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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. This deficiency was the focus of an extended passage in the Douglas Adams novel The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. Until the early 1990s, pizza delivery was relatively unavailable in England. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Pizza has also been used in teaching fractions and in computer games, such as Pizza Tycoon. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Pizza was the food of choice of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. Pizza plays a prominent role in other films, such as Loverboy, Mystic Pizza and Spike Lee's Do the Right Thing. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. In the film Splendor in the Grass, set in 1929, the character Bud Stamper visits a New Haven pizzeria (see also apizza) as a freshman at Yale University, and has to ask the waitress, "What is pizza?" In the 1920s, pizza would have been virtually unknown to a non-Italian Midwesterner. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Recently, frozen pizzas with a rising-crust have appeared on the market. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Frozen pizzas are generally considered inferior in quality to pizzeria-made pizzas, though there are some exemplary frozen pizzas.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In Japan, where full-size ovens are a rarity in the home, pizza toast is a popular version. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. In some countries, creations such as pita pizza, bagel pizza, and tortilla pizza are popular, especially with children. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. In home-made pizza, there are many variations on the bread used for crust. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. Greek pizza, like Chicago-style pizza, is baked in a pan rather than directly on the bricks of the pizza oven.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Another option is grilled pizza, in which the crust is baked directly on a barbecue grill. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. When making pizza at home, it can be baked on a "pizza stone" in a regular oven to imitate the effect of a brick oven. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. On deck ovens, the pizza can be slid into the oven on a long paddle called a peel and baked directly on the hot bricks or baked on a screen (a round metal pan that has holes in it like a screen). During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In restaurants, pizza can be baked in a gas deck (stone bricks above the heat source) oven, an electric deck oven, a conveyor belt oven or, in the case of more expensive restaurants, a wood- or coal-fired brick oven.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. Some pizzas are now made with a cheese-filled crust. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. The crust can be very thick as in Chicago-style pizza or almost non-existent as in the Roman pizza. A referee makes all penalty calls. Pizza may be baked with a thin bread bottom (Italian or "hand-tossed" style) or with thicker bread (pan pizza). A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. "Supreme" pizzas typically include a thick layer of many different toppings.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. Breakfast pizzas are topped with ingredients such as scrambled eggs. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. Pizzas can also be made without meat for vegetarians, and without cheese for vegans. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. These pizzas consist of the same basic design but include an exceptionally diverse choice of ingredients, such as anchovies, egg, pineapple, grilled lamb, coconut, sauerkraut, eggplant, lamb, couscous, chicken, fish, and shellfish, meats done in ethnic styles such as Moroccan lamb, kebab or even chicken tikka masala, and non-traditional spices such as curry and Thai sweet chili. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. In recent years, pizza has become an international food since the toppings can be extensively varied to meet local variations in taste.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Lately, frozen pizzas with completely raw ingredients have also begun to appear. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. Traditionally the dough is somewhat pre-baked and other ingredients are also sometimes pre-cooked. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Modified corn starch is commonly used as a moisture barrier between the sauce and crust. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. The main challenges include preventing the sauce from combining with the dough and producing a crust that can be frozen and reheated without becoming rigid.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. Considerable amounts of food technology has gone into the creation of palatable frozen pizzas. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Pizza is also found in supermarkets as a frozen food. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. These national pizza chains often coexist with locally-owned pizza restaurants. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. Even Pizza Hut has shifted its emphasis away from pizza parlors and toward home delivery.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Today, the pizza business is dominated by companies that specialize in home delivery, including Domino's, Little Caesar's, and Papa John's. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Some later entrants to the dine-in pizza market were Happy Joe's, California Pizza Kitchen, and Round Table Pizza. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. Some leading early pizza chains were Shakey's Pizza (inventor of the term pizza parlor; formerly, the term pizzeria was preferred) and Pizza Hut, both founded in 1954, in Sacramento and Wichita, respectively. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. With its rising popularity in the 1950s, especially in the US, pizza became a component of the growing chain-restaurant industry.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. The American troops involved in the Italian campaign took their appreciation for the dish back home. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. Although the birthplace of modern day pizza is Naples, local bakers were at a loss to satisfy the demand from American soldiers. They divide the ice into zones. The international breakthrough came after World War II. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. At this point in time in the U.S., pizza consumption was still limited mostly to Italian immigrants.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. The D'Amore family brought pizza to Los Angeles in 1939. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. Boston was introduced to pizza in 1926 by Anthony Polcari when he opened Pizzeria Regina in Boston's North End. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana opened in New Haven in 1925. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi's to open his own pizzeria on Coney Island called Totonno's.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. On November 10th, 2005, Lombardi's celebrated its 100th anniversary by selling pizzas at the 1905 price, 5 cents, for the whole day. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. It was closed in 1984 and then reopened in 1994 a block down, at 32 Spring Street. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. The price for an entire pizza was 5 cents, but since many people couldn't afford the cost of a whole pie, they could rather say how much they could pay and they were given a slice corresponding to the amount offered (not unlike the method by which pizza is often sold in Italy today). While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. Their pizza became so popular, Lombardi opened the first US pizzeria in 1905 at 53 1/3 Spring Street [4], naming it simply Lombardi's.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero (also an Italian immigrant) began making pizza for the store to sell. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. An Italian immigrant to the US in 1897 named Gennaro Lombardi opened a small grocery store in New York's Little Italy. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Teresa) and an even more decided popular favour, establishing itself as a daily course, dinner and supper of the Neapolitans. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. Pizza met the aristocratic taste (the King of Naples Ferdinando II of Borbone greatly enjoyed the pizza made by 'Ntuono Testa at Salita S.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. e basta così"), but then the world's first true pizzeria, Antica Pizzeria Port'Alba, opened in Naples and is still in business today at Via Port'Alba 18. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Until about 1830, pizza was sold from open-air stands and street vendors out of pizza bakeries (including "Pietro.. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. The pizza was very patriotic and resembled the Italian flag with its colors of green (basil leaves), white (mozzarella), and red (tomatoes), and was named Pizza Margherita in honor of the Queen and set the standard by which today's pizza evolved and spread worldwide. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Anna di palazzo, 1-2 - Napoli - [3] ) baked a special pizza especially for the visit of the King Umberto I and Queen Margherita of Savoy.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. and that's enough", established in 1780 and still in activity; now called "Pizzeria Brandi" - Via Chiaia, Salita S. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. e basta così" (literally "Peter.. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. In 1889, Raffaele Esposito who worked in the pizzeria "Pietro.. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The first dynasties of Neapolitan pizza makers (Italian: pizzaioli) originate in these years: modern pizza is attributed to baker Raffaele Esposito of Naples in the Italian region of Campania.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. Pizza became a tourist attraction, and visitors to Naples ventured into the poorer areas of the city to try the local specialty. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. However, by the late 18th century even the poor of the area around Naples added it as an ingredient to their yeast-based flat bread, and the dish gained in popularity. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. The tomato was first believed to be poisonous (as some other fruits of the nightshade family are), when it came to Europe in the 16th century. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The crust of pizza is very similar to focaccia bread common in Italian cuisine today.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. The tomato was still unknown in Europe and the Indian water buffalo, whose milk is used to make the real mozzarella cheese, had not yet been imported to Campania, the area around Napoli (Naples). For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. Though several kinds of flat bread made with flour, often cooked with oil and spices, were familiar to ancient Romans and popular in all the Mediterranean area, they were considerably different from pizza as it is known today. Over the years many different organizations have existed. Further evidence is found in Pompeii, the city "frozen in time" since 79 CE, where archaeologists have excavated shops that closely resemble modern pizzerias. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. In the 3rd century BCE, the first history of Rome, written by Marcus Porcius Cato, mentions a "flat round of dough dressed with olive oil, herbs, and honey baked on stones".

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. Such products arguably have their first written mention in Book VII of Virgil's Aeneid:. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The history of food items which may have served as the roots of modern pizza can be traced to the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia (southern Italy). On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. . A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Pizza can also be purchased in grocery stores or supermarkets (usually but not always frozen); in many countries, pizza can also be ordered by phone (or, increasingly, via the Web) to be delivered, hot and ready to eat, to the home.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.
A restaurant which serves pizza is called pizzeria (from Italian); in the US, the name pizza parlor is also used. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. The term was originally used to refer to a range of dough-based dishes, and is thought to be derived from pinza ← Latin pincere "to mash up".[1] [2]. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The word "pizza" is from the Italian word pizza (IPA: /pittsa/), with plural form pizze (IPA: /pit:tse/). The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Pizza is normally eaten hot (typically at lunch or dinner), but leftovers are often eaten cold.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. sauces made with spinach or onions). The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. In some pizza recipes (so-called "white pizzas") the tomato sauce is omitted, or replaced with another sauce (e.g. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. The crust is traditionally plain but may also be seasoned with butter, garlic, or herbs; or stuffed, with cheese, for example. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Various other foodstuffs may be added to this design as toppings, most typically:.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. The cheese is usually mozzarella or sometimes a mixture of several specialty cheeses. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In its native form, a pizza (occasionally, pizza pie) is an oven-baked, flat, usually circular bread covered with tomato sauce and cheese with optional toppings. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. "When the moon hits your eye like a big pizza pie,That's Amore." sung by Dean Martin, reached US number 2 in 1953. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. Borders are sometimes optionally filled with cheddar or catupiry.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. In São Paulo, Brazil, pizzas are often made without cheese (if they are not cheese flavoured), emphasizing the topping ingredients. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. In India, pizza toppings include curry and other traditional sauces or chunks of tandoori chicken. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Some pizzas include ingredients such as beans, beef, poblano pepper, jalapeño pepper, corn nibblets, chorizo, onion, etc. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. In Mexico, pizza is often enjoyed dipped in ketchup and/or hot sauce.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In Hong Kong, Pizza Hut customers may choose to have their pizzas dressed with Thousand Island dressing instead of tomato sauce. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. In addition, sweet potato puree in a circular ring near the edge of the crust is very popular. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. In South Korea, kimchi and bulgogi are used as toppings, as well as many of the toppings used in Japan. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. [7] The Japanese dish okonomiyaki is occasionally referred to in English as "Japanese pizza", although its ingredients, preparation method, and taste are substantially different from traditional pizza.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. [6] Another variation is rice pizza, substituting baked rice for the crust. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Salad pizza, a pizza topped with tossed salad, is occasionally seen. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Tabasco sauce is often used as a condiment. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. In Japan, pizza toppings may include corn, diced potatoes, scrambled eggs, mayonnaise, Camembert cheese, curry sauce, and various kinds of seafood.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. "Hawaiian pizza" (see above) is the most popular topping combination in Australia, accounting for 20 percent of all sales. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. In Australia, a commonly sold style is the Aussie pizza, which is topped with ham, bacon, cheese and egg. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. A pizza with mushrooms, pepperoni, and green bell pepper is referred to as "all-dressed". The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. In Quebec, the same topping combination is called a 'Québécois Pizza'.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. In Canada, the topping combination of bacon, pepperoni and mushrooms is called 'Canadian Pizza' . (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). In Scotland, a "pizza supper" commonly sold in fish and chip shops consists of a portion of fried chips (french fries) and a frozen pizza which has been deep fried rather than baked. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. This style also is sometimes called "bakery pizza." A similar product is made in bakeries in Italy. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. It is usually (but not always) wrapped in individual strips (hence the name).

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. It has a minimal amount of cheese and is served cold. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. Rhode Island's strip pizza, commonly sold in bakeries, consists of thick, chewy dough and is topped with a very thick tomato sauce. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Brier Hill is the city's historically Italian area. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Youngstown, Ohio's "Brier Hill Pizza" features a thick sauce topped with a mixture of Parmesan and Romano cheese and green peppers.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. In Dayton, Ohio, the local preference is for pizza with thin crust and a light sauce cut into small squares. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. This type of pizza is usually served cold, and is topped only with a light layer of Pecorino Romano cheese. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. In Utica, New York, a type of pizza called tomato pie is common. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. In Buffalo, New York, pizza is made with a thicker, doughier crust than traditional New York style pizza, with a slightly thicker and sweeter sauce, mozzarella cheese and (usually) pepperoni cooked until it is burned and crispy on the edges.

. Louis, Missouri, Saint Louis-style pizza is made with a thin crispy crust, often heavily seasoned with salt and oregano, topped with provel cheese, and served in small squares rather than pie-like slices. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. In St. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. Made popular by the originating restaurant, BeauJo's, it is piled high with toppings and kept from spilling over by a large, hand-rolled crust that can also be used as an in-pie dessert. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). In Colorado, a type of pizza, called mountain pie, is a regional favorite.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. In Baltimore, Maryland, pizza is traditionally served with a thick, doughy crust and a heavy amount of sauce. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. Sourdough crust pizza is the type most commonly associated with San Francisco, however. William M. In San Francisco, California, the Indian Pizza (see below) has become a source of pride. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. The canonical New Haven-style pizza is a white clam pie.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. This thin-crust pizza originated with the Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in the Wooster Square neighborhood of New Haven. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. In New Haven, Connecticut, the local specialty is known as apizza. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. In Long Island, New York, aka the birthplace of the "pizza bagel", which substitutes bread with a half sliced bagel, but otherwise has normal toppings and ingredients. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. Pizza Puffs are dough pouches, usually deep fried, filled with the ingredients of a pizza, such as cheese, pizza sauce, sausage, and pepperoni.

Lester B. Grilled pizza, invented in Providence, Rhode Island, uses a fairly thin crust cooked on a grill; the toppings are placed on the baked side after the pizza has cooked for a bit and flipped over. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. Ham and pineapple is also a popular topping combination in Australia although, notably, not in Hawaii, this type is also common within the EU as Pizza Hawaii. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. A style referred to as "The Perfect Pizza" consists of Hawaiian-style on one half and pepperoni on the other. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. Hawaiian pizza has Canadian bacon and pineapple toppings and is especially popular in the Western United States.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Plain olive oil is the predominant sauce. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. It has a thicker, chewier crust and is baked in a pan in the pizza oven, instead of directly on the bricks. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. Greek pizza is a variation popular in New England. Frank J. In Rome, the term pizza bianca refers to a type of bread topped only with olive oil.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Most commonly, the toppings consist only of mozzarella and ricotta cheese. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. White pizza (pizza bianca) uses no tomato sauce, often substituting pesto or dairy products such as sour cream. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. California-style pizza (often termed in the United States gourmet pizza) refers to pizzas with non-traditional ingredients, especially those that use a considerable amount of fresh produce. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Louis-style Pizza chains are Imo's Pizza and Cecil Whittaker's Pizzeria.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. The two largest St. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Sauces tend to have a sweetness to them, some more noticeably than others. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Despite its thin crust, it can be layered deeply with many different toppings. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. It is often salty and seasoned with more oregano than other pizza types.

Clarence S. Louis pizza is somewhat crisp and cannot be folded easily, and is typically cut into three- or four-inch squares instead of the pie-like wedges typical of other pizza. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. The crust of a St. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. The pizza has a thin, round crust, as opposed to Chicago's deep-dish style or New York's pan-style. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. Louisan provel cheese used instead of (or rarely in addition to) the mozzarella common to other styles of pizza.

Two points are awarded for a win. Louis-style pizza is the distinctively St. It is also sometimes duplicated in other areas of the Midwest.The most notable characteristic of St. Louis-style pizza is a distinct style of pizza popular in Saint Louis, Missouri and its surrounding areas. St.

Deep dish pizza was purportedly invented and first served in 1943 at Pizzeria Uno, which is still operating along with its twin restaurant, Pizzeria Due, in the River North neighborhood. Some versions (usually referred to as "stuffed") have two layers of crust with the sauce on top. It reverses the order of ingredients, using crust, cheese, filling, then sauce on top. Chicago-style pizza, or deep dish pizza contains a crust which is formed up the sides of a deep dish pan.

Many pizza establishments in the New York metropolitan area offer two varieties of pizza: "Neapolitan", or "regular", made with a relatively thin, circular crust and served in wedge-shaped slices, and "Sicilian", made with a thicker, rectangular crust and served in large, rectangular slices. This style of pizza tends to dominate the Northeastern states and is very similar to the basic style common through the United States and known simply as pizza. The slices are sometimes eaten folded in half, as its size and flexibility may otherwise make it unwieldy to eat by hand. It is traditionally hand-tossed and light on sauce.

New York-style pizza is a style originally developed in New York City, where pizza is often sold in oversized, thin and flexible slices. American pizzas:

    . Pizza Hut's Sicilian Pizza, introduced in 1994, is not an authentic example of the style as only garlic, basil, and oregano are mixed into the crust. Sicilian Pizza in the United States is typically a different variety of product made with a thick crust characterized by rectangular share and topped with tomato sauce and cheese (and optional toppings).

    An authentic recipe uses neither cheese nor anchovies. Sicilian-style pizza has its toppings baked directly into the crust. Four Cheeses Pizza: tomato, mozzarella, other cheeses;. Pizza Quattro Stagioni ("Four Seasons Pizza"): same ingredients for the Capricciosa, but ingredients not mixed;.

    Pizza Capricciosa ("Caprice Pizza"): mozzarella, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, cooked ham, olives, oil (in Rome raw ham is used and half hard-boiled egg is added ;. Pizza with Ham and Mushrooms: tomato, mozzarella, ham, mushrooms;. Pizza Viennese: tomato, mozzarella, German sausage, oregano, oil;. Pizza Romana (in Naples): tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil;.

    Strange enough, there is no such "Pizza Napoletana" in Naples and no "Pizza Romana" in Rome. In Rome a "Pizza Napoletana" is topped with tomato, mozzarella, anchovies and oil (thus, what in Naples is called "Pizza Romana", in Rome is called "Pizza Napoletana"). It is mostly cooked in a wood-fired oven which gives pizza its unique flavour and taste. 2) In Pizza Restaurants (Pizzerie), where it is served in a dish in its traditional round shape, it features a very thin crust compared to Neapolitan recipe.

    When purchased, it is usually cut with scissors or knife and priced by weight. The crust similar to that of an English Muffin and mostly cooked in an electric oven. Pizza is cooked in long, rectangular baking pans and relatively thin (1-2cm). Lazio style: Pizza in Lazio (Rome), as well as in many other parts of Italy is available in 2 different "flavours": 1) In take-away shops so-called "Pizza Rustica" or "Pizza a Taglio".

    Little sauce is used and a popular topping is strips of Prosciutto. Veneto style: Pizza in Veneto (Venice, Padova) is very thin (0.5cm), crispy in the outer ring but soft, almost flimsy, in the inner portion. Pizza Margherita Extra: tomato, buffalo mozzarella from Campania in listels, basil and oil. Pizza Margherita: tomato, mozzarella in listels, basil and oil;.

    Pizza marinara: with tomato, garlic, oregano and oil;. This admit only three official variants:

      . Neapolitan pizza has also gained in Italy the status of "guaranteed traditional speciality". When cooked, it should be soft and fragrant.

      The pizza must be baked for 60–90 seconds in a 485 °C (905 °F) stone oven with an oak-wood fire. After the rising process, the dough must be formed by the right hand and the first two fingers of the left without the help of a rolling pin or other mechanical device, and may be no more than 3 mm (1/8 in) thick. The dough must be kneaded by hand or with an approved mixer that moves in a clockwise direction. For proper results, strong flour with high protein content (as used for bread-making rather than cakes) must be used.

      The genuine Neapolitan pizza dough consists of Italian wheat flour (type 0 and/or 00), natural Neapolitan yeast or brewer's yeast, and water. According to the rules proposed by the Associazione vera pizza napoletana and other sources quoted by the BBC [5], and the legal EU document with the Vera Pizza Napoletana Specification in translation. Neapolitan pizza (pizza Napoletana). Italian pizzas:

        .

        mushrooms. meat, seafood or fish products, sausage, (especially pepperoni or salami), ham, bacon, ground beef, anchovies and shrimp. vegetables such as bell peppers, asparagus, broccoli, olives, onions. herbs and seasonings such as basil, oregano, and garlic.

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