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National Hockey League

The modernized NHL shield logo debuted in 2005, replacing the orange and black shield, which had been used since the league's inception. The silver color is a homage to the Stanley Cup, the trophy awarded to the NHL champion.

The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

History

The beginnings to The Original Six

The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members.

The classic NHL shield logo, used until the end of the 2004 lockout.

The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season.

Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks.

Expansion: 1967 and beyond

The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises.

In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL.

In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams.

Labour Issues

There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005.

The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004.

Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season.

A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season.

Post Lockout

On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas.

Current organization

The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. Over the years many different organizations have existed. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams.

Eastern Conference

Western Conference

Season structure

Regular season

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball.

Points are awarded for each game as follows:

  • Two points are awarded for a win
  • One point for losing in overtime or a shootout
  • Zero points for a loss in regulation time.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion.

Stanley Cup playoffs

At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight.

The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals.

In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue.

During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal.

Rules

While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics.

Game timing

Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials.

Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play.

Hockey rink

The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. The red line is used to judge icing violations. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. They divide the ice into zones. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. It is used to judge goals and icing calls.

Scoring and winning

A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death.

Offside

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone.

The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line.

Icing

Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff.

Penalties

A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. A referee makes all penalty calls. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed.

During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends.

Trophies and awards

Stanley Cup on display at the Hockey Hall of Fame

The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players.

Trophies awarded to teams

  • Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion.
  • Clarence S. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion.
  • Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion.
  • Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team
  • The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season.

Trophies awarded to individuals

  • Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion
  • Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship
  • Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year
  • Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs
  • Frank J. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward
  • Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season
  • Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year
  • James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman
  • King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution
  • Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship
  • Lester B. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers
  • Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season
  • NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic
  • Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper
  • Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender
  • William M. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them
  • The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted.

NHL: An International League

NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players.


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While the league has always had a strong Canadian majority, the percentage of Canadian players has gone down slowly in the past 20 years since the arrival of European players. Other examples of fishing terms that carry a negative connotation are: "fishing for compliments", "to be fooled hook, line and sinker" (to be fooled beyond merely "taking the bait"), and the internet scam of Phishing. The league also voluntarily stops its season so that its players can play in the Winter Olympics to have the players represent their own country. For example, the expression "fishing expedition" (usually used to describe a line of questioning), describes a case where the questioner implies that he knows more than he actually does in order to trick the target into divulging more information than he wishes to reveal. Since the 1990s, the league has tried to promote itself throughout Europe with ads, media, and magazines. On the other hand, fishing with bait or lure sometimes has nuances of catching by deception, possibly with an implication of greed on the part of the victim. NHL is very proud of its players coming from all around the world. For example, in the New Testament, Jesus is reported to have said to his disciples: Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. Matthew 4:19.

After Gretzky's induction, the NHL declared that he would be the last one to have the waiting period omitted. On the one hand, fishing with a net has nuances of gathering by honest effort. In 1999 Wayne Gretzky became the last player to have the three years waived. Fishing is a widely used as a metaphor though as such it is possibly ambiguous. However, only 10 individual have been honoured in this manner. Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal industrially. In the past, if a player was deemed significant enough, the pending period would be waived. Isinglass is a substance obtained from the swim bladders of fish (especially sturgeon), it is used for the clarification of wine and beer.

Three years after retirement, players are eligible to be voted into the Hockey Hall of Fame. Fish glue has long been valued for its use in all manner of products from illuminated manuscripts to the Mongolian war bow. The National Hockey League presents numerous trophies per year; some are given to teams, and other are given to players. Fish glue is made by boiling the skin, bones and swim bladders of fish. If the penalized team is scored on during a minor penalty, the penalty immediately ends. Sepia is a pigment made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish. A team is far more likely to score on a power play than during normal play. Tyrian purple is a pigment made from marine snails Murex brandaris and Murex trunculus.

This is called a power play for the attackers and a penalty kill for the defenders. Sea horse, star fish, sea urchin and sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Normally, hockey teams have five skaters (excluding the goaltender), so if one penalty is called, play becomes five-on-four. Sharkskin leather is used in the manufacture of hilts of traditional Japanese swords. In most cases, the penalized team cannot replace that player and is thus shorthanded for the duration of the penalty. These skins are also used to make leather. During a penalty, the player who committed the infraction is sent to the penalty box. Sharkskin and rayskin which are covered with, in effect, tiny teeth (dermal denticles) were used for the purposes that sandpaper currently is.

In the NHL, the Linesman may call major intent-to-injure penalties that the referee may have missed. Traditional methods of pearl hunting are now virtually extinct. A linesman may call only obvious technical infractions such as too many men on the ice. Pearls and mother-of-pearl are valued for their lustre. A referee makes all penalty calls. There are several organizations devoted to improving the methods of collecting, handling, transporting, exporting and farming of wild and domesticated live food fish, as well as freshwater and marine tropical fish destined for aquaria. A penalty is a punishment for inappropriate behaviour. Such techniques are used most often by researchers for observation and study but are also used by those who collect fish for the aquarium trade.

Under the rules following the 2004-2005 lockout, if a team ices the puck under five-on-five conditions, they are not allowed to make a line change for the following faceoff. Fish can also be collected in ways that do not injure them such as in a seine net or by placing an electric current into the water. If the goalie on the side of the ice where the puck is being sent touches the puck, the icing is waved off. This brought the value of their live food fish trade industry to US$400 million as reported by the World Resources Institute[24]. A short handed team is not penalized for clearing the puck out of its zone during a powerplay. Hong Kong, for example, is estimated to have imported in excess of 15,000 tonnes of live food fish in 2000. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction. The prevalence of cultural beliefs and consumer standards helps to drive the demand for the live food fish trade.

When icing occurs, a linesman stops play. Suiting customer preference, this practice makes the seafood higher in quality and better in taste. Icing occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the red line and the opposing team's goal line without the puck going into the net. The majority of live fish kept at seafood restaurants, however, are desired for the freshness of the seafood, being killed only immediately before being cooked. The NHL in 2006 removed the offside pass or two-line pass which was a pass from inside a team's defending zone that crosses the red line. Some seafood restaurants keep live fish in aquaria for display or for cultural beliefs. When an offside violation occurs, the linesman blows play dead, and a faceoff is conducted in the neutral zone. Live fish are collected for the international live food fish trade.

In ice hockey, play is said to be offside if a player on the attacking team enters the attacking zone before the puck. Fish oil is valued as a dietary supplement. If the game is still tied after the three shootout rounds, the shootout continues, but becomes sudden death. In some cultures, for example China, Japan, and Vietnam, certain species of jellyfish are consumed[23]. The team with the most goals during this shootout wins the game. Sea cucumber is considered a delicacy in Chinese cooking and is often served at New Year’s feasts, usually in soups[22]. Three players for each team in turn perform a penalty shot. Squid and octopus are valued as food.

If the game is still tied at the end of overtime, the game enters a shootout. In some cultures, roe is considered a delicacy, for example caviar from the sturgeon. If the game is tied at the end of regulation time, a 5 minute, 4-on-4 sudden death overtime period is played, where the first team that scores a goal wins the game. Eggs, called roe, of various species may be eaten; roe comes from fish and certain marine invertebrates, such as sea urchins and shrimp. The team that has the most goals at the end of 60 minutes wins the game. Shelled molluscs include the clam, mussel, oyster, winkle and scallop; some crustaceans are the shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and crab. A goal is scored when the puck passes the goal line and enters the net. Shellfish include shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food.

It is used to judge goals and icing calls. The flesh of many fish are primarily valued as a source of food; there are many edible species of fish as well as other sea food. Near each end of the rink, there is a thin red goal line spanning the width of the ice. For example: sardines. They divide the ice into zones. Canning, developed during the 19th century has also had a significant impact on fishing by allowing seasonal catches of fish that are possibly far from large centres of population to be exploited. There are two blue lines that divide the rink roughly into thirds. Refrigeration and freezing also allow the catch to be distributed to markets further inland, reaching customers who previously would have had access only to dried or salted sea fish.

The red line is used to judge icing violations. The development of refrigeration and freezing technologies transformed the commercial fishing industry: fishing vessels could be larger, spending more time away from port and therefore accessing fish stocks at a much greater distance. The red line divides the ice in half lengthwise. In the past, fishing vessels were restricted in range by the simple consideration that the catch must be returned to port before it spoils and becomes worthless. The hockey rink is an ice rink which is rectangular with rounded corners and surrounded by a wall . See:. Each team may also take one 30 second time-out which may only be taken during a normal stoppage of play. All of these techniques are still used today but the more modern techniques of freezing and canning have taken on a large importance.

Between stoppages of play, teams have 25 seconds before substituting their players except for referee stoppages for TV commercials. Ancient methods of preserving fish included drying , salting, pickling and smoking. Between each period there is a 15 minute intermission. Prices for fish caught in North American "pay to fish" waters are generally in the range of $0.10 to $0.20 per cm or from $5.00 to $10.00 per kg. Each game is 60 minutes composed of three 20 minute periods. In North America, establishments usually charge for the fish caught, by length or by weight, rather than for access to the site although some establishments charge both types of fees. While the National Hockey League follows the general rules of Ice hockey, it differs slightly from those used in international games organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation such as the Olympics. In the United Kingdom, commercial fisheries of this sort charge access fees, with prices ranging from £2 to £25 per day.

The overtime is sudden death with the game ending when either team scores a goal. These provide fishing opportunities outside of the permitted seasons and quotas applied to public waters. Overtimes are also full periods of twenty minutes (of five-on-five hockey), rather than the five minutes (of four-on-four hockey, followed by a shootout) in the regular season. In addition to the above, commercial fishing can also be thought of as encompassing "pay to fish" enterprises, which provide anglers with controlled access to stocked lakes, ponds or canals. If the score is tied at the end of an overtime period, additional overtime periods are played until a winner is determined. Also see Krill fishery. During playoff games if the score is tied at the end of the third period an overtime period is played. Some common commercial techniques today are trawling, seining, driftnetting, handlining, longlining, gillnetting, and diving.

Four of the seven games are played at this team's home venue - the first and second, and, where necessary, the fifth and seventh, with the other games played at the lower-ranked team's home venue. A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day. In each round the higher-ranked team is said to be the team with the home-ice advantage. Fishing methods vary according to the region, the species being fished for, and the technology available to the fishermen. In the third round, the conference finals, the two remaining teams in each conference play each other, with the conference champions proceeding to the Stanley Cup Finals. Many new restrictions are often integrated with varieties of fishing allocation schemes (quotas), and international treaties that have sought to limit the fishing effort and, sometimes, capture efficiency. In the second round, or conference semifinals, the NHL re-seeds (unlike the NBA) the teams, with the top remaining conference seed playing against the lowest remaining seed, and the other two remaining conference teams pairing off. Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and sea-going processing factories.

The first round of the playoffs, or conference quarterfinals, consists of the first seed playing the eighth seed, the second playing the seventh, third playing the sixth, and the fourth playing the fifth. Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. The Stanley Cup Playoffs is an elimination tournament, where two teams battle to win a best-of-seven series in order to advance to the next round. Commercial fishing provides a large quantity of food to many countries around the world, but those who practice it as an industry must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. The division winners are seeded one through three, and the next five teams with the best records in the conference are seeded four through eight. Main article: Fishing industry. At the end of the regular season, the three division champions and the five other teams in each conference with the highest number of points, 8 teams in each conference, qualify for the Stanley Cup playoffs. Laws made to control recreational fishing frequently also attempt to control the harvest of other aquatic species, such as frogs and turtles.

At the end of the regular season, the team that finishes with the most points in each division is crowned the division champion. Noodling and Trout tickling may be pursued as a recreation. Points are awarded for each game as follows:. Big-game fishing describes fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna, sharks and marlin. The two divisions from the opposite conference which each team plays against will be rotated every year, much like interleague play in baseball. Other competitions is purely on length with mandatory catch and release, either longest fish or total length is documented with camera and a mandatory sticker, of more fair since it’s hard to weigh a living fish accurately in a boat. Teams play 32 games within their division (8 games against four other teams), 40 games against non-divisional, conference opponents (4 games against 10 other teams) and 10 interconference games, 1 game against each team in two of the three divisions in the opposite conference. Competitors are most often professional fishermen who are supported by commercial endorsements.

Each team in the NHL plays 82 regular season games, 41 games at home and 41 on the road. This sport evolved from local fishing contests into large competitive circuits, especially in North America. For a list of previous teams see List of defunct NHL teams. A recent phenomenon of recreational fishing are fishing competitions (tournaments) where fishermen compete for prizes based on the total weight of a given species of fish caught within a predetermined time. Over the years many different organizations have existed. Catch and release, in combination with techniques such as strong tackle (to get fish in quickly, for release in good condition), careful handling of fish and barbless hooks (to reduce physical damage) and quick release lead systems such as korda quick release system or the e.s.p variety may be useful tools in this endeavour. The National Hockey League currently has 30 teams divided into two conferences, and 6 divisions, an organization that started in the year 2000. The only way for growing numbers of recreational fishermen to continue fishing is to reduce their impact on fish populations.

The NHL, despite negative press generated during the lockout, has success attracting fans to the initial games of the season and extends fan bases into non-traditional markets in the US such as Nashville, Atlanta, and the Carolinas. The fish which suffer most are those of large, slow growing species such as carp. Of those 15 games, 11 were in front of sell out crowds. Recreational fishermen can have profound deleterious effects on fish stocks in commercial lakes, this is due to anglers with poor knowledge of how to protect the fish from damage or stress once out of the water. On October 5, 2005, the first post-lockout NHL season got under way with 15 games. Opponents would prefer to ban or to severely restricting angling, a suggestion most anglers find unpalatable. A new collective bargaining agreement was ratified in July 2005 with a term of six years with an option of extending the collective bargaining agreement for an additional year at the end of the term, allowing the NHL to resume as of the 2005-06 season. Proponents of catch and release also contend that the practice is increasingly necessary in order to conserve fish stocks in the face of burgeoning human populations, mounting fishing pressure and worsening habitat degradation.

With no new agreement in hand when the existing contract expired on September 15, 2004, league commissioner Gary Bettman announced a lockout of the players union and cessation of operations by the NHL head office, causing the NHL to lose an entire season. Keeping fish trapped over long period of time creates a lot of noise which makes it hard to single out the effect of the catch from the effect of the chosen methodology. The league vowed to install what it dubbed "cost certainty" for its teams, but the National Hockey League Players Association countered that the move was little more than a euphemism for a salary cap, which the union initially said it would not accept. The difficulty of doing such experiments is closely linked to the fact that negative effects of being exposed to fishing gears (here barbless hooks) develop over long time. Negotiations to replace the contract that expired in 2004 turned into one of the most contentious collective bargaining sessions in the history of professional sports. Scientific studies show a wide range of survival, depending on species, environmental conditions, fish density and research design (methodology). The resulting collective bargaining agreement was set for renegotiation in 1998 and extended to September 15, 2004. In a real sense, the suitability of catch and release is an ethical consideration and, as such, a science-based conclusion on the issue is unavailable.

A lockout at the start of the 1994-95 forced the league to reduce the schedule from 84 games to just 48, with the teams playing only intra-conference games during the reduced season. They most likey do not have nerves in their due to that they eat animals such as crayfish that can pinch. The first was a strike by the National Hockey League Players Association in April 1992 which lasted for 10 days, but the strike was settled quickly and all affected games were rescheduled. There is also some research that shows certin types of fish such as catfish, do not have nerves around their mouth. There have been three work stoppages in NHL history, all happening between 1992 and 2005. Anglers deny this charge, pointing out that fish commonly feed on hard and spiky prey items, and as such can be expected to have tough mouths, and also that some fish will re-take a lure they have just been hooked on, a behaviour that is unlikely if being hooked was painful. Approaching the new millennium, the NHL added another four teams; the Nashville Predators (1998), the Atlanta Thrashers (1999), the Minnesota Wild and the Columbus Blue Jackets (both added in 2000) bringing the total to 30 teams. The practice, however, is viewed by some with disapproval as they consider it unethical to inflict pain on a fish for fun or sport and not for reasons of capturing food.

In 1993, the NHL added an additional two teams, the Anaheim Mighty Ducks and the Florida Panthers. In angling, it is sometimes expected or required that fish all be returned to the water (catch and release). The San Jose Sharks debuted in 1991, a season later the Ottawa Senators would join the NHL along with the Tampa Bay Lightning. Kayaks are extremely stealthy and can allow anglers to reach areas unfishable from land or by conventional boat. In the early 90's the NHL expanded further with five new franchises. Kayak fisherman fish from sea kayaks in an attempt to level the playing field with fish and to further challenge their abilities. As of 2005, the Oilers are the last remaining original WHA franchise still playing in the city where they began in the NHL. One method of growing popularity is kayak fishing.

Four of the remaining six WHA teams merged with the NHL: The Hartford Whalers, Québec Nordiques, Edmonton Oilers, and Winnipeg Jets. This practice is known as angling. The two leagues fought for the services of hockey players and fans until the WHA folded in 1979. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, line and hooks attached to any of a wide range of lures or baits. The dilution of the talent pool, however, caused the overall quality of play to suffer. Typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth. In response to that, the NHL decided to rush its own expansion plans by adding the New York Islanders and Atlanta Flames that year, along with the Kansas City Scouts and Washington Capitals two years later. Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught.

Though it never challenged for the Stanley Cup, its status as a viable NHL rival was unquestionable. Recreational fishing and the closely related (nearly synonymous) sport fishing describe fishing for pleasure or competition. In 1972, the World Hockey Association (WHA) was formed. Main article: Angling. Three years later, the NHL added the Vancouver Canucks and Buffalo Sabres as franchises. Protective equipment must be worn to isolate the operator and prevent electrocution. Louis Blues, Minnesota North Stars, Los Angeles Kings, Oakland Seals, and Pittsburgh Penguins. They are typically equipped with a "dead-man switch" and a tilt switch to disable the device if the unit is tipped or the operator incapacitated.

They were the Philadelphia Flyers, St. Rigs can be battery powered back-packs or powered by a generator if they are mounted in a boat. Six new teams were added to the NHL roster, and placed in their own newly-created division. Smaller fish also require shorter pulses, closer together, while large fish should have longer pulses at lower power and longer gaps between pulses. The rise of the Western Hockey League, which many pundits thought planned to transform into a major league and challenge for the Stanley Cup, spurred the NHL in 1967 to undertake its first expansion since the 1920s. Also the smaller the fish, and consequently the less surface area in contact with the water, the higher the current required to produce galvanotaxis. With these developments and the onset of World War II, the NHL was reduced to six teams during its 25th anniversary year of (1942) – six teams still known today, if somewhat inaccurately, as the Original Six: The Canadiens, Maple Leafs, Red Wings, Bruins, Rangers, and Blackhawks. Dissolved minerals in the water can decrease resistance causing less of the current to pass through the fish, whereas fish recently entering fresh water from the ocean have high salinity and are more prone to electric shock.

However, the Great Depression took a toll on the league; teams such as the Pirates, Americans and Ottawa Senators folded. Techniques for setting pulse length and patterns, current and voltage require great skill to fish effectively without killing or injuring fish if they are to be left unharmed. By the end of the 1930-31 season, the NHL featured a total of 10 teams. A low voltage or short pulse with long gaps will cause the fish to swim away from the device, and high voltage or long pulses with short rests can cause galvanonarcosis, or unconsciousness. Canadian additions included the Montreal Maroons and Hamilton Tigers. A gated pulse of direct current is used to cause muscular contractions in a fish, called galvanotaxis, causing them to turn towards the source of the electrical current and swim towards it when correct pulse speeds and durations are used, along with correct current. The league had also expanded into the United States, with the Boston Bruins in 1924, the New York Americans and the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1925 and the New York Rangers, Detroit Cougars (later to become the Red Wings), and Chicago Blackhawks in 1926. A relatively new fishing technique is electrofishing, typically used for stream classification surveys and catching brood stock for hatcheries, or making estimates of populations in a body of water.

By 1926, having increased player salaries to a level that couldn't be matched by other Canadian leagues, the NHL was alone in Stanley Cup competition.
. (The 1918-19 competition was cancelled because of the Spanish Flu epidemic that had hit Seattle). Blast fishing is also illegal in many waterways around the world. Though the league struggled to stay in business during its first decade, NHL teams were quite successful on the ice, winning the Stanley Cup seven out of its first nine years. Explosions are particularly harmful to coral reefs[21]. With the Bulldogs and Wanderers out, the NHL operated with just three teams for the remainder of its opening year, and through the second season. The explosions indiscriminately kill large numbers of fish and other marine organisms in the vicinity and can damage or destroy the physical environment.

The Wanderers, already a shadow of its former self, folded in the wake of the fire, ending one of the most storied franchises in the early years of Canadian professional hockey. Fish are killed by the shock from the blast and are then skimmed from the surface or collected from the bottom. On January 2, 1918, the Westmount Arena in Montreal, home to the Wanderers and Canadiens, was destroyed in a fire. Dynamite or blast fishing, is done easily and cheaply with dynamite or homemade bombs made from locally available materials. The NHL endured a rocky inaugural season in 1917-18, starting with the temporary shuttering of the Bulldogs. The high concentrations of cyanide on reefs so harvested damages the coral polyps and has also resulted in cases of cyanide poisoning among local fishermen and their families. Arguments and discussions ensued which eventually led to the formation of the National Hockey League at on November 26, 1917, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs and newly-renamed Toronto Arenas as founding members. Those that survive often die from shock or from massive digestive damage.

Livingstone, unable to attend the meeting because of illness, was shocked to learn that owners had chosen to effectively eject him and the Blueshirts from the NHA. Many fish caught in this fashion die either immediately or in shipping. The owners met in Montreal's Windsor Hotel to consider the league's future on February 11, 1917. This illegal fishing occurs mainly in or near the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Caribbean to supply the 2 million marine aquarium owners in the world. Livingstone and the owners of the other teams. Cyanides are used to capture live fish near coral reefs for the aquarium and seafood market. The National Hockey League was founded in 1917 in Montreal after a series of disputes within the (Canadian) National Hockey Association (NHA) between the Toronto Blueshirts' owner Edward J. Some of these poisons paralyse the fish, others are thought to work by removing oxygen from the water[20].

. Many hunter gatherer cultures use poisonous plants to stun fish so that they become easy to collect by hand. The NHL is one of the major professional sports leagues of North America.

. Labrador Retrievers have been used by fishermen to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. It is generally regarded as the premier professional ice hockey league in the world. Dating from the 1500s in Portugal, Portuguese Water Dogs were used by fishermen to send messages between boats, to retrieve fish and articles from the water, and to guard the fishing boats. The National Hockey League (NHL) is a professional sports organization composed of hockey teams in the United States and Canada, where it is also known by its French name, Ligue Nationale de Hockey (LNH). However, these accounts are probably apocryphal, and based on earlier accounts no longer extant.

The Lester Patrick Trophy has been presented by the National Hockey League since 1966 to honour a recipient's contribution to hockey in the United States. The earliest surviving records of the practice are Peter Martyr d'Anghera's 1511 accounts of the second voyage of Columbus to the New World (1494)[19]. Jennings Trophy (1982 - present) -- goalkeeper(s) for the team with the fewest goals against them. The practice of tethering a remora, a sucking fish, to a fishing line and using the remora to capture sea turtles probably originated in the Indian Ocean. William M. The fish are instead collected by the fisherman[18]. Vezina Trophy (1927 - present) -- voted to be the most outstanding goaltender. Fishermen use the natural fish-hunting instincts of the cormorants to catch fish, but a metal ring placed round the bird's neck prevents large, valuable fish being swallowed.

Roger Crozier Saving Grace Award (2000 - present) -- best save percentage by a goalkeeper. In China and Japan, the practice of cormorant fishing is thought to date back some 1300 years. NHL Plus/Minus Award (1968 - present) -- highest plus/minus statistic. Similar traps are used in many areas to capture bait fish. Maurice 'Rocket' Richard Trophy (1999 - present) -- to the goal-scoring leader during the regular season. The pots are baited and lowered into the water and checked daily. Pearson Award (1971 - present) -- most outstanding player as selected by peers. Pot traps such as the lobster trap may be constructed in various shapes, each is a mesh box designed with a convoluted entrance that makes entry much easier than exit.

Lester B. Pot traps are typically used to catch crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish. Lady Byng Memorial Trophy (1925 - present) -- player combining ability and sportsmanship. Twice a day the adults Wagenya people pull out these baskets to check whether there are any fish caught; in which case somebody will dive into the river to fetch it. King Clancy Memorial Trophy (1988 - present) -- leadership and humanitarian contribution. It is a very selective fishing, as these baskets are quite big and only large size fish are trapped. James Norris Memorial Trophy (1954 - present)-- most outstanding defenceman. To these tripods are anchored large baskets, which are lowered in the rapids to "sieve" the waters for fish.

Jack Adams Award (1974 - present) -- coach of the year. These tripods are anchored on the holes naturally carved in the rock by the water current. Hart Memorial Trophy (1924 - present) -- most valuable player during the regular season. The Wagenya people, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, build a huge system of wooden tripods across the river. Selke Trophy (1978 - present) -- top defensive forward. Basket weirs are about 2 m long and comprise two wicker cones, one inside the other — easy to get into and hard to get out[17]. Frank J. They are shown in medieval illustrations and surviving examples have been found.

Conn Smythe Trophy (1965 - present) -- most valuable player during the playoffs. Basket weir fish traps were widely used in ancient times. Calder Memorial Trophy (1933 - present) -- rookie of the year. The Magna Carta includes a clause requiring that they be removed:. Bill Masterton Memorial Trophy (1968 - present) -- perseverance and sportsmanship. Such fish traps were evidently controversial in medieval England. Art Ross Memorial Trophy (1948 - present) -- regular season league scoring champion. 'V' shaped structures in rivers could be as long as 60 m and worked by directing fish towards fish traps or nets.

The O'Brien Trophy was awarded in the NHL before it was retired following the 1949-50 NHL season. In medieval Europe, large fishing weir structures were constructed from wood posts and wattle fences. Presidents' Trophy (1986 - present) - best regular season by a team. This involves the construction of a temporary dam resulting in a drop in the water levels downstream -- allowing fish to be easily collected[15]. Prince of Wales Trophy -- Eastern conference playoff champion. A technique called dam fishing is used by the Baka pygmies. Campbell Bowl -- Western conference playoff champion. Somewhat similar stone wall traps were constructed by native American Pit River people in north-eastern California[14].

Clarence S. Traps at different levels in the marsh came into operation as the water level rose and fell. Stanley Cup -- overall playoff champion. The eels were caught by a variety of traps including stone walls constructed across canals with a net placed across an opening in the wall. Zero points for a loss in regulation time. The purpose of these canals was the encouragement and catching of eels, a fish of short coastal rivers (as opposed to rivers of the Murray-Darling system). One point for losing in overtime or a shootout. In southern Victoria, indigenous people created an elaborate systems of canals, some more than 2 km long.

Two points are awarded for a win. The Brewarinna fish traps caught huge numbers of migratory native fish as the Barwon River rose in flood and then fell. The largest and best known were the Brewarrina fish traps on the Barwon River at Brewarrina in New South Wales, which fortunately are at least partly preserved[13]. Unfortunately, most have been completely or partially destroyed. Here, where water levels fluctuate seasonally, indigenous people constructed ingenious, stone, fish traps[12].

Indigenous Australians were, prior to European colonisation, most populous in Australia's better-watered areas such as the Murray-Darling river system of the south-east. There are essentially two types of trap, a permanent or semi-permanent structure placed in a river or tidal area and pot-traps that are baited to attract prey and periodically lifted. Traps are culturally almost universal and seem to have been independently invented many times. It is practised by hunter-gatherers such as the Inuit and by sportsmen in many cold climates.

Ice fishing is the practice of catching fish with lines and hooks through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. Main article: Ice fishing.. Kites can also be used for trolling a lure through the water. Similarly, for boat owners, kites provide a way to fish in areas where it is not safe to navigate such as shallows or coral reefs where fish may be plentiful.

Kites can provide the boatless fishermen access to waters that would otherwise be available only to boats. The fishing line may be made from coconut fibre and the lure made from spiders webs[11]. Those of Tobi Island are a large leaf stiffened by the ribs of the fronds of the coconut palm. Suitable kites may be of very simple construction.

It is not clear whether kite fishing was communicated or of independent invention. Kite fishing was invented in China and was (and is) also known to the people of New Guinea and other Pacific Islands. Long-line fishing is a commercial fishing technique that uses hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from a single line. This technique allows anglers to cover a large body of water in a short time.

Trolling is also a freshwater angling technique most often used to catch Trout. Trolling from a moving boat is a technique of big-game fishing and is used when fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Trolling is a technique in which a fishing lure on a line is drawn through the water. Fishing with a hook and line is called angling.

The tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured. A gorge is buried in the bait such that it would be swallowed end first. A fishing hook will pierce the mouthparts of a fish and may be barbed to make escape less likely. Fish are caught with a fishing line by encouraging a fish to bite upon a fish hook or a gorge.

Scallop dredging is very destructive to the seabed, and nowadays is often replaced by mariculture or by scuba diving to collect the scallops. They tend to have the form of a scoop made of chain mesh and they are towed by a fishing boat. There are types of dredges used for collecting scallops or oysters from the seabed. They may continue to be a menace to wildlife for many years.

Ghost nets are nets that have been lost at sea. Thus trapped, the fish can neither advance trough the net nor retreat. A gillnet catches fish which try to pass through it by snagging on the gill covers. Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.

Danish seine is a method which has some similarities with trawling. A simple and commonly used fishing technique is beach seining, where the seine net is operated from the shore. In purse seine fishing the net hangs vertically in the water by attaching weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. A seine is a large fishing net that may be arranged in a number of different ways.

The nets are dipped into the water and raised again, but otherwise cannot be moved. Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets of 20 m or more across. The Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala) found at Kochi in India are an unusual method of fishing. When a fish is caught, each hauls up his end of the net until the two coracles are brought to touch and the fish is then secured.

Coracle-fishing is performed by two men, each seated in his coracle and with one hand holding the net while, with the other, he plies his paddle. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in[10]. The net is thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. Sizes vary up to about 4 m diameter.

A casting net is circular with a weighted periphery. In England, hand netting is the only legal way of catching eels and has been practised for thousands of years on the River Parrett and River Severn. Such a net used by an angler to aid in landing a captured fish is known as a landing net. A small hand net held open by a hoop and possibly on the end of a long stiff handle has been known since antiquity and may be used for sweeping up fish near the water surface.

Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used in certain areas. All fishing nets are meshes usually formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Hunter gatherers may use the bow to kill fish in shallow water. With practice, divers are able to hold their breath for up to four minutes; of course, a diver with underwater breathing equipment can dive for much longer periods.

Traditional spear fishing is restricted to shallow waters, but the development of the speargun has made the method much more efficient. A small trident type spear with a long handle is used in the American South and Midwest for "gigging" bullfrogs with a bright light at night, or for gigging carp and other trash fish in the shallows. Spear fishing is an ancient method of fishing and may be conducted with an ordinary spear or a specialised variant such as an eel spear[8][9] or the trident. Catching Fish by hand is currently illegal in the state of Kansas.

Hand-line fishing is a technique requiring a fishing line with a weight and one or more lure-like hooks. Pearl diving is the practice of hunting for oysters by free-diving to depths of up to 30 m. Divers can catch lobsters by hand. Trout binning is a method of fishing, possibly fictional, performed with a sledgehammer[7].

In the British Isles, the practice of catching trout by hand is known as trout tickling; it is an art mentioned several times in the plays of Shakespeare. In the USA catching catfish in this way is known as noodling. It is possible to fish with minimal equipment by using only the hands. In traditional Chinese history, history begins with three semi-mystical and legendary individuals who taught the Chinese the arts of civilization around 2800-2600 BC: of these Fu Hsi was reputed to be the inventor of writing, hunting, trapping, and fishing.

From ancient representations and literature it is clear that fishing boats were typically small, lacking a mast or sail, and were only used close to the shore. Oppian’s description of fishing with a "motionless" net is also very interesting:. Oppian describes various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, spears and tridents, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". This is the earliest such work to have survived intact to the modern day.

Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. The Greek historian Polybius ((ca 203 BC-120 BC), in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head[6]. An early example from the Bible in Job 41:7: Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears?[5]. There are numerous references to fishing in ancient literature; in most cases, however, the descriptions of nets and fishing-gear do not go into detail, and the equipment is described in general terms.

The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident. He would fight against the murmillo, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius was armed with a trident and a casting-net. Various species such as conger, lobster, sea urchin, octopus and cuttlefish are illustrated[4].

Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show fishing from boats with rod and line as well as nets. This object is currently in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston[3]. It is clearly not a net. This has been identified as a fish-cage used for keeping live fish, or as a fish-trap.

In the water below, a rounded object of the same material with an opening on the top. There is a wine cup, dating from 510–500 BC, that shows a boy crouched on a rock with a fishing-rod in his right hand and a basket in his left. Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime.

Nile perch, catfish and eels were among the most important fish. As is fairly common today, the fish were clubbed to death after capture. By the 12th dynasty, metal hooks with barbs were being used. Woven nets, weir baskets made from willow branches, harpoons and hook and line (the hooks having a length of between eight millimetres and eighteen centimetres) were all being used.

Simple reed boats served for fishing. The Egyptians invented various implements and methods for fishing and these are clearly illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population[2]. There is a controversial proposal called the aquatic ape hypothesis which proposes that the ancestors of modern humans went through one or more periods of time living in a semi-aquatic setting and that they gathered most of their food from shallow coastal or other waters before their descendants returned to a more land-based existence.

Fishing may even pre-date the development of modern humans. With the new technologies of farming and pottery came the basic forms of most fishing methods known today. The Neolithic culture and technology spread worldwide between about 8,000 and 4,000 years ago. However, where there are a few early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.

During this time, most people lived a hunter-gather lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. We know from archaeological features such as shell middens[1], discarded fish bones and cave paintings that sea foods were important and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing is a very ancient practice that dates back at least to the Mesolithic period which began about 10,000 years ago. .

An organized fishing effort, typically centred around a particular commercially valuable species, is known as a fishery. Fishing is an ancient and worldwide practice with many techniques and traditions, and it has been transformed by modern technological developments. The term fishing is usually not applied to the hunting of aquatic mammals such as whales. By extension, the term fishing is also applied to hunting for other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish as well as squid, octopus, turtles, frogs and some edible marine invertebrates.

Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. Cod: stockfish (air dried), lutefisk (soaked in lye). Salmon: smoked salmon, cured salmon, and gravlax (fermented). Herring: kipper (salted and smoked), surströmming (fermented), rollmops (pickled), soused (salted).

Haddock: Arbroath Smokie (lightly smoked).

07-30-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.