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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Individual species may employ a number of methods of hunting:. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. There are no known reports of cannibalism amongst dolphins. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The larger species, especially the orca, are capable of eating marine mammals, even large whales. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Usually, the prey is swallowed whole.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. Some dolphins may take crustaceans. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. The dentition is adapted to the animals they hunt: Species with long beaks and many teeth forage on fish, whereas short beaks and lesser tooth count are linked to catching squid. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Dolphins are predators, chasing their prey at high speed. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Since dolphins spend most of their time below the surface in the wild, just tasting the water could act as a sense of smell.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. However, they seem to lack a well-developed sense of smell, but they most likely can taste and do show preferences for certain kinds of fish. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. The dolphin's sense of touch is also well-developed. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. Hearing is also used for echolocation which seems to be an ability all dolphins have. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. Though they have a small ear opening on each side of their head it is believed hearing underwater is also if not exclusively done with the lower jaw which conducts the vibrations to the middle ear via a fat filled cavity in the lower jaw bone.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Most dolphins have acute eyesight both in and out of the water and their sense of hearing is far above our own. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Compare also: whale behavior. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. She most likely died of self induced asphyxiation in the presence of her trainer Richard O'Barry.[1]. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. Probably one of the best known cases of dolphin suicide is that of a dolphin named Cathy, one of the bottlenose dolphins that performed in the television series Flipper.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. They either do so by repeatedly slamming their head against the pool walls or other solid objects or simply by not coming up for air anymore. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In captivity, many dolphins seem to have committed suicide. A referee makes all penalty calls. The technology to use sponges as mouth protection is not genetically inherited but a taught cultural behaviour. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. Other than with primate simians, the knowledge to use a tool is mostly handed over only from mothers to daughters.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. The animals break off sponges and put them onto their mouths thus protecting the delicate body part during their hunt for fish on the seabed. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. In May 2005, researchers in Australia discovered a cultural aspect of dolphin behaviour: Some dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) teach their offspring to use a tool. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. Such military dolphins, however, drew scrutiny during the Vietnam War when rumors circulated that dolphins were being trained to kill Vietnamese Skin Divers. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. The military has employed dolphins for various purposes from finding mines to rescuing lost or trapped persons.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Dolphin/Human interaction is also employed in a curative sense at places where dolphins work with autistic or otherwise disabled children. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. Dolphins trained to perform in front of an audience have become a favorite attraction in dolphinaria, for example SeaWorld. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Because of their high capacity for learning, dolphins have been employed by humans for any number of purposes. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. This leads to them staying with injured or ill fellows for support.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. However, the animals can establish strong bonds between each other. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Membership in schools is not rigid; interchange is common. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. They also use ultrasonic sounds for echolocation. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The individuals communicate using a variety of clicks, whistles and other vocalizations.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. In places with a high abundance of food, schools can join temporarily, forming an aggregation called a superpod; such groupings may exceed 1000 dolphins. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Dolphins are social animals, living in pods (also called "schools") of up to a dozen animals. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. There are many stories of dolphins protecting shipwrecked sailors against sharks by swimming circles around the swimmers. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. In return, in some cultures like in Ancient Greece they were treated with welcome; a ship spotting dolphins riding in their wake was considered a good omen for a smooth voyage.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. They are also famous for their willingness to occasionally approach humans and playfully interact with them in the water. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. Frequently dolphins will accompany boats, riding the bow waves. They divide the ice into zones. They have even been seen harassing other creatures, like seabirds and turtles. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. Play is a very important part of dolphins' lives and they can often be observed playing with seaweed or playfighting with other dolphins.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. Perhaps they just do it for fun. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. They could also be communicating to other dolphins to join a hunt, or attempting to dislodge parasites. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . Scientists aren't quite certain about the purpose of this behavior, but it may be to locate schools of fish by looking at above water signs, like feeding birds. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. the spinner dolphin).

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Dolphins often leap above the water surface, sometimes performing acrobatic figures (e.g. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. See the Dolphin intelligence article for more details. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Straightforward comparisons of species' relative intelligence are complicated by differences in sensory apparatus, response modes, and nature of cognition; furthermore, the difficulty and expense of doing experimental work with a large marine animal mean that even such tests as can meaningfully be done have still not been done, or have been carried out with inadequate sample size and methodology. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. However, experts in comparative psychology or animal cognition would be reluctant to make any such estimate, as quantitative comparisons of intelligence between species are notoriously difficult to make in principle.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. A typical statement would be that dolphins are roughly as intelligent as a two-year-old human. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. Dolphins are widely believed to be amongst the most intelligent of all animals. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. See individual species articles for details. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. It is often combined with lines and patches of different hue and contrast.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. The basic coloration patterns are shades of gray with a light underside and a distinct dark cape on the back. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. The dolphin brain is large and has a highly structured cortex, which often is referred to in discussions about their high intelligence. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Teeth can be very numerous (up to 250) in several species. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In many species, the jaws are elongated, forming a distinct beak; for some species like the Bottlenose, there is a curved mouth that looks like a fixed smile.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. The head contains the melon, a round organ used for echolocation. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. Dolphins have a fusiform body, adapted for fast swimming. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. See evolution of cetaceans for the details. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. They entered the water roughly 50 million years ago.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. Modern dolphin skeletons have two small rod shaped pelvic bones thought to be left-over hind legs. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. Dolphins, along with whales and porpoises, are descendants of land-living mammals, most likely of the Artiodactyl order. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. See also wolphin. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. There has also been a reported hybrid between a beluga and a narwhal.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Dall's Porpoises and Harbour Porpoises have hybridized in the wild. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. Blue Whales, Fin Whales and Humpback Whales all hybridize in the wild. Over the years many different organizations have existed. In the wild, bands of males of one dolphin species have been observed to mate with lone female Spinners. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. In the wild, Spinner Dolphins have sometimes hybridised with Spotted Dolphins and Bottlenose Dolphins.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. In captivity, a Bottlenose Dolphin and a Rough-Toothed Dolphin produced hybrid offspring. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. This mating has since been repeated in captivity and a hybrid calf was born. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. In 1933, three strange dolphins were beached off the Irish coast; these appeared to be hybrids between Risso's Dolphin and the Bottlenose Dolphin. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. They are sometimes called "blackfish":.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Six animals in the family Delphinidae are commonly called "whales" but are strictly speaking dolphins. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. . Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The family Delphinidae is the largest in the Cetacea, and relatively recent: dolphins evolved about 10 million years ago, during the Miocene. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and all are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Most species weigh about 50 to 200 kg (110 to 440 lb). The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. They vary in size from 1.2 m (4 ft) and 40 kg (88 lb) (Maui's Dolphin), up to 9.5 m (30 ft) and 10 tonnes (the Orca). There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. There are almost 40 species of dolphin in 17 genera. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Orcas and some related species belong to the Delphinidae family and therefore qualify as dolphins, even though they are called whales in common language.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Porpoises (suborder Odontoceti, family Phocoenidae) are thus not dolphins in our sense. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In this article, the second definition is used. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. It can mean:. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. The word is used in a few different ways.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. "a 'fish' with a womb". The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. The name is from Ancient Greek δελφίς delphis meaning "with a womb", viz. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Dolphins are aquatic mammals related to whales and porpoises. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. In the William Gibson short story Johnny Mnemonic and the film by the same name (starring Keanu Reeves), cyborg dolphins were used in war-time by the military to find submarines and, after the war, by a group of revolutionaries to decode encrypted information.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. One of the mates of the ship is named Akeakamai, in honor of the real-life dolphin from Louis Herman's animal language research. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. In the book Startide Rising by author David Brin, the spaceship Streaker is manned by neo-dolphins (dolphins genetically engineered to match human intelligence). Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. In one scene, the dolphins' misbehavior elicits the following quote from Zissou: "Son of a bitch, I'm sick of these dolphins.". Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. In The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou, marine researcher Zissou (played by Bill Murray) has trained reconaissance dolphins which apparently are temperamental and rarely follow their instructions.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. In seaQuest DSV and seaQuest 2032, Darwin the dolphin could communicate with English speakers using a vocoder, an invention that translated the clicks and whistles to English and back. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Mike and the 'Bots then quickly apoligize. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. While doing so, the SOL gets blasted by a ship that turns out to be piloted by dolphins. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. In the Mystery Science Theater 3000 episode "Devil Fish," Mike and the 'Bots mock dolphins.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Their logo depicts an aqua-colored bottlenose dolphin wearing an American football helmet and jumping in front of a coral-colored sunburst. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. An American National Football League (NFL) team is named the Miami Dolphins. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. A book called 'The Music of Dolphins' was written by Karen Hesse, about a girl who had lived with dolphins since the age of four. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Ecco the Dolphin stars in a series of games for the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, Game Gear, Sega Dreamcast and PlayStation 2.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. After study at the Dolphins Plus research center in Key Largo, Florida, fantasy author Ken Grimwood wrote dolphins into his 1995 novel Into the Deep, including entire chapters written from the viewpoint of his dolphin characters. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Their story is told in So Long, and Thanks for All the Fish. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. However, their behavior was misinterpreted as playful acrobatics. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, dolphins are the most intelligent creatures on Earth and tried in vain to warn humans of the impending destruction of the planet.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. The television show was based on a 1963 film, and remade as a feature film in 1996 starring Elijah Wood and Paul Hogan (actor), as well as a television series running from 1995-2000 starring Jessica Alba. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The popular television show Flipper, created by Ivan Tors, portrayed a dolphin in a friendly relationship with two boys, Sandy and Bud; a kind of sea going Lassie, Flipper understood English unusually well and was a marked hero: "Go tell Dad we're in trouble, Flipper! Hurry!" The show's theme song contains the lyric no one you see / is smarter than he. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Foraging - A recent study reported that wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops) in Western Australia use sponges to forage in the sea bed for food.[2]. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Stunning - using the echolocation melon, very loud clicks are directed at prey, stunning them.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Fish Wacking - where the dolphin uses its fluke to strike the fish, stunning it and sometimes sending it clear out of the water. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Corralling - where fish are chased to shallow water where they are more easily captured. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. Herding - where a superpod will control a school of fish while individual members take turns plowing through the herd, feeding. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus.

. Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. False Killer Whale, Psudoorca crassidens. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). Killer Whale, Orcinus orca.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. La Plata Dolphin (Franciscana), Pontoporia blainvillei. William M. Genus Pontoporia

    . Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Indus River Dolphin, Platanista minor.

    Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. Ganges River Dolphin, Platanista gangetica. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. Genus Platanista

      . Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. Chinese River Dolphin (Baiji), Lipotes vexillife. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. Genus Lipotes
        .

        Lester B. Boto (Amazon River Dolphin), Inia geoffrensis. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. Genus Inia

          . King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. Family Platanistoidea, River Dolphins
            . James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. Short-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus.

            Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Long-finned Pilot Whale, Globicephala melas. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Genus Globicephala

              . Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. False Killer Whale, Pseudorca crassidens. Frank J. Genus Pseudorca
                .

                Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Pygmy Killer Whale, Feresa attenuata. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Genus Feresa

                  . Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Killer Whale, Orcinus orca. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Genus Orcinus
                    .

                    The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. Melon-headed Whale, Peponocephalia electra. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Genus Peponocephalia

                      . Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Irrawaddy Dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. Australian Snubfin Dolphin, Orcaella heinsohni.

                      Clarence S. Genus Orcaella

                        . Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. White-Beaked Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus albirostris. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. Peale's Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus australis. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. Pacific White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens.

                        Two points are awarded for a win. Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger. Dusky Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus. Atlantic White-Sided Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus. Genus Lagenorhyncus

                          .

                          Fraser's Dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei. Genus Lagenodelphis

                            . Risso's Dolphin, Grampus griseus. Genus Grampus
                              .

                              Hector's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus hectori. Heaviside's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus heavisidii. Commerson's Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii. Chilean Dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia.

                              Genus Cephalorynchus

                                . Rough-Toothed Dolphin, Steno bredanensis. Genus Steno
                                  . Striped Dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba.

                                  Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris. Pantropical Spotted Dolphin, Stenella attenuata. Clymene Dolphin, Stenella clymene. Atlantic Spotted Dolphin, Stenella frontalis.

                                  Genus Stenella

                                    . Atlantic Humpbacked Dolphin, Sousa teuszii. Chinese White Dolphin (the Chinese variant), Sousa chinensis chinensis. Indo-Pacific Hump-backed Dolphin, Sousa chinensis
                                      .

                                      Genus Sousa

                                        . Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis. Genus Sotalia
                                          . Southern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissiodelphis peronii.

                                          Northern Rightwhale Dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis. Genus Lissodelphis

                                            . Bottlenose Dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Genus Tursiops
                                              .

                                              Short-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus delphis. Long-Beaked Common Dolphin, Delphinus capensis. Genus Delphinus

                                                . Family Delphinidae, oceanic Dolphins
                                                  .

                                                  Suborder Odontoceti, toothed whales

                                                    . Used casually as a synonym for Bottlenose Dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. Any member of the suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales; these include the above families and some others),. Any member of the families Delphinidae and Platanistoidea (oceanic and river dolphins),.

                                                    Any member of the family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins),.

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