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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Two of the characters, Spanky Ham and Xandir, have a fake gay marriage to extend (gay) Xandir's health benefits to (straight) Spanky Ham. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. Another popular cartoon show, Drawn Together included an episode featuring gay marriage in 2005. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. In a 2005 episode of The Simpsons ("There's Something About Marrying"), Springfield legalized gay marriage to attract the pink dollar. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Marriage organizers see legalization as a business opportunity, and claim that homosexual couples are interested in sophisticated ceremonies, both due to lack of established traditions and because of the enthusiasm that they have been building for years.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. [27]. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Alice and Carol Roe; otherwise, they may be addressed individually, as is done for other married couples with different surnames. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. John and Richard Doe or Mmes. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Etiquette writer Judith Martin (Miss Manners) counsels that where the spouses have taken one name, they may be addressed as The Messrs.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Some people with friends who are in a same-sex marriage are unsure as to how to address them, since in English and other languages, married people may use a different form of address from single ones. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. The etiquette of addressing same-sex couples is often questioned. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. Further, in the final chapter of "Same- Sex Marriage? A Christian Ethical Analysis", [26] liberal Pastor Marvin Ellison advocates that "marriage" should not just be limited to two people (regardless of gender) because this sets up inequalities in rights for people involved in polyamorous relationships. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. However the couple will now be able to register a civil partnership, to come into force immediately on the dissolution of their marriage.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. In the United Kingdom, recent legislation allows transsexual persons to be officially recognized in their new gender, but this has the effect of annulling any previous marriage. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. More than one in one hundred newborns are to some degree physically aberrant from their genetic sex, with most of them undergoing some degree of surgical alteration. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Just as recent same-sex marriages have been quickly overturned as null and void, so too could extant, long term marriages. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. If defined genetically, both transsexuals and intersexed individuals would be prohibited from marrying partners of the "opposite" sex and therefore from heterosexual marriage.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. One fundamental problem for any law banning same-sex marriage is defining the terms "man" and "woman". A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. To respect their dignity, neither the state nor society is obliged to legally accept their 'lifestyle' that has no reason to be publicly recognized as a social value." [25]. A referee makes all penalty calls. Their dignity and equality are based on the simple fact that they are members of the human race. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A brief presented by Cardinal Marc Ouellet, archbishop of Quebec, opposing the legal recognition of same-sex couples, argued that the decision to give such legal recognition is based on a false understanding of the meaning of equality between persons, as well as human dignity, and that "The equality and dignity of persons do not depend on race, religion, sex, sexual orientation or marital status.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. I hope it will be soon."[24]. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. He concludes "There will come a time when we will look back upon [banning gay marriage in eleven states] for the shame it is. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. Russell Baker, of the United Church of Christ, who personally experienced discrimination because of his interracial marriage with an African-American woman shortly after the repeal of anti-miscegenation laws in the U.S., compares same-sex marriage opponents to racial segregationists of the 1960's by arguing that:. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. Reverend F.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Board of Education), or anti-miscegenation laws that were also overturned). Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. They argue that dividing the concept of same-sex marriage and different-sex marriage is tantamount to "separate but equal" policies (like that overturned in the US Supreme Court case Brown v. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Some proponents of same-sex marriage make a comparison between racial segregation and segregation of homosexual and heterosexual marriage classifications in civil law. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. Department of Public Health, is the following: "the dissimilitude between the terms "civil marriage" and "civil union" is not innocuous; it is a considered choice of language that reflects a demonstrable assigning of same-sex, largely homosexual, couples to second-class status" and also that "The history of our nation has demonstrated that separate is seldom, if ever, equal.".

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. An opposing argument, used by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court in Goodridge v. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Some opponents of extending marriage to same-sex couples claim that equality can be achieved with civil unions or other forms of legal recognition that don't go as far as to use the word "marriage" that's used for opposite-sex couples. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia noted as such in his dissenting opinion to Lawrence. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. U.S.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Both supporters and detractors of same-sex marriage have noted that this ruling paved the way for subsequent decisions invalidating state laws prohibiting same-sex marriage. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Texas, the Supreme Court held that the right to private consensual sexual conduct was protected under the Fourteenth Amendment. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. In a 2003 case titled Lawrence v. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. A denial of rights or benefits without substantive due process, assert the proponents of marriage equality, directly contradicts the 14th Amendment of the US Constitution which provides for equal protection of all citizens.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. See Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States for a partial list. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. In the United States, there are over 1,049 federal laws in which "rights, benefits, and privileges are contingent on marital status" (United States General Accounting Office). They divide the ice into zones. (See [23]). There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. (See [22]) On July 28, 2004, the American Psychological Association's Council of Representatives adopted a resolution supporting legalization of same-sex civil marriages and opposes discrimination against lesbian and gay parents.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. They include the Child Welfare League of America, North American Council on Adoptable Children, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Association of Social Workers. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. A number of health and child welfare organizations, however, disagree. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . Some object on the grounds that same-sex couples should not be allowed to adopt or raise children or to have access to reproductive technologies, and that same-sex marriage would make such adoptions easier. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. This could be considered an application of the precautionary principle.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Many people, while tolerant towards the sexual behaviour of others, see no reason to alter their society or government's traditional attitudes towards marriage and family. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Supporters of same-sex marriage state that, in the jurisdictions that have afforded legal recognition of same-sex unions, the dire consequences foretold by opponents have not come to pass. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Some opponents also claim that allowing same-sex marriage will blur other common law precedents and lead to the legalization of various other perceived undesirable marriages including:. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. Texas.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Some claim that this argument is now moot due to the 2003 case titled Lawrence v. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. As the argument goes, if marriage is extended to homosexuals, then "the right of marital privacy" would mandate that sodomy must be permitted even if the state wishes to prohibit it for health reasons. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Baird (1972), it extended the same privacy rights to unmarried people. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. Connecticut (1965), the Court said that banning contraception violated "the right of marital privacy." In Eisenstadt v.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. In Griswold v. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Some [21] have made the parallel that equality in marriage would lead to an inability to ban certain kinds of sex, such as sodomy, even if it applied to both heterosexuals and homosexuals. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. The fact that changes in the customs and protocols of marriage often occur gives rise to the argument that marriage is dynamic, and same-gender acceptance is only the latest evolution of the institution. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Connecticut in U.S.), and anti-miscegenation laws forbidding interracial marriage have been eliminated.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. Besides the abolition of polygamy in most modern societies, for example, married women are also no longer considered the property of their husbands (see the legal rights of women), divorce is legal, contraception within wedlock is allowed (Griswold v. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. Proponents of same-sex marriage point out that so-called "traditional" concepts of marriage in actuality have already undergone significant change (see History of Civil Marriage in the U.S.). The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Many societies discourage the practice of polygamy nowadays. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Group marriages in which three or more people all marry each other have been very rare.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. In polygamous marriages one person, a man (polygyny) or a woman (polyandry), takes many spouses of the opposite sex; these spouses are not married to each other, but are all married to the same person. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. Some societies have from ancient times permitted spouses to have multiple concurrent marriages (polygamy). The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. With some notable exceptions, most societies have utilized a definition of marriage that included at least one man and one woman. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Calling a heterosexual union the same legal term as a homosexual union for a whole state or society is only a recent occurrence.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Some people in the position to write the law for their country indulged themselves in calling some of their same-gender relationships a marriage, though they assumed no familial attachment. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. As possessors of a third gender, such people could marry either men or women. Over the years many different organizations have existed. Some cultures have considered a set of strictly defined and regulated homosexual qualities to denote a gender that transcended both male and female. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. There have been many ritual homosexual unions practiced historically that provide many of the same benefits entitled traditionally to marriages.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. See Libertarian perspectives on gay rights.. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. They are not necessarily opposed to the idea of a same-sex wedding itself, only that the government should not have any role in the event, nor for that matter should government approval be sought for opposite-sex marriages. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Some libertarians object to same-sex marriage because they are opposed to any form of state-sanctioned marriage, including opposite-sex unions. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. tax breaks), and any monetary benefits would only be awarded based on the number of children living in a household.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. These civil unions would then only receive the benefits of marriage which do not require expenditures from the government (e.g. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. However, due to the legality of opposite-sex marriages in which one or both partners are sterile, these philosophers believe that all marriages should thus be lowered to "civil unions". Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Some philosophers object to same-sex marriage because of their inherent sterility. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Others argue that marriage no longer retains a procreative function of the government since many governments offer child tax-credits and assistance regardless of marital status.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Also that the institution of marriage would be strengthened by making it available to more people, and argue further that same-sex marriage would encourage gays and lesbians to settle down with one partner and raise families. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. Some same-sex marriage proponents, such as Andrew Sullivan, argue that same-sex marriage is moral enough to support the family-centered role marriage plays in society despite the absence of biological children. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. [20]. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Others argue that because the law does not prohibit marriage between sterile heterosexual couples, or to women past menopause, the procreation argument cannot reasonably be used against same-sex marriage.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Some who hold this view see marriage as the social codification of an evolved long-term mating strategy, with economic and legal benefits to facilitate family growth and stability. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. A common objection to same-sex marriage is to hold that the purpose of marriage is a procreative partnership and that the same-sex partnership is inherently sterile. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. Her analysis can be seen as an example of Precautionary Principle. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. Asserting the a priori importance of marriage as an institution, she questions whether the burden of proof that this would be harmless has been met.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. The dissent by Justice Martha Sosman in the decision of the Massachusetts high court[19] that mandated gay marriage for that state makes a societal argument without specifying the harm that would occur from this change. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. As any customary relationship may be considered "marriage", some argue that this then leads to undue legislative burden and an affront to the social value and responsibility of parenting one's own children. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. They argue that the definition proposed by same-sex marriage advocates changes the social importance of marriage from morality to mere custom, and may refer to themselves as "defenders" of traditional marriage. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Those who advocate that marriage should be defined exclusively as the union of one man and one woman argue that only a heterosexual union can provide the procreative foundation of the family unit that they see as the chief social building block of civilization.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. This may be a realistic fear only in jurisdictions which restrict freedom of religion. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. A fundamental concern of some people is that the legalization of same-sex marriage will lead to a direct attack via lawsuits against religions to force them to perform marriage ceremonies of which they do not approve, and additionally that established churches could be bankrupted by these types of lawsuits. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. Members of these religions, including straight members, may view laws banning same-sex marriage as a violation of their religious freedom. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Some churches and denominations, listed above, perform same-sex weddings.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. It should be noted that not all religious people oppose gay marriage. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Proponents suggest that since marriages are conducted by the power invested in the celebrant by the state, under the principles of religious pluralism and the separation of church and state, religious arguments should not be used to constitute the law. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Some Christians further allege that same-sex marriage goes against Romans 1:24-27. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. For example, James Dobson, in Marriage Under Fire and elsewhere, argues that legalization or even tolerance of same-sex marriage would redefine the family and lead to confusion in youths about their sexual identities[18].

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Some opponents object to same-sex marriage on religious grounds, arguing that extending marriage to same-sex couples undercuts the conventional meaning of marriage in various traditions, does not fulfill any procreational role, or sanctions a partnership centered around "aberrant" or "immoral" sexual acts. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. They also see same-sex and male-female arrangements as inherently unequal, stating that nothing less than perpetuation of humanity itself relies fully on the latter and not at all on the former, and trying to "equalize" such arrangements through force of law will only create gross social distortions to accommodate the gulf between such law and the observable facts of human nature. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. Opponents answer that this view of marriage reduces marriage to little more than a means test for social benefits. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. They support the equalization of male-male, female-female, and male-female relationships, and being able to marry whomever one chooses is seen as a civil right that should not be abridged by the government.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. Those in favour of same-sex marriage argue that homosexuals contribute as much as heterosexuals to the funding for private and public family coverage even when they have no access to it, and that discrimination decreases productivity. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). The prominence of many religious organisations, and the scriptural basis of their opposition to same-sex marriage, has led many advocates of Separation of Church & State to support the legalisation of gay marriage on the grounds that governments do not have the right to legislate on religious issues. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. However, corporations and other groups sometimes give opposition or support to same-sex marriage not on any religious or moral grounds but instead with the aim acquiring some material benefit for their position. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. religious (especially fundamentalist) or moral opponents.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. The debate is often perceived as being same-sex marriage advocates vs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. Most of the controversy centers around the government definition of marriage, rather than the blessing of same-sex unions by individual religious organizations, which may or may not be recognized as civil marriages. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Their opponents assert that same-sex marriage is not itself a right and should not be allowed on moral and/or religious grounds, or on the grounds that it will lead to a breakdown of the definition of marriage or of civil society. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Gay rights advocates assert that marriage is a right since it is a legal agreement on the governmental level which should not be restricted to opposite-sex couples.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. If marriage is to have a religious foundation, the interpretation of religious texts and traditions will be key; if marriage is a social institution, legal agreement, or even a purely economic coupling, then pragmatic arguments will have more force (though moral issues will no doubt still arise). The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. The moral legitimacy of marriage between two people of the same sex hinges on how the authoritative definition of marriage is derived. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. In some cases, these organizations do offer a limited selection of the benefits normally provided to straight married couples to de facto partners or domestic partners of their staff, but even individuals who have entered into an opposite-sex civil union in their home country are not guaranteed full recognition of this union in all organizations. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. These organisations recognize same-sex marriages only if the country of citizenship of the employees in question recognizes the marriage.

. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the agencies of the United Nations voluntarily discriminate between opposite-sex marriages and same-sex marriages, as well as discriminating between employees on the basis of nationality. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. Despite their relative independence, no organization currently recognises same-sex partnerships without condition. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. Agencies of the United Nations coordinate some human resource policies amongst themselves. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). The World Health Organization has recently banned the recruitment of cigarette smokers.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. A person who is otherwise eligible for employment in Belgium may not become an employee of NATO unless he or she is a citizen of a NATO member state. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. The independence of these organizations gives them the freedom to implement human resource policies which are even contrary to the laws of their host and member countries. William M. Hiring and firing practices, working hours and environment, holiday time, pension plans, health insurance and life insurance, salaries, expatriation benefits and general conditions of employment are managed according to rules and regulations proper to each organization. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Agreements with the host country safeguard these organizations' impartiality with regard to the host and member countries.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. The terms of employment of the staff of international organizations are not, in most cases, governed by the laws of the country in which their offices are located. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. through being related to the child). Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. Western Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory allow same-sex couples to adopt children from within these states, although Tasmania requires same-sex couples to have a prior relationship with the child being adopted (e.g. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. On the state level, Australia currently recognizes same-sex partnerships in all but two of its states: Victoria and South Australia.

Lester B. In the end, the Liberal Party and the Labor Party supported the same sex marriage ban, and it was passed on 13 August 2004. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. He also attempted to bar same-sex couples from adopting children from overseas - however this part of his legislation was rejected by the Labor Party as they felt adoption was a matter to be handled by the States and Territories - and this was not passed. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. In 2004, Australian Prime Minister John Howard proposed an amendment to the marriage laws, so that Australian same-sex marriages and overseas same-sex unions would not be recognised as marriages under Australian law - effectively this banned same sex marriage in Australia. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Australia.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. However, there are no plans to complete the filing. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. The couple still has to file the marriage certificate for the marriage to become legal. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. On December 22, 2005, the Judicial Appeals Tribunal of the Cherokee Nation dismissed an injunction against the lesbian couple filed by members of the Tribal Council to stop the marriage. Frank J. The couple have appealed to the judicial court, on grounds that their union predated the amendment.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. The Tribal Council unanimously approved a Constitutional amendment stating that the Cherokee defines marriage as between one man and one woman. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Due to their tribal sovereignty theoretically if they allowed them the government would have to recognize it. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. The Native American Cherokee Nation in 2004 issued a moratorium on same-sex marriages while they consider their validity after a lesbian couple applied for a marriage. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Beginning on that date, hundreds of same-sex couples were legally married in Massachusetts.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. The court stayed its ruling until May 17, 2004. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Department of Public Health that denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples violates the state's Equal Protection Clause. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on November 18, 2003, ruled in the case of Goodridge v. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. Legislators elected to create state level civil unions as what they argued was a middle-ground; this was signed into law by then-governor Howard Dean.

Clarence S. Vermont, ruling that their state legislature must establish identical rights for same-sex couples similar to those of married opposite-sex couples. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. In 1999, the Vermont Supreme Court decided Baker v. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. (Regarding the name of the act, see below.) The Act is meant to prevent the courts from using the Constitution's Full Faith and Credit Clause to bring same-sex marriage to states that have rejected it by forcing one state to recognize the marriages of another state, although it is debated whether that clause would even have such an effect without the Act. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. Congress in 1996 passed the Defense of Marriage Act.

Two points are awarded for a win. Seventeen states have constitutional amendments explicitly barring the recognition of same-sex marriage[17], twenty-seven states have legal statutes defining marriage to two persons of the opposite-sex. Main article: Same-sex marriage in the United States Currently in the United States, only Massachusetts recognizes same-sex marriage, Vermont and Connecticut offer civil unions, California, New Jersey, Maine, and the District of Columbia grant benefits through domestic partnerships, and Hawaii has reciprocal beneficiary laws. See also CIC and Same-sex marriage in Canada Immigration authorities there had previously considered long-term same-sex relationships to be equivalent to similar heterosexual relationships as grounds for sponsorship. As of November 11th, 2004 the Canadian federal government's immigration department, the Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC), considers same-sex marriages performed in Canada valid for the purposes of sponsoring a spouse to immigrate.

On July 20, 2005, the Canadian Parliament passed the Civil Marriage Act defining marriage nationwide as "the lawful union of two persons to the exclusion of all others." Canada is also the only country without a residency requirement for same-sex marriage. Main article: Same-sex marriage in Canada In Canada between 2003 and 2005, federal court rulings in the provinces of Ontario, British Columbia, Quebec, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as the Yukon Territory, found the prohibition of same-sex marriage to be contrary to the Charter of Rights, thus legalizing it in those jurisdictions. [16]. President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga signed the amendment shortly afterwards, making Latvia the third (after Poland and Lithuania) member state of the European Union to constitutionally define marriage as solely a union between a man and a woman.

In December 2005, the Latvian Parliament passed a constitutional amendment defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman. [15]. The conclusion of the committee shall be brought to the government no later than March 30, 2007. [14].

In late January 2005, the Swedish government put together a committee of the major political parties to study whether or not the country should allow same-sex marriages. The press is widely referring to these unions as "gay marriage." [12] [13] See Civil partnerships in the United Kingdom. An amendment proposing similar rights for family members living together was rejected. However, the rights and duties of partners under this legislation will be almost exactly the same as for married couples.

The Government stressed during the passage of the Bill that it is not same-sex marriage, and some gay activists have criticised the Act for not using the terminology of marriage. On 18 November 2004 the United Kingdom Parliament passed the Civil Partnership Act, which came into force in December 2005 and allows same-sex couples to register their partnership. [9][10][11] For more information see Same-sex marriage in Spain. Polls suggest that 62% to 66% of Spain supports same-sex marriage.

The bill received full parliamentary approval on June 30, 2005 and passed into law on July 2. [8] On 1 October 2004, the Spanish Government approved a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, including adoption rights. After being elected in June 2004, Spanish prime minister Zapatero restated his pre-election pledge to push for legalization of same-sex marriage. [7] See Same-sex marriage in France.

A 2004 poll by ELLE found that 64% of France supports same-sex marriage and 49% supports adoption by same-sex couples. In May 2004, the largest opposition party in France, the French Socialist Party, announced its support for same-sex marriage. [6]. The support among the members states who joined in 2004 is much lower (around 28 percent), meaning that 53 percent of citizens in the 25-member EU support legalising same-sex marriage.

A poll conducted by EOS Gallup Europe in 2003 found that 57 percent of the population in the then 15-member European Union supports same-sex marriage. Belgium extends all the rights of marriage minus adoption to same-sex couples. Same-sex civil marriages currently are legally recognized nationwide only in the Netherlands, Belgium and Spain. He is hugely revered among Cambodians; however since his proclamation there have been no legislative efforts to allow them.

The King of Cambodia, Norodom Sihanouk, announced in 2004 that he supports legislation granting marriages to same-sex couples. Generally the Communist Party supports legislation allowing such marriages while the Roman Catholic Church opposes it. Within the government there has been fierce debate on the issue of same-sex unions. The Communist Party of the Philippines conducted the country’s first same-sex marriage in 2005; however it was not recognized by the government.

Same-sex marriage supporters have vowed to keep pressing for its passage in the PRC. During the course of the debate the proposal failed to garner the 30 votes needed for a placement on the agenda. The National People's Congress, legislature of the People's Republic of China (PRC, aka China), proposed legislation allowing same-sex marriages in 2003. Currently ROC does not have any form of same-sex unions.

However, it faced opposition among cabinet members and has been stalled since. In 2003, the government of the Republic of China, (ROC, aka Taiwan) led by the Presidential office proposed legislation granting marriages to same-sex couples under the Human Rights Basic Law. Several same-sex couples are already legally recognized as married, based on the definition of "spouse" in South Africa's Immmigration Act of 2002. As of July 2005, the Department of Home Affairs had completed the design and printing of new forms to allow for same-sex couples to apply for immigration and residence benefits.

South Africa is in the process of reorganizing certain government departments to support gay marriages. If Parliament does not act, the words "or spouse" will be added to the Marriage Act to allow these unions. Fourie, the Constitutional Court of South Africa ruled unanimously that it was unconstitutional to prevent people of the same-gender from marrying when marriage was permitted for people of opposite gender, and gave Parliament one year to "rework laws allowing same-sex unions". In December 2005, in the case of Minister of Home Affairs v.

by drawing up contracts), many cannot; thus same-sex couples may still face insecurity in areas such as inheritance, hospital visitation and immigration. Though certain rights extending from marriage can be replicated by legal means (e.g. Civil-marriages entail a wide range of entitlements, including social security, health insurance, taxation, inheritance and other benefits unavailable to couples unmarried in the eyes of the law. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, there has been a growing movement in a number of countries to regard civil-marriages as a right which should be extended to all citizens regardless of sexual orientation.

This tradition of accepting same-sex relationships dates back to ancient Japan with only a brief discontinuance during the early 1900s (when Western nations suggested a proscription). In accordance with that principle it offers religious rites for same-sex couples. Jodo Shinshu, the dominant form of Buddhism in Japan (with a significant presence in the United States), states "there is no basic difference between homosexuality and heterosexuality" [5]. Religious same-sex wedding ceremonies are already performed in Unitarian Universalist churches, some Reform and Reconstructionist Jewish synagogues, some Quaker congregations (mostly associated with unprogrammed meetings; see the main article), and by the Metropolitan Community Church.

In keeping with the polity of that denomination, doctrinal matters like wedding policies remain under the authority of each local congregation. The specifics of the resolution did not change any church's religious marriage policies, but urged UCC congregations to advocate for civil marriage equality. The leadership of this denomination made claims like "the 1.3 million member UCC became the largest Christian denomination to approve marriage equality", despite the Synod's lack of authority to speak for the denomination's largely autonomous congregations. On July 4, 2005, the General Synod of the United Church of Christ approved a resolution affirming equal marriage rights regardless of gender.

Reform Judaism, the largest Jewish religious tradition, permits rabbis to bless same-sex unions within their synagogues, though it does not use the words "wedding" or "marriage" in this context. In response, bishops from Africa, Asia and Latin America, representing more than one-third of Anglican Communion members worldwide, cut their relations with the diocese. In 2002, the Anglican Diocese of New Westminster in British Columbia (which includes Greater Vancouver) began allowing its churches to bless same-sex unions in marriage-like ceremonies. In Canada, the issue of same-sex marriage has split the religious community, with the United Church of Canada, the country's largest Protestant denomination, and some elements of the Anglican Church of Canada being supportive.

However, some churches and denominations support these unions. Most Abrahamic religions disapprove of same-sex marriages. [4]. They shared the title of Overseer of the Manicurists in the Palace of King Niussere during the Fifth Dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs, and are listed as "royal confidantes" in their joint tomb.

In Ancient Egypt, Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum are considered by many to be the first male couple in history. These marriages likewise were understood to be of a temporary nature. In Africa, among the Azande of the Congo, men would marry youths for whom they had to pay a bride-price to the father. In the United States during the nineteenth century, there was recognition of the relationship of two women making a long-term commitment to each other and cohabitating, referred to at the time as a Boston marriage; however, the general public at the time likely assumed that sexual activities were not part of the relationship.

They are also respected as being especially powerful shamans. They are prized as wives by the other men in the tribe, who enter into formal marriages with these two-spirit men. In North America, among the Native American societies, it has taken the form of two-spirit-type relationships, in which some male members of the tribe, from an early age, heed a calling to take on female gender with all its responsibilities. Same-sex marriage has been documented in many societies that were not subject to Christian influence.

[3]. Thus the companionship and formal union associated with marriage are present; the only doubt is whether sex itself was. Each of their shields holds an identical coat of arms both knights' familial arms side-by-side: "impaled," that is to say, like a married couple's. As part of the remains of a floor of a Dominican church in Istanbul were found two gravestones marking the resting places of two knights of the royal chamber of Richard II — Sir William Neville and Sir John Clanvowe, who died days apart in October 1391.

The "love" in such relationships has traditionally been assumed to be Platonic; but modern scholars often question this. However, much like the courtly love a knight might bear for his lady, deep, passionate friendship between people of the same sex was not only possible but celebrated. In medieval Europe, homosexual relations were much less open or accepted than in the classical world. See also Historical pederastic couples.

Increasingly influential Christianity promoted marriage for procreative purposes, combined with the Roman use of sexuality as a form of dominance, as well as a means to conquer a male enemy through rape, have been linked with the increasing intolerance of homosexuality in Rome. Other Roman Emperors, including Diocletian, are reported to have done the same. In ancient Rome, the Emperor Nero is reported to have married two other men on different occasions. The relationship, just like a marriage, consisted of very specific social and religious responsibilities, and also had a sexual component.

This consent, just as in the case of a daughter's marriage, was contingent on the suitor's social standing. The age of the youth was similar to the age at which women married (the mid-teens), and the relationship could only be undertaken with the consent of the father. In Hellenic Greece, the common pederastic relationships between Greek men (erastes) and youths (eromenos) who had come of age were, it has been argued, analogous to marriage in several aspects. Evidence of same-sex marriage, however, is less clear, but there exists some evidence, often controversial, of same-sex marriages in ancient Rome and Greece.

That many early western societies tolerated, and even celebrated, same-sex relationships is well-established, though not necessarily well-known. There has been a long history of same-sex unions in the Western world. Main article: Pederasty. Generally, this practice was reflective of the value Chinese culture placed on the reciprocal relationship between benevolent elders teaching and guiding the obedient younger members of society See also:.

The marriages would last a number of years, at the end of which the elder partner would help the younger find a (female) wife and settle down to raise a family. In China, especially in the southern province of Fujian where male love was especially cultivated, men would marry youths in elaborate ceremonies. There are a number of possible reasons for this: an attitude that women were not important enough to write about; or that same-sex attraction between women was not valued as it was between men; or that women were not afforded equal status with men, so that, while men were free to pursue sexual and romantic pleasure both within and without marriage, women often were not). Such desire often took the form of same-sex unions, usually between men, and often included some difference in age (there is far less information available on relationships among women in ancient times.

Same-gender romantic love or sexual desire has been recorded since ancient times in the entirety of the continent of Asia, right from the Middle East to South Asia to East Asia. For detailed information, see History of homosexuality and Same-sex marriage timeline.. Supporters see this as being very much akin to calling an attempt to suppress an unpopular religion "Defense of Freedom of Religion.". Opponents of same-gender marriage usually call their initiatives "Defense of Marriage".

Rather, the relevant qualification is the characteristic sexes of the parties to the marriage. They claim that sexual orientation has rarely been a legal or religious qualification for marriage (a gay man could still marry a woman). The terms "gay marriage," "straight marriage," and all others implying sexual orientation, although popular with the media, are viewed by some as inaccurate. Harvard law professor Alan Dershowitz, for instance, wrote in a 2003 editorial in the Los Angeles Times that such an arrangement would "strengthen the wall of separation between church and state by placing a sacred institution entirely in the hands of the church while placing a secular institution under state control." [1] Conservative critics like National Review's Jennifer Morse contend that the conflation of marriage with contractual agreements is itself a threat to marriage that "has undermined more heterosexual marriages than anything, with the possible exception of adultery." [2].

Some have suggested abolishing the word "marriage" (or reserving it to a religious context) and refering to the civil aspect of all marriages as civil partnerships. They further assert that it is a threat to the institution of marriage in its opposite-sex form. Proponents of same-sex marriage commonly argue that the correct term for same-sex marriage is simply "marriage." Opponents argue that would equate same-sex to opposite-sex marriage which they claim is a misunderstanding of the traditional meaning of marriage. .

states of California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, New Jersey, Vermont, and the District of Columbia. Civil unions, Registered partnerships, and other legal recognitions of same-sex couples, which offer some if not all the rights and obligations that attach to marriage, are available in: Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Israel, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the Australian Capital Territory and the states of New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, and Western Australia , and the U.S. On 1 December, 2005, South Africa’s Constitutional Court extended marriage to include same-sex couples which will go into effect by December 2006. state of Massachusetts.

At present, same-sex marriages are legally performed and recognized in the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and Canada, and the U.S. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, opposing efforts to legalize and ban same-sex marriage made it a topic of debate all over the world. Other terms include "gay marriage," "homosexual marriage," "same-gender marriage," "gender-neutral marriage," and "equal marriage.". Same-sex marriage is marriage between persons who are legally of the same characteristic sex.


. Of course, this argument suffers some when it is seen that service members with various numbers of children have no such difficulties. For example, if a government gives medical coverage to spouses of service members, then a service member with thirty spouses would either receive benefits far more valuable than one with only one spouse would or not all that service member's spouses would receive coverage. Furthermore, because of the reciprocal nature of many spousal rights and responsibilities, it would not be possible to give three-person groups identical rights and responsibilities as two-person groups.

The counter-argument is that allowing same-sex couples to marry does not change the restriction on the number of people who may contract a marriage. polygamous/group marriages. This argument is not taken seriously by most commentators, and may be often considered insulting in comparing homosexual humans with animals. Non-human animals, however, do not have the legal standing to consent into a marriage contract.

marriages between humans and animals. marriages of convenience for tax or other reasons: The counter-argument is that these are already legal between people of the opposite sex. incestuous marriages: The counter-argument is that allowing same-sex couples to marry does not alter the restriction on consanguinous relationships. Homosexuality in Japan.

Homosexuality in China.

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