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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Olympic Games. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. The 80,000-seat Stade de France was built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and is used for football and rugby. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Paris's main sports clubs are the football club Paris Saint-Germain, the basketball team Paris Basket Racing and the Rugby union club Stade Français. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Paris is home to some of the most famous and luxurious brand names in the fashion industry like Louis Vuitton, Chanel, Hermès, Dior and Givenchy.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. The most prestigious are probably the Hôtel de Crillon on Place de la Concorde, and the nearby Hôtel Ritz Paris on Place Vendôme. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Paris also hosts a number of famous hotels. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Galeries Lafayette, Samaritaine (currently closed) or Printemps, are remarkable not only for the wide range of items they sell but also for their 19th-century or Art Nouveau architecture. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Its department stores, e.g.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Paris is famous for gastronomical establishments like Fauchon (delicatessen), near the Église de la Madeleine, or Berthillon (ice cream) on Île-Saint-Louis. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.
. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. On the western and eastern perimeters respectively are the two "forests", the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. During the Second Empire, Napoleon III created three vast gardens on the outskirts of Paris: Montsouris, Buttes Chaumont in the northeast, and Parc Monceau, formerly known as the folie de Chartres, in the northwest.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Two of Paris's most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden on the banks of the Seine next to the Louvre and the centrally-located Luxembourg Garden, which used to belong to a château built for the Marie de' Medici. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Other notable cemeteries include Cimetière de Montmartre, Cimetière du Montparnasse, Cimetière de Passy and the Catacombs of Paris. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Many of Paris's illustrious historical figures have found rest in Père Lachaise Cemetery. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box.
.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. Lastly, art and artifacts from the Middle Ages and Impressionist eras are kept in Musée Cluny and Musée d'Orsay respectively, the former with the prized tapestry cycle The Lady and the Unicorn. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. A referee makes all penalty calls. Works by Pablo Picasso and Rodin are found in Musée Picasso and Musée Rodin respectively, while the artistic community of Montparnasse is chronicled at the Musée du Montparnasse. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. The Louvre is one of the largest and most famous museums, housing many works of art, including the Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and the Venus de Milo statue.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.
. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. Other than the Eiffel Tower, the lone skyscraper Tour Montparnasse and Basilica of the Sacré Cœur on the hill Montmartre are easily visible from many locations around the city, while the window-shaped Grande Arche in La Défense marks the west. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. The three most famous landmarks of Paris are almost certainly the Eiffel Tower, originally a "temporary" construction for the 1889 Universal Exposition, the Arc de Triomphe, commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte and the cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a 12th-century ecclesiastical masterpiece. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. Traffic in Paris is notoriously heavy, slow and tiresome.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Most of these 'Portes' have parking areas and a metro station, where non-residents are advised to leave cars. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. On/off ramps of the Périphérique are called 'Portes', as they correspond to the former city gates in these fortifications. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. The city is also the hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by an orbital road, the Périphérique, which roughly follows the path of final, 19th-century fortifications around Paris. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. official site Members of the syndicate include the RATP, which operates the Parisian and some suburban busses, the Métro, and sections of the RER; the SNCF, which operates the rest of the RER and the suburban train lines; and other operators.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. Administratively speaking, the public transportation networks of the Paris region are coordinated by the Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF), formerly Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP). If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. A third line along the southern inner orbital road is currently under construction. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. There are two tangential tramway lines in the suburbs: Line T1 runs from Saint-Denis to Noisy-le-Sec, line T2 runs from La Défense to Issy. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. This latter is a network of 380 stations (more than the London Underground) connected by 221.6km of rails.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Six major railway stations, Gare du Nord, Gare Montparnasse, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, and Gare Saint-Lazare connect this train network to the world famous and highly efficient underground metro system, the Métro. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Paris is a central hub of the national rail network of very fast (TGV) and normal (Corail) trains, which interconnects with a high-speed regional network, the RER. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. Le Bourget airport nowadays only hosts business jets, air trade shows and the aerospace museum. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. A third and much smaller airport, at the town of Beauvais, 70 km (45 mi) to the north of the city, is used by charter and low-cost airlines.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. Paris is served by two principal airports: Orly Airport, which is south of Paris, and the Charles de Gaulle International Airport in nearby Roissy-en-France, one of the busiest in Europe. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. "Greater Paris"). They divide the ice into zones. The current socialist municipality of Paris is pushing forward the idea of a loose "metropolitan conference" (conférence métropolitaine), while some in the right wing opposition propose the creation of a more integrated Grand Paris (i.e. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. There are currently plans to create a metropolitan structure that would cover the city of Paris and some of its suburbs in order to increase administrative efficiency.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. The hundreds of suburban communes around the city of Paris also each have their separate administrations, which accounts for the extreme complexity of the Île-de-France administrative grid. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The city of Paris, the seven départements of petite couronne and grande couronne, and the Île-de-France région all have their own separate administrations. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . It is made up of eight départements: the city of Paris itself (as a département), the three départements of the petite couronne already mentioned, and another concentric circle of four larger départements (Val-d'Oise (95), Yvelines (78), Essonne (91) and Seine-et-Marne (77)) which form the grande couronne. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. This région encompasses the city of Paris, its suburbs, and most of the commuting belt beyond.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Paris is also the préfecture, or capital city, of the Île-de-France région which was created in 1976, replacing a District of the Paris Region which had been created in 1961. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. On the other hand, the jurisdiction of the Prefecture of Paris, previously called Prefecture of the Seine (before 1968), is now strictly limited to the city of Paris. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. The Prefecture of Police jurisdiction, which used to be the whole Seine département, is now limited to Paris proper, but for some matters (such as fire protection or rescue operations) it still covers the three départements of the petite couronne. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. "large ring") of the more distant suburbs of Paris.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. "small ring"), as opposed to the grande couronne (i.e. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. In 1968, Seine was split into four new départements: the city of Paris proper (which retained the number 75) and three départements (Hauts-de-Seine (92), Seine-Saint-Denis (93) and Val-de-Marne (94)) forming a ring around Paris often called petite couronne (i.e. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Number 75 was once the official number of the Seine département, which encompassed the city of Paris and its nearest suburbs. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. The prefect of Paris is at the same time regional prefect of Île-de-France, in charge of some economic development and urban planning issues for the whole région of Île-de-France, which encompasses Paris and all its suburbs.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. The State appointed prefect of Paris, not to be confused with the above mentioned prefect of Police, is the representative of the French State in the Paris département, in charge of the control of legality, as is the case in other French départements. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. The Council of Paris, presided by the Mayor of Paris, is the single council for both authorities, meeting either as municipal council (conseil municipal) or as departmental council (conseil général) depending on the issue to be debated. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. As well as being a single commune, the city of Paris is also a département (official number: 75), which is a unique status in France solely introduced for the capital city. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Paris has yet to completely emerge from the centralized administrative system created by Napoleon in 1800: public order is still in the hands of the State appointed prefect of Police (as is the Paris Fire Brigade) and Paris has no municipal police force, although it does have its own traffic wardens.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. The Council of Paris elects the mayor of Paris, a position created in 1977. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. A selection of members from each arrondissement council form the Council of Paris (Conseil de Paris). The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Citizens of each arrondissement elect a local council (conseil d'arrondissement), which in turn elects the mayor of the arrondissement. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Two parks on the edge of the city proper, Bois de Boulogne on the west and Bois de Vincennes on the east, belong to the 16th and 12th arrondissements respectively.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. It is divided into twenty municipal arrondissements (see: Arrondissements of Paris), numbered in a clockwise spiral outwards from the Ier arrondissement at the center of the city. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. Administratively speaking, the city of Paris is a French commune (municipality). The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.
. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Among the manufacturing sector, the largest employers were the electronic and electrical industry (17.9% of the total manufacturing workforce in 1999) and the publishing and printing industry (14.0% of the total manufacturing workforce), the remaining 68.1% of the manufacturing workforce being distributed among many other industries.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Reflecting the diversity of the Paris economy, at the 1999 census 16.5% of the 5,089,170 persons employed in the metropolitan area worked in business services, 13.0% in commerce (retail and wholesale trade), 12.3% in manufacturing, 10.0% in public administrations and defense, 8.7% in health services, 8.2% in transportation and communications, 6.6% in education, and the remaining 24.7% in many other economic sectors. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. The economies of Paris and its closest départements have made a clear shift towards high value-added services, in particular business services. Over the years many different organizations have existed. Although the Île-de-France's manufacturing base is still important and remains one of the manufacturing powerhouses of Europe, it is in a period of decline. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. The Paris economy is essentially a service economy.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. The tourism industry, for instance, employs only 3.6% of the total workforce of the metropolitan area (as of 1999) and is by no means a major component of the economy. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The economy of the Paris region is extremely diverse and has not yet adopted a specialization inside the global economy (unlike Los Angeles with the entertainment industry, or London and New York with financial services). On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. According to the 1999 census conducted within the INSEE statistical aire urbaine (metropolitan area) commuter belt area around Paris, out of 5,089,170 persons employed within, 31.5% worked inside the city of Paris, 16% in the Hauts-de-Seine (92) département, home of the new La Défense business district to the west of the city proper, while the remaining 52.5% worked in the rest of the suburbs of the Paris agglomeration. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. In 2002, according to Eurostat, the Île-de-France GDP accounted alone for 4.5% of the total GDP of the European Union (of 25 members), although its population is only 2.45% of the total population of the EU25.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. The Île-de-France accounts for about 29% of the total GDP of metropolitan France, although its population is only 18.7% of the total population of metropolitan France (as of 2004). The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. In the same year, were it a country, the Île-de-France would be the 15th largest economy in the world. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Together their 2003 GDP GDP is calculated by INSEE at €448,933 million [7], or US$506.7 billion (at real exchange rates, not at PPP). The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Paris and its surrounding Île-de-France région is one of the engines of the global economy.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The most recent immigrants to Paris come essentially from mainland China and from Africa. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. people who were not living in France in 1990). There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. As of 1999, 4.2% of the total population of the metropolitan area of Paris were recent migrants (i.e. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. As a comparison, 19.5% of the total population of the metropolitan area of London was born outside of the (metropolitan) United Kingdom[5], while 27.5% and 31.9% of the total populations of the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas respectively were born outside of the United States[6].

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. The metropolitan area of Paris is one of the most multi-cultural in Europe, with 19.4% of the total population of the metropolitan area being born outside of metropolitan France[4]. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. These peculiar facts are due to the conservativeness of French administrative limits, with no significant administrative enlargement of the city of Paris since 1860, contrary to many other western cities. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The city of Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine represent together 47.5% of the 5,089,170 jobs in the metropolitan area, while the city proper alone represents only 31.5% of these. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. As a consequence commuters are not exclusively going from the suburbs to work in the city of Paris, but also come from the city of Paris to work in the suburbs.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Indeed, most offices in the agglomeration of Paris are located in an area consisting of the Western half of the city of Paris proper and the central portion of the département of the Hauts-de-Seine, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Economically speaking, Paris is not properly the center of the agglomeration. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Modern suburban development is even accellerating, as with an estimated total of 11.5 million inhabitants for 2004, the Paris metropolitan area is showing a rate of growth double that of the 1990s. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. On the other hand, Paris agglomeration considered as a whole have been continuously increasing since the end of the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, with brief setbacks only during the French Revolution and World War II.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. These tendencies are generally seen as negative for the city, and the current city administration is trying to reverse them; these actions seem to have had some effect, as according to the population estimate of July 2004, Paris population rose for the first time since 1954 reaching a total of 2,144,700 inhabitants. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. This decline in population is due to the relocation of people to the suburbs, under the influence of several factors, namely de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters as well as the transformation of living space into offices, although not to the scale of London or American cities. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. This is a number lower than its historical 1921 peak of 2.9 million. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. At the 1999 census, the population of the city of Paris was 2,125,246.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. mile). Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. per sq. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. per km² (260,000 inh. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Some neighborhoods in the east of this arrondissement are known to have densities of almost 100,000 inh.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. mile) in 1999. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. per sq. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. per km² (105,339 inh. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Today, the most crowded arrondissement in the city of Paris is the 11th arrondissement, with a density reaching 40,672 inh.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. mile) in 1999, seven times more dense than in the City of London. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). per sq. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. per km² (46,979 inh. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. mile) in 2001, whereas the four first arrondissements of Paris still have a density of 18,139 inh.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. per sq. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. per km² (6,417 inh. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. Today, the City of London is almost empty, with a population density of only 2,478 inh. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. per km² before the Industrial Revolution.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. This is most striking in the medieval heart of both metropolises: the City of London and the four first arrondissements of Paris were the medieval heart of each metropolis, with densities reaching 75,000 to 100,000 inh. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. More precisely, people relocating to the suburbs were for the most part replaced by new people attracted to an urban lifestyle, and buildings were not converted into offices as systematically as has happened elsewhere, such as in London where the inhabitants have left the city center since the Second World War, and the density of Inner London is now much lower than that of Paris. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. Although the city of Paris has also experienced a decline in population since the 1920s, it has nonetheless seen fewer inhabitants relocating to the suburbs than has occurred in other western cities. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. In many western cities, people have left the city center in the 20th century to relocate to the distant suburbs, leaving the city center as a business district dead at night.

. The density in Paris is comparable to the densities met within Asian cities. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. The population density in the city of Paris is very high compared to those of most western cities, which are rarely as crowded as Paris (except for Manhattan). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. mile). The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). per sq.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. per km² (22,438 inh. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. mile), and the density in Inner London at the 2001 UK census was 8,663 inh. William M. per sq. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. per km² (66,940 inh.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. As a matter of comparison, the density in Manhattan at the 2000 US census was 25,846 inh. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. mile). Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. per sq. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. per km² (63,321 inh.

Lester B. Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, the density in the city was actually 24,448 inh. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. mile). King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. per sq. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. per km² (52,225 inh.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. At the 1999 French census the population density in the city of Paris was 20,164 inh. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. The expected failure of these projects is interpreted in France as yet another sign of Paris' muséification. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. Recent 'modernisation' proposals - building skyscrapers to the inside of the city rim, or to loosen strict laws governing the height of any new constructions - have been met with strong opposition on all sides. Frank J. Paris is subject to some of the most stringent architectural protection laws in the world: ill-renowned urbanistic experiences of the 1960s aside, it is difficult to place large-scale or architecturally innovative buildings within city limits.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. It is feared that Paris is being slowly "embalmed" into a form pleasing to tourists and nostalgists. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. Emblematically, even the National Archives of France are due to relocate to the northern suburbs before 2010. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Many of its institutions and arenas of communal activity are either located in the suburbs or finding a new home there, which one day may lessen Paris' importance as a pole of activity for its surrounding suburbs: the financial (La Défense) business district, the main food wholesale market (Rungis), major renowned schools (École Polytechnique, HEC, ESSEC, INSEAD, etc.), world famous research laboratories (in Saclay or Évry), the largest sport stadium (Stade de France), and even some ministries (namely the Ministry of Transportation) are located outside of the city of Paris. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. A so-called "muséification" (museumification) of the city of Paris is feared by some in France.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. The widening social gap between these disadvantaged suburbs on the one hand and the wealthier suburbs (especially the western ones) and the rich city of Paris on the other hand have led to periodic unrest since the mid-1980s, sometimes degenerating into riots such as during the 2005 riots. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. Many inner suburbs of Paris (especially the eastern ones) have been in a period of de-industrialisation since the 1970s, and the once-thriving cités have gradually become ghettos for immigrants and oases of unemployment. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. A comprehensive express subway network, the RER, was built to complement the Métro and serve the distant suburbs, while a network of freeways was developed in the suburbs, centered on the Périphérique, the expressway circling around the city of Paris proper. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. The suburbs around the city of Paris proper began to expand considerably, with the construction of large social estates known as cités and the beginning of the business district La Défense.

Clarence S. In the post-WWII era, Paris experienced its largest development since the end of the Belle Époque in 1914. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. It was one of few European cities that suffered almost no war damage at all thanks in part to the refusal of the German military commander, General von Choltitz, to carry out Hitler's direct order to destroy all monuments before evacuating the city. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. In June 1940, five weeks after the start of the German attack on France, a partially-evacuated Paris fell to German occupation forces, who remained there until Free French troops of General Leclerc liberated the city in late August 1944. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. From Russian exiled artists (such as composer Igor Stravinsky), to Spanish painters (such as Picasso or Dalí), to US writers (such as Hemingway), Paris became a melting pot of artists from all around the world.

Two points are awarded for a win. In the Inter-war period Paris was famed for its cultural and artistic communities, as well as its nightlife. In 1918-1919, it was the scene of Allied victory parades and peace negotiations. During World War I, Paris was at the forefront of the war effort, having been spared a German invasion by the French and English victory at the First Battle of the Marne in 1914. Cholera in 1832 and 1849 (in 1832, 20 000 deads on a population of 650 000 [3]).

Paris's World's Fair years also consecrated its position in the tourist industry and as an attractive setting for international technology and trade shows. The first line of the Paris Métro opened for the 1900 Universal Exposition and was an attraction in itself for visitors from the world over. Built for the French Revolution centennial 1889 Universal Exposition as a "temporary" display of architectural engineering prowess, the Eiffel Tower remained the world's tallest building until 1930, and today is the city's best-known landmark. Despite grim predictions on the future of the city, Paris recovered rapidly from these events to host the famous Universal Expositions of the late 19th century.

The ensuing Commune of Paris events (1871) brought scenes of civil war and devastation into the very heart of the city. Paris suffered greatly from the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) and the Siege of Paris by Prussian troops, which brought famine and destruction to the city. The city itself underwent a massive renovation under Napoleon III and his préfet Haussmann, who, in levelling entire districts of narrow-winding medieval streets, created the network of wide avenues and neo-classical facades that make much of modern Paris. A majority of migrants found employment in the new industries appearing in the suburbs.

From the 1840s, rail transport and train stations spilled an unprecedented flow of immigration into Paris. The Industrial Revolution, the French Second Empire, and the Belle Époque brought Paris the greatest development in its history. During the French Revolution, Paris was the centre stage of French history, with the Storming of the Bastille in 1789 and the overthrow of the monarchy in 1792. King Louis XIV then moved the royal court permanently to Versailles in 1682.

During the Fronde, Parisians rose in rebellion and the royal family fled the city (1648). King Henry IV re-established the royal court in Paris in 1594 after he captured the city from the Catholic party. Bartholomew's Day massacre (1572). During the French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic party, culminating in the St.

However, the Kings of France abandoned Paris in favour of the Loire Valley. Although Joan of Arc failed to reconquer the city in 1429, a successful reconquest took place in 1437. Paris was occupied during the Hundred Years' War by the Burgundians, allies of the English. During this period the city's modern spatial distribution of activities appeared: the central island housed government and ecclesiastical institutions, the Left Bank became a scholastic centre with the University of Paris and colleges, while the Right Bank developed as the centre of commerce and trade around the central Les Halles marketplace.

From 1190, King Philip Augustus enclosed Paris on both banks with a wall that had the Louvre as its western fortress; and in 1200 chartered the University of Paris which brought the city fame and visitors from across Europe. Nearby marshlands were drained to allow Paris to grow on the Right Bank. The Counts of Paris gained fame by defending France against Viking attack in the ninth century, but the Vikings irreparably damaged the old Roman city on the Left Bank. Paris became the city of French kings when Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, was elected King of France in 987, founding the Capetian dynasty whose rulers would raise Paris to become France's capital.

Odo was elected king after the deposition of the incumbent Charles the Fat. Odo, Count of Paris defended Paris during the siege of 885-886 by the Vikings Siegfried and Rollo. During the Carolingian dynasty, the counts of Paris rose to prominence, eventually wielding greater power than the Kings of France. By the time of the Carolingian dynasty (9th century), it was little more than a feudal county stronghold.

On the death of Clovis, the Frankish kingdom was divided with Paris as the capital of a much smaller kingdom. From AD 512, Paris was the capital of the Frankish king Clovis I, who commissioned the first cathedral and abbey. The city reclaimed its original name of Paris towards the end of the Roman occupation. By 400 AD Lutetia had been reduced to a garrison town entrenched in the hastily fortified central island.

Lutetia expanded and prospered during the ensuing period of peaceful Gallo-Roman cohabitation, but third-century Germanic invasions caused a period of decline. Rome conquered the region in 52 BC and built the city of Lutetia on the Left Bank Sainte Geneviève Hill as this area was protected from river floods. There is dispute about the exact location of the settlement, traditionally assumed to be on the Île de la Cité, but now placed by many historians near Gare d'Austerlitz. They established a settlement by the River Seine to control river commerce.

The region around Paris was settled from about 250 BC, by the Celtic Parisii who were known as boatmen and traders. However, a record high night-time minimum of 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) in Parc Montsouris was set on August 11 and August 12, 2003, the highest minimum temperature at night ever registered in Paris. During the European heat wave of 2003, which caused the death of many elderly people in France, the temperature in central Paris reached "only" 38.1 °C (100.6 °F) (Parc Montsouris) and 40.2 °C (104.4 °F) at Le Bourget Airport in the northern suburbs. The highest temperature was recorded on July 28, 1947 when the temperature in central Paris (Parc Montsouris) reached 40.4 °C (104.7 °F).

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Paris (since meteorological records began in 1873) was on December 10, 1879: –23.9 °C (–11.0 °F) in central Paris and –25.6 °C (–14.1 °F) in the southeastern suburb of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés . (12 miles) north-northwest of the center of Paris as the crow flies, at 195 metres (640 ft) above sea-level. The highest elevation in the urban area of Paris is in the Forest of Montmorency (Val-d'Oise département), 19.5 km. The altitude of Paris varies, with several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at 130 metres (426½ ft) above sea level.

The metropolitan area (aire urbaine) of Paris (the built-up area plus the commuter belt) reaches beyond the surrounding Île-de-France administative région to cover 14,518 km² (5,605.5 mi²) (INSEE 1999), or about 138 times as large as the commune of Paris. The metropolitan urban area (unité urbaine) of Paris (the contiguous built-up area) covers 2,723 km² (1,051.4 mi²) (INSEE 1999), or about 26 times as large as the commune of Paris. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes were officially incorporated into the city of Paris. The limits of Paris changed marginally after 1860, reaching the 86.9 km² figure indicated above.

The borders of the commune were changed in 1860 when Napoleon III and the prefect Haussmann annexed the suburban communes surrounding Paris, such as Montmartre and Auteuil, more than doubling the city's area to 78 km² (30.1 mi²), and created the twenty arrondissements. The commune of Paris is the 113th largest commune in France (out of 36,782 communes). This oval extends 9.5 km (6 miles) from north to south, and 11 km (7 miles) from east to west. Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, the area of the city is 86.928 km² (33.56 mi², or 21,480 acres), in the form of an almost regular oval, with a circumference of 35.5 km (22 miles).

The city (commune) of Paris proper has an area of 105.398 km² (40.69 mi², or 26,044 acres). This waterway features two inhabitated islands within the city, the Île de la Cité and the Île Saint-Louis, of which the former is the larger and the Capital's heart and origin. The city straddles a north-bending arc of the river Seine. Paris is located at 48°52′00″N, 2°19′59″E (48.866667, 2.333056).

from la Province). Parisians tend to call those living outside the Paris region provinciaux (i.e. Inhabitants of the Île-de-France région are known officially as Franciliens (/fʀɑ̃siljɛ̃/). Locally, inhabitants of the Paris suburbs are known colloquially as banlieusards (/bɑ̃ljøzaʀ/).

The pejorative term Parigot (/paʀigo/) is sometimes used in French slang. The inhabitants of Paris are known as Parisians /pəˈɹiː.ʒn̩z/ in English, and as Parisiens (/paʀizjɛ̃/) in French. (.). Traditionally, Paris was known as Paname (/panam/) in French slang, but this vulgar appellation is gradually losing currency.

Lutetia was later dropped in favor of only Paris, based on the name of the Gallic Parisi tribe, whose name perhaps comes from the Celtic Gallic word parios, meaning "caldron", but this is not certain. The original Latin name of Paris was Lutetia (/lutetja/), or Lutetia Parisiorum, known in French as Lutèce (/lytɛs/). Paris is pronounced [ˈpʰæɹɪs] (RP) or [ˈpʰæɹəs] in English, and [paʀi] in French. .

It is often listed as one of the four major global cities along with New York, London and Tokyo. Today Paris is one of the world's major transport destinations, because of its financial, cultural, political, and tourism activities. The Île-de-France région, of which Paris is the capital, produces over a quarter of France's wealth, with a GDP of nearly €450 billion [2]. The population of Paris metropolitan area (also including satellite cities) was estimated at 11.6 million people in 2005.

According to the INSEE, the body issuing official statistics in France, the population of Paris urban area (the contiguous built-up area) was estimated at 10.1 million people in 2005. The population of Paris city proper was estimated at 2,144,700 inhabitants in 2004[1], but during the last century the city has grown well beyond its administrative boundaries. Paris hosts the headquarters of many international trade and social organisations, including the OECD and UNESCO in addition to the head offices of nearly half of all French companies and offices of many major international firms. More recently, it has grown into a significant centre of international trade with ever-growing modern business districts, including La Défense, which forms a secondary city centre.

As one of the main cultural and political centers in Europe since the early Middle Ages, Paris contains many vestiges from its past including numerous art galleries, museums and theatres. Paris is also internationally renowned for its defining neoclassical architecture and its influence in fashion and the arts. The most recognisable symbol of Paris is the 324 metre (1,063 ft) brown metal Eiffel Tower located on the banks of the Seine. Nicknamed "the City of Light" (la Ville Lumière) since lighting its main boulevards with gas street lamps in 1828, the city of Paris also has a reputation as a "romantic" city and the "heart of Europe".

Straddling the river Seine in the country's north, it is a major global cultural and political centre in addition to being the world's most visited city. Paris is the capital and largest city of France. 2 Excluding Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. ISBN 2869306482..

Connaissance du Vieux Paris, Rivages. Hillairet, Jacques (avril 22, 2005). ISBN 2213598746.. Paris, Fayard.

Favier, Jean (avril 23, 1997). Retrieved December 17, 2005. ^  (fr) France2 web article - "Ouverture du Parc Astérix pour sa 17e saison". ^  (fr) ORTIF - "Chiffres clés du tourisme 2004 en Île-de-France", page 5.

See Economy of Paris for a more detailed discussion. ^  GDP comparisons between metropolitan areas can only be approximate, because of the differences in national metropolitan area definitions. Retrieved December 1, 2005. "Produit intérieur brut (PIB) à prix courants.".

^  (fr) INSEE - Comptes régionaux - données 2003 semi-définitives en base 2 000. census 2000. ^ U.S. census 2001.

^ U.K. ^ France census 1999. Retrieved December 1, 2005. "Produit intérieur brut (PIB) à prix courants.".

^  (fr) INSEE - Comptes régionaux - données 2003 semi-définitives en base 2 000. Retrieved January 23, 2005. Paris. Janvier 2006.

^  (fr) Estimation de population pour certaines grandes villes. Harry's New York Bar. The Rex Club, Le Tryptique, Le Batofar- good places for electro music (techno, electro-rock, D&B). Les Bains-Douches, le Man Ray, l'Elysée Montmartre, le Queen - famous and trendy nightclubs.

The Buddha Bar, Barfly, Hotel Costes, Georges - trendy upscale restaurant / bars to see and be seen. the Paris Olympia, le Zenith, Bercy, Bobino - concert halls. Moulin Rouge, Le Crazy Horse Saloon, Folies Bergères - other famous cabarets. Le Lido - cabaret on the Champs-Élysées famous for its exotic shows and where, as an American GI on leave with some army friends, Elvis Presley gave an impromptu concert.

La Défense - As a city antenna just outside Paris' western limits, La Défense of the largest business districts in the world, and is a major destination for business tourism in Europe. l'Opéra - Shopping area with department stores such as Printemps and Galeries Lafayette. Le Marais - trendy district on the Right Bank with large gay and Jewish populations. Les Halles - shopping precinct around an important metro connection station.

Quartier Latin - Paris's scholastic center from the 12th century, formerly stretching between the Left Bank's place Maubert and the Sorbonne university. Montparnasse - historic area on the Left Bank, famous for the its artists studios, music-halls, and café life. Place de la Bastille - Former eastern stronghold and gate of Paris. The Egyptian obelisk it holds today can be considered Paris's "oldest monument".

Place de la Concorde - at the foot of the Champs-Élysées, built as the "Place Louis XV" site of the infamous guillotine. Champs-Élysées - a 17th-century garden promenade turned Avenue connection between the Concorde and Arc de Triomphe. Montmartre - historic area on the Butte, home to the Basilica of the Sacré Coeur and also famous for the studios and cafés of many great artists.

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