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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. However, mares produce a much lower yield of milk than do cows. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. They may let it ferment to produce kumys. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. Mare's milk is used by peoples with large horse-herds, such as the Mongols. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. It is also commonly found in commercially produced pet food.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. Although consumption by humans is considered abhorrent by some people in the United Kingdom, the US and Australia, it is eaten in many other parts of the world and is an export industry in the USA. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Horse meat has been used as food for animals and humans throughout the ages. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. See: Horse (Zodiac). In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. According to Chinese folklore, each animal is associated with certain personality traits, and those born in the year of the horse are: intelligent, independent and free-spirited.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. The horse features in the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. However, several other explanations are equally plausible. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. The common European practice and tradition of saddling and mounting the horse from the lefthand side is often said to originate from the need to avoid inadvertantly striking the horse with a carried sword in the process. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. "Heavy" or draft horses such as Clydesdale, Draft, Percherons, and Shire horses weigh up to 2800lbs (about 907kg).

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Light horses such as Arabians, Morgans, Quarter Horses, Paints and Thoroughbreds weigh up to 1300lbs (about 590kg). Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Both groups agree that 'genuine abuse' should be ended within the industry. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Horse professionals that understand equine psychology and care claim they know what is best for horses than rights activists that live horseless lives and are easily influenced by propaganda. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. Animal living conditions vary, but many rodeo stock live on open ranches when not working on the weekend.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. Sports like rodeo and racing are closely monitored by veterinarians to prevent and treat injuries if they occur. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. Most horse owners that compete in sports, however, does not force-breed, kill unprofitable horses, or have poor living conditions for their horses. A referee makes all penalty calls. They also cite psychological harm, poor living conditions, forced-breeding, and the killing of unprofitable horses as forms of abuse. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. Activists claim rodeos turn a blind eye to minor injuries which do not impair performance.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. Rodeos claim that an injured horse is less profitable than a healthy horse. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. This brings a dilemma; If a horse gets an injury while competing, is this immoral? If a horse slips in its pasture while playing, is this ok?. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. All sports are dangerous, but then one observing horses in nature can see more terrible injuries occurring than occur in sports. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. Such extreme viewpoints are rare, however, and many people are more reasonable and worried that sports may cause injuries to horse atheltes, just as they do for human athletes.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Animal rights activists have the general viewpoint that all animal ownership is wrong, and thus using horses for riding and sports is also wrong, but these events are 'softer targets' than trail riding or 'refined' sports like dressage. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. One problem is a disagreement about terms like abuse. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Both sides provide contradictory evidence. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. Rodeo and racing professionals do have a strong case against radical claims.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. It is difficult for average people (or even experts) to differentiate between normal equine abilities and actual abuse. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. Horse racing and rodeo are more easily targeted because of their extensive use of animals in sport. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Most animal rights groups such as the Humane Society of the United States and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, which advocate against animal ownership, target wilder horse "sports", with claims of cruelty. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. Competitions exist in the following forms:.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Riders can choose any color, and optionally accoutrements such as chaps, bolo ties, belt buckles, and (shiny) spurs. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. The riders must wear cowboy boots, jeans, a shirt with long sleeves, and a cowboy hat. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. But show -- in the form of outfit (and silver ornaments on saddle and tack) -- forms part of Western riding. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. In dressage all riders wear the same to prevent distraction from the riding itself.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. The outfit of the competition Western rider differs from that of the dressage or 'English' rider. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. Technically, fewer differences between 'English' and Western riding exist than most people think. They divide the ice into zones. The cowboy's boots, which have high heels of an uncommon shape, also feature a specific design to prevent the cowboy's foot from slipping through the stirrup. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. The Western saddle has a very much more substantial frame (traditionally made of wood) to absorb the shock of roping, a prominent pommel surmounted by a horn (a big knob for snubbing the lasso after roping an animal), and, frequently, tapaderos ("taps") covering the front of the stirrups to prevent the cowboy's foot from slipping through the stirrup in an accident and resulting in a frightened horse dragging him behind it.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. These multiple work needs mean that cowboys require different tack, most notably a curb bit (usually with longer bars than an English equitation curb or pelham bit would have) which works by leverage, long split reins (the ends of which can serve as an impromptu quirt) and a special kind of saddle. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. Working with half-wild cattle, frequently in terrain where one cannot see what lurks behind the next bush, means the ever-present very great danger of becoming unseated in an accident miles from home and friends. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . For roping calves, the horse learns to pull back against the calf, which falls to the ground, while the cowboy dismounts and ties the calf's feet together so that he can be brand it, treat it for disease, and so on. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. Once the cowboy has twirled the lariat and thrown its loop over a cow's head, he must snub the rope to the horn of his saddle.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. That means that horses must learn to neck rein, that is, to respond to light pressure of the slack rein against the horse's neck. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. The cowboy must control the horse with one hand and use the lariat with the other hand. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. A main differentiating factor comes from the need of the cowboy to rope cattle with a lariat (or lasso). While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. Western riding evolved stylistically from traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish, and its skills stem from the working needs of the cowboy in the American West.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. Dressage, jumping and cross-country offer forms of what Americans refer to as 'English riding' (although the United States has a strong following of riders in those disciplines). Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The three following count as Olympic disciplines:. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined.
. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. In France they also race under saddle.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. Standardbred trotters and pacers race in harness with a sulky or racing bike. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. It occurs most commonly in the United Kingdom. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses also jump over obstacles. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Quarter Horses traditionally raced for a quarter mile, hence the name.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. Thoroughbreds have a pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but Arabians, Quarter Horses, and Appaloosas also race on the flat in the United States. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. In harness:. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Under saddle:. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Today, several categories of racing exist:.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. Humans have always had a desire to know which horse (or horses) could move the fastest, horse-racing has ancient roots. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. The list of horse breeds provides a partial alphabetical list of breeds of horse extant today, plus a discussion of rare breeds' conservation. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. They show more excitability, and often more dominance; and the longer you ride them, the more excited they become, instead of merely getting tired (although any breed of horse can succumb to fatigue). Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. True hotbloods usually offer greater riding challenges than other horses, especially the coldblood.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. The term "warmbloods" covers everything else, but the term also specifically refers to the European breeds, such as the Hanoverian, that have dominated dressage and show jumping since the 1950s. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. The slow, heavy draft horses class as "coldbloods", as they usually possess a quite calm temperament. Over the years many different organizations have existed. The Thoroughbred is also included in the "hotblood" category. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. The Arabian horses, whether originating on the Arabian peninsula or from the European studs (breeding establishments) of the 18th and 19th centuries, gained the title of "hotbloods", for their fiery temperaments.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. Some other breed registries allow artificial insemination, embryo transfer, or both. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. A foal born of two Thoroughbred parents, but by means of artificial insemination, is barred from the Thoroughbred studbook. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. For example, all Thoroughbred registries require that a registered Thoroughbred be a product of a natural mating. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Breed registries also differ as to their acceptance or rejection of breeding technology.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Still other breeds, such as most of the warmblood sporthorses, require individual judging of an individual animal's quality before registration or breeding approval. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. Other breeds tolerate limited infusions from other breeds—the modern Appaloosa for instance must have at least one Appaloosa parent but may also have a Quarter Horse, Thoroughbred, or Arabian parent and must also exhibit spotted coloration to gain full registration. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Some breeds have closed studbooks; a registered Thoroughbred, Arabian, or Quarter Horse must have two registered parents of the same breed, and no other criteria for registration apply. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. The modern landscape of breed designation presents a complicated picture.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. During the late middle ages the Carthusian monks of southern Spain, themselves forbidden to ride, bred horses which nobles throughout Europe prized; the lineage survives to this day in the Andalusian horse or caballo de pura raza español. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. The Arabs had a reputation for breeding their prize mares to only the most worthy stallions, and kept extensive pedigrees of their "asil" (purebred) horses. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. The idea of a "purebred" animal gained importance in Europe during the 19th century but selective breeding has occurred almost everywhere man has kept horses. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. See: Domestication of the horse.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Finally, certain geneticists have started evaluating the DNA and mitochondrial DNA to construct family trees. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. A second school -- the "Single Foundation" -- holds only one breed of horse underwent domestication, and it diverged in form after domestication through human selective breeding (or in the case of feral horses, through ecological pressures). In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. One school, which we can call the "Four Foundations", suggests that the modern horse evolved from two types of early domesticated pony and two types of early domesticated horse; the differences between these types account for the differences in type of the modern breeds. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. These schools grew up reasoning from the type of dentition and from the horses' outward appearance.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. Several schools of thought exist to explain how this range of size and shape came about. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. The Patagonian Fallabella, usually considered the smallest horse in the world, compares in size to a German Shepherd Dog. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The draft breeds can top 20 hands (80 inches, 2 metres) while the smallest miniature horses can stand as low as 5.2 hands (22 inches, 0.56 metres). In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Horses come in various sizes and shapes.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. Another that has numerous photographs of various colors and markings is Equine color. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Another good resource for horse color is: Horse color, markings, and genetics. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. For horse color and marking genetics see Equine coat color genetics. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Elsewhere:.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. On the legs:. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. On the face:. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. In fact, one will often refer to a horse in the field by his or her coat color rather than by breed or by gender. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colors and distinctive markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe them.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Horses older than colts and fillies become known as horses and mares respectively. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. Thoroughbred racing defines a colt as a male horse less than five years old and a filly as a female horse less than five years old; harness racing defines colts and fillies as less than four years old. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. In horse racing the definitions of colt, filly, mare, and horse differ from those given above. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. You can view an entire equine dictionary at: The Horse Dictionary.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. For details, see Horse gaits. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Some horses, called Gaited Horses, have gaits other than the most common four above. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years.
Other gaits. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. Although a race track is an enclosed area, it is designed for a horse to gallop around, without being too enclosed which may cause the horse to slip while turning.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. However, one would not gallop a horse during training in a ring or enclosed area, due to the fact that the horse may slip in attempting to gallop in such an area. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The gallop is usually used in races or fox hunting. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. To get a horse into gallop, the rider must alter their position so they are slightly more forward in the saddle, then they should allow the horse to head and gently kick the horse's sides. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Horses that usually are galloped in a straight line need to be caused to alternate leads so that they do not suffer a muscular imbalance and subsequent difficulty making turns in one direction or the other.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. In turning at a very rapid rate, it is even more important that the horse use the appropriate lead, leading with the left leg if making a left turn, and the right leg if making a right turn, since the faster the turn the more the horse needs to lean into the turn. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. The gallop also involves having a leading leg. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The gallop is another "four beat" gait which follows a similar progression to the canter, except the two paired legs land separately, the hind leg landing slightly before the foreleg. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J.
The gallop.

. The canter is not a natural gait, but a restrained form of a gallop. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. Also called "lope" when riding in a Western show class. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. To get a horse to canter from gallop, one must alter the position of the body slightly back in the saddle, then you must place the outside leg behind the girth to allow the horse to canter on the correct leg, and apply pressure on the reins. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). To get a horse to canter on the correct leg from trot, one must go into sitting trot, place their outside leg slightly behind the girth and squeeze with the inside leg.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. In making a fairly tight turn, the inside leg (the one nearest to the center of the turn) should lead, as this prevents the horse from "falling in". Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. In the arena, the horse should canter on the inside lead. William M. When cantering in a straight line, it does not usually matter which foreleg (or leading leg) goes first, but both leads should receive equal practice time, as otherwise the horse may become "one-sided" or develop a reluctance to canter on a specific lead. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. the rhythm should be 1-2-3, 1-2-3, etc.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. A cantering horse will first stride off with the outside hind leg, then the inside hind and outside fore together, then the inside front leg, and finally a period of suspension in which all four legs are off the ground. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. A canter is a "three beat" gait in which a foreleg and opposite hindleg strike the ground together, and the other two legs strike separately. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season.
The canter/lope. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. There are two types of trot a rider can perform; these are called posting trot, in which the rider stands up slightly in the saddle each time the animal's outside front leg goes forward, and sitting trot, in which the rider sits in the saddle and matches the horse's movement.

Lester B. A rider on a walking horse initiates a trot by reducing tautness on the reins and applying more leg pressure. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. In this gait, each leg bears weight separately, making it ideal to check for lameness or for stiffness in the joints. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. A trot is a "two beat" diagonal gait in which a foreleg and opposite hindleg (often called "diagonals") touch the ground at the same time. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman.
The trot/jog.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. To initiate a walk when a horse is trotting, the rider gently applies pressure on the reins. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. A rider on a trained horse gently squeezes the sides of the animal and releases the pressure on its reins in order to initiate a walk from a stationary position. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. The walking horse will lift first a hind leg, then the foreleg on the same side, then the remaining hind leg, then the foreleg on the same side. Frank J. A walk is a "four-beat" lateral gait in which a horse must have three feet on the ground and only one foot in the air at any time.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs.
The walk. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. All horses move naturally with four basic gaits; these are referred to as the walk, the trot, the canter/lope ("canter" in English riding, "lope" in Western), and the gallop. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Breeders of miniature horses favor that name because they strive to reproduce horse-like attributes in a much smaller animal, even though their horses undeniably descend from ponies. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. Several small breeds are referred to as "horses" or "ponies" interchangeably, including the Icelandic, Fjord, and Caspian types.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. Many people consider the Shetland pony as the archetypal pony, as its proportions are so different from those of horses. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. However, a distinct set of characteristic pony traits, developed in northwest Europe and further evolved in the British Isles, make it less clear whether it is more appropriate to use the word "pony" to describe a size or a type. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. Thus normal variations can mean that a horse stallion and horse mare can become the parents of an adult pony. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. Below the threshold an animal is a pony, while above the threshold it is a horse.

Clarence S. The threshold is 14.2 hh (1.47 m) for an adult. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. Usually, size alone marks the difference between horses and ponies. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. By convention, 15.2 hh means 15 hands, 2 inches (1.57 m) in height. One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. Perhaps because of extensive selective breeding, modern adult horses vary widely in size, ranging from miniature horses measuring 5 hands (0.5 m) to draft animals measuring 19 hands (1.8 m) or more.

Two points are awarded for a win. Horse height is measured at the highest point of an animal's withers. One hand is defined in British law as 101.6 mm, a figure derived from the previous measure of 4 Imperial inches. The English-speaking world measures the height of horses in hands. Because horses and humans have lived and worked together for thousands of years, an extensive specialized vocabulary has arisen to describe virtually every horse behavioral and anatomical characteristic with a high degree of precision.

For instance, if the majority of the herd wants to stop and eat, the whole herd follows suit and stops. Recently, researchers have observed that a form of "majority rule" appears to exist among horses. An alpha mare dictates the direction in which a family herd travels, while the stallion brings up the rear, "herding" his family. A stallion is not usually successful in acquiring his own mares from other stallions until he reaches 7 or 8 years of age.

Once young males reach breeding age and begin to attempt to breed with mares or to challenge the herd stallion, the stallion drives them out of the herd to form "bachelor bands" with other young stallions. These normally consist of a mature stallion, his harem of about one to ten mares, and the mares' offspring. Horses live in family groups in primarily grassland habitats. Even domesticated horses startle easily and must, for the safety of riders, undergo careful introductions to strange objects and situations.

Their eyes are located on the sides of their heads, providing a wide field of view while grazing (slightly less than 180 degrees to each side, overlapped in front and leaving a blind spot in the rear). They have a natural tendency to flee from danger, though they will fight if cornered. In nature, horses function as prey animals. Examples of extinct horse genera include: Propalaeotherium, Mesohippus, Miohippus, Orohippus, Pliohippus, Anchitherium, Merychippus, Parahippus, Hipparion and Hippidion.

The genus Equus, to which all living equids belong, evolved a few million years ago. Horse evolution was characterized by a reduction in the number of toes, from 5 per foot, to 3 per foot, to only 1 toe per foot. In the course of roughly a million years, horses evolved from leaf-eating forest-dwellers into fast grass-eating inhabitants of the Great Plains. One of the first true horse species was the tiny Hyracotherium, also known as eohippus, "the dawn horse".

Horses are believed by scientists to have first evolved in what is now North America. At one time there were twelve families of odd-toed ungulates, though today only three survive; tapirs and rhinoceroses are the closest living relatives of the modern horse. Perissodactyls were the dominant group of large terrestrial browsing animals until the Miocene (about 20 million years ago), when even-toed ungulates, with stomachs better adapted to grass digestion, began to outcompete them. Horses and other equids are odd-toed ungulates of the order Perissodactyla, a relatively ancient group of browsing and grazing animals that first arose less than 10 million years after the dinosaurs became extinct.

All equids are part of the family Equidae, which dates back more than 50 million years. Main article: Evolution of the Horse. Full species list:. This will probably remain a novelty hybrid as these individuals tend to inherit some of the nervous, difficult nature of their zebra parent.

Recently breeders have begun crossing various species of zebra with mares or female asses to produce "zebra mules"—zorses and zonkeys (also called zedonks). A hinny is the less common hybrid of a female ass and a stallion. A mule is a hybrid of a male ass and a mare and is infertile. The Donkey, Burro or Domestic Ass, Equus asinus, like the horse, has many breeds.

Other members of the horse family include zebras, donkeys, and hemionids. The Icelandic horse has a four-beat gait called the "tölt", which equates to the rack exhibited by several American gaited breeds. Introduced by the Vikings into Iceland, Icelandic horses did not subsequently undergo the intensive selective breeding that took place in the rest of Europe from the Middle Ages onwards, and consequently bear a closer resemblance to pre-Medieval breeds. The Icelandic horse (pony-sized but called a horse) provides an opportunity to compare contemporary and historical breed appearances and behaviour.

Feral horses may provide useful insights into the behavior of ancestral wild horses. Isolated feral populations are often named for their geographic location; in Namiba feral animals known as Namib Desert Horses live in the desert, while the Sable Island Horses are resident on Sable Island, Canada. Several populations of feral horses exist, including those in the West of the United States and Canada (often called "mustangs") and in parts of Australia ("brumbies") and New Zealand ("Kaimanawa horses"). Wild animals, whose ancestors have never undergone domestication, are distinct from feral animals, who had domesticated ancestors but now live in the wild.

[1]. Small wild breeding populations of this animal exist in Mongolia. Mongolians know it as the taki, while the Kirghiz people call it a kirtag. Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), a rare Asian species, is the only true wild horse alive today.

Thanks to the efforts of the brothers Lutz Heck (director of the Berlin zoo) and Heinz Heck (director of Tierpark Munich Hellabrunn), the resulting Wild Polish Horse or Konik more closely resembles the tarpan than any other living horse. Its genetic line is lost, but its phenotype has been recreated by a "breeding back" process, in which living domesticated horses with primitive features were repeatedly interbred. The tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, became extinct in 1880. For example, the Forest Horse (Equus ferus silvaticus, also called the Diluvial Horse) is thought to have evolved into Equus ferus germanicus, and may have contributed to the development of the heavy horses of northern Europe, such as the Ardennais.

Wild species continued to survive into historic times. Competing theories exist as to the time and place of initial domestication. The earliest evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from Central Asia and dates to approximately 4,000 BCE. .

Until the middle of the 20th century, armies used horses extensively in warfare; soldiers still refer to the groups of machines that have replaced horses on the battlefield as "cavalry" units, and sometimes preserve traditional horse-oriented names for military units (Lord Strathcona's Horse). Though isolated domestication may have occurred as early as 4500 BC, clear evidence of widespread use by humans dates to no earlier than 2000 BC, as evidenced by the Sintashta chariot burials, thus firmly establishing the domestication of the horse. In some human cultures, horses are also widely used as a source of food. Most notably, horses can be ridden by a person perched on a saddle attached to the animal, and are also widely harnessed to pull objects like wheeled vehicles or plows.

Horses have long been one of the most economically important domesticated animals, and have played an important role in the transport of people and cargo for thousands of years. The horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84. Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved.

Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). 2003. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Equistar Publications, Ltd., 1996.

Hakola, B.S., R.N., C.M.I. and Susan E. Riegal, D.V.M. Illustrated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse, by Ronald J.

(By members of the faculty and staff, University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine.) Harper Collins, 1996. Book of Horses: A Complete Medical Reference Guide for Horses and Foals, edited by Mordecai Siegal. Gymkhana. Steeplechase.

Vaulting (gymnastics and dance on horseback). Campdrafting. Polocrosse. 3-Day Eventing- a competition where you are judged on your total score from a day of dressage, stadium jumping and cross country.

The common clothes worn are usually brighter colors and less conservative. Cross Country Jumping, a jumping course that contains logs, and natural obstacles mostly. Show Jumping. Dressage.

Rodeo. Reining. Rapa das bestas. Polo, a team game played on horseback, involves riders using a long-handled mallet to drive a ball on the ground into the opposing team's goal while the opposing team defends their goal.

Hunter paces are usually a few miles long. Hunter paces are usually held in a series. Hunter Pacing, a sport where a trained rider rides a trail at speeds based on its condition and then people compete to ride closest to that perfect time. Jousting.

Horse show. Horse hacking. Fox hunting. Charreada, the highest form of Mexican horsemanship based on a mixture of Spanish and Native traditions.

Cavalry (sport). Bullfighting (rejoneo). It consists of bareback bronc riding and of saddle bronc riding. Bronc riding (riding a bucking "wild" horse for a timed duration) counts as a separate event, not considered part of Western riding as such.

In team roping, one horse and rider lassos a running steer's horns, while another horse and rider lassos the steer's two hind legs. In calf roping, the rider has to catch a running calf by the neck with a lasso, stop the animal in its tracks, rapidy dismount the horse and immobilize the calf by tying three of its legs together. Roping: also banned in Europe. While riding, the rider jumps off his horse onto a steer and 'wrestles' it to the ground.

Steer wrestling: Europe does not allow this activity because of animal welfare concerns, but it occurs in the United States of America, usually at rodeo events. Halter class is particularly popular with younger riders who do not yet have the skill or confidence to partake in other forms. Clothing of the handler and the halters tend to be more flashy in this discipline. In regular halter class, judges will put emphasis on the performance and build of the horse when awarding points, in 'showmanship at halter' the performance of the handler and horse are both judged equally.

The horse is taken through a short pattern where the horse and handler must demonstrate control during walk, jog and turns. The standard position of the handler is on the left side with the shoulder near the horse's eye. Halter class: here the horse is shown with only a halter and without a rider, but with a handler controlling the horse from the ground using a leadrope. In pole bending, horse and rider gallop the length of a line of six upright poles, turn sharply and weave through the poles, turn again and weave back, and gallop back to the start.

In a barrel race, horse and rider gallop around a cloverleaf pattern of barrels, making agile turns without knocking the barrels over. Barrel racing and pole bending: the timed speed/agility events of rodeo. The horses have to move sideways, make 90 degree turns while moving backwards, a fence has to be opened and/or closed while mounted, and more such maneuvers relevant to everyday ranch or trail riding tasks are demonstrated. Speed is not important, but total control of the horse is.

Trail class: in this event, the rider has to maneuver the horse through an obstacle course in a ring. The catch: the riders cannot close the gate to the pen till they have corralled all the cattle (and only the intended cattle) inside. Team penning: a popular timed event in which a team of 3 riders must select 3 to 5 marked steers out of a herd and drive them into a small pen. A jury awards points to the cutter.

The calf then tries to return to its herdmates; the rider loosens the reins and leaves it entirely to the horse to keep the calf separated, a job the best horses do with relish, savvy, and style. The horse and rider select and separate a calf out of a small group. Cutting: more than any other, this event highlights the "cow sense" prized in stock breeds such as the Quarter horse. Reining - considered by some the "dressage" of the western riding world, reining requires horse and rider to perform a precise pattern consisting of canter circles, rapid "spins" (a particularly athletic turn on the haunches), and the sliding stop (executed from a full gallop).

The horse must remain under control, with the rider directing minimal force through the reins and otherwise using minimal interference. Western pleasure - the rider must show the horse in walk, jog (a slow, controlled trot), trot and lope (a slow, controlled canter). Equitation classes occur in the Huntseat, Saddleseat, and Western disciplines. Equitation refers to those classes where judges assess the rider, not the performance of the horse.

Riders also commonly show Arabians and Morgans saddleseat in the United States. Saddleseat (also known as Park or English Pleasure riding), a uniquely American discipline, developed to show to best advantage the extravagantly animated movement of high-stepping gaited breeds such as the American Saddlebred and the Tennessee Walker. A winning show hunter has very good conformation, a smooth jumping style (with tightly-folded front legs), a good length of stride, and an appealing manner. Hunter classes in various divisions and fence heights demonstrate the horse's ability to jump smoothly and safely.

For equitation, see below. In the modern show ring hunters show "on the flat" at the walk, trot, and canter, and "over fences". Huntseat riding as a show discipline derived from English foxhunting and from the natural desire for people to prove that the superiority of their mount. In the last-named, the horses jump over fixed obstacles, unlike show jumping, where the majority of the obstacles will fall down or apart if hit by the horse.

"roads and tracks") and the "cross-country" jumping phase. Eventing, combined training, horse trials, "the Military," or "the complete test" as its French name translates, puts together the obedience of dressage with the athletic ability of show jumping, the fitness demands of a long endurance phase (a.k.a. At the Grand Prix level fences may reach a height of as much as 6 feet. Show jumping comprises a timed event judged on the ability of the horse and rider to jump over a series of obstacles, in a given order and with the fewest refusals or knockdowns of portions of the obstacles.

One dressage master has defined it as "returning the freedom of the horse while carrying the rider.". Competitive dressage has the goal of showing the horse carrying out, on request, the natural movements that it performs without thinking while running loose. Dressage ("training" in French) involves the progressive training of the horse to a high level of impulsion, collection, and obedience. The humans alternately run and ride.

Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: two humans and one horse. Ride and Tie (in North America, organized by Ride and Tie Association). Note especially the Tevis Cup. Races begin at 20 miles and peak at 100 miles.

Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an even start. The American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian dominates at the top level, has become very popular in the United States and in Europe. Harness Racing in Europe, New Zealand and Australia.

The United States Trotting Association organizes harness Racing in the United States (although the horses may also pace). Arabian Horse Racing. Appaloosa Horse Racing. Quarter Horse Racing--mostly in the United States, and sanctioned there by the American Quarter Horse Association.

Thoroughbred National Hunt racing or steeplechasing in the UK. Thoroughbred flat racing; (under the aegis of the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom and the Jockey Club of North America). Whorls, coloquially known as "cow licks" - are divergent or convergent patches of hair found anywhere on the body but mostly on the head, neck and just in front of the stifles. Stocking (white marking that extends as high as the knee or hock).

Sock (white marking that does not extend as high as the knee or hock). Ermine marks (black marks on the white just above the hoof). White Face (sometimes called Bald Face). Blaze (broad white stripe down the middle of the face).

Stripe (narrow white stripe down the middle of the face). Snip (a white patch on the muzzle). Star (a white patch between the eyes). These horses have normal eye colour, and they stay white for life.

Rarely there are true white horses born and are documented to have a dominant white gene (see Gray (horse) for a discussion of these). All white, may be the result of overlapping pinto, appaloosa, or sabino markings. White - Any non-albino white horse is called a gray, even though they appear white. Tobiano - a genetic trait among horses which produces a characteristic white pattern in the coat.

Splash - a genetically controlled horse coat variation. Sorrel - a light brown coat with a flaxen mane and tail. This color occurs while the horse is "graying out.". Rose gray: a gray horse with a pinkish tinge to its coat.

Roans also have solid colored heads that do not lighten. Roans are distinguishable from greys because roans typically do not change colour in their lifetimes, unlike gray that gradually gets lighter as a horse ages. Roan can happen on any body color; for example, there are palomino roans and dun roans. Red roans are chesnut and white hairs, blue roans are black/bay with white hairs.

Roan - a color pattern that causes white hairs to be sprinkled over the horse's body color. Perlino - Exactly like a cremello but a bay horse with two dilute genes. Often cited as being a color "within three shades of a newly minted coin", palominos actually come in all shades from extremely light, to deep chocolate. Palomino-chestnut horse that has one cream dilute gene that turns the horse to a golden, yellow, or tan shade with a flaxen (white) mane and tail.

Today, Paint horses are the world's fifth most popular breed. Paint - In 1962, the American Paint Horse Association began to recognize pinto horses with known Quarter Horse and/or Thoroughbred bloodlines as a separate breed. Specific patterns such as tobiano, overo, and tovero refer to the orientation of white on the body. Piebald is black and white, while Skewbald is white and brown.

Pinto - a multi-colored horse with large patches of brown, white, and/or black and white. It is often a grayish/silver colored horse with dark dun factors. Grulla- A black horse with a dun gene. Some gray horses that are very light must wear sunscreen.

If you would define the horse as white it is still grey unless it is albino. Gray horses can be born any color, and eventually most will turn gray or white with age. Gray - A horse with black skin and clear hairs. Fleabitten gray - refers to usually red hairs flecked in the coat of a gray horse.

Dun - Yellowish brown with a dorsal stripe along the back and occasionally zebra stripings on the legs. Dapple gray: a gray colored horse with rings, or dapples, scattered throughout. There are no true albino horses. Often called pseudo albinos, they have blue eyes.

Cremello - A chestnut horse with two dilute genes that washes out almost all colour. Chestnut- A reddish body color with no black. Buckskin- A bay horse with a gene that 'dilutes' the coat colour to a yellow, cream, or gold while keeping the black points (mane, tail, ears, legs). Brown - A bay without any black points.

Usually for a horse to be considered black it must be completely black with no brown at all, only white markings. As their foal coat begins to shed out, their black color will show through,but jet black foals are born jet black. Black foals are usually born a mousy grey color. Jet black is a blue-black shade that is fadeproof.

Ordinary black horses will fade to a rusty brownish color if the horse is exposed to sunlight on a regular basis. Black- There are two types of black, fading black and jet black. Three types - Dark bay, blood bay, light bay and just bay. Bay- From light brown to very dark brown with black mane and tail with black points.

A true Appaloosa is actually a breed, not a color. There are different patterns: blanket- white blanket that typically starts around or behind withers with dark spots mostly over the hips, snowflake - solid with white spots over hips, and leopard - which is white with dark spots over all the coat. Appaloosa - a breed of horse with spots, any color mixed with white. yearling - male or female horse one to two years old.

weanling - a young horse that has just been weaned from their mother (usually 6 months or a little older). stallion - adult, male horse that is able to produce offspring. shelt or shelty - a Shetland pony. School Horse/Pony- A horse owned by a riding academy.

pony - equine 14.2 hh or less (58 inches, 1.47 metres). The word being derived from the latin for 'light horse'. palfrey - a smooth gaited type, a riding horse, often used incorrectly to mean a woman's horse, but in fact, was ridden by knights and ladies and instead refers to the light build of the riding horses body. nag - A rude term used to describe old horses, 'ugly' horses (but beauty is only skin deep) or skinny, sickly horses.

According to BLM, though, a mustang is an unclaimed, unbranded, free-roaming horse. mustang - a feral horse found in the western plains of North America. mare - adult female horse. jenny - a female donkey.

horse - adult equine of either sex over 14.2 hh (58 inches, 1.47 m). 10 cm). One hand is equal to 4 inches (appox. Hand - a unit of measuring used frequently to measure a horses height.

hackney - a specific breed of flashy, elegant driving pony. I'm going out on a hack.". eg. Generally used only by English-style riders.

Not a trail ride or schooling ride. hack - A horseback ride taken for the purpose of pleasure, either for horse or rider. green - a term used to describe an inexperienced horse. god dog - how the Apaches referred to horses.

gelding - a castrated male horse of any age. garron - small and disdained horse. foal - infant horse of either sex. filly - female horse from birth till the age of 4.

draught horse - heavy, muscular beast of burden. destrier - a heavy, strong medieval war horse not to be confused with a charger or palfrey. colt - an unaltered male horse from birth till the age of 4. cob - any horse of a short-legged, stout variety, with short legs, and a compact body, neck and back.

Charger - a medieval war horse of lighter build not to be confused with a destrier. Brumby - a wild or untrained Australian horse. Bronco - a wild, untamed horse, typically used in reference to the American mustang. Grevy's Zebra (Equus grevyi).

Plains Zebra (Equus quagga). Hartmann's Mountain Zebra (Equus hartmannae). Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra). Kiang (Equus kiang).

Onager (Equus hemionus). Wild Ass (Equus africanus). Domesticated Donkey (Equus asinus). Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii).

Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus) (extinct). Wild Horse (Equus ferus)

    . Domesticated Horse (Equus caballus).

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