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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. [18]. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. As well as a long list of other items that are either wholly prohibited or restricted in some manner. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Among the hundred or so banned categories (note that these relate to ebay.com (the US site), other regions may vary in their rules) :. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. But as eBay grew, it found it necessary to restrict or forbid auctions for various items.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. eBay in its earliest days was essentially unregulated. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived.
. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. One of the largest items ever sold was a World War II submarine, sold by a small town in New England that decided it did not need the historical relic anymore. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Other notable controversies involving eBay include:.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Frauds committed by buyers include:. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. Frauds that can be committed by sellers include:. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. Of course, all laws still apply and legal action may also be possible. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. An eBay account (whether seller, buyer or both) may canceled if there are too many complaints against the account holder.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. When a user feels that a seller or buyer has been dishonest, a dispute can be filed with eBay. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Weaknesses of the feedback system include:. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. The feedback system can protect sellers as well as buyers; a seller can reject a bid from a potential buyer if the buyer's feedback rating isn't to the seller's liking. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. Learning the system and examining a seller's feedback history is a buyer's best protection.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. So if a buyer has problems, he can rate the seller "negative" and leave a comment such as "never received product". A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. They can give a "positive", "negative", or "neutral" rating and leave a short comment. A referee makes all penalty calls. After every transaction both the buyer and seller have the option of rating each other. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. The major fraud prevention mechanism for eBay users is its feedback system.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. eBay data shows that less than .01% of all transactions result in a confirmed case of fraud. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. eBay has its share of controversy, ranging from its privacy policy (eBay typically turns over user information to law enforcement without a subpoena) to well-publicized seller fraud. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. The only place where expansion failed was Japan where Yahoo had a head start. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. eBay has already expanded to almost two dozen countries including China and India.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. The company's current business strategy includes increasing revenue by increasing international trade within the eBay system. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. In addition, eBay now owns the PayPal payment system which many buyers use to pay for their purchases, so it often receives an extra fee via that. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. The eBay fee system is quite complex and takes $0.20 to $80 per listing and 3-5% of the final price. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. There are fees to list a product and fees when the product sells.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. eBay generates revenue from a number of fees. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. eBay's main rivals are Amazon.com Marketplace and Yahoo.com Auction. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. eBay's Latin American partner is MercadoLibre. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. eBay is also an easy place for unscrupulous sellers to market counterfeit merchandise, which can be difficult for novice buyers to distinguish without careful study of the auction description.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. In general, the company removes auctions that violate its terms of service agreement within a short time after hearing of the auction from an outsider; the company's policy is to not pre-approve transactions. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. On other occasions, people and even entire towns have been listed, often as a joke. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. In late 1999 a man offered one of his kidneys for auction on eBay, attempting to profit from the potentially lucrative (and, in the United States, illegal) market for transplantable human organs. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. There has also been controversy regarding items put up for bid that violate ethical standards.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. Some exceptions to this rule are made for rare aged liquors, where a bottle may sell for many times higher than its actual value in alcohol. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. In June 2004, eBay prohibited the sale and auction of both alcohol and tobacco products on the British site ebay.co.uk. They divide the ice into zones. As of January 2006, there were over 25,000 members in the eBay Developers Program, comprising a broad range of companies creating software applications and services to support eBay buyers and sellers as well as eBay Affiliates. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. Software developers can create applications that integrate with eBay through the eBay API by joining the eBay Developers Program.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. Regional searches of the database make shipping slightly more rapid or cheaper. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. Large international companies, such as IBM, sell their newest products and offer services on eBay using competitive auctions and fixed-priced storefronts. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . It is fair to say that eBay has revolutionized the collectibles market by bringing together buyers and sellers internationally in a huge, never-ending yard sale and auction. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. Services and intangibles can be sold too.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Anything can be sold as long as it is not illegal or on the eBay banned list. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Some items are rare and valuable, while many others are dusty gizmos that would have been discarded if not for the thousands of eager bidders worldwide, proving that if one has a big enough market, one will find someone willing to buy anything. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Millions of collectibles, appliances, computers, furniture, equipment, vehicles, and other miscellaneous items are listed, bought, and sold daily. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. Meg is credited with building the company to what it is today.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. She joined eBay when the company had 30 employees and operated solely in the United States; eBay is now a global organization with over 9,000 employees. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. Margaret (Meg) Whitman joined the company in March 1998. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Omidyar had tried to register the domain name EchoBay.com but found it already taken by the Echo Bay Mines, a gold mining company, so he shortened it to his second choice, eBay.com. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. Originally, the site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyar's consulting firm.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. It officially changed its name to eBay in September 1997. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. This was revealed in Adam Cohen's 2002 book and confirmed by eBay.). In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Astonished, he contacted the winning bidder and asked, "did he not understand the laser pointer was broken?" Omidyar received the following email in reply: "I'm a collector of broken laser pointers." (The frequently repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyar's fiancee trade PEZ Candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager in 1997 to interest the media. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. The first item sold was Omidyar's broken laser pointer for $14.83.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. Founded in San Jose, California on September 4, 1995 by Pierre Omidyar and Jeff Skoll as Auctionweb, part of a larger personal site that included, among other things, Omidyar's own tongue-in-cheek tribute to the Ebola virus. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. . The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. eBay Inc. (NASDAQ: EBAY) manages an online auction and shopping website, where people buy and sell goods and services worldwide. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Another concern with "fee avoidance" is that most sellers will not refund shipping so if a $1 item with a $50 shipping fee turns up faulty, the buyer is only eligible to a refund for the $1.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. This is called "fee avoidance" and is not allowed by eBay; such auctions are cancelled when they are reported. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. Since eBay charges their fees based on final sales price and not shipping, this allows sellers to reduce the amount they pay eBay in fees and for buyers to avoid importing fees and taxes into their country. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. Some users sell items for extremely low prices (usually using the Buy It Now feature) and then make up for it by overcharging on shipping. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Conversely, sometimes very cheap items, like envelopes, are sold for high prices because they come with free airline vouchers or concert tickets, in order not to violate the terms on these items.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. This is not allowed by eBay. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. Some users try to sell something which, on first glance, appears to be an expensive item for cheap (game console boxes are quite popular), and state clearly in the description that they are paying for an item which is not the one implied. Over the years many different organizations have existed. [21] Sabbouha is a verb to describe shill bidding which originated from an old Lebanese Legend. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. [20] Furthermore, shill bidding is a crime in many jurisdictions, and can be prosecuted under United States wire fraud laws.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. (This is also known as "bid padding".) Shill bidding is not allowed on eBay. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. Shill bidding is the deliberate use of secondary registrations, aliases, family members, friends, or associates to artificially drive up the bid price of an item. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. [19]. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. eBay's "proxy bidding" feature allows the buyer to specify the maximum they are willing to pay for an item regardless of "snipes".

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Many other auction sites, such as Yahoo! Auctions, offer an option which extends the auction by some minutes when a last-minute bid is placed, in order to prevent sniping. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. This practice is allowed on eBay. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Bid sniping is placing a high bid during the last few seconds of an auction such that no time remains for other users to counterbid. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. Human parts and remains [17].

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. There was a demand for this kind of garment amongst sexual fetishists, and these garments would often fetch hundreds of dollars. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. Sellers would post descriptions specifically emphasising that they had worn these undergarments for days, a week or more, especially during exercise. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. Dirty used clothing [16] This policy arose because a thriving market in used jock-straps and underwear had emerged on ebay. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. Firearms and ammunition [15].

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Bootleg recordings [14]. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. Nazi paraphernalia [13]. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. Alcohol (alcohol-related collectibles, including sealed containers, as well as wine sales by licensed sellers are allowed) [12]. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. Tobacco (tobacco-related items and collectibles are allowed) [11].

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. [10]. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. a European buyer sold a Vauxhall VX220 that was said to have been baptized. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. [9]. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The item failed to sell.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. For $100, a man said that he would take a pair of jean his girlfriend made, and shoot them, and drag them behind his tractor, with a fee per shot/starting up the tractor. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. [8]. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. A Coventry University student got £1.20p for a single cornflake. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. [7].

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. The few tablespoons came from a plastic cup Presley sipped at a concert in North Carolina in 1977. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Water that was said to have been left in a cup Elvis Presley once drank from was sold for $455. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. An incomplete package of diapers, bought and opened in the 1980s, raised more than $700US for the Children and Families Ministry at a United Church in Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. The owner of Cockeyed.com sold advertising space comprising a single pixel on its homepage for 21 days for $100 [6].

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. A bargain considering he was one of the five best and most complete mammoth skeletons in the world, consisting of 90% of his original bone material. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. Max was put up for sale in 2004 by his Dutch owner due to lack of space and sold for £61,000. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. With a minimum bid set at US $250,000. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. A 50,000-year-old mammoth.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. A Sydney man pocketed AUS$1,035 after auctioning a piece of Nutri-Grain resembling ET, in Dec 2004. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). She promptly sealed it in a plastic bag where it remained, free of mold, for over 10 years until its sale on eBay. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. The seller claimed to see the Virgin Mary toasted into the bread when she made the sandwich in 1994. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. On November 23, 2004, a grilled cheese sandwich with a likeness of the Virgin Mary on it sold for $28,000 to the online casino GoldenPalace.com.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. [5]. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The winning bid was $1691.66, and the winner rode in the front seat. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. There was at one point an auction for the first ride on Kingda Ka, the tallest roller coaster on Earth. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. [4].

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. In September 2004, the owner of MagicGoat.com sold the contents of his trash can to a middle school language arts teacher, who had her students write essays about the trash. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. While he initially admitted he was selling the dress to earn some money for Mariners tickets, the bidding got into the thousands of dollars, and the seller actually had received a number of marriage proposals from viewers. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. In more than one way, the seller received much more than he expected. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. In 2004, a Seattle man posted pictures of himself wearing his ex-wife's wedding dress.

. [3]. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. The winning bid was made by the GoldenPalace.com online casino, known for their outrageous eBay purchases. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. In May 2005, a Volkswagen Golf that had previously been registered to Cardinal Josef Ratzinger (who had been elected Pope Benedict XVI the previous month) was sold on eBay's German site for €188,938.88. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). In June 2005, Karolyne Smith sold the right to permanently tattoo an ad on her forehead to GoldenPalace.com for $10,000.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. [2]. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. In January 2006, the last 100 pixels of the milliondollarhomepage were sold for $38,100. William M. That sold for approximately $100,000 and one of the contestant podiums sold for nearly $10,000 (proceeds of the set's sale went to charity). Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Actual portions of the 1996-2001 Jeopardy! set, including the 9-foot-high Jeopardy! logo that was etched in glass as the backdrop.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. Round of golf with Tiger Woods ($425,000). NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. Shoeless Joe Jackson's "Black Betsy" baseball bat ($577,610). Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. Ferrari Enzo ($975,000, October 2004)[1]. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. Diamond Lake Resort, western Kentucky ($1.2 million).

Lester B. 1909 Honus Wagner baseball card ($1.65 million). Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. Grumman Gulfstream II jet ($4.9 million). King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. A 340-year-old copy of Shakespeare's Pericles, Prince of Tyre, which survived the Great Fire of London in 1666 (£5million). James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. In 2005, the Australian NRL tried unsuccessfully to persuade eBay to prevent scalpers from selling grand final tickets online.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. Normally, selling of charity tickets is legal under UK law. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. Following a statement from Bob Geldof that declared eBay a "cyber pimp", many of these auctions were bombarded with fake bids. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. On 14 June 2005 eBay removed auction listings for originally free tickets to the Live 8 charity auction amid hundreds of complaints about such auctions. Frank J. eBay strongly supported Baazee.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. The Indian government attempted to make the case that Bajaj broke a law under India's IT Act, that forbids "publishing, transmitting or causing to publish" obscene material, even though the actual material was never published on Baazee's servers. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. The company denied knowing the content of what they were selling (because it is a venue, not a retailer) and removed the offensive material as soon as they became aware of it. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. On 17 December 2004 Avnish Bajaj, CEO of eBay's Indian subsidiary Baazee.com, was arrested after a video clip showing oral sex between two Indian students was sold online. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. These offenses occurred prior to eBay's purchase of PayPal.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. PayPal was also forced out of this market, which accounted for some 6% of its volume. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. According to the settlement, PayPal between mid-2000 and November 2002 transmitted money in violation of various US federal and state online gambling laws. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. On 28 July 2003 eBay and its subsidiary PayPal agreed to pay a $10 million fine to settle allegations that they aided illegal offshore and online gambling. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. The Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case in 2006.

Clarence S. As of Nov 2005, eBay has appealed to the US Supreme Court to effectively block injunctive relief to patent holder MercExchange. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. The decision was appealed to the US Federal Court of Appeals and was upheld in part and rejected on others. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. The jury found for plaintiff MercExchange, which had accused eBay in 2001 of infringing on three patents (two of which are used in eBay's "Buy It Now" feature for fixed-price sales) held by MercExchange founder Tom Woolston. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. On 28 May 2003 a US District Court federal jury found eBay guilty of patent infringement and ordered the company to pay US$35 million in damages.

Two points are awarded for a win. Returning items other than received. Receiving merchandise and claiming otherwise. Credit card fraud. Buyer than has free goods and has income equal to the amount he spent on the item.).

Filing a shipping claim for damaged merchandise and collecting the money from the shipping company, then filing a chargeback on paypal for damaged merchandise, then refusing to return goods. PayPal fraud (e.g. Inflating total bid amounts by bidding against their own auction with a "shill" account. Selling stolen goods.

Counterfeit merchandise. Shipping faulty merchandise. Shipping items other than those described. Receiving payment and not shipping merchandise.

A user may be reluctant to leaving honest feedback out of fear of negative retaliatory feedback (including negative in retaliation for neutral). Small and large transactions carry the same weight in the feedback summary. In August 2005, eBay bought Skype, a VoIP company, for $2.6 billion in stock and cash. In June 2005, eBay acquired Shopping.com, a online comparison site for $635 Million USD.

In May 2005, eBay acquired Gumtree, a network of UK local city classifieds sites. On December 16, 2004, eBay acquired rent.com for $30 million in cash and $385 million in ebay stock. This was a Dutch competitor which had a 80% market share in the Netherlands, by concentrating more on small ads than actual auctions. In November 2004, eBay acquired Marktplaats.nl for €225 million.

(IAC), buying nearly 3 million shares of the Korean online trading company for 125,000 Korean won (about US$109) per share. In September 2004, eBay moved forward on its acquisition of Korean rival Internet Auction Co. On August 13, 2004, eBay took a 25% stake in craigslist.org by buying out an existing shareholder who was once a craigslist employee. On June 22, 2004, eBay acquired all outstanding shares of Baazee.com, an Indian auction site for approximately US $50 million in cash, plus acquisition costs.

acquired EachNet, a leading ecommerce company in China, paying approximately $150 million in cash. On July 11, 2003 eBay Inc. In July, 2002, eBay acquired PayPal, for $1.5 billion in stock. In August, 2001, eBay acquired Mercado Libre, Lokau and iBazar, Latin Americas auction sites.

In June, 2000, eBay acquired Half.com, which was later integrated with the eBay Marketplace. In 1999, eBay acquired the auction house Alando for $43 million, which changed then to eBay Germany. In 1999, eBay acquired the auction house Butterfield & Butterfield, which it sold in 2002 to Bonhams. In May, 1999, eBay acquired the online payment service Billpoint, which it shut down after acquiring Paypal.

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