 1999 and 2003, but more than 115,000 computer software engineers found higher-paying jobs during that same period. [3]

Advocates of outsourcing also claim that outsourcing-related fraud is insignificant, averring that such malpractices can occur in any country. For example, 40 million credit card numbers were stolen in June 2005 at CardSystems Solutions in Tucson, Arizona. (See the full story.). In December 2005, nearly 50 people were indicted in connection with a scheme that bilked at least $200,000 from Katrina relief fund at Red Cross claim center in Bakersfield, Calif., which handled calls from storm victims.

Criticisms of Outsourcing

Because "outsourced" workers are not actually paid agents of the company, it has been argued that there is less incentive for the agent to show loyalty or work ethic in its representation of said company. It has been therefore argued that quality levels of customer service and technical support of outsourced tasks are lower than where they have remained 'in-house'.

The 2004 US presidential election race focused on outsourcing to some degree. This debate did not center on problems of declining quality of customer services but on the threat to US jobs and work. Criticism of outsourcing, from the perspective of US citizens, by-and-large, revolves around the costs associated with transferring control of the labor process to an external entity in another country. A Zogby International poll reports that 71% of American voters believe that “outsourcing jobs overseas” hurts the economy and another 62% believe that the US government should impose some legislative action against companies that transfer domestic jobs overseas, possibly in the form of increased taxes on companies that outsource. The poll of over 1,000 Americans was conducted in August 2004 (See Zogby International survey results online at zogby.com).

Outsourcing appears to threaten the livelihood of domestic workers and the American Dream. This is especially true for high-tech workers who were promised the “jobs of tomorrow”- a phrase Bill Clinton iterated in 1994 to justify his conservative position on NAFTA. Outsourcing appears to work contrary to the claim that “free trade” will create the “jobs of tomorrow” in America when high-tech or high paying white collar jobs are transferred to or created in foreign countries. Thus, outsourcing is criticized as it represents a new threat to labor, contributing to rampant worker insecurity, and reflective of the general process of globalization where the United States government fails to mediate business-labor relations in a way conducive to prevailing values that places the American middle class worker as a central priority.

Criticism of outsourcing from the public and media sometimes tend to concentrate on lackluster customer service and technical support being provided by either local workers who are not actually employees of the company, or by overseas workers attempting to communicate with Americans in broken or incomprehensible English. Defenders of outsourcing say if this were true, then companies would experience market forces compelling them to return service and support handling back from the outsourced company. However, service and support are often not considered by customers as part of their original purchases. Customers only experience outsourced service and support after they have spent their money since sales is generally done in-house by the original company. Dealing with lackluster outsourced service is a negative surprise after the money is already spent.

Policy solutions to outsourcing are also criticized. One solution often offered is retraining of domestic workers to new jobs. However, some of these workers are already highly educated and already possess a bachelor's and master's degree. Retraining to their current level in another field may not be an option due to years of study and cost of education involved. There is also little incentive given that the jobs in their new field could also be outsourced as well. Proportions of workers trained for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields fields in developing nations are viewed to outstrip traditional technology leaders such as the U.S. With these traditionally "safe" jobs perceived to be endangered, this raises questions regarding whether origin countries can maintain any comparative advantage given the losses in both low and high-value jobs.

There are also security issues concerning companies giving outside access to sensitive customer information. In April of 2005, a high-profile case involving the theft of $350,000 from four Citibank customers occurred when Indian call center workers in Pune, India, acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies with their accounts and notified the bank. (See the full report.)

Outright fraud is also a concern. In 2005, Intel discovered and fired 250 Indian employees after they faked their expense reports. The firings followed from Intel's internal Business Practice Excellence programme of expenses claims. The report concluded that fraudulent practises such as "faking bills to claim your allowances like conveyance [and] drivers’ salaries" were some common malpractices in India. Intel would not put up with such fraud. NASSCOM, which is a forum of IT and ITeS companies, has attempted to address these fraud concerns in India by creating the National Skills Registry. That database contains personal and work-related information, enabling employers to verify a staff member's credentials and allowing police to track the background of workers.

Democratic U.S. presidential candidate John Kerry blasted firms that outsource jobs abroad or that incorporate overseas in tax havens to avoid paying their fair share of US taxes during his unsuccessful 2004 campaign, calling such firms "Benedict Arnold corporations," in reference to the infamous traitor Benedict Arnold.

It is argued a malicious implementation of the Higher Education Role Analysis (HERA) in the UK may force Higher Education administrative and support staff to prematurely retire or seek for new employment in other organisations, thus freeing of staff many departments which could then be effectively outsourced. Outsourcing departments like Accounts, Payroll and Procurement is now common practice, as seen in August 2005 at the University of Portsmouth.

Notes

  1. ^  This view is borne out by a recent study by Richard Freeman at the National Bureau of Economic Research in Washington. He found that in the year 2000, 17 % of university bachelor degrees in the U.S. were in science and engineering compared with a world average of 27 % and 52 % in China. Universities in the European Union granted 40 % more science and engineering doctorates than the United States, with that figure expected to reach nearly 100 % by about 2010 according to Freeman's paper.
  2. 1. ^  “Outsourcing” and “Saving Jobs” by Thomas Sowell
  3. 2. ^  Should we “Save Jobs”? by Walter Williams
  4. 3. ^  "Outsourcing is the Kool" (kOOL PEOPLE)

Literature

Mark Kobayashi-Hillary. 2004. (2nd ed 2005) Outsourcing to India. ISBN 354023943X.


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(2nd ed 2005) Outsourcing to India. ISBN 354023943X. The words "Jesus" and "tai" (a Korean swear word) were also banned before, but have now been allowed. 2004. In chat, players will use misspellings, replacement characters (such as "", which is displayed as "₩" in-game), or extra spaces to get around the filter for in game chat. Mark Kobayashi-Hillary. Game Ids can be filtered by the Gunbound Site at registration, so no-one can use profanities in their name, though there are many people that get pass this filter and find a way to use profane words in their name. Outsourcing departments like Accounts, Payroll and Procurement is now common practice, as seen in August 2005 at the University of Portsmouth. GunBound has a rudimentary profanity filter, usually only filtering some of the most common English swear-words (the word "damn", however, is not filtered) (although, amusingly, it also filters a few perfectly acceptable English terms like "suck").

It is argued a malicious implementation of the Higher Education Role Analysis (HERA) in the UK may force Higher Education administrative and support staff to prematurely retire or seek for new employment in other organisations, thus freeing of staff many departments which could then be effectively outsourced. In all three variations of Sudden Death, items are deactivated when the sudden death period begins. presidential candidate John Kerry blasted firms that outsource jobs abroad or that incorporate overseas in tax havens to avoid paying their fair share of US taxes during his unsuccessful 2004 campaign, calling such firms "Benedict Arnold corporations," in reference to the infamous traitor Benedict Arnold. Each type of Sudden Death has a special effect on shots. Democratic U.S. Sudden Death mode activates after a set number of turns. That database contains personal and work-related information, enabling employers to verify a staff member's credentials and allowing police to track the background of workers. Here is a list of the satellites in the Moon Disk:.

NASSCOM, which is a forum of IT and ITeS companies, has attempted to address these fraud concerns in India by creating the National Skills Registry. The Moon Disk, located in the bottom left-hand corner of the screen (Or bottom right in new layout for World Championship released in November of 2005), is a series of icons known as "satellites" that affect the gameplay. Intel would not put up with such fraud. In solo and tag games, players can gain new one-slot items by grabbing treasure chests dropped by defeated players. The report concluded that fraudulent practises such as "faking bills to claim your allowances like conveyance [and] drivers’ salaries" were some common malpractices in India. Items also add extra delay to the user's shot as a price for using the item, this is commonly mistaken by new players to be a gold cost due to the fact that the delay added is labeled on the item in the bottom right hand corner (hence many new players, mistakenly, bring all "bloods" which have no delay cost, but instead require a health penalty). The firings followed from Intel's internal Business Practice Excellence programme of expenses claims. These items offer a variety of benefits to the user, such as "Dual", which allows players to fire two shots in one turn.

In 2005, Intel discovered and fired 250 Indian employees after they faked their expense reports. Prior to each game, powerups can be selected and equipped, with up to 6 basic items, or 3 large items. Outright fraud is also a concern. Explosion-type attacks do the same damage to all mobiles. (See the full report.). The four attack types are:. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies with their accounts and notified the bank. Each mobile is one of three types:.

In April of 2005, a high-profile case involving the theft of $350,000 from four Citibank customers occurred when Indian call center workers in Pune, India, acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names. On the other hand, A.Sate requires more precision, but a well-calculated shot will yield lots of damage. There are also security issues concerning companies giving outside access to sensitive customer information. and Big Foot are known to make large holes in the map, which is useful for bunging. With these traditionally "safe" jobs perceived to be endangered, this raises questions regarding whether origin countries can maintain any comparative advantage given the losses in both low and high-value jobs. For example, J.D. Proportions of workers trained for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields fields in developing nations are viewed to outstrip traditional technology leaders such as the U.S. Each mobile has their strengths and weaknesses, and their modes of attack differ by their shot types.

There is also little incentive given that the jobs in their new field could also be outsourced as well. The chances of getting one is around (1/65). Retraining to their current level in another field may not be an option due to years of study and cost of education involved. These Mobliles are much more powerful. However, some of these workers are already highly educated and already possess a bachelor's and master's degree. In addition to the above mentioned mobiles, there is also a slight chance that you may receive one of two (or in the case of a tag mode battle, an extremely rare chance of both) unselectable mobiles. One solution often offered is retraining of domestic workers to new jobs. One may also choose the "random" feature on the mobile selection screen.

Policy solutions to outsourcing are also criticized. Note: Defense reduction only applies to Hit-type attacks, meaning Hit-types such as the NakMachine will deal more damage while other mobiles will still deal the same damage. Dealing with lackluster outsourced service is a negative surprise after the money is already spent. NOTE: In Gunbound Thor's Hammer the SNIPER mode seemed to be glitched and just added power randomly, and so with the release of Gunbound World Champion, Sniper mode was removed. Customers only experience outsourced service and support after they have spent their money since sales is generally done in-house by the original company. SLICE and DRAGSHOT are the two different modes of controlling shot power. However, service and support are often not considered by customers as part of their original purchases. Delay is a considerably important factor when playing GunBound, as skillful management of delay will allow a player to take turns faster than his or her opponent.

Defenders of outsourcing say if this were true, then companies would experience market forces compelling them to return service and support handling back from the outsourced company. As with most statistics, however, it only applies to Avatar On servers. Criticism of outsourcing from the public and media sometimes tend to concentrate on lackluster customer service and technical support being provided by either local workers who are not actually employees of the company, or by overseas workers attempting to communicate with Americans in broken or incomprehensible English. Equipping avatars that affect either the delay stat or the item delay stat also influence the turn delay. Thus, outsourcing is criticized as it represents a new threat to labor, contributing to rampant worker insecurity, and reflective of the general process of globalization where the United States government fails to mediate business-labor relations in a way conducive to prevailing values that places the American middle class worker as a central priority. Delay that is added to the shot due to time is calculated at +10 delay per second for all bots (except Turtle, which has +12 delay per second). Outsourcing appears to work contrary to the claim that “free trade” will create the “jobs of tomorrow” in America when high-tech or high paying white collar jobs are transferred to or created in foreign countries. In a player's turn, the timer is set for 20 seconds (failing to complete the shot within 20 seconds results in forfeiture of turn, which can also be done without adding any extra delay through a "skip turn" button) when a player's turn starts and measures in increments of .01.

This is especially true for high-tech workers who were promised the “jobs of tomorrow”- a phrase Bill Clinton iterated in 1994 to justify his conservative position on NAFTA. Delay is determined by 4 factors:. Outsourcing appears to threaten the livelihood of domestic workers and the American Dream. This number in the delay chart/list at the bottom left hand corner determines the turn order. The poll of over 1,000 Americans was conducted in August 2004 (See Zogby International survey results online at zogby.com). (Punky Brown hair (head), Red Nose (face), Hawaiian Wear (shirt), Vampire Casket (flag).). A Zogby International poll reports that 71% of American voters believe that “outsourcing jobs overseas” hurts the economy and another 62% believe that the US government should impose some legislative action against companies that transfer domestic jobs overseas, possibly in the form of increased taxes on companies that outsource. (Items range from as little as 5,000 to as much as 350,000 gold to buy permanently; obviously, the monthly rentals cost much less and the weekly rentals less still.) If you wanted to buy a premium outfit using only gold, it could cost upwards of 1,000,000 gold; buying a "money suit" for 135,000 would speed things up considerably.

Criticism of outsourcing, from the perspective of US citizens, by-and-large, revolves around the costs associated with transferring control of the labor process to an external entity in another country. For instance, the Flamingo shirt gives 18 popularity points and costs 60,000 gold to buy permanently. This debate did not center on problems of declining quality of customer services but on the threat to US jobs and work. (See above; one point in popularity = 1% more gold.). The 2004 US presidential election race focused on outsourcing to some degree. They are relatively cheap and help you earn gold 1.5 times as fast. It has been therefore argued that quality levels of customer service and technical support of outsourced tasks are lower than where they have remained 'in-house'. These are called "money suits" but they are not official sets.

Because "outsourced" workers are not actually paid agents of the company, it has been argued that there is less incentive for the agent to show loyalty or work ethic in its representation of said company. Many people play there with a combination of avatars that give you 50+ popularity since that's the only stat that matters. In December 2005, nearly 50 people were indicted in connection with a scheme that bilked at least $200,000 from Katrina relief fund at Red Cross claim center in Bakersfield, Calif., which handled calls from storm victims. These Zones are known as "Avatar Off" zones. (See the full story.). Note: In some game zones (11, 12) avatar bonuses do not apply, except for the star (or popularity) stat, which increases the amount of gold won in a game. For example, 40 million credit card numbers were stolen in June 2005 at CardSystems Solutions in Tucson, Arizona. However, the penalty for damage to a player on your own team is not given if the damage is less than 50 (out of the ~1000 damage it takes destroy average mobiles with no avatar to help them last longer) or if you give any damage to the opposing side on the turn as well, no matter how much.

Advocates of outsourcing also claim that outsourcing-related fraud is insignificant, averring that such malpractices can occur in any country. Penalties of a loss of GP and gold are given for plays that help the opposing side. [3]. GP is the point system that determines ranking. Nationally, 70,000 computer programmers lost their jobs between 1999 and 2003, but more than 115,000 computer software engineers found higher-paying jobs during that same period. The power-user card also gives a host unlimited number of kicks in the game room instead of 5 and prevents him from losing gold or GP in penalties such as damaging a teammate. [3] Drezner also points out that large software companies such as Microsoft and Oracle have increased outsourcing and used the savings for investment and larger domestic payrolls. Cash only is also used for the power-user card, a temporary status that makes a player earn gold and GP faster (+10% gold and +20% GP) and enhances the status of the games he hosts to attract more players.

Professor Drezner reports that for every dollar spent on outsourcing to India, the United States reaps between $1.12 and $1.14 in benefits. One notable exception to this rule is the cash-only phoenix and its blue-flamed brother, which are very powerful items. That in turn makes us all richer.” [2]. Gold only items are usually the most powerful items with the best upgrades. ‘Creative destruction’ is a discovery process where we find ways to produce goods and services more cheaply. Although most items can be rented with cash or gold, some items are gold only or cash only. The automobile cost the jobs of people who took care of horses or made saddles, carriages, and horseshoes.” [1] Walter Williams, another economist, said “we could probably think of hundreds of jobs that either don't exist or exist in far fewer numbers than in the past--jobs such as elevator operator, TV repairman and coal deliveryman. This is called "cash." Using cash is sometimes looked down upon by a few players, since the items were not earned by the skill of the player.

Economist Thomas Sowell from the University of Chicago said “anything that increases economic efficiency--whether by outsourcing or a hundred other things--is likely to cost somebody's job. To earn items faster, a player can pay softnyx with real-world money. Because outsourcing allows for lower costs, even if quality reduces slightly or not at all, productivity increases, which benefits the economy on aggregate. It is also possible to have negative points. the firm is trying to maximize the quality of its product given cost (its productivity). The maximum number of points in any one category is 50. A firm's motivation for replacing workers with machines is identical to the motivation for outsourcing, i.e. Avatar items enhance:.

Some economists suggest that government training programs be provided. These items may be bought permanently with gold or cash, or may be rented for a chosen period of time, depending on the amount you spend. However, economists do concede that labor is not always perfectly mobile and that some workers may have difficulty getting new jobs. Gold is the in-game currency that can be used to purchase avatar items. Some argue that greater profits to the labor owners lead to higher consumption, which leads to further job creation, allowing those who lost jobs to gain jobs in other sectors of the economy. Awards are given for giving a good amount of damage (either for a full game or in a single turn), destroying or bunging (making a player fall off a map) an opponent, shooting with a high angle and, of course, winning a game (although players on the side that loses are allowed to keep the GP and gold they earned during the game). Although workers’ jobs were lost from this replacement of workers with machines, the Ford Motor Company made more money by lowering costs (or increasing quality, thereby increasing revenue). During game play prizes of gold and GP are awarded.

Economists argue that machines on the car assembly line must have a higher quality to cost ratio than workers because, if they didn’t, there would be no incentive for the firm to replace workers with machines. This, however, is only available in basic mode, attack mode allows only items. Today these workers are replaced by machines because they are cheaper in the long run, produce better quality products, or a combination of both (the firm is trying to increase its quality to cost ratio, quality being defined by the consumer and inferred from revenue). Depending on the drop mode selected in the lobby area by the host (basic or attack) gold bonuses are also available through the slots in the form of 10, 50, or 100 gold. American Motor Company Ford relied heavily on workers in the past to assemble car parts. (A red player's drops will be marked as red triangles, and a blue player's drops will be marked blue.). Some economists have argued that outsourcing is a form of technological innovation analogous to machines on a car assembly line. Each triangle's color is the color of the team of the player dropping the item.

That many large businesses outsource and continue to outsource suggests that in many cases outsourcing is successful in that it increases product quality, lowers costs substantially, or both. The small triangle facing downwards denotes the drop point of origin, and will count down from 4. Proponents of outsourcing believe that arguing that outsourcing leads to lower product quality is pointless because if it were true, consumer demand will force firms to shift back to producing the good or service in-firm rather than out-firm. All items require four turns to fall or activate. If the company does it correctly, it benefits from higher profits. They are as follows:. The decision to outsource is like the decision to expand a business overseas, to incorporate computer technology, or to hire new workers. The drops fall from the very top of the screen and, unless otherwise stated are affected by wind greatly depending on wind power and direction.

Critics of outsourcing often talk about outsourcing failures without mentioning instances of outsourcing success. The option of respining the slot is also available. The decision to outsource is like any other business investment decision in that there is risk. If and when it generates three identical items, it allows them to drop or use these beneficial or harmful items on the remaining players. In fact, many American companies like Dell have moved customer service divisions back to America as a result of poor quality [2]. During a Tag or Solo match, defeated players receive a slot wheel which automatically spins. But the outsourcing firm has freedom to move a firm department or division back home if its profits are suffering as a result of poor quality. Originally, only Nirvana, CozyTower and MetaMine had B-sides, but since the update of GunBound World Champion, all maps have a B-Side.

One criticism of outsourcing is that product quality suffers. They are listed below:. [1]. Currently, there are 21 maps to choose from (including all A-Sides and B-Sides). A recent poll of economists by the Wall Street Journal found that only 16 % of them saw outsourcing as having a significant impact on the overall job picture. There are four game types in GunBound, each with different playing styles and strategies. "Offshoring”, on the other hand, represents a relocation of an organizational function to a foreign country, not necessarily a transformation of internal organizational control. These items boost players' statistics in one or more areas, such as attack strength, defense, speed, and so forth, but only have an effect on the "Avatar On" worlds/servers (with the exception of popularity, which gives players 1% more gold per point in any world/server).

In short, “outsourcing” means sharing organizational control with another organization, or a process of establishing network relations within an organizational field. Gold is awarded for performing well and winning the game, which can be used to rent avatar items for one week, one month or buy them permanently. “Offshoring”, in contrast, represents the transfer of an organizational function to another country, regardless of whether the work stays in the corporation or not. Similar to the Worms games, the map is entirely destructible and makes it possible to destroy a mobile by making it fall off the map (this technique is commonly called "bunging"). When this third party is located in another country the term “offshore outsourcing” makes more sense. Shots are affected by the wind and its direction on different maps, as well as a green to white laser called Thor (color depends on power) which takes effect in certain rounds to give more damage. To be consistent, “outsourcing”, in corporate context, represents an organizational practice that involves the transfer of an organizational function to a third party. Players can move their mobiles a limited distance, choose a weapon (either weapon 1, 2, or SpecialShot) and adjust the angle and power to which they will fire their shot within a limited time.

Note that “outsourcing”, “offshore outsourcing” and “offshoring” are used interchangeably in public discourse despite important technical differences. Players can choose from a wide range of unique mobiles, ranging from a giant mechanical slug (Grub) to a Triceratops (Trico). In some cases, the agents are not allowed to even give out their real name. Players are assigned to opposing teams that take turns firing at their opponents with their "mobiles". The agents were often not able to tell the customer they did not actually directly work for the original manufacturer. GunBound is similar to the turn-based Worms game series, which were themselves based on earlier two-dimensional ballistics-simulation games such as Scorched Earth (IBM PC platform). These agents generally worked in call centers where the information needed to assist the calling customer was indexed in a computer system. .

In some cases these companies hired technical writers to simplify the usage instructions of their products, index the key points of information and contracted with temporary employment agencies to find, train and hire generally low-skilled workers to answer their telephone technical support and customer service calls.
. The term "outsourcing" became more well known largely because of a growth in the number of high-tech companies in the early 1990s that were often not large enough to be able to easily maintain large customer service departments of their own. GunBound (full name – GunBound World Champion, formerly GunBound: Thor's Hammer) is a freeware, online-only computer game developed in South Korea by softnyx. This usually involves continued direct or indirect management and decision-making by the client of the out-tasking business. wc = World Champion or Wind Change. A related term is out-tasking: turning over a narrowly-defined segment of business to another business, typically on an annual contract, or sometimes a shorter one. vnt = very nice try.

Many companies, most notably Dell and AT&T Wireless, have gained significant negative publicity for their decisions to use non-US labor for customer service and technical support; one of the most prominent complaints being the expectation that the replacement staff will have more trouble communicating with customers. vns = very nice shot. Due to this demand call centers have sprung up in Canada, China, Eastern Europe, India, Israel, Ireland, Pakistan, Philippines and even the Caribbean. ty = thank you. The logical extension of these decisions was of outsourcing labor overseas to countries with lower labor costs, this trend is often referred to as offshoring of customer service. tt = triple team. The overhead costs of customer service are typically less where outsourcing has been used, leading to many companies, from utilities to manufacturers, closing their in-house customer relations departments and outsourcing their customer service to third party call centers. tk = team kill.

Outsourcing business is characterized by expertise not inherent to the core of the client organization. Thor = Thor's Hammer, the metallic satellite floating in the sky that sends lasers to give extra damage. Many companies also outsource customer support and call center functions, manufacturing and engineering. tele/tp = teleport. Business segments typically outsourced include Information Technology, Human Resources, Facilities and Real Estate Management and Accounting. suk, suks, or sux = suck or sucks (Censor bypass). Many companies look to employ expert organizations in the areas targeted for outsourcing. Frequently and incorrectly called 55 as the other 2 buttons are "numbers," and the letters SS look like a 55 as well).

In theory, this business segment should not be mission-critical, but practice often dictates otherwise. SS/55 = special shot (yellow button on GunBound: Thor's Hammer and red button on actual GunBound; it can be used every 4 shots by the player, and will recharge twice as fast during Item Locks. Organizations that deliver such services feel that outsourcing requires the turning over of management responsibility for running a segment of business. This, of course, encourages them to use it whenever they are out of school, especially on the internet where nobody can hear them. Outsourcing always involves a considerable degree of two-way information exchange, co-ordination, and trust. Due to a government resolution, school kids in Singapore can be expelled if they are caught speaking Singlish. Likewise, buying services from a provider is not necessarily outsourcing or out-tasking. Singlish = an English creole spoken in Singapore -- it is a mix of English and several Chinese dialects.

Buying products from another entity is not outsourcing or out-tasking, but merely a vendor relationship. sh!t, shlt, shyt or sh1t = shit (Censor bypass). Outsourcing and/or out-tasking involve transferring a significant amount of management control to the supplier. sg = shotgun (Straight shot which consists in pointing, powering up, and releasing at aclose range, completely eliminating the point of predicting the shot's trajectory) -- also used to refer to Singapore. Outsourcing is defined as the management and/or day-to-day execution of an entire business function by a third party service provider. rdy = ready (a call to action, rather than a question; all players must signal they are ready before the game begins). . pro = professional/good/skilled player.

EDS was the first company to establish the outsourcing business. pendejo = a Spanish guy. Outsourcing became a popular buzzword in business and management in the 1990s. nt = nice try. Offshoring is similar to outsourcing when companies hire overseas subcontractors, but differs when companies transfer work to the same company in another country. ns = nice shot. A related term, offshoring, means transferring work to another country, typically overseas. np = no problem.

Outsourcing is a business decision that is often made to lower costs or focus on core competences. noob, n00b, newb, newbie, nub = new/bad/unskilled player. Outsourcing (or contracting out) is often defined as the delegation of non-core operations or jobs from internal production within a business to an external entity (such as a subcontractor) that specializes in that operation. "Cake's SS got nerfed yesterday! It can't bunge anymore.". ^  "Outsourcing is the Kool" (kOOL PEOPLE). nerfed = when a GunBound update weakens something; e.g. 3. nado = tornado/hurricane.

^  Should we “Save Jobs”? by Walter Williams. n1 = nice one. 2. ctm = cono tu madre in Spanish, as in the female private part being directed to your mom, and no, it doesn't mean anything nice. ^  “Outsourcing” and “Saving Jobs” by Thomas Sowell. mierda = Spanish word for shit. 1. Sometimes lags fix themselves, but sometimes they don't end until everyone gets bored of waiting and leaves the game.

Universities in the European Union granted 40 % more science and engineering doctorates than the United States, with that figure expected to reach nearly 100 % by about 2010 according to Freeman's paper. lag = used by players to announce the game is lagging (will not move forward to next turn, causing players to just sit and wait). were in science and engineering compared with a world average of 27 % and 52 % in China. ks = kill steal (killing an opponent one's teammate had already been attacking extensively), thus taking the gold for the kill. He found that in the year 2000, 17 % of university bachelor degrees in the U.S. jejejeje or jajajaja = the "j" consonant sound in Spanish is similar to the "h" sound in English, this is used as a laugh by Spanish speakers. ^  This view is borne out by a recent study by Richard Freeman at the National Bureau of Economic Research in Washington. haircut/headshot = someone's shot "sliced" the top of another person, but didn't actually hit (due to the square detection area the game uses to register hits, the player's "body" will not register as a hit, only the mobile itself does.).

gl = Good luck. gg = Good/great game. gj = Good/great job. gb = GunBound.

fuk = FUCK! (Censor bypass). eBay wand = reference to a player with rank wand with bad skills, as if the account were bought off eBay. dt = double team - Two or more teammates focus their fire on one enemy player, (considered cheat or foul play by some, teamwork by others). dk = double kill (said when player has a double kill set up or when someone has achieved a double kill).

Resumably used due to a badly translated bungee on softnyx' part. bunge = The action of destroying the land from under an opponent, thereby defeating them. Does not pertain to aimbotting, where they actually have to work to hit. This is considered foul play and counter measures have been instituted by softnyx in the form of reduced Gold and GP awards in 1 VS 1 matches.

Usually consists of a player versus a new account that automatically walks off the map, then restarts the game. botter = A user using automated programs to win 1 VS 1 games. A new glitch that has been discovered that allows mobiles to shoot at previously unaccessable angles, this technique also call backshot. bs = back shot (for a boomer mobile mostly, referring to a shot that can be used to inflict more damage and earn more money), or bullshit.

bf = BigFoot. expects to defeat someone else.). someone expects to be defeated or 2. bb = bye bye (could be used to signify leaving a game/room, or to signify that 1.

Decimals are also used for precision. ex: Someone might tell their teammate "Angle 87, 2 bar" would mean shooting 87 degrees at 2 bar power. bar (1 bar, 2 bar, 3 bar) = The power bar in Gunbound has 3 marks inside it called 'bars', they are used to help teammates distinguish shots. Most of the programs found on the internet are not "bypassed," but usually the ones that you must purchase function until nProtect "patches" new aimbots.

However, with the introduction of the nProtect Hacking Prevent System, it has become very difficult, if not impossible, to find an aimbot that functions. Aimbot = A program created for use in aiming at opponents with perfect, or near perfect, accuracy. No Death: Sudden Death doesn't activate at all for the duration of the game. (usually 9 turns, including turns by other players than player waiting to use it again, are required before it can be used again).

Super Shot Death: Super Shots can be used every turn. (like dual item being used at all times). Double Death: Shots are fired twice; Super Shots are disabled. Big Bomb Death: Shots destroy more ground; Super Shots are disabled.

Note about Force, Hurricane, and Electricity - When two or more of the same satellite appear in a row, the sunbeam, tornado, or the lightning beam from the previous instance(s) of Force, Hurricane, or Electricity will stay until a different satellite comes up on the Moon Disk. Higher Thor levels mean that, for each laser shot from Thor, more damage is caused. The more damage Thor causes, the higher the "level" Thor becomes. When this satellite is activated, Thor shoots out a laser in addition to the normal shots (except for Aduka shot 2 and SS, which both utilize the Thor laser).

Thor - On the Moon Disk, Thor looks like a smaller version of the actual Thor satellite in the game. 3) It decreases the recharge time of player's SS. 2) It causes shield mobiles to stop regenerating their shields. There is no exception to this rule.

Ignorance has three main traits: 1) It causes Item Lock, meaning all players lose access to their items. Ignorance - On the Moon Disk, Ignorance appears as a black disk. Bionic mobiles get twice the effect of other mobiles. For anybody who has a turn when Protection comes up, that player gets a small increase in energy for each turn under the Protection.

Protection - On the Moon Disk, Protection looks like a crescent moon. Supposedly, this satellite is supposed to increase the land damage by 15%, but has never been seen on any map in Gunbound. Land - On the Moon Disk, Land looks like a piece of ice. When this icon comes up, both the wind speed and direction change once, staying the same until the next time Wind comes up in the Moon Disk.

Wind - On the Moon Disk, Wind looks like a comet. Electricity basically adds a less damaging version of Lightning's first shot to shots that pass through it. In the game, it looks like a lightning beam. Electricity - On the Moon Disk, Electricity looks like an electric orb.

However, if you stand in the tornado and fire with a high enough angle, it will continue up and be 'lost' somewhere. If the shot is ascending as it enters, it will travel farther, and if it is descending, it will fall shorter. Shots that pass through the hurricane are wrapped around it once, then continue on their normal trajectory. In the game, it looks like a tornado (hence the moniker Tornado).

Hurricane (also known as Tornado) - On the Moon Disk, Hurricane looks like a hurricane. If left in giant ball form it will not retain the properties of Force. When using it's SS shot, it must have split first. Turtle, however, has an exception.

The amount of attack power increase is directly proportional to the amount of time the shot stays in the sunbeam. Shots that go through the Force have their attack power increased. In the game, it looks like a sunbeam. Force - On the Moon Disk, Force looks like a sun.

Laser. Hit. Explosion. Electricity.

Has less HP, but also carries an additional shield that regenerates over time. Weak against Hit-type attacks. Strong against Laser-type attacks. Shield

    .

    Weak against Electricity-type attacks. Strong against Hit-type attacks. Machine

      . Healing items extra effective.

      Weak against Laser-type attacks. Strong against Electricity-type attacks. Creature or Bionic

        . Super Shot: Fires a projectile, a barrage burning swords are shot down vertically at projectile landing spot.

        Shot 2: Fires a tracer that attract more burning swords from a higher sword position. Shot 1: Fires a projectile of burning swords is shot at projectile landing spot from a lower sword position. Sate)

          . Knight (Laser/Machine) – has a sword above it that shoots lasers (very similar to A.

          Super Shot: Shoots a projectile which summons five mini-dragons to attack its landing spot from different angles. Shot 2: Shoots 4 breaths of fire, similar to bigfoot shot 1 but much, much more powerful, and less bunging capability. Shot 1: Shoots a breath of fire. Dragon (Explosion/Bionic) – floats above the ground, making nak 2 shots less effective, raon 2 shots almost completely useless, as well as Grub shot 2, and allowing it to traverse and climb very steep terrain.

            .

            Super Shot: Fires a blob of water which splits into 6 smaller blobs after approximately 1.8 seconds (it had been 3 seconds during Gunbound: Thor's Hammer, but has been changed with the release of Gunbound World Championship). Performing a High or Ultra High angle shot makes this easy to do, and causes significantly more damage. Shot 2: Fires 2 streams of water that intertwine initially, but converge after exactly 3 seconds. Shot 1: Fires a stream of water.

            Turtle (Hit/Bionic)

              . Extensive land damage as well as damage. Super Shot: Fires a rainbow colored ball that turns into an earth-removing spinning attack upon impact. Used effectively only by the rare "trico pro" or the common "Spanish Hacker.".

              However if all 3 are landed it can do up to 300. Usually they "spread" over a large area and do 80-100 damage. VERY tricky to land all 3 balls. Also the three balls travel differently depending on from which direction they are fired.

              The revolving stops if the balls go through a tornado. Shot 2: Fires 3 exploding green ball with the 2 on the outside revolving around a center one. Shot 1: Fires an exploding green ball. It is also arguably one of the trickiest bots (along with boomer) to use without using a guide.

                .

                Trico (Explosion/Bionic) – also nicknamed as Dino or Dinosaur as it somewhat resembles a dinosaur, more specifically a triceratops). Super Shot: Fires a larger mini-Raon that walks on contact with the ground until it hits a mobile, a jewel or a mini-Raon, or after 5 seconds; can get sucked up by a tornado. NOTE: the mini-Raons can be attracted to yourself... High instant damage by point-blank shooting at the ground an opponent is standing on, causing the mini-Raons to explode on touch with other bot.

                Shot 2: Fires 2 mini-Raons (often called "mines" or "babies") that walk into a nearby mobile at the beginning of one's next turn; less sensitive to Creature-type mobiles; can get sucked up by a nearby tornado (their activity is denoted by a light on their head and whether their eyes are open or closed, (green for inactive, red for armed). Shot 1: Fires 3 strings of helix rotating gears. Raon Launcher/RaonLauncher/Leon Launcher/LeonLauncher/Raon/Roan(Laser/Machine) – also nicknamed "Pregbot" or "BabyLauncher" because of its Shot 2 & SS giving birth to "babies".

                  . Super Shot: Fires a miniature Nak that can go through ground and explodes upon impact with a mobile, a jewel, or a mini-Raon.

                  Such an advanced shooting technique can do average 330 damage. When the shot 2 is underground, it will automatically rise to surface. However, many players who are "skilled" with Nak accentuate their professional abilities by applying split second pressure to the space bar located south of the keyboard. It is also possible to fire it directly underground. The underground arc is determined by angle and power of shot.

                  The shot will drop into the earth and rebound back to the surface, exploding when it hits the surface. Shot 2: Fires a "oscillation bomb" which digs underground and then resurfaces further in a reverse parabolic arc of its original path through the air, depending on the strength of firing. Shot 1: Fires an electric sphere that is very heavy, meaning that it is less affected by the wind factors. It's unbelieveably high defense, health, attack power and angle range make up for its average mobilty range.

                    .

                    It is very difficult to operate his Weapon 2 due to its special ability. It is relatively slow but compensates with a good armor and health point. Nakmachine/NakMachine/Nak(Hit/Machine) – also nicknamed as Bubblegum or Bumble Bee due to the way it blows bubbles when idle, or it could also be vulgarly named as another 'Analfur Bot' as this machine also fires its bullets from the rear. Super Shot: Fires a dark blue object that removes mobiles' shield regeneration within a radius for several turns, dealing damage similar to a shot 2 plus all the current HP of the targeted mobiles' shields.

                    Shot 2: Fires 2 intertwining, helix formation lasers. Shot 1: Fires a laser. Mage, (Laser/Shield)

                      . A thunderbolt hits every enemy mobile in the surrounding area on or near the impact site.

                      Super Shot: Fires a projectile that DOESN'T pass through other mobiles. Also note that the left thunderbolt hits the ground a split-second before the right one, useful for angle-stripping. 2 thunderbolts come down in a "V" shape at impact site (note this angle is 45 degrees on either side from a vertical origin). Shot 2: Fires a projectile that passes through other mobiles.

                      A thunderbolt comes down at impact site (150-210 damage for direct hit). Shot 1: Fires a projectile that passes through other mobiles. Lightening/Lighting/Lightning (Electricity/Shield) – also nicknamed Lovebot because it makes a heart shape out of lightning when idle.

                        . The tracers tend to spread apart a little after splitting.

                        The purple tracers follow the red tracer and the 8 missiles follow their purple tracer. Super Shot: Same as shot 1 except the missile splits into 4 missiles and 1 red tracer, then 8 missiles and 4 purple tracers. Shot 2: Same as shot 1 except with 4 missiles. If it almost hits the target from the side, it may circle wider and wider until it hits something.

                        The missiles fly in circles until they hit the land where the tracker landed or another obstacle. The tracker will fall to ground with little-moderate attention to wind. Shot 1: Fires a missile which splits into two smaller missiles and a tracker at the summit of its flight. Up until mid-July 2005, one-hit-kills were possible using this technique, but this immense killing power was reduced by the softnyx team to even out the mobiles.

                          .

                          Its Shot 1 and 2 can produce a so-called "Nuke"-Shot when being close to the enemy and making the smaller missiles split off the tracer inside the opponent, thereby causing immense damage. Kalsiddon (Explosion/Machine) – new mobile since the update of GunBound World Champion, also called BigFoot 2. This shot isn't powerful at all unless you have a high attack bonus, the opponent's defense isn't applied, or your opponent is stuck on a very small piece of land that makes the shot rotate around it, thereby passing him a few more times. The only time that this is important is if you barely tap your shot.

                          Be careful when using this shot because its direction is determined by either how hard you shoot it and in which diection, also it is determined by which way the wind is blowing. Super Shot : A very powerful blob of jelly that climbs walls, does damage as long as it is in contact within about 1/2-1cm of the mobile, much like Grub's Super Shot. As soon as the shot hits the ground, it starts crawling clockwise (right). Shot 2: A moderately powered blob of jelly that climbs walls, it has a set detonation time.

                          As soon as the shot hits the ground, it starts crawling counterclockwise (left). it won't detonate if you hit someone directly). Shot 1: A moderately powered blob of jelly that climbs walls, it has a set detonation time (e.g. Frog/Frog (Hit/Bionic) – new mobile since the update of GunBound World Champion: Frog, often considered the hardest bot to use due to its sensitivity to wind, requires the player to tap spacebar and shot moves by itself

                            .

                            J.Frog/J. Super Shot: Pushes mobiles away from impact site while doing moderate damage, but cannot push them off cliffs; affects Creature-types less. Shot 2: Fires a ball that sucks in surrounding mobiles, jewels and also mini-Raons; affects Creature-types less. Shot 1: Fires an electric ball that shocks nearby enemies with splash damage.

                            J.D./JD (Electricity/Shield) – also nicknamed as Cake or Cakebot because of its idle animation which involves 2 smaller versions of JD that pop out of its head like a wedding cake.

                              . It does slightly more damage than Shot 2, but, due to recent updates, only decreases the defense of anything in the snowflake's radius by 5 instead of 20. Super Shot: Fires a snowflake that turns into an enormous snowflake on contact with the ground or a mobile. Maximum defense reduction is limited to 50 points on a single mobile.

                              Any damage results in 5-point reduction in defense that lasts for the duration of the game (even after respawn in Score mode). Shot 2: Fires a snowball from the mammoth from a slightly lower release position than its shot 1 (the trunk not the cannon). Shot 1: Fires an icicle with extensive land damage. Ice (Hit/Bionic) – also called Elephant or Mammoth

                                .

                                A very opportunistic shot but is the only shot (other than dual with dragon shot 2) that could do a 1 hit KO. Super Shot: Fires a purple ball that rolls around and does more damage the longer it touches, much like a life drain. Each deals more damage the longer they roll. The balls will explode after about 5-6 seconds, whether it hits a bot or not.

                                Shot 2: Fires 4 purple balls that roll around until contact with a mobile, and cannot go off the screen before contact with the ground. Shot 1: Fires a blue ball that explodes on contact with the ground or a mobile. Grub (Electricity/Bionic) – generally considered a 'NoobBot' because its second shot features spherical bullets that rolls according to the terrain and bounce of the edges of the screen, abused for low-damage moneymaking shots by most people.

                                  . Super Shot: Fires a boomerang that transforms into a golden metal boomerang after approximately 1.8 seconds.

                                  Shot 2: Fires 4 boomerangs. Shot 1: Fires a boomerang. The bot is very hard to use, and players with good handling of the bot are referred to as 'Boomer Pro'

                                    . Boomer/Boomer Launcher (Hit/Bionic) – extremely sensitive to even the smallest amount of wind causing "hook-" or "backshots".

                                    Super Shot: Fires 8 red missiles similar to its shot 1 with dual item. Shot 2: Fires a barrage of 6 tiny explosives that spread out into 3 streams as they travel. Shot 1: Fires 4 missiles, excellent for bunging. Also known as NoobBot or NoobFoot because the wide radius of the missiles can hit even if it missed.

                                      .

                                      Bigfoot/BigFoot (Explosion/Machine) – Resembles a monster truck with a cannon mounted on the front. Super Shot: Fires a projectile, a barrage of yellow lasers are shot down vertically at projectile landing spot, doing an average 500 to any mobile, regardless of defence. The shots spread apart the longer distance it travels and can do an average 250 for a complete miss. 3 beams of laser are shot at projectile landing spot from a higher disc position.

                                      Shot 2: A shot which fires a projectile which requires no aim whatsoever. Shot 1: Fires a projectile, a single beam of laser is shot at projectile landing spot from a lower disc position. Mostly used for long distance.

                                        . Often hear players yell about hitting a tiny piece of land in front of them.

                                        Has difficulty hitting enemy if there is land above them. Great for shooting at an enemy above. Sate/Asset/Sate/Cheapo/The Spanish Bot (Laser/Shield) – has a disc floating above it that shoots lasers. A.Sate/A.

                                        Super Shot: Fires a missile that transforms into a stronger one after exactly 3 seconds, extensive land damage (ellipse 2-3 cm by 3 cm. Shot 2: Fires a missile that explodes twice with small land damage (200-300 for direct hit, one cm diameter, then 1/2 cm diameter). Shot 1: Fires a missile with extensive land damage (around 150-200 for direct hit, land damage an ellipse 1/2 cm by about 3 cm). Armor Mobile/ArmorMobile (Explosion/Machine) – Resembles a small red Tank.

                                          .

                                          In this case there may be land damage {verify?}. (around 100-200 damage, little or no land damage) Note: As the laser, and not the mini aduka, is dealing the damage, land in between Thor and the target will block the shot. This shot can pass through multiple players, and is used to double kill or get a player that is 'burrowed'. Super Shot: Fire a large "mini aduka" projectile that goes through everything; triggers Thor's Hammer when it hits an enemy mobile (even if all their health is gone in Solo/Tag mode), a jewel, or a mini-Raon.

                                          (damage increases as Thor levels up, land damage abotut one CM diameter). Shot 2: Fires three "mini aduka" projectiles that do no damage, but trigger Thor's Hammer to fire at the spot where they hit. Shot 1: Fires an electric ball that does damage, plus minor splash damage shocks nearby enemies (around 2 inches radius of impact) (around 150-200 in direct hit, land damage is about one CM diameter). Abused by many in so-called "Aduka shot 2/SS only" games to power up Thor's damage resulting in high-damage high-gold shots towards the end of the game, as well as easier double kills.

                                            .

                                            Also nicknamed 'Thorbot' because its shot 2 attack triggers the Thor's Hammer; the vulgar 'AssBot' as the machine itself fires its bullets from the rear, just like the Nak. Aduka (Laser Electricity Machine) – A blue Spider-like mobile. There was also a SNIPER mode, similar to Slice, except it was intended to correct minute misses of the previously matched power (adds or subtracts to match your last selected power if the shot is close enough to the last one) however this does not allow for minute power changes. It is also preferred due to the fact that the power bar can be reset simply by dragging it back to 0 power (where in slice if your powerbar goes over the desired point there is no way to reduce it).

                                            This is best to use when using full power shots because you can drag the mouse so fast that the timer still says 20 seconds. However, the longer the user drags, the more the power bar jumps around randomly, thus reducing accuracy. DRAGSHOT is the most common choice among "pros" because it allows the player to move the power bar selector back and forth with the mouse, this mode is favored for its increased speed (minimizing delay) and for its ability to make pixel wide adjustments. On the other hand, it can take a great deal of time to gain much power, thus increasing the delay for that shot.

                                            It is the most common amongst beginners, as it is easy to control and use. SLICE is the default setting and is operated by holding the spacebar and releasing it to reach the desired power. All of this is then added to how much time you took to fire your shot. This is then combined with the added delay of any items that are selected to be fired.

                                            This is then added to the delay of the shot type selected. The first is the base delay of the mobile itself. popularity - the amount of gold you are awarded. shield - the healing speed and capacity of a shield (only Mage, A.Sate, Lightning and JD have *shields, so it's a pointless stat to have unless using these bots).

                                            item delay(blue) - the amount taken away from only the delay that is added to you from using an item. delay(orange) - the amount taken away from only your normal delay. bunge - the amount of land that is destroyed by a shot. life - the amount of health/"HP" you have (when it's gone, you die).

                                            attack - the amount of damage dealt. defense - the amount of damage prevented. Note that if the item is a wind item, it will actually work, and the wind will change accordingly after 4 turns, when the item would be dropped. Question mark Chest - this appears as a regular treasure chest with a question mark on top of it in the slot screen, however once deployed it can fall as any of the previously mentioned items (lighting, dynamite, hammer, treasure chest, wind null, wind change).

                                            Wind Reverse - Reverses the wind's direction when used. Wind Null - Sets the wind's strength to 0 when used. Treasure Chest - Contains a 1 slot basic item of random nature, (It used to have a probability of containing gold, but that was removed.). Lightning - Preferred by most players for its higher damage, 76-80, and because it strikes straight down, doing less land damage than either dynamite or hammer, yet unaffected by wind.

                                            It also does around 50 damage. Hammer - Similar in weight to dynamite in terms of winds affects on its movement, however the hammer spins as it falls allowing it to knock a player's angle off more than dynamite can. Dynamite - A small explosive that is affected by wind, and does about 50-60 damage for a direct hit, as little as 17 depending on its proximity. Cave-B is one of the most dreaded maps due to the fact that it has numerous Ignorance Moon Disks, 4 to be exact.

                                            The only difference is that the weather patterns are changed. Cave does have a B-Side, but the layout is exactly the same. Cave/Random (Cave can only be played on, with a random chance, by selecting Random map due to its closed range positioning of mobiles). Meta Mine (A-Side and B-Side).

                                            Stardust (A-Side and B-Side). Dummy Slope (A-Side and B-Side). Cozy Tower (A-Side and B-Side). Dragon (A-Side and B-Side).

                                            Adiumroot (A-Side and B-Side). Sea of Hero (A-Side and B-Side). Metropolis (A-Side and B-Side). Nirvana (A-Side and B-Side).

                                            Miramo Town (A-Side and B-Side). They also win if everybody on the other team is bunged. The first team to reach or exceed 100 points wins. Mobiles are invincible, and when someone is bunged, they can drop back down at no penalty.

                                            Jewel - Players attack targets, known as "Jewel" which give gold and points. Tag - Each player has control of 2 mobiles and can switch between them (the second selected mobile will only have half as much life points as normal). The game also ends when one team reaches zero lives or when a team has no one on the map. When a player dies, that player's team loses one life, but can come back in four turns.

                                            Score - Each team has a set number of lives. When everyone in a team dies, the game is over. Solo - Each player has only one life.

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