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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Naples is politically divided in 10 Community Boards :. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. The majority of these Neapolitans who left Italy went to the Americas, especially the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Naples has seen many of its children spread throughout the world, setting up 'Little Italies' in many countries. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. In 2004 the football team was declared bankrupt and has been subsequently reborn into the lower division of Serie C1 as 'Napoli Soccer'.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. With the help of Diego Maradona, they achieved rare success in 1987 and in 1990 by winning the Scudetto, the UEFA Cup, Italian Super Cup and the Italian Cup. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Naples is the home of the underachieving soccer team Napoli. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. As well, Naples is near the volcanic area known as the Campi Flegrei and the port towns of Pozzuoli and Baia, which were part of the vast Roman naval facility, Portus Julius. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. 79 eruption of Vesuvius) are also nearby.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. The Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum (destroyed in the A.D. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. Sorrento and the Amalfi Coast are situated south of Naples. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. The islands of Procida, (famously used as the set for much of il Postino), Capri and Ischia can all be reached quickly by hydrofoils and ferries. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. Capodichino is the site of the Naples International Airport.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. There is also the Support Site, which consists mostly of housing and personnel support facilities, located in Gricignano di Aversa. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Naval Support Activity Naples, located in Capodichino is a major US Navy base which is responsible for the support and control of US Naval assets in the 6th Fleet area of responsibility, and Bagnoli, known as Joint Force Command South (formerly AFSOUTH, many Sailors still call it this) is a major NATO base, which is responsible for the coordination of NATO forces in the south European Region. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Naples is the site of three major military bases. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. There are also large catacombs in and around the city.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. You can visit approximately one kilometer of the many kilometers of tunnels under the city. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. Subterranean Naples consists of old Greco-Roman reservoirs dug out from the soft tufo stone on which, and from which, the city is built. A referee makes all penalty calls. Guided tours operate around the Stratification of Naples which shows the city through the layers laid down across history. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. Other notable monuments are:.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. Naples is the home of the Teatro di San Carlo, the oldest active opera house in Europe, which opened its doors on November 4, 1737. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. The Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli contains a large collection of Roman artifacts from Pompeii and Herculaneum as well as the Farnese Marbles, some of the greatest surviving Roman statues, an amazing numismatical collection; The Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte contains art collections including works by Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli and Caravaggio. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. It contains an aquarium which is possibly Europe's oldest and is favoured by the locals for family walks on Sunday mornings. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. La Villa Comunale (formerly a royal park) has been refurbished and stretches along the seafront in the smarter western end of the city.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. There are, however, many attractions within the city. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. Naples itself is less visited than some of the surrounding attractions. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Naples is also known for its ice cream (in Italian gelato). When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. Another typical Neapolitan pastry is the Sfogliatella (riccia or frolla).

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. It is always combined with boiled rice. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. The ingredients are typically annealed grain, eggs, and sometimes cream. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. The Pastiera is a cake with a complicated recipe, varying by the county in which it is prepared. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. Choux is a small "bubble" of leavened paste stuffed with light cream, usually coffee or chocolate flavored.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. The babà (also known as savarin) is a mushroom-shaped piece of leavend sweet paste, soaked with an orange flavoured mixture of ron|ruhm and water. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Naples offers several kinds of unique pastry, the most famous of which is perhaps the babà, followed by choux (Neapolitans write it as sciù) and the Pastiera, a cake prepared for Easter. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. Often one can get another version of melanzane alla parmigiana with an addition of mozzarella cheese. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. Another excellent Campanian dish found in Naples is melanzane alla parmigiana, which is fried slices of aubergine (eggplant) gratinéed with tomato sauce and parmesan cheese.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. Naples is also famous for its pasta dishes, where spaghetti is often served with sugo di pomodoro, a tomato sauce which gets its full flavour from sun-ripe Campanian San Marzano tomatoes. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. La vera pizza ("true pizza") should be made in a wood-burning oven similar to a Tandoori oven. They divide the ice into zones. The pizza was named after it was served to Queen Margherita when she visited the city. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. It is the birthplace of the Pizza Margherita, which traditionally is made with mozzarella cheese, pomodoro (tomato) and basil - each representing the red, white, and green of the Italian flag.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. Naples is by tradition the home of pizza. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise.
. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . see main article History of Naples. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. .

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. The city is served by Naples International Airport. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. The metropolitan area of Naples is second in Italy by population, with over 4,400,000 inhabitants. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Neapolitan is a colourful, rich italian dialect- known in Naples as Napulitano. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. It is rich in historical, artistic and cultural traditions and gastronomy.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Napoli is where pizza originally came from. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. It is located just halfway between the Vesuvius volcano and a separate volcanic area, the Campi Flegrei, all part of the Campanian volcanic arc. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. The city has a population of about 1 million, and together with its suburbs, the urban area has 4.4 million inhabitants (Neapolitans). During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. Naples (Italian Nàpoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning "New City"; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region and the Province of Naples.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.
. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. 10 : Bagnoli and Fuorigrotta. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. 9 : Pianura and Soccavo. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. 8 : Chiaiano, Piscinola-Marianella and Scampia.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. 7 : Miano, S.Pietro a Patierno and Secondigliano. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. 6 : Barra, Ponticelli and S.Giovanni a Teduccio. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. 5 : Arenella and Vomero. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. 4 : S.Lorenzo, Vicaria and Poggioreale-Zona Industriale.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. 3 : Stella and S.Carlo all'Arena. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. 2 : Avvocata, Montecalvario, S.Giuseppe, Porto, Mercato and Pendino. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. 1 : Chiaia, Posillipo and S.Ferdinando. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Giuseppe Migliozzi General (military).

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Sophia Loren actress. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. Raffaele Viviani. Over the years many different organizations have existed. Giambattista Vico philosopher. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Domenico Antonio Vaccaro sculptor, architect and painter.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. Massimo Troisi actor. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. Massimo Stanzione. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Matilde Serao journalist and novelist. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Domenico Scarlatti.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Edoardo Scarfoglio. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. Antonio Scarfoglio. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Jacopo Sannazaro. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Ferdinando Sanfelice.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Raffaele Sacco poet and lyricist. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. Venerable Ludovico Sabbatini, religious teacher and priest. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. Andrea Sabbatini, Renaissance painter. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Vincenzo Russo politcal philosopher.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Ferdinando Russo poet, journalist and writer. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. Salvator Rosa poet, satirist and Baroque era painter. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. Basilio Puoti. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. Giovanni Pontano.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Giovanni Battista Pergolesi. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Giovanni Paisiello. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Domenico Morelli painter. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Giovan Battista Marino.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. Alfonso Maria de' Liguori jurist and writer (Catholic saint). In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Pirro Ligorio, mannerist architect. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. Ruggero Leoncavallo. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Giuseppe Patroni Griffi screenwriter.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Giacinto Gigante. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Luca Giordano. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Vincenzo Gemito sculptor. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Gaetano Filangieri jurist.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Armando Diaz general and politician. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. Salvatore di Giacomo writer, poet and lyricist. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. Enrico De Nicola jurist, journalist and politician. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Titina De Filippo actress.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. Peppino De Filippo actor. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Eduardo De Filippo writer and actor. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. Antonio de Curtis (Totò) writer and actor. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. Vincenzo Cuoco political philosopher.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. Benedetto Croce philosopher. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. Enrico Caruso. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Renato Carosone. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Battistello Caracciolo.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Al Capone (born in Brooklyn to Neapolitan parents). The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Giordano Bruno. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. Libero Bovio. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

. Giambattista Basile poet, courtier, and fairy tale collector. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. Thomas Aquinas. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. Enrico Alvino architect. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). Pozzuoli.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. Positano. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. Sorrento. William M. Procida. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Capri.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. Ischia. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. church of San Domenico Maggiore. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. church of Gesù Nuovo ("new Jesus"). Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. church of Santa Maria Donna Regina.

Lester B. church of San Lorenzo Maggiore. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. church of Santa Chiara. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. Januarius. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. Cathedral of St.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Piazza del Plebiscito. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Palazzo Reale. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. Castel Nuovo with the Arch of Triumph of Alfonso I. Frank J. Castel dell'Ovo.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.

Clarence S. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout.

Two points are awarded for a win.

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