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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Lille is part of the Lille Métropole Communauté urbaine (formerly also known as C.U.D.L.). The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. Lille was elected European Capital of Culture in 2004, along with the Italian city of Genoa. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The project has finally been completed with modern architecture and disruption to the ancient city center. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. The Euralille urban development project, centred around the new TGV station has fostered a long debate among Lille's citizens.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. The urban area is one of the biggest in France with more than 1 million inhabitants. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Lille has one of France's largest university student population with, depending on the information source, from 95,000 to 149,533 students in 2002-2003. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. The Deûle connects to Northern Europe via the River Scarpe and the River Escaut (towards Belgium and the Netherlands), and internationally via the Lys (to Dunkerque and Calais). In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. The river Deûle is connected to regional waterways with over 680 km of navigatable waters.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Lille is the 3rd largest French river port after Paris and Strasbourg. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. In terms of shipping, it ranks fourth, with almost 38,000 tonnes of freight which pass through each year. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. It is the 12th most frequented French airport in number of passengers:. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. Lille Lesquin (http://www.lille.aeroport.fr/) International Airport is 15 minutes from the city center.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A sixth one, the A24, should link Amiens to Lille. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Five autoroutes pass by Lille, the densest confluence of highways in France after Paris:. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. There are 60 stations which go as far as the Belgian border. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. Trains are only 26 m long (two linked cars) and are rubber-tired.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. Line 2 is 32 km long with 43 stations, the first and longest automatic metro line in the world, opened May 16, 1983. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. The VAL system (véhicule automatique léger = light automated vehicle) is a driverless metro. A referee makes all penalty calls. It has two train stations, which stand next door to each other: the Lille-Europe station (Gare Lille-Europe) and the Lille-Flandres station (Gare Lille-Flandres). A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. Lille is an important crossroads in the European TGV network: it lies on the Eurostar line to London and the Thalys network to Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam and Cologne.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. A former major textile manufacturing center, Lille forms the heart of a larger conurbation, regrouping Lille, Roubaix and Tourcoing, which is France's 4th-largest urban conglomeration with a 1999 population of over 1.1 million. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. Lille tried an unsuccessful bid for the organization of the Games of the XXVIIIth Olympiad in 2004. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. In 1994 the "Grand Palais" was also opened. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. The Euralille Center was opened in 1994, and the remodeled district is now full of parks and modern buildings containing offices, shops, and apartments.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Work on Euralille, an urban remodeling project, began in 1991. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. This, followed by the opening of the Channel Tunnel in 1994, then the arrival of the Eurostar train, puts Lille in the center of a triangle connecting Paris, London, and Brussels. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. In 1993, a high-speed TGV train line was opened, connecting Paris with Lille in one hour. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. In 1983, the VAL, the world's first automated subway, was opened.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. From the start of the 1980s, the city began to turn itself more towards the service sector. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Throughout the 1960s and 70s, the region was faced with some problems after the decline of the coal, mining and textile industries. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. In 1967, the Chambers of Commerce of Lille, Roubaix, and Tourcoing were joined, and in 1969, the Communauté urbaine de Lille (Lille urban community) was created, linking 87 communes with Lille. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. Rationing came to an end in 1947, and by 1948, some normalcy had returned to Lille.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Following this, the Lille resistance managed to retake part of the city before the British tanks arrived. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. On September 3rd, the German troops began to leave Lille, fearing the British, who were on their way from Brussels. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. The départments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais (with the exception of the coast, notably Dunkerque) were, for the most part, liberated in five days, from the 1st to 5th September 1944 by British, American, Canadian, and Polish troops. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. Although Lille was part of the zone under control of the German commander in Brussels, the city was never controlled by the Vichy government.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. When Belgium was invaded, the citizens of Lille, still marked by the events of World War I, began to flee the city in large numbers. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. Lille was taken by the Germans in May 1940, after brief resistance by a Morrocan Infantry division. They divide the ice into zones. In 1936, the city's mayor, Roger Salengro, became Minister of the Interior of the Popular Front, eventually killing himself after right-wing groups led a slanderous campaign against him. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. From 1931 Lille felt the repurcussions of the Great Depression, and by 1935 a third of the city's population lived in poverty.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. In July 1921, at the Pasteur Institute in Lille, Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin discovered the first antituberculosis vaccine, known as BCG ("Bacille de Calmette et Guérin"). The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The general was made an honorary citizen of Lille on October 28th of that year. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . Lille was liberated by the British on October 17th 1918, when General William Birdwood and his troops were welcomed by joyous crowds. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. When the Germans realized they had been tricked, they burned down an entire section of town, subsequently occupying the city.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Despite the deception, the German bombardments destroyed over 2,200 buildings and homes. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. From October 4th to 13th, 1914, the troops in Lille were able to trick the enemy by convincing them that Lille possesed more artillery than was the case; in reality, the city had only a single cannon. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. The entire region had grown wealthy thanks to the mines and to the textile industry. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. By 1912, Lille's population was at 217,000: the city profited from the Industrial Revolution, particularly via coal and the steam engine.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. In 1896 Lille became the first city in France to be led by a socialist, Gustave Delory. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. Lille's population was 158,000 in 1872, growing to over 200,000 by 1891. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. In 1858, an imperial decree led to the annexation of the adjacent towns of Fives, Wazemmes, and Moulins. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. In 1853, Alexandre Desrousseaux composed his famous lullaby Dors mon p'tit quinquin.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. The city was known for its cotton, and the nearby towns of Roubaix and Tourcoing worked wool. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon I's continental blockade against the United Kingdom led to Lille's textile industry developing itself even more fully. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. In 1846, a rail line connecting Paris and Lille was built. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. The city continued to grow, and by 1800 held some 53,000 residents, leading to Lille becoming the county seat of the Nord départment in 1804.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. The "Column of the Goddess", erected in 1842 in the "Grand-Place", is a tribute to the city's resistance, led by Mayor François André. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. In the aftermath of the French Revolution, the Austrians, then in the United Provinces, laid siege to Lille. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. In 1790, the city held their first municipal elections. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Throughout the 18th century, Lille remained profoundly Catholic, which explains why the city did not really take part in the French Revolution, though there were riots and the destruction of churches.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. During five years, from 1708 to 1713, the city was occupied by the Dutch, during the War of the Spanish Succession. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. A number of important public works undertaken between 1667 and 1670, such as the Citadel (erected by Vauban), or the creation of the quartiers of Saint-André and la Madeleine, enabled the King to gain the confidence of his Flemish subjects. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. In 1667, King Louis XIV (the Sun-King) successfully laid siege to Lille, resulting in it becoming French in 1668 under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, provoking discontent among the citizens of the prosperous city. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. At the same time (1581), at the call of England's Queen Elisabeth I , the north of the Spanish Netherlands, having gained a Protestant majority, successfully revolted and formed the United Provinces.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. They were removed four months later by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. Over the years many different organizations have existed. In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. The first Calvinists appeared in the area in 1542; by 1555 there was anti-Protestant repression taking place.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. The 16th century was marked, above all, by the outbreak of the Plague, a boom in the regional textile industry, and the Protestant revolts. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The city remained under Spanish rule until the reign of Philip IV of Spain. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. At the end of the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Spanish Flanders fell to his eldest son, and thus under the rule of Philip II of Spain, King of Spain. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles le Téméraire, Marie de Bourgogne married a Hapsburg, Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. On February 17, 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, Philippe le Bon organised a Patagruelian banquet at his Lille palace, the still-celebrated "Banquet of the Pheasant's Vow". Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Philippe le Bon, Duke of Burgundy, was even more powerful than the King of France, and made Lille an administrative and financial capital. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said Duchy, along with Brussels and Dijon. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. The county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Marguerite de Male, Countess of Flanders, and Philippe II le Hardi, Duke of Burgundy. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. Lille fell under the rule of France from 1304 to 1369, after the battle of Mons-en-Pévèle. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. The rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Marguerite of Flanders, then to Marguerite's brother, Guy de Dampierre.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette, leaving no heirs. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. It was in her honor that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. On February 6th, 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital, which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Count Ferrand died in 1233, and his daughter Marie soon after. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. In 1226 the King agreed to free Ferrand of Portugal. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. He unmasked the imposter, who Countess Jeanne quickly had hanged. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. She called her cousin, Louis VIII ("The Lion").

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. He pushed the kingdoms of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. In 1224, the monk Bertrand of Rains, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople (the father of Jeanne of Flanders), who had disappeared during battle in Andrinople. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. They say she was well-loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Count Ferrand of Portugal was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Jeanne, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople, who ruled the city.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. The counts of Flanders, Boulogne, and Hainaut came together with England and the Holy Roman Empire of Germany and declared war on France and King Philippe Auguste, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines in 1214. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. In 1144 Saint Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier saint Sauveur. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. It is in this context that the city was created.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. After the destruction caused by Norman and Hungarian invasion, the eastern part of the region fell under the eyes of the area princes. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. The original inhabitants of this region were the Celts, who were followed by the Menapiens, the Morins, the Atrébates, and the Verviens, Germanic tribes. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. The region of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the River Escaut, one of the most rich and properous regions of Europe.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The Count of Flanders controlled a number of old Roman cities (Boulogne, Arras, Cambrai) as well as some founded by the Carolingians (Valenciennes, Saint-Omer, Gand, Brugge, Anvers). (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). This name was used for the Count of Flanders' castle (Château du Buc), built on dry land in the middle of the marsh. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. The name Lille comes from insula or l'Isla, since the area was at one time marshy. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. Although the first mention of the town appears in archives from the year 1066, some archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BCE, most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives, Wazemmes, and Old Lille.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. The legend of "Lyderic and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of "L'Isle" at 640. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. It thus became a central part of the country's rail network. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. In the 19th century Lille became the centre of French industry due to the large nearby coal deposits. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.
.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. . The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. The whole metropolitan area of Lille, both on French and Belgian territory (Kortrijk) was estimated in 2000 at around 1,730,000 inhabitants, ranking as one of the major metropolitan areas of Europe. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. Their combined population at the 1999 census was 212,597 inhabitants. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. The city of Lille absorbed Lomme on February 27, 2000.

. It lies near the border with Belgium and its Dutch name is Rijsel. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. It is also the préfecture (capital) of the Nord département. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. It is the capital of the Nord-Pas de Calais région. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). Lille is a city in northern France on the Deûle River.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. 1 Including the annexed communes of Hellemmes and Lomme
2 Only the part of the metropolitan area on French territory
3 Including the part of the metropolitan area on Belgian territory (Mouscron, Kortrijk, etc.)
. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. Martine Aubry (1950~), deputy, minister, and Mayor of Lille. William M. Pierre Mauroy (1928~), deputy, senator, Prime Minister of France, and Mayor of Lille. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Madeleine Damerment (1917-1944), French Resistance fighter - Legion of Honor, Croix de Guerre, Médaille combattant volontaire de la Résistance.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. Augustin Laurent (1896-1990), minister, deputy, resistance fighter, and Mayor of Lille. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. Roger Salengro (1890-1936), minister, deputy, and Mayor of Lille. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970), general, resistance fighter, President of France. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. Achille Liénart (1884-1973), « cardinal des ouvriers ».

Lester B. Louis Faidherbe (1818-1889), general, founder of the city of Dakar and senator. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. Jeanne Maillotte, (circa 1580), resistance fighter during the Hurlus attacks. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. Jeanne de Flandre, (1188/1200? -1244), Countess. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. Lydéric, (620-?) legendary founder of the city.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Gilles Béhat (1949~), actor and director. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Philippe Noiret (1930~), actor. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. Yvonne Furneaux (1928~), actress. Frank J. Alain Decaux (1925~), television presenter, minister, writer, and member of the Académie Française.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Raoul de Godewaersvelde (1928-1977), singer. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Léopold Simons (1901-1979), poet, caricaturist, painter, sculptor. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Robert Arnoux (1899-1964), actor. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Renée Adorée (1898-1933), actress.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. Julien Duvivier (1896-1967), director. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Line Dariel (1886-1956), comedian. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Émile Bernard (1868-1941), neoimpressionist painter and friend of Paul Gauguin. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. Albert Samain (1858-1900), poet.

Clarence S. Pierre Degeyter (1848-1932), worker and composer of the music of the Internationale. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. Carolus-Duran (1837-1917), painter. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. Antoine Renard (1825-1872), composer (Temps des cerises). One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. Édouard Lalo (1823-1892), composer.

Two points are awarded for a win. Alexandre Desrousseaux (1820-1892), songwriter. Jean Perrin (1870, 1942), Nobel Prize in physics and creator of the French CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research). Albert Calmette (1863 - 1933) and Camille Guérin (1872-1961), discovery of the antituberculosis vaccine. Alfred Mongy (1840-1914), modernizer of the city.

Auguste Scalbert (1815, 1899), creator of the first Nordiste bank. Antoine Scrive-Labbe (1789-1864), industrialist in the textile field and French spy. Charles Joseph Panckoucke, (1736-1788), founder of the Moniteur Universel, owner of Mercure de France, promoter of the Lumières and editor of the Encyclopédie Méthodique. almost 873,000 passengers in 2003.

around 970,000 passengers in 2001. Autoroute A22 : Lille - Anvers - Netherlands. Autoroute A25 : Lille - Dunkerque - Calais - England. Autoroute A1  : Lille - Arras - Paris / Reims - Lyon.

Autoroute A23 : Lille - Valenciennes. Autoroute A27 : Lille - Tournai - Brussels / Liège - England.

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