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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. [2]. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. On July 2, 2005, the tip of the whaleback feature broke off, causing a rockfall that sent ash and dust several hundred meters into the air. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. While geologists warn that an eruption similar to the May 1980 eruption is still possible, the chances are low. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Helens VolcanoCam [1] located at Johnston Ridge is able to view the new dome especially at night when the glow of new magma is visible via the camera's infrared capabilities.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. The Mount St. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. If the growth of the new dome continues at its current pace, the new dome could replace the amount of material lost in the 1980 eruption (estimated at 3.7 billion cubic yards or 2.85 km3) within the next 40-50 years. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. The 'whaleback' feature is disintegrating steadily but continues to be extruded as solidified lava pushes upward from underneath it. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. Growth of the new dome continues steadily and has not abated, and small earthquakes continue to be observed every few minutes.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. As of May 5, 2005, the highest point on the new dome was 7,675 feet (2339 m), 688 feet (210 m) below the highest point of the volcano. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. The release was accompanied by a 2.5 earthquake. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. This activity was not considered a large eruption, merely a minor release of pressure consistent with the nature of ongoing dome building. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Helens had major activity again on March 8, 2005 when a 36,000-foot plume of steam and ash emerged, which was visible from Seattle, Washington and rained ash on Yakima, Washington.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Mount St. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. The total amount of glacier lost by this date was estimated to be between 5 and 10 percent, but the flow of water out from the crater had changed by almost nothing as the porous nature of the floor of the crater caused the water to be absorbed like a giant sponge. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. The diameter of the new dome was about 1,700 feet (518 m) at this time and it then contained about 50 million cubic yards (38.5 million m3) of material. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). The 'whaleback' feature measured approximately 1,550 feet (472 m) in length and 500 feet (152 m) in width.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. This brought its elevation to 1,363 feet (415 m) above the 1980 crater floor, approximately 2,000 feet (610 meters) above the surface of the crater glacier, and 721 feet (220 meters) below the highest point of the volcano. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. On February 1, 2005, the new lava dome on Mount Saint Helens measured 7,642 feet (2,329 m) in elevation. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. Currently, the whaleback is still growing but crumbling nearly as rapidly as it is growing. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. The edges of it began crumbling rapidly, forming loose material around the new dome.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. This interesting feature was very hot but fragile. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Included in the new dome was a feature dubbed the 'whaleback' (named such due to its close resemblance to the back of a whale), which was a long shaft of solidified magma being exuded by pressure of magma underneath it. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. Magma reached the surface of the volcano around October 11, 2004, resulting in the building of a new lava dome on the existing dome's south side. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Helens became active again in autumn 2004, indicated initially by hundreds and then thousands of localized earthquakes, and followed by several significant emissions of steam and ash.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Mount St. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Later, in 1995, 1998, and 2001, earthquake swarms were recorded beneath the crater, though without explosive activity. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. Between 1989 and 1991, a series of seismic events occurred, sometimes accompanied by small explosions from the dome. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. that is growing.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Until the beginning of the volcanic activity of 2004, it was considered the only glacier in the lower 48 states of the U.S. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. As of 2004, it covers about 0.36 square mile (0.93 km2). The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. Beginning with the winter snows of 1980-1981, a still unnamed horse shoe-shaped glacier began to evolve in the shadow of the crater. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. Numerous small explosions and dome-building eruptions occurred during this time.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Helens, with a new lava dome forming in the crater. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. Between 1980 and 1986, activity continued on St. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. In addition, 200 homes, 47 bridges, and 185 miles (300 km) of highway were destroyed. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Fifty-seven people were killed along with 1500 elk, 5000 deer, and an estimated 11 million fish.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. Helens' height by about 1300 feet (400 m) and left a 1 to 2 mile (1.6 to 3.2 km) wide and 0.5 mile (800 m) deep crater with its north end open in a huge breach. Green is often associated with health foods.). The removal of the north side of the mountain reduced St. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Helens released an amount of energy equivalent to 27,000 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs and ejected more than a cubic kilometer of material. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. In all, St.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. on May 18 the vertical ash column declined in stature and less severe outbursts continued through the night and following several days. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. By around 5:30 p.m. A good logo:. A total of 3.9 million cubic yards (3.0 million m3) of material was transported by the lahars. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. The lahars flowed many miles down the Toutle River and Cowlitz River, destroying bridges and lumber camps.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Helens mixed with ice, snow, and water to create lahars (volcanic mudflows). Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The collapse of the northern flank of St. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. The plume moved eastward at an average speed of 60 miles per hour (95 km/h), with ash reaching Idaho by noon. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. For more than nine hours, a vigorous plume of ash erupted, eventually reaching 12 to 15 miles (20 to 25 km) above sea level.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. This eruption was a 5 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index scale. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Helens burst forth into a large-scale pyroclastic flow which flattened vegetation and buildings in an area of over 230 square miles (600 km2). Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. The magma inside of St. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. This was the largest known debris avalanche in recorded history.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. With little warning, a second Richter magnitude 5.1 earthquake triggered a massive collapse of the north face of the mountain on May 18. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. By the end of April, the north side of the mountain started to bulge. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Steam venting started on March 27. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. Helens woke up on March 20, 1980, with a Richter magnitude 5.1 earthquake.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. Mount St. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. The vent apparently was at or near Goat Rocks on the northeast flank. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. There were at least a dozen small eruptions between 1831 to 1857 of ash reported as well, including a fairly large one in 1842. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. The ash drifted northeast over central and eastern Washington, northern Idaho and western Montana.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. The 1800 eruption probably rivalled the May 18, 1980 eruption in size, although unlike the 1980 eruption, it did not result in massive destruction of the cone. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. As with the Kalama cycle, the sequence of events started with an explosion of dacite tephra followed by an andesite lava flow and then culminated with the emplacement of a dacite dome. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The 57 year long Goat Rocks Eruptive Period started in 1800 and is the first cycle for which oral and written records exist. Examples:. 150 years of quiet returned to the volcano.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. Helens reached its greatest height and highly symmetrical form by the time the Kalama eruptive cycle ended on or around 1647. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. St. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. Lateral explosions excavated a notch in southeast crater wall. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. Large parts of the dome's sides broke away and mantled parts of the volcano's cone with talus.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. The several hundred foot high dome filled and overtopped an explosion crater already at the summit. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. This cycle ended with the emplacement of a large dacite dome at the volcano's summit. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Later, pyroclastic flows raced down over the andesite lava and into the Kalama River valley. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. Helens' summit crater down the volcano's southeast flank.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. After that, blocky andesite lava flowed from St. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. The next phase of this 150 year long cycle saw the eruption of less silica-rich lava in the form of andesitic ash that formed at least eight alternating light and dark-colored layers of ash. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. The source for at least some of these debris flows may have come from the explosion of a dacite dome close to or at the summit. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. Helens' west flanks and into the Kalama River drainage system.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Large pyroclastic flows and mudflows subsequently rushed down St. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Ash and pumice piled to a thickness of three feet (1 m) six miles (9.5 km) northeast from the volcano and two inches (5 cm) deep 50 miles (80 km) away in the same direction. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. At least seven different beds were laid down in the most voluminous eruptive cycle for 3000 years. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. In 1482, another large eruption rivaling the 1980 eruption in volume is known to have occurred.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. The eruption in 1480 was several times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. It also depicts an organisation's personality. Roughly 700 years of dormancy was broken about the year 1480 when large amounts of pale gray dacite pumice and ash started to erupt in the Kalama eruptive cycle. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. This period ended with the emplacement of dacite domes, including Sugar Bowl around the year 800. . Helens' north flank.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. Sometime around the year 400, the Sugar Bowl Eruptive Period began with small quantities of ash and lava erupted from St. The shape, color, typeface, etc. Another 400 or so years of dormancy ensued. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Also around the 1st century, mudflows moved 30 miles (50 km) down Toutle and Kalama river valleys and may have reached the Columbia River. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Others, such as Cave Basalt (known for its system of lava tubes), flowed up to 8 to 9 miles (13 to 15 km) from their vents.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Large lava flows of andesite and basalt covered parts of the mountain, including one around the year 100 that traveled all the way into the Lewis and Kalama river valleys. Combination (icon plus text ). Also different was the presence of significant lava flows in addition to the previously much more common fragmented and pulverized lavas and rocks (tephra). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. It was during the Castle Creek Period that the pre-1980 summit cone started to form. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Helens' lava, which diversified by adding olivine and basalt to the mix.

do not use the face of a (living) person. The next eruptive cycle, the Castle Creek Eruptive Period, began roughly around 400 BC and is characterized by a change in composition of St. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. A large mudflow partly filled 40 miles (65 km) of the Lewis River valley sometime between 1000 BC to 500 BC. brand standard manual). Helens' flanks and came to rest in nearby valleys. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. Numerous dense nearly red hot pyroclastic flows sped down St.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. This cycle, which lasted until about 800 BC, is characterized by smaller volume eruptions. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Helens came alive again around 1200 BC after 400 years of dormancy. produce alternatives for different contexts. At the beginning of the Pine Creek Eruptive Period, St. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. All told there may have been up to 2.5 cubic miles (10 km3) of material ejected in this cycle.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Rainier National Park and trace amounts have been found as far northeast as Banff National Park in Alberta and as far southeast as eastern Oregon. represents the brand/company appropriately. This eruptive cycle lasted until about 1600 BC and left 18 inch (46 cm) deep deposits of material 50 miles (80 km) distant in what is now Mt. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. Helens during the Holocene, judging by the volume of one of the tephra layers from that eruptive period. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). St.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. An eruption in 1900 BC was the largest known eruption from Mt. should remain effective reproduced small or large. Starting around 2500 BC, the Smith Creek Eruptive Period began with eruptions of large amounts of ash and yellowish-brown pumice covered thousands of square miles. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . The period since about 2500 BC is called the "Spirit Lake Stage". is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. 20–18,000 years ago), and the "Swift Creek Stage" (roughly 13–8,000 years ago).

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. The early eruptive stages of the volcano are known as the "Ape Canyon Stage" (around 40–35,000 years ago), the "Cougar Stage" (ca. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Repeated eruptions of pyroclastic flows, pumice, and ash followed until about 8500 BC when the volcano went dormant for roughly 6000 years. Amazon.com: And you're done. The four stages were interspersed with very long periods of dormancy or low activity levels lasting for up to a few thousand years. Impossibly small. Helens is known to have erupted in four major stages, the present having begun around 2500 BC after 6000 years of dormancy.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. St. Army: An Army of One. Mt. U.S. Parts of this ancestral cone were fragmented and transported by glaciers 14,000 to 18,000 years ago during the last ice age. Helens' eruptive cycles).

    36,000 years ago a large mudflow cascaded down the volcano (mudflows were very significant forces in all of St. Helens started growth in the Pleistocene 37,600 years ago with dacite and andesite eruptions of pumice and ash. According to geological evidence, St. Following the 1980 eruption, the area was left to gradually return to its natural state preceding the devastation.

    Helens National Volcanic Monument, a 110,000 acre (445 km2) area around the mountain and within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Congress established the Mount St. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan and the U.S. Helens.".

    Their film became a popular and top-selling documentary "The Eruption of Mount St. A second eruption occurred on May 25, but the crew survived and were rescued two days following the second eruption by National Guard helicopter pilots. Their compasses, however, spun in circles and they quickly became lost. Helens on May 23 to document the destruction.

    A film crew, led by Seattle filmmaker Otto Seiber, was dropped by helicopter on St. President Jimmy Carter surveyed the damage and stated it looked more desolate than a moonscape. U.S. Had the eruption occurred one day later, when loggers would have been at work, rather than on a Sunday, the death toll would almost certainly have been much higher.

    In total, 57 people were killed or never found. His body was never found after the May 18, 1980 eruption, which left a huge crater open to the north (see geology section below). Helens eruption, 84 year old innkeeper Harry Truman, who had lived near the mountain for over 50 years, became nationally famous when he decided not to evacuate before the impending eruption, despite repeated pleas by local authorities. During the lead-up to the 1980 Mount St.

    This was the first reported activity from the volcano since 1854 and the last until 1980. The lack of a significant ash layer associated with this event indicates that it was a small eruption, which may have been nothing more than billowing clouds of steam and dust. to be in a state of eruption". Helens, or some other mount to the southward, is seen . . .

    On April 17, 1857 the Republican, a Steilacoom, Washington newspaper, reported that "Mount St. Warre's work showed erupting material from a vent about a third of the way down from the summit on the mountain's west or northwest side (possibly at Goat Rocks), while one of Kane's field sketches shows smoke emanating from about the same location. Warre sketched the eruption in 1845 and two years later Canadian painter Paul Kane created watercolors of the gently smoking mountain. British lieutenant Henry J.

    The story went that the injured man sought treatment at Fort Vancouver but the contemporary fort commissary steward, Napolean McGilvery, disclaimed knowledge of the incident. Burnett in October 1843 recounted a story of a Native American man who badly burned his foot and leg in either lava or hot ash while hunting for deer. Future California governor Peter H. Ash from this eruption may have reached The Dalles, Oregon 48 miles (80 km) southeast of the volcano.

    Helens in eruption on November 22, 1842. The Reverend Josiah Parrish in Champoeg, Oregon witnessed Mount St. All these eruptions were likely phreatic (steam explosions). Large ash clouds were reported for this small volume outburst and mild explosions followed for 15 years.

    In either late fall or early winter 1842 the so-called "Great Eruption" was seen by settlers and missionaries in the area. Another member of the expedition later described "cellular basaltic lavas" at the mountain's base. Exploring Expedition, saw the peak (then quiescent) from off the mouth of the Columbia River in 1841. James Dwight Dana of Yale University, while sailing with the Charles Wilkes U.S.

    He sent an account to the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, which published his letter in January 1836. Meredith Gairdner, then working for the Hudson's Bay Company stationed at Fort Vancouver (the first geologist apparently viewed the volcano 6 years later). Helens eruption was made in March 1835 by Dr. The first authenticated eyewitness report of a St.

    They did report the presence of quicksand and clogged channel conditions at the mouth of the Sandy River near Portland, suggesting an eruption by Mount Hood sometime in the previous decades. Helens from the Columbia River but did not report any eruption in progress or recent evidence of one. In late 1805 and early 1806 members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition spotted St. Alarmed by the "dry snow", the Nespelim of northeastern Washington spent a great deal of time in prayer and dance instead of collecting food for winter and therefore had a hard winter.

    Much later geologists and historians determined that the eruption took place in 1800 and was the start of the 57 year long Goat Rocks Eruptive Period (see geology section below). Years later, the mountain was visited by its first major eruption after explorers, traders, and missionaries heard reports of an erupting volcano in the area. Vancouver named the mountain for British diplomat Alleyne Fitzherbert, 1st Baron St Helens on October 20, 1792, as it came into view when the Discovery passed into the mouth of the Columbia River. Helens by Europeans was by Royal Navy Commander George Vancouver and the officers of HMS Discovery on May 19, 1792, while they were surveying the northern Pacific Ocean coast from 1792 to 1794.

    The first recorded sighting of Mount St. Helens, but some land owned by Washington is in private hands. Gifford Pinchot National Forest surrounds Mount St. The community nearest the volcano is Cougar, Washington which is in the Lewis River valley about 11 miles (18 km) south-southwest of the peak.

    That major north-south highway skirts the low-lying cities of Castle Rock, Longview and Kelso along the Cowlitz River and passes through Vancouver, Washington-Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area less than 50 miles (80 km) to the southwest. Washington State Route 504, locally known as the Spirit Lake Memorial Highway, connects with the heavily traveled Interstate 5 at Exit 49, about 34 miles (55 km) to the west of the mountain. Helens is in Skamania County, Washington the best access routes to the mountain run through Cowlitz County, Washington on the west. Although Mount St.

    The southern and eastern sides of the volcano drain into an upstream impoundment, the Swift Reservoir, which is directly south of the volcano's peak. The Lewis River is impounded by three dams for hydroelectric power generation. Helens a year, according to National Weather Service data. The streams are fed by abundant rain and snow that dump an average of about 140 inches (3.6 m) of water on Mount St.

    Streams that head on the volcano enter three main river systems — the Toutle River on the north and north-west, the Kalama River on the west, and the Lewis River on the south and east. At the pre-eruption timberline (upper limit of trees) the width of the cone was about 4 miles (6.4 km). The mountain is about 6 miles (9.5 km) across at its base which is at an altitude of about 4,400 feet (1340 m) on the northeastern side and about 4,000 feet (1220 m) elsewhere. The peak rose more than 5,000 feet (1500 m) above its base, where the lower flanks merge with adjacent ridges.

    It stood out prominently, however, from surrounding hills because of the symmetry and the extensive snow and ice-cover of the pre-1980 summit cone, earning it the nickname, "Fujiyama of America" or "Mount Fuji of America". Its summit altitude made it only the fifth highest peak in Washington. Helens was not one of the highest peaks in the Cascade Range. Even before its loss of height, Mount St.

    The volcano is also known to have been the most active in the Cascades within the last 10,000 years. It was formed only within the last 40,000 years, and the pre-1980 summit cone started to grow only about 2200 years ago. Helens is geologically young compared to the other major Cascade volcanoes. Mount St.

    Helens. Mount Hood, the nearest major volcanic peak in Oregon, is about 60 miles (95 km) southeast of Mount St. These "sister and brother" volcanic mountains are each about 50 miles (80 km) from Mount Rainier, the giant of Cascade volcanoes. Helens is 34 miles (55 km) almost due west of Mount Adams, which is in the eastern part of the Cascade Range.

    Mount St. . Helens is a part of the Pacific Ring of Fire which includes over 160 active volcanoes. Mount St.

    Helens' 1980 eruption. These were destroyed in St. The largest of the dacite domes formed the previous summit; another formed Goat Rocks dome on the northern flank. Helens includes layers of basalt and andesite through which several domes of dacite lava have erupted.

    Mount St. Helens is a great cone of rubble consisting of lava rock interlayered with ash, pumice and other deposits. Like most other volcanoes in the Cascade Range, St. However, the scale of it still pales in comparison to far larger debris avalanches that have occurred in the geological past elsewhere on Earth.

    The debris avalanche from the 1980 eruption was up to 0.7 cubic miles (2.3 km3) in volume, making it the largest in recorded history. Helens for more detail). The eruption caused a massive debris avalanche, reducing its summit from 9,677 feet (2,950 m) to 8,364 feet (2,550 m) in elevation and replacing it with a mile-wide (1.5 km-wide) horseshoe-shaped crater (see geology section or 1980 eruption of Mount St. Fifty-seven people were killed and 250 homes, 47 bridges, 15 miles (24 km) of railways and 185 miles (300 km) of highway were destroyed.

    That eruption was the most deadly and economically destructive volcanic eruption in the history of the United States. It is most famous for the catastrophic eruption on May 18, 1980. This volcano is well known for its ash explosions and pyroclastic flows. It was named for British diplomat Lord St Helens who was a friend of George Vancouver, an explorer who made a survey of the area in the late 18th century.

    The mountain is part of the Cascade Range and was initially known as Louwala-Clough which means "smoking or fire mountain" in the language of the local native Americans, the Klickitats. It is located 96 miles (154 km) south of Seattle and 53 miles (85 km) northeast of Portland, Oregon. Helens is an active stratovolcano in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Mount St.

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