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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. The civil and criminal trials of Simpson were not the only important legal cases that were spawned by the deaths of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman on June 12, 1994. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. In June 2004, Simpson had planned a long series of news appearances to mark the tenth anniversary of the killings, but ended up being displaced by another story – the death and funeral of former President Reagan. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Carroll responded to the criticism by proclaiming "we respect our Heisman Trophy winners.". flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. The Southern California coach Pete Carroll allowed Simpson to come onto the field and mingle with the players and pose for pictures.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Prior to the 2004 Orange Bowl football game featuring Simpson's USC Trojans, the former football star showed up unannounced at a USC practice. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Also, Simpson considered becoming a news commentator for actor Robert Blake's murder trial. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. There were plans for him to have a reality TV show in the style of The Osbournes in 2003. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. In 2001, he was involved in a road rage case that received some publicity, but he was again found not guilty.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. In 1998 at the end of an interview conducted by Ruby Wax for BBC1, Simpson mimed stabbing her with a banana while mimicking the theme music from Psycho. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. He was accused of illegally accessing signals from DirecTV. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. He seemed to have a knack for appearing in news stories that often had nothing directly to do with him. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Even after his two trials Simpson was never far from the news.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. In 2000, Simpson won custody of his children in a second trial. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. The ruling was thrown out when an appeals court determined that it was wrong to exclude evidence from the murder trial [1]. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. In late 1998 Simpson won a custody trial filed by the Browns. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). When Simpson was acquitted, he was given back custody over the children.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. While Simpson was in prison during the murder trial, Nicole Brown's parents, Louis and Juditha Brown, had custody over Simpson's younger children Sidney and Justin. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. It is still speculated among most people that he is guilty. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. Simpson has not filed for bankruptcy. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. In Florida a person's residence cannot be seized to collect a debt under most circumstances.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. He subsequently moved from California to Miami, Florida. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. A 2000 Rolling Stone article reported that Simpson also still makes a significant income by signing autographs. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. However, California law protects pensions from being used to satisfy judgments, so Simpson was able to continue much of his lifestyle based on his NFL pension. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Simpson was ordered to pay $33,500,000 in damages.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Attorney for plaintiff Fred Goldman (father of Ronald Goldman) was Daniel Petrocelli. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. On February 4, 1997 a civil jury in Santa Monica, California found Simpson liable for the wrongful death of Ronald Goldman, battery against Ronald Goldman, and battery against Nicole Brown. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. With the damage done to his public reputation, his acting career was ruined. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. There have been significant criticisms of the prosecution and some still feel that Simpson should have been found guilty.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. After one of the most widely publicized arrests and trials in American history, Simpson was found not guilty. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. Simpson was soon charged with their murders. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. On June 12, 1994 his former wife Nicole Brown and friend Ronald Goldman were found dead outside Brown's condominium. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. He was paying substantial child support.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Simpson had pleaded no contest to a domestic violence charge and was separated from Nicole. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. He also hosted an episode of Saturday Night Live but he was the only host not invited to attend the program's 25th anniversary celebration special in 1999. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Besides his acting career, Simpson had stints as a commentator for Monday Night Football and The NFL on NBC. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Simpson was spokesman for the pX Corporation, and he appeared in comic book ads for Dingo shoes.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. He would often be shown running through airports, as if to suggest he was back on the football field. Green is often associated with health foods.). He was a spokesman for the Hertz rental-car company (Ford vehicles are usually found in Hertz rental fleets, hence the nickname 'Simpsons' for the cars). Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Simpson's amiable persona and natural charisma landed him numerous endorsement deals. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Simpson was considered for the lead role in The Terminator, before it was decided audiences might not accept him as a villain.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. After his retirement from football, Simpson went on to a successful film career with parts in films such as the television mini-series Roots, and the motion pictures The Cassandra Crossing, Capricorn One, The Towering Inferno, and The Naked Gun trilogy. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. They had two children, Sydney Brooke Simpson (born October 17, 1985) and Justin Ryan Simpson (born August 6, 1988), and were divorced in 1992. A good logo:. On February 2, 1985 Simpson married Nicole Brown. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. That same year Simpson and Marguerite were divorced.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. In 1979, Aaren drowned in the family's swimming pool a month before her second birthday. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. Simpson (born April 21, 1970) and Aaren Lashone Simpson (born September 24, 1977). In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Simpson (born December 4, 1968), Jason L. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Together they had three children: Arnelle L.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. Whitley. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. On June 24, 1967 Simpson married Marguerite L. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Simpson has eight siblings named George, Sue, Emily, Abraham, Kyra, Kirsten, Bryant, and Jim. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Away from football but within sports, he won the 1975 American Superstars competition.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. He is a member of the Bills' Wall of Fame. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. After being traded to the San Francisco 49ers in 1978, Simpson retired from the NFL the following year, and on January 23, 1985 became the first Heisman Trophy winner elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Simpson went on to earn All-Pro honors five times and amassed 11,236 rushing yards during his career. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. He also had back-to-back 200 yard performances in both 1973 and 1976.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. Over his career, Simpson ran for an NFL record 6 200-yard games, three of which occurred in 1973. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. His 1973 performance earned him the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. "The Juice" powered one of the league's top rushing offenses, and ran behind the famed "Electric Company" offensive line. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Simpson's yards per game average was ten yards higher than that of the closest competitor.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Eric Dickerson holds the 16-game season and overall records with 2,105 yards rushing in 1984). The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Although his 2,003 yard season has subsequently been eclipsed by four running backs, only Barry Sanders managed to match Simpson by rushing for 2,000 or more yards in 14 games (Weeks 3-16 of the 1997 season; including Weeks 1 & 2, Sanders rushed for 2,053 yards. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. In 1973 Simpson ran for a then-record 2,003 yards, becoming the first player ever to eclipse the 2,000 yard mark, and was voted the league's Most Valuable Player. Examples:. Simpson was selected by the American Football League's Buffalo Bills, who held the first selection in the draft after finishing 1-12-1 in 1968 - the worst record in professional football.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. After originally playing in Junior College at the City College of San Francisco, his talent landed him at the University of Southern California (USC) and won him the Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, the nickname "The Juice", and the distinction of being the first player selected in the 1969 professional football draft after winning the Heisman Trophy. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. While attending Galileo High School in San Francisco, Simpson played for the school's football team, the Galileo Lions. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. . If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. He was found liable and responsible for their deaths in civil court in 1997.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. He was acquitted in criminal court in 1995 after a lengthy, highly publicized and controversial trial. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Although considered to be one of the greatest running backs of all time, Simpson is now best known for being charged with the murder of his wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ronald Goldman in 1994. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Orenthal James Simpson (born July 9, 1947 in San Francisco, California), publicly known by the initials O.J., and nicknamed The Juice, was a Hall of Fame former college and professional football player and film actor. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The Naked Gun 33⅓:The Final Insult (1994).

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear (1991). A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. The Naked Gun - From the Files of Police Squad! (1988). If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Capricorn One (1978). Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. The Cassandra Crossing (1976).

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. The Towering Inferno (1974). The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. The Klansman (1974). Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. was a former football player, was in a police chase, and was in a controversial murder trial within the scope of the three PS2 GTA games. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. B.J.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. Simpson. It also depicts an organisation's personality. Smith is a parody of O.J. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. In the popular Grand Theft Auto series of videogames, the character B.J. . Simpson's search for his wife's killer was parodied in the Doonesbury comic strip.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. was referenced prior to the murder case in an episode of Seinfeld, "The Masseuse", in which Elaine suggests her then-boyfriend, Joel Rifkin, change his name to O.J. The shape, color, typeface, etc. O.J. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Simpson has since abandoned his trademarks. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Ritchie convinced the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit that he had standing to challenge Simpson's trademarks under the Lanham Act.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Ritchie argued that because of the whole sequence of events from 1994 through 1997, Simpson's very name had become immoral and scandalous and thus could not be protected as a trademark. Combination (icon plus text ). Ritchie, challenged the validity of Simpson's trademarks under a federal statute that bars immoral, deceptive, or scandalous subject matter. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. A New Hampshire intellectual property attorney, William B. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Kaelin settled his lawsuit for an undisclosed amount.

do not use the face of a (living) person. The district court granted summary judgment to the defendant, but on appeal, Kaelin convinced the Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit that he had a valid claim for defamation. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Simpson's houseguest on the night of the murders, Brian "Kato" Kaelin, sued Globe Communications for $15 million after it ran a headline in one of its tabloid newspapers insinuating that Kaelin was the real murderer. brand standard manual). Their subsequent legal battle with the IRS culminated in the rule that they could not apply the drop in their house's value as a casualty loss deduction on their income tax return, because it was only temporary. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. The media circus and hordes of curious tourists tormented them (and the rest of Simpson's neighbors) for the next four years.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. Gerald Chamales and his wife, Kathleen, bought a house next to Simpson's just ten days before the murders of which he was accused. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). produce alternatives for different contexts. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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