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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. [24]. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. He has since plead guilty to five counts of wire fraud and one count of filing a false tax return related to embezzlement and theft from Wal-Mart while serving as a member of its board. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Former members of the board of directors of Wal-Mart include Hillary Clinton (1985-1992), who also worked for Wal-Mart as a lawyer, [22] and Tom Coughlin, who went on to be vice chairman [23]. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. The presence of unions and the difficulty obtaining building permits are two possible reasons for this lack of success.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. In Germany, however, after eight years in the market, Wal-Mart's yearly revenue is still less than one-tenth of the leading retailer, EDEKA. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. ASDA in the United Kingdom is the largest of the international businesses by sales. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Dollars):. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Current store counts and revenue for Fiscal Year Ending January 31, 2005 (revenue amounts in U.S.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Wal-Mart operates 5 major retail formats under 3 retail divisions:. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. He believes that Wal-Mart is merely a symbol of capitalism and success that leftists attack in order to associate capitalism with "exploitation" and "unfairness" to further their own big government/socialists objectives. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. He compares this criticism to the same attacks upon Hummer SUVs while ignoring the issues with many other gas guzzling competitors like old cars the poor could only afford. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. According to Jay Nordlinger of the National Review, criticism of Wal-Mart is more about what Wal-Mart represents; the sucess of capitalist enterprise and how Wal-Mart is the largest retail store in the world rather than what it actually does.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Specific areas of controversy include the company's product selection; treatment of suppliers, competitors, and employees; impact on local communities, and effects on world trade and globalization. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Some praise Wal-Mart for benefiting consumers, while other criticise it for being harmful to employees, the community, the economy, and the environment. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. [20]. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. [19] And, this savings has the largest effect on the poor since the average Wal-Mart customer earns $35,000 a year, compared with $50,000 at Target and $74,000 at Costco.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. However, that $4.7 billion is overwhelmingly offset by the $263 billion it has saved Americans from spending from 1985 to 2004, ($2,329 per houshold) according to a Global Insight study. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. The efficiencies created 210,000 jobs that would not otherwise exist, but at the same time reduced take-home pay for all retail workers (including the company’s competitors) by $4.7 billion. A referee makes all penalty calls. Wal-Mart increased net consumer purchasing power by $118 billion in 2004. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. Additional findings from the Global Insight study include: Wal-Mart increased the US economy's overall productivity by three-quarters of a percent by highly efficient distribution systems and pressure on suppliers to be more efficient.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. The study indicates that "nominal wages are 2.2% lower, but given that consumer prices are 3.1% lower, real disposable income is 0.9% higher than it would have been in a world without Wal-Mart." (Global Insight Study). If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. Also in that time period, it is responsible for the creation of 210,000 net jobs for the economy. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. From 1985-2004, Wal-Mart "can be associated with a cumulative decline of 9.1% in food-at-home prices, a 4.2% decline in commodities (goods) prices, and a 3.1% decline in overall consumer prices" and, that this has saved consumers $263 billion in that time frame ($2329 per household). Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. economy (Several notable economists oversaw the study, including both political conservatives and liberals [18]).

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. A 2005 study by Global Insight, the world's largest economics organization, that was commission by Wal-mart found that the company has had a positive net economic impact on the U.S. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. In 2004, the University of California, Berkeley published a study which asserted that Wal-Mart's low wages and benefits resulted in an increased burden on the social safety net, costing California taxpayers $86 million.[17]. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Basker's study did not distinguish between low-paying and high-paying jobs. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. Basker concluded that the net change in the number of jobs was not significant.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. Basker found an average decrease of 30 retail jobs in neighbouring counties and 25 wholesale jobs in the entered county. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Half of this increase disappeared as other retail establishments closed over a five-year period. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Basker found that Wal-Mart's entry into a county increased net retail employment in that county by 100 jobs in the short term. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. A 2002 study[16] by Emek Basker of the University of Missouri examined the impact of Wal-Mart on local employment.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. The next largest employer employed the parents of less than 800 children in the program.[15]. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. More than 10,000 children who qualified for the program had parents working at Wal-Mart. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. In 2002, the state of Georgia's survey of children in the state's subsidized health care system, PeachCare, found that Wal-Mart employed more of the parents of these children than any other employer. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. Dean found that point out that though Wal-Mart openings cause some small businesses to close by offering lower prices, it also creates opportunities for other small businesses and that as a result, "the process of creative destruction unleashed by Wal-Mart has no statistically significant impact on the overall size of the small business sector in the United States" (the researchers also claim that the Stone study is flawed) [14].

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. Sobel and Andrea M. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. In 1997, Stone found that small towns "lose up to 47 percent of their retail trade after 10 years of Wal-Mart stores nearby."[12] In [2003], Stone collaborated with collaborated with Georgeanne Artz, also of Iowa State University and Albert Myles of Mississippi State University to show that there "are both positive and negative impacts on existing stores in the area where the new supercenter locates."[13] A study by Russell S. They divide the ice into zones. Stone of Iowa State University has published several studies on Wal-Mart. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. Kenneth E.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. Several studies have been conducted to determined the nature and extent of this effect. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. As Wal-Mart is an enormously large business, it has a significant impact on economies, especially in the United States. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . Deaver who formerly worked on behalf of Ronald Reagan, Leslie Dach who worked on behalf of Bill Clinton, and Robert McAdam who worked on behalf of the Tobacco Institute [11]. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. Operatives hired include Michael K.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Edelman has set up an internal "war room", a rapid-response public relations team, staffed with high-profile political operatives to respond to negative media attention. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. It was reported in the New York Times on November 1, 2005 that in response to increased criticism the public relations firm Edelman had been retained. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. In 2005, Wal-Mart officials embarked on a public relations campaign to counter some of the criticism it receives, through its public relations website as well as through television commercials which show employees who have had a medical emergency and have been sent by Wal-Mart to the Mayo Clinic. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. Different explanations have been offered for this success:.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Its stock has dropped more than 20% since then, closing under $50 in August 2005. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. Since then its stock has climbed from 5 cents (split adjusted) to a high of $63 in March 2002. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Wal-Mart went public in 1975. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. Sam Walton's family's holdings in Wal-Mart if combined would comprise the nation's largest fortune; at $100 billion combined they are significantly ahead of Bill Gates.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. Wal-Mart also does 20 percent of the retail toy business. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. $51 billion). In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Wal-Mart is now the largest grocery chain in the U.S., with 14 percent of all grocery sales -- nearly twice the sales of Kroger ($95 billion vs. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. workers.[5] According to Wal-Mart's website, Wal-Mart provides insurance to more than 1 million people.[6].

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. According to an October 2005 article in BusinessWeek, Walmart's health insurance covers 44% or approximately 572,000 of its 1.3 million U.S. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. At some Sam's Club these employees inspect the contents of the shopping carts of exiting customers. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. All Wal-Mart stores in the United States have employees referred to as "People Greeters." They welcome people to the store and help prevent shoplifting. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Wal-Mart refers to its employees as "associates," and encourages managers to think of themselves as "servant leaders." Each shift at every store, club, and distribution center (theoretically) starts with a store-wide meeting where managers discuss with hourly employees daily sales figures, company news, and goals for the day.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. However, this proposal was rejected by the city councillors [4] on June 28, 2005 for several reasons including worry over the possible negative impact to small businesses and a potential increase in traffic as customers drive longer distances to go shopping. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. This design, too, included wind turbines, geothermal heating and collecting rainwater. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. An environmentally-friendly design for a Wal-Mart in Vancouver, BC, Canada was proposed. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Critics, such as the Institute for Local Self-reliance [3], while acknowledging that the features in the new stores are an improvement, still contend that Wal-Mart practices increase driving, and that it has a poor record of locating stores on environmentally sensitive sites, especially wetlands.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. The buildings also include many other energy and cost-saving technologies. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. Recently, Wal-Mart has designed two experimental stores [2], one in McKinney, Texas, the other in Aurora, Colorado, which feature wind turbines, photovoltaic solar panels, and biofuel-capable boilers. Over the years many different organizations have existed. The WFF has also donated to advocacy groups promoting school privatization, such as a $3 million donation in 2003 to the Knowledge Is Power Program. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. From 1998 through 2003, the WFF contributed $25,000 to the Heritage Foundation, $15,000 to the Cato Institute, $125,000 to the Hudson Institute, $155,000 to the Goldwater Institute, $70,000 to the National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation, $300,000 to the Mackinac Center for Public Policy, $185,000 to the Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, and $350,000 to the Evergreen Freedom Foundation.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. Also in 2004, Alice Walton donated $2.6 million to the Progress for America PAC, which supported the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. Walmart's company political action committee, the second largest corporate donor to the GOP, gave away $2.1 million in 2004, compared to $100,000 in 1994. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. The Walton Family Foundation (WFF) gave away $106.9 million in 2003, twice as much as in 2000. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. According to the November 21, 2005 issue of The Nation, recently both the Arkansas-based company and the Walton family have elevated their charitable giving.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. About $1.5 million in emergency aid was given to displaced employees, and employees displaced by the storm were offered work at Wal-Mart locations elsewhere in the country. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. An emergency contact website was set up by Wal-Mart to help locate displaced persons, accessible by Internet and at every store in the country. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. In addition, an estimated $3 million in merchandise was donated to victims in several states, and in some cases the corporation was able to provide supplies before the federal government. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. These donations made it the largest single corporate contributor.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. After the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster on the United States Gulf Coast, Wal-Mart donated $2 million to the Salvation Army and the American Red Cross and $15 million to the Bush-Clinton Hurricane Katrina Fund for a total of $17 million. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. More than 90 percent of cash donations from Wal-Mart Stores and the Wal-Mart & SAM'S CLUB Foundation target local communities. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. The typical Supercenter channels $30,000 to $50,000 a year to local causes and events. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Unlike most corporate donors, Wal-Mart does not provide a figure for its corporate contributions; instead Wal-Mart's reported contributions include those made by its customers in a larger aggregate figure.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. In 2004, cash donations to non-profit organizations by Wal-Mart, its employees, and its customers made through Wal-Mart, the Wal-Mart Foundation and the Sam's Club Foundation totaled more than US$170 million. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. According to a New York Times story, it is seen by 130 million people a month, making it the fifth largest network in America, behind NBC, CBS, ABC and Fox. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The Wal-Mart Television Network is an in-store network showing commercials for products sold in the stores, concert clips and music videos for recording artists products sold in the stores, trailers for upcoming movie releases, and news. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. By focusing on a small number of low-cost products, and siting their retail operations in extremely convenient locations (primarily very small towns which cannot support a Wal-Mart as well as low-income areas of larger metropolitan areas), retailers such as Family Dollar and Dollar General have successfully competed head-to-head with Wal-Mart for home consumer sales.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Due to Wal-Mart's success in selling consumer goods and its necessary focus on more expensive items (and larger population areas) to increase revenue, a niche has been carved out of Wal-Mart's dominance by several shrewd retail corporations [1]. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Chief competitors of Sam's Club are Costco, which is slightly larger than Sam's in terms of sales, as well as the smaller BJ's Wholesale Club chain operating mainly on the East Coast. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Wal-Mart's move into the grocery business has also positioned it against major grocery chains such as Kroger, Albertsons, Publix, Giant Eagle, Safeway and dozens of local grocery chains. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Wal-Mart's chief competitors in the discount retail space nationally include Sears Holdings Corporation's Kmart chain and Target, Best Buy, along with many smaller regional chains such as Meijer in the midwest.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. Wal-Mart stock is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol WMT. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. In 2003 McLane Company was sold to Berkshire Hathaway. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. In 1990 Wal-Mart acquired The McLane Company, a foodservice distributor. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. In the past, Wal-Mart operated dot Discount Drugs, Bud's Discount City, Hypermart*USA, OneSource Nutrition Centers, and Save-Co Home Improvement stores.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. This purchase has been approved by Seiyu Group shareholders and The Seiyu will be consolidated into Wal-Mart International in FYE 2006. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. in Japan, with a proposed US$597 million to increase its stake to 50%. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. In addition to its wholly-owned international operations, Wal-Mart owns a 42% stake in The Seiyu Co., Ltd. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Wal-Mart also operates the largest real estate company in the United States, with an entire division devoted to building new stores, selling old stores, and developing shopping centers around its stores.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Internationally, Wal-Mart employs over 410,000 people (excluding Japan) for a company-wide total of 1.7 million employees. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. Apart from retail locations, it operates 99 Distribution Centers and Transportation Offices in the United States. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. Wal-Mart's corporate headquarters are located in Bentonville, Arkansas. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. As of January 2005, Wal-Mart employed 1.3 million people in the United States.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. Wal-Mart also operates Sam's Club—a "warehouse club" (similar to Costco and BJ's) that sells discounted bulk merchandise to due-paying members. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Wal-Mart operates discount retail department stores selling a broad range of non-grocery products, though emphasis is now focused on the "Supercenters" which offer a full line of grocery items. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. . With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. retail stores being spent at Wal-Mart.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. It holds an 8.9 percent retail store market share, with $8.90 out of every $100 spent in U.S. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. It is the largest private employer in the United States, Mexico and Canada. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. For the fiscal year ending January 31, 2005, Wal-Mart reported net income of US $10.3 billion on US $285 billion of sales revenue (3.6% profit margin). Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. It is the largest retailer in the world and one of the largest companies in the world based on revenue; in 2004 it was the largest, but the recent rise in oil prices has taken at least one oil company past it.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (NYSE: WMT) was founded by Sam Walton in 1962. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Accessed January 11, 2006. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. ^  Wal-Mart giant can be tamed The Boston Globe, November 23, 2003. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. 121; Can't Wal-Mart, a Retail Behemoth, Pay More? The New York Times, May 4, 2005.

. ^  See Palast, p. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. ^  Down and Out in Discount America, The Nation, January 3, 2005; Wal-Mart's Welfare Dependency, San Francisco Chronicle by Sally Lieber, November 7, 2003. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. House of Representatives Representative George Miller, Senior Democrat, February 16, 2004; Wal-Marts Cost State, Study Says, San Francisco Chronicle, August 3, 2004. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). ^ Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay For Wal-Mart (pdf), A Report by the Democratic Staff of the Committee on Education and the Workforce U.S.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. ^  Wal-Mart public relations web page, section regarding Benefits (retreived May 25, 2005). Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. ^  Retaliating first, Wal-Mart in Canada, The Economist, Feb 24th 2005; Ex-Wal-Mart Workers Win Battle Globe and Mail, Rhéal Séguin, September 17, 2005. William M. Coughlin Told Others Bogus Expenses Hid Plot Against Unions Retailer Disputes His Claim, Wall Street Journal, April 8, 2005. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. ^  Petty Cash A Wal-Mart Legend's Trail of Deceit Mr.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. 119-120; Chinese Workers Pay for Wal-Mart's Low Prices, Washington Post, February 8, 2004; [Wal-Mart faces sweat-shop lawsuit Wal-Mart faces sweat-shop lawsuit], Financial Times (London), September 14, 2005; Suit Says Wal-Mart Is Lax on Labor Abuses Overseas, New York Times, September 14, 2005; Workers Sue Wal-Mart Over Sweatshop Conditions, Reuters, September 13, 2005, Sweatshop Workers on Four Continents Sue Wal-Mart in California Court, Press Release, September 13, 2005; Human cost behind bargain shopping Dateline hidden camera investigation in Bangladesh, Dateline NBC, June 17, 2005. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. ISBN 0745318460., p. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. The Best Democracy Money Can Buy: An Investigative Reporter Exposes the Truth About Globalization, Corporate Cons, and High-Finance Fraudsters, Pluto Press. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. ^  Palast, Greg (2002).

Lester B. ISBN 1585424226.. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. The United States of Wal-Mart, Tarcher. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. Dicker, John (2005). James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. ISBN 155369855X..

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Megamall on the Hudson: Planning, Wal-Mart, and Grassroots Resistance, Trafford. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Porter, David (2003). Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. ISBN 0745318460.. Frank J. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America, Owl Books.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Ehrenreich, Barbara (2002). Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. ISBN 1580086683.. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. How Wal-Mart Is Destroying America and the World: And What You Can Do about It (3rd edition). Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Quinn, Bill (2005).

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. ISBN 0465023169.. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Selling Women Short: The Landmark Battle for Workers' Rights at Wal-Mart. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Featherstone, Liza (2004). Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. ISBN 1932857249..

Clarence S. Wal-Mart: The medeum Cost of Low Price, Disinformation Company. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. Disinformation Company (2005). Zero points for a loss in regulation time. ISBN 0385513569.. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. The Bully of Bentonville: How the High Cost of Wal-Mart's Everyday Low Prices Is Hurting America.

Two points are awarded for a win. Bianco, Anthony (2006). ISBN 155860684X.. Data Warehousing: Using the Wal-Mart Model. Westerman, Paul (2000).

ISBN 0785261192.. The Wal-Mart Way: The Inside Story of the Success of the World's Largest Company. Soderquist, Don (2005). ISBN 1591840430..

The Wal-Mart Triumph: Inside the World's #1 Company. Slater, Robert (2004). ISBN 1591840066.. The Wal-Mart Decade: How a New Generation of Leaders Turned Sam Walton's Legacy into the World's #1 Company.

Slater, Robert (2003). ISBN 0812963776.. In Sam We Trust: The Untold Story of Sam Walton and Wal-Mart, the World's Most Powerful Retailer. Ortega, Bob (1998).

ISBN 1595580352.. Wal-Mart: A Field Guide to America's Largest Company and the World's Largest Employer, New Press. Lichtenstein, Nelson (2006). ISBN 0471679984..

What I Learned from Sam Walton: How to Compete and Thrive in a Wal-Mart World. Bergdahl, Michael (2004). [26]. Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price, a 2005 documentary by Robert Greenwald, the creator of Outfoxed.

Independent America, a 2005 documentary on the larger issue of independent businesses fighting for survival against corpprate chains. Outrageous Fortunes, BBC Three, aired on 26 April 2004, about the workings of Wal-Mart. Featuring interviews with both Wal-Mart top brass and critics, it won a Pulitzer Prize and a Peabody Award for television excellence. The Age of Wal-Mart, a 2004 documentary produced by CNBC.

and China. Frontline: Is Wal-Mart Good for America?, a PBS Frontline documentary on the impact of Wal-Mart in the U.S. Store Wars, a PBS special taking a close look at one community's battle over Wal-Mart. Why Wal-Mart Works & Why That Makes Some People Crazy, a pro-Wal-Mart documentary (not affiliated with Wal-Mart).

Wal-Mart Space a blog run by Bobby Gerry which explores Wal-Mart's financial statements. AlwaysLowPrices.net a blog run by Kevin Brancato (discontinued on November 14, 2005). Wal-Mart political donations. 2004-04-09 10-K.

WMT: Profile for WAL-MART STORES - Yahoo! Finance. Company Profile. Yahoo! - Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price A feature-length documentary.

The New Rules Project(critiques big box development, not limited to Wal-Mart). Wal-Mart Free NYC A group fighting to keep New York City Wal-Mart free. Wal-Mart Wiki Though not strictly critical, this wiki is definitely weighted against Wal-Mart in its current state. Wal-Mart Watchlabor union-funded website.

Wake-Up Wal-Mart website by the United Food and Commercial Workers. Index of numerous studies on Wal-Mart's economic and social impacts from The American Independent Business Alliance. Sprawl Busters, site Al Norman, an activist who helps local "site fights" against big box stores. Rotten Library: Wal-Mart.

Video report of Wal-Mart using child labor, CBC News, November 30, 2005. Wal-Mart caught using child labor, CBC News, November 30, 2005. Maryland's House approved a bill that would require all businesses in the state with more than 10,000 employees to spend at least 8 percent of their payroll on health benefits for workers. Sweet Victory: Maryland Stands Up To Wal-Mart, The Nation, Sunday, April 17, 2005.

Retaliating first, Wal-Mart in Canada, The Economist, Feb 24th 2005. Wal-Marts Cost State, Study Says, San Francisco Chronicle, August 3, 2004. House of Representatives Representative George Miller, Senior Democrat, February 16, 2004. Everyday Low Wages: The Hidden Price We All Pay For Wal-Mart(pdf), A Report by the Democratic Staff of the Committee on Education and the Workforce U.S.

Article argues that the decline of Union Industry jobs and the rise of Wal-Mart is destroying America's middle class. In Wal-Mart's America, Washington Post, August 27, 2003. Up against the Wal-Mart, Business Week, March 13, 2000, Explains union's attempt to unionize Wal-Marts. "Wal-Mart: High Prices for American Workers" file, (PDF February 16, 2004) from the Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

California Legislators Call for Oversight of Wal-Mart's Health Benefits (Study of Peachcare). "The Wal-Mart You Don't Know", Fast Company, Issue 77, December 2003, Page 68 Wal-Mart's relentless pressure can crush the companies it does business with and force them to send jobs overseas. "Inside the Leviathan" by Simon Head for The New York Review of Books, December 16, 2004. UC Berkeley report on the community impact of Wal-Mart's lower wages(pdf).

How Costco Became the Anti-Wal-Mart, The New York Times, July 17, 2005. Costco's Dilemma: Is Treating Employees Well Unacceptable for a Public Corporation? The Wall Street Journal, March 26, 2004 Costco's compensation for its employees with comparison to Wal-Mart. Company for the People Seattle Weekly, December 15 - 21, 2004, Article which contrasts Wal-Mart with employee-friendly Costco. The Freedom to Hate Wal-Mart?, Paul Jacob, The Free Liberal, December 5, 2005.

Should We Admire Wal-Mart? Fortune Magazine, March 8, 2004. Economy a study funded by Wal-Mart, determining the net economic impact of Wal-Mart at the national, city, and county level. Measuring the Economic Impact of Wal-Mart on the U.S. of Economics, University of Missouri, 2002.

"Job Creation or Destruction? Labor-Market Effects of Wal-Mart Expansion" (pdf), Emek Basker, Dept. "A distorted lens on Wal-Mart", Bruce Bartlett, Washington Times, November 22, 2004. Wal-Mart's China inventory to hit US$18b this year China Daily, November 29, 2004. Wal-Mart and RFID: A Case Study Wal-Mart's future plans to further reduce costs.

Understanding the Wal-Mart Effect, Max Borders, Tech Central Station, April 11, 2005. Business Week, October 26, 2005, "Some Uncomfortable Findings for Wal-Mart" overview of some academic research findings on Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart's Corporate political contributions at BuyBlue.org. Against the Wal has a larger, but much less selective collection of articles on Wal-Mart.

Much of the best reporting and studies from multiple perspectives is collected here. The articles largely are critical of Wal-Mart, but supporters also are represented. Reclaim Democracy huge collection of articles, studies and websites on Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart Public Relations site.

Wal-Mart Foundation. Corporate Site. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. The Wal-Mart in Madison, Ohio is the only Wal-Mart with two American flags outside.

With the success of the much smaller "dollar" stores like Dollar General, Family Dollar, and Dollar Tree, Wal-Mart is seriously considering entering the dollar store business.[25]. Ol' Roy, the Wal-Mart brand of dog food sold at the stores, was named after Sam Walton's dog, which lived from 1970 to 1981. United Kingdom (ASDA): 282. Puerto Rico (United States insular area): 54.

Mexico: 678. South Korea: 16. Germany: 91. China: 43.

Canada: 262. Brazil: 295. Argentina: 11. International: 1,587 (US$56.3 billion total)

    .

    SAM'S CLUB (United States): 551 Clubs (US$37.1 billion total). Neighborhood Markets: 85. Supercenters: 1,713. Discount Stores: 1,353.

    Wal-Mart Stores USA (3,337 stores, excluding Puerto Rico) (US$201.4 billion)

      . Company Total: 5,246 stores (excludes Seiyu operations) (US$285.2 billion)
        . Wal-Mart International — operates various formats internationally, including (but not limited to) SAM'S CLUB, Discount Stores, Supercenters, Supermarkets, and restaurants. Sam's Club also operates in Canada.

        as of October 31, 2005. There were 556 Sam's Clubs in the U.S. Clubs average 128,000 square feet (11,891 m²). SAM'S CLUB — a membership-only wholesale warehouse club focused mainly on serving small business owners.

        The walmart.com site also offers digital music downloads with digital rights management (DRM) and online photo processing. Walmart.com — Online shopping site that offers merchandise different from that in stores. The concept will be introduced into Canada in 2006 with 3 stores (one in London, Ontario and 2 in the Greater Toronto Area). as of October 31, 2005.

        There were 96 Neighborhood Markets in the U.S. Wal-Mart Neighborhood Market — Average 43,000 square feet (4,000 m²) and include grocery, pharmacy, and limited general merchandise products. as of October 31, 2005. There were 1,914 Wal-Mart Supercenters in the U.S.

        Some locations also sell gasoline through Murphy USA. The food courts are normally limited-menu McDonald's, though Subway, Dunkin Donuts, and Baskin-Robbins have also been located. (commonly known as big box stores) The stores also typically feature a tire and oil change shop (Wal-Mart Tire & Lube Express), a hair-cutting place, a Movie Gallery video store, an arcade, an eye-care place, and a branch from a local bank in the area. Wal-Mart Supercenter — Average 187,000 square feet (17,400 m²) and combine a standard Wal-Mart Discount Store with a full-line supermarket.

        as of October 31, 2005. There were 1,233 Wal-Mart Discount Stores in the U.S. The stores also have an in-house-branded food court. Wal-Mart Discount Stores — Average 100,000 square feet (9,290 m²) and include a selection of general merchandise, including apparel, electronics, health and beauty aids, toys, sporting goods, and household products.

        Wal-Mart Stores USA

          . In Kim Possible it is catagorized by "Smarty-Mart". In Fox's The Simple Life, socialite Paris Hilton appears to be unaware of the existence of Wal-Mart and asks "Do they sell things for walls?" Cohort Nicole Richie comparatively appears more knowledgable, announcing "People hang out at Wal-Mart." In a later episode, the pair visit a Wal-Mart and are shown frolicking, reading magazines on the floor, and "hanging out". Former Miami Herald humor columnist Dave Barry penned a column detailing the early millennium fascination with spending the night in an RV parked outside Wal-Mart.

          'Stuff-Mart' is a location in the Veggie Tales video "Madame Blueberry," which addresses consumerism. 'Wall 2 Wall Mart' is seen in The Fairly OddParents. Another cartoon, "This Land", also parodies Wal-Mart. A JibJab comic called "Big Box Mart" premiered on the October 13, 2005 Tonight Show with Jay Leno.

          South Park residents return to a mom and pop store until it too becomes a big box retailer, which residents promptly burns to the ground. Stan and Kyle eventually destroy the Wall-Mart by breaking its heart, a mirror in the electronics department that reflects the image of Stan and Kyle, which shows them that the heart of Wall-Mart is the consumers. The town, unable to resist shopping there, tries to burn Wall-Mart, but a crew rebuilds it the following day. The episode also pokes fun at consumers: South Park residents are forced to shop at Wall-Mart because they are unable to resist its everyday low prices.

          The retailer is depicted as a self-aware and independent entity, building itself across the nation to take over everything, and forcing employees and managers to work there against their will. A "Wall-Mart" built in Comedy Central's South Park episode "Something Wall-Mart This Way Comes" runs all local stores out of business. Ironically, he is hired to sell propane at Mega Lo Mart until the store is burned down when an inept supervisor causes a gas leak.[21]. When Mega-Lo Mart begins selling propane, Strickland Propane can't compete with their prices, and protagonist Hank Hill loses his job selling propane and propane accessories.

          "Mega-Lo Mart" (with a pronunciation similar to "megalomania") is a large discount retailer on Fox's King of the Hill. A Mad TV sketch made a parody of the franchise refering to it as "Walls Mart" poking fun at the bland persistence of Wal*Mart employees. This may be a parody of Wal-Mart, such as its taking on additional markets, like Sam's Club imitating Costco and Neighborhood Markets imitating Albertson's or Safeway. A large Wal-Mart like store is shown in the background.

          Additionally in another episode when Homer asks Ned Flanders how his Leftorium store is doing he says not too good, due to a "Left*Mart" having moved in. In the 2005 episode "On A Clear Day I Can't See My Sister", the Sprawl-Mart carries the sign "Not a parody of Wal-Mart". "Sprawl-Mart" is a big-box retailer in Springfield on Fox's The Simpsons. Sy Parrish, the main character in 2002's One Hour Photo, works at a large discounter called "Sav-Mart".

          A Wal-Mart in the middle of the New Mexico desert serves as a product placement parody in the 2003 animated comedy Looney Tunes: Back in Action. The scene was filmed outside a Frisco, Colorado Wal-Mart. A ultra-slick, out-of-control sled ridden by Clark Griswold (Chevy Chase) into the toy donation bin outside of a Wal-Mart in National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation. The character is also included in the 2005 film adaptation, The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants.

          Tibby, a character in Ann Brashares 2001 novel, The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants, spends her summer working at 'Wallmans'. Letts' book was adapted in 2000's Natalie Portman-Ashley Judd film Where the Heart Is. The film, costarring Joan Cusack and Stockard Channing, changes the setting to a Lubbock, Texas Wal-Mart. Billie Letts's 1995 novel Where the Heart Is depicts 17-year-old Novalee Nation moving in to, and give birth in, an Oklahoma Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart also squeezes out any inefficiencies in the business, such as reducing paper consumption by using a computerized process.

          Hourly employees can be reprimanded or terminated for having unauthorized overtime. Cost Control: Wal-Mart watches controllable expenses very closely. Mainland Chinese media place Wal-Mart as their 8th largest trading partner in front of Russia and the UK on the top-10 list. current account imports from China was reported as $152.4 billion during 2003 [10].

          U.S. operations. In the same period net sales reached $256 billion, with $209 billion coming from U.S. About $7.5 billion were directly imported by Wal-Mart; the other $7.5 came indirectly through suppliers.

          31, 2004. 18, 2004 that it imported $15 billion worth of goods from China in the year that ended Jan. Suppliers: A spokesperson for the company told the Wall Street Journal on Nov. As of June 2004, it has announced plans [9] to require the use of the technology among its top 300 suppliers by January 2006.

          Also, Wal-Mart's focus on cost reduction has led to its involvement in a standards effort [8] to use RFID-based Electronic Product Codes to lower the costs of supply chain management. Information Systems: Wal-Mart helped push the retail industry to adopt UPC codes and bar-code scanning equipment. This is why Wal-Mart began to sell low margin groceries. This allows the company to grow revenue over its fixed cost base (more sales out of the same store).

          One particular aspect of the economy of scale is the aggregation effect, used in other business such as The Home Depot and Wells Fargo, whereby Wal-Mart sells as many different items as possible. Wal-Mart's vast purchasing power also gives it the leverage to force manufacturers to change their production (usually by creating cheaper products) to suit its wishes: a single Wal-Mart order can easily comprise a double-digit percentage of a supplier's annual output. This reduces the overhead of having a large inventory control and buying department. They are leaders in the field of vendor managed inventory—asking large suppliers to oversee stock control for a category and make recommendations to Wal-Mart buyers.

          Wal-Mart benefits from economies of scale in manufacturing and logistics; the purchase of massive quantities of items from its suppliers combined with a very efficient stock control system help make Wal-Mart's operating costs lower than those of its competitors. "This strategy gave Wal-Mart a near monopoly in its local markets and enabled the company to ride out the recessions of the 1970s and 1980s more successfully than its then larger competitors such as K-Mart and Sears."[7]. Lastly, rural towns were less likely to have organized unions and community activists unlike large urban centres. Wal-Mart then promptly moved quickly to pre-empt these discovered locations, since allowing a competitor to locate would likely cause a price war that would make both discount stores unprofitable.

          Although the intended location was a seemingly small rural town, being up in a plane would reveal a lucrative market if the surrounding communities were taken into account, defying the conventional wisdom that a discount store requires a sizable city. The company claims it analyzes potential locations to find those that would support "one and a half" stores. The company has always paid a great deal of attention to site selection; in the company's early years, Sam Walton would fly over small towns in a private plane to identify prospective locations. 2006: Wal-Mart is built in the town of Napanee, Ontario after years of discussion.

          2005: Wal-Mart seeks to expand to urban markets, most notably New York City, Chicago, and Los Angeles. Five months later, Wal-Mart announces that it would close the store, citing poor sales. 2004: Wal-Mart employees in Jonquière, Quebec, Canada vote in favor of becoming the first unionized Wal-Mart in North America. 2004: Wal-Mart buys the Amigo supermarket chain in Puerto Rico for $17 million.

          2003: Wal-Mart sets a single-day sales record of $1.52 billion on Black Friday. It acquires the ASDA Group with 229 stores in the United Kingdom. 1999: Wal-Mart has 1,140,000 employees, making it the largest private employer in the world. 1998: First Wal-Mart Neighborhood Market opens.

          1997: Wal-Mart has its first $100 billion sales year. 1997: Wal-Mart becomes largest private employer in the United States, with 680,000 employees worldwide. Woolworth's Square One Shopping Centre location in Canada becomes the largest Wal-Mart store in the world, at 220,000 square feet (20,000 m²). 1997: Wal-Mart replaces Woolworth on the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

          1996: Wal-Mart enters China through a joint-venture agreement. 1994: Wal-Mart acquires 122 Woolco stores in Canada. opens, in Mexico City. 1991: The first store outside of the U.S.

          1990: Wal-Mart becomes nation's largest retailer. 1988: First Supercenter opens in Washington, Missouri. 1987: Wal-Mart completes largest private satellite communication system in the U.S. 1983: First Sam's Club opens in Midwest City, Oklahoma.

          1972: Wal-Mart listed on the New York Stock Exchange. on October 31, 1969. 1969: The company incorporates as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. 1962: First Wal-Mart store opens in Rogers, Arkansas.

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