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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. [3] Disorder in the Court (1936)
[4] Malice in the Palace (1949)
[5]Sing A Song of Six Pants (1947)
[6]Brideless Groom (1947)
. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. There are four Three Stooges shorts that are in the public domain, and which can be downloaded at no charge from the Prelinger Archive:
. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. He later reprograms three of the Nova Robots into a breed of the Three Stooges, almost in their likeness. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. In John Badham's movie Short Circuit, Johnny 5, while watching T.V., sees the original Three Stooges in their first short for Columbia Pictures, Women Haters, made in 1934 at Stephanie's (Ally Sheedy) house.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Due to this guest appearance there was a short-lived animated series, also produced by Hanna-Barbera, entitled The Three Robonic Stooges featuring Moe, Larry, and Curly as bionic cartoon superheroes with extendable limbs, similar to the later Inspector Gadget. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. An episode of Hanna-Barbera's The New Scooby-Doo Movies aired in the early 1970's featuring animated Stooges as guest-stars. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. This series featured a mix of thirty-nine live action segments which were used as wrap-arounds to 156 animated Stooges shorts. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. In addition to the unsuccessful television series pilots, Jerks of All Trades (1949) and Kook's Tour (1970), the Stooges appeared in a short-lived television show called The New Three Stooges which ran from 1965 to 1966.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. The Three Stooges also made appearances in many feature length movies in the course of their careers:. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. The most commonly used themes were:. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Several instrumental tunes were played over the opening credits at different times in the production of their short features. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". A blow to a kettle drum accompanied blows to the stomach, and for pokes to the eye, a plucked violin string made the sound, or sometimes a high pitched piano sound.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Typically, the sound of a hammer striking an anvil or a block of wood was used, suggesting the characters were "hard-headed" in more ways than one. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. A good example would be Moe whacking one of his fellow Stooges on the head with a hammer. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. The use of clever sound effects was important to the overall effect of the action. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). See [2] for more examples.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. And in some episodes, there were sight gags involved Curly, who supposedly has a very hard head. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. His voice was later dubbed in. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. This was done with an air hose off-camera (usually below as it takes an extreme close-up of him) blowing his hair upward as he yells. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. In some brief scenes for certain episodes, Moe would be seen with his hair standing straight in fright as he yelled in terror.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. One Stooge, typically Moe, grasps another Stooge's nose then vertically strikes the grasping fist, making the sound of a honking horn-like device. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. The triple slap: a straight man slaps the faces of all three Stooges in one energetic sweep. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. In a variant of this maneuver, one Stooge strikes his own outstretched fist with his other fist; usually, it is either Curly or Larry who is the one that does this, except after being struck, the clever trick backfires as the hand revolves downward, back and onto Curly's or Larry's own head. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. After being struck, the hand revolves downward, back and onto another Stooge's head.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. One Stooge, usually Moe, strikes his own outstretched fist with his other fist. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. in 3-D, giving you a Stooge's POV of Moe dishing out the two-finger eyepoke!. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. There were many variants to this classic move, one over the phone, and it being done in two episodes.. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. or:.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Here is an example:. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. The first Stooge then uses the index finger of each hand to jab both eyes at once. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. After a while, the other Stooge catches on and holds his palm perpendicular to the edge of his nose to block this. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. One Stooge pokes the other in the eyes with the first and second fingers of one hand.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Examples of archetypical Stooge slapstick:. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. Here are some examples:. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Although The Three Stooges are best known for their physical comedy, the group's dialogue is also highly quotable, with many of their lines (or signature nonverbal vocalizations) having become popular catchphrases. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Emil Sitka
Born: December 22, 1914
Died: January 16, 1998
Stooge years: c.1971-1975
.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. Curly-Joe DeRita
Real Name: Joseph Wardell
Born: July 12, 1909
Died: July 3, 1993
Stooge years: 1959-1975
. Green is often associated with health foods.). Joe Besser
Born: August 12, 1907
Died: March 1, 1988
Stooge years: 1957-1959
. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Shemp Howard
Real Name: Samuel Horwitz
Born: March 4, 1895
Died: November 22, 1955
Stooge years: 1922-1925, 1929-1932, 1947-1955
. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Curly Howard
Real Name: Jerome Lester Horwitz
Born: October 22, 1903
Died: January 18, 1952
Stooge years: 1934-1946
.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Larry Fine
Real Name: Louis Feinberg
Born: October 5, 1902
Died: January 24, 1975
Stooge years: 1925-1926, 1929-1971
. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Moe Howard
Real Name: Harry Moses Horwitz
Born: June 19, 1897
Died: May 4, 1975
Stooge years: 1922, 1926, 1929-1975
. A good logo:. This movie was based on Michael Fleming's authorized biography on the Stooges, The Three Stooges: From Amalgamated Morons to American Icons. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. In Spring of 2000, a TV-movie about the life and careers of the Stooges was produced for and broadcast on ABC.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Comedy III Productions, Inc., formed by Moe, Larry and Curly-Joe DeRita in 1959, is today the owner of all of the Three Stooges' trademarks and merchandising (the company is currently operated by DeRita's two stepsons). Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. Throughout their career, Moe was the heart and soul of the troupe, acting as both their main creative force and business manager. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Curly-Joe often stated that his time with the Three Stooges were the 'best years of his life.'. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Curly-Joe passed away in 1993, making him the last Stooge to die.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. It's interesting to note that in 1975, we lost both Larry and Moe, but also Moe's wife of 50 years, Helen. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. However, Moe passed on a few months later, and it was inconceivable that the Three Stooges continue without a Howard, although Curly-Joe did do some live performances with a new group of Stooges in the early 1970s. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Several movie ideas were considered, including one called Blazing Stewardesses according to Leonard Maltin, who also uncovered a pre-production photo (the film was ultimately made with the last surviving Ritz Brothers). The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. After his death, it was decided that long-time Stooge supporting actor Emil Sitka would replace him, and be dubbed "The Middle Stooge".

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. In January 1975, Larry Fine was gone. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. The following month, he suffered a more serious stroke, which Larry did not survive. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Larry suffered another stroke in December 1974. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. A 50-minute version of Kook's Tour was edited together from usable material and initially only made available for the home movie market (years before the popularity of home video); it has subsequently been released to DVD, though unrestored.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. During production of the pilot, Larry suffered a paralyzing stroke, ending his acting career, as well as future plans for the TV series. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. In 1969, the Three Stooges filmed a pilot episode for a new TV series entitled Kook's Tour which would have been a combination travelogue and sitcom that would have seen the "retired" Stooges travelling around the world, with the episodes filmed on location. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The trio also filmed 39 short comedy skits that were broadcast as introductions and closings for a 1965 animated television series based upon the comedy team. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. This version of the Three Stooges went on to make a series of moderately popular full-length films during the late 1950s and through the 1960s.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Moe quickly signed Joe DeRita as his replacement; DeRita shaved his head and became "Curly-Joe" because of his resemblance to the original Curly Howard. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Besser's wife had had a heart attack, however, and he withdrew from the act. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. A "Stooge fandom" quickly developed, and Howard and Fine found themselves back in demand again with the public. Examples:. In 1959, Columbia syndicated the entire Stooges film library to television (through its TV subsidiary, Screen Gems), and the Stooges were rediscovered by the baby boomers.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. Because of a production backlog, the final Stooges short, Sappy Bullfighters, did not reach theatres until 1959. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Columbia Pictures, the last studio still producing shorts, unceremoniously fired the trio in 1957 at the end of production of their final short, Flying Saucer Daffy. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. Television was the new popular medium, and the Stooges were practically dinosaurs. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. Unfortunately, the market for short subjects had all but dried up by the time Besser joined the trio.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Besser had a clause in his contract specifically prohibiting him from being hit too hard, though this restriction was lifted as Besser's tenure continued (ironically, Besser was the only "third" stooge that dared to hit Moe back). While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Joe Besser then replaced Shemp in 1956 and 1957, appearing in 16 shorts. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Archived footage of Shemp, combined with new footage of his stand-in, Joe Palma (filmed from behind or with his face hidden), were used to finish the last four films on Shemp's contract. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. Shemp Howard died of a sudden heart attack at age 60 on November 22, 1955.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. To add insult to injury, death paid the Stooges another visit just three years after Curly's demise. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Remakes of earlier Shemp shorts occurred on a regular basis as a cost-saving tactic. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Bernds took producer Hugh McCollum with him, and Columbia Short Subjects head Jules White was left to both produce and direct the remainder of the Stooge shorts. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. The quality of the Stooge shorts took a nosedive in 1952 when director Edward Bernds was fired from Columbia Pictures.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. The series was never picked up, although the pilot is today in the public domain and is available on home video, as is an early TV appearance from around the same time on a vaudeville-style comedy series starring Ed Wynn. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. During this period, Moe, Larry, and Shemp also made a pilot for a Three Stooges television show called Jerks of All Trades in 1949. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. With Shemp on board, the Stooges went on to appear in 77 more shorts and a mediocre feature entitled Gold Raiders (1951). In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. He died in January, 1952.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. Unfortunately, Curly's condition grew worse. It also depicts an organisation's personality. Shemp wanted some kind of assurance that his rejoining was indeed temporary, and that he could leave the Stooges once Curly recovered. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. However, he realized that Moe and Larry's careers would be finished without the Stooge act. . Shemp Howard was hesitant to rejoin the Stooges, as he had a successful solo career going at the time of Curly's untimely illness.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. It was the only film that contained all three Howard brothers simultaneously (Curly's cameo appearance was recycled in the 1953 remake Booty and the Beast). The shape, color, typeface, etc. Curly did make one brief cameo appearance (doing his "Rrrowf! Rrrowf!" routine) in the third film after Shemp returned to the trio, Hold That Lion!, in an effort to boost his morale. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Brother Shemp reluctantly rejoined the act to take Curly's place. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Curly suffered a stroke on May 6, 1946, curtailing his output at 97 shorts.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). You Nazty Spy was the first Hollywood film to spoof Hitler, and was released nine months before the more famous Charlie Chaplin film The Great Dictator. Combination (icon plus text ). This 18-minute short subject starring Moe as a Hitler-like character satirized the Nazis in a period when America was still neutral and isolationist about WWII. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. According to a published report,[1] Moe, Larry, and director Jules White considered their best film to be You Nazty Spy (1940). avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Jules White directed many others, and his brother Jack White directed several under the pseudonym "Preston Black".

do not use the face of a (living) person. Del Lord directed more than three dozen of the Three Stooges shorts. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. The Stooges went on to star in 190 film short subjects over the next twenty-three years, the longest such series in history. brand standard manual). The same year, the Three Stooges (as the Howard brothers and Fine renamed their act) signed on to appear in two-reel comedy short subjects for Columbia Pictures at just a few hundred dollars a week. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. According to Moe Howard in his autobiography, Moe Howard and the Three Stooges, the Stooges split with Ted Healy in 1934 once and for all because of his alcoholism and abrasiveness.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. Ted took one look at Jerome and with his long black locks and facial hair, stated he was not a character like Moe and Larry, so Jerome left the room and returned moments later with a shaved head and face, thus, Curly was born. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). When Shemp left the act, Ted and the two remaining stooges (Moe and Larry) needed a third stooge, so Moe offered his baby brother, Jerome. produce alternatives for different contexts. Fields. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. Shemp left the act in 1931 for a career in feature films, notably as trainer Knobby Walsh in the Joe Palooka films, and in The Bank Dick with W.C.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). By 1930, Ted Healy and His Stooges were appearing in Hollywood feature films, such as Soup to Nuts. represents the brand/company appropriately. Shemp acquired his name from his mother's attempts to pronounce his name, "Sam", in spite of her thick accent. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. Brothers Harry Moses Howard (Moe) and Samuel Howard (Shemp) (original last name Horwitz) were later joined by violinist Larry Fine (born Louis Feinberg). may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). The Stooges got their name and their start from a vaudeville act called Ted Healy and His Stooges (originally called "Ted Healy and His Southern Gentlemen"), which was founded in 1922.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. . should remain effective reproduced small or large. Commonly known by their first names, Larry, Moe, & Curly (sometimes spelled "Curley"); Larry, Moe & Shemp; and other lineups became famous for their work in movies and starred in many short features that consisted of masterful ways of showcasing their extremely physical and sometimes controversial brand of slapstick comedy. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . The Three Stooges were an American comedy act in the 20th century. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. They rarely say anything, but are occaisionally spotted in the background.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. In the TV show The Simpsons, two regulars of Moe's Tavern are named Larry and Curly. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. In the 1950s, after numerous complaints by parents of children imitating the Stooges' eyepoke, they went on TV to demonstrate how exactly they did it safely. Amazon.com: And you're done. The illusion looked real on television. Impossibly small. The contact point of the "eye poke" was actually the brow bone, not the eyes.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. She comments, "I wonder what's wrong with that man?" as she looks up, and gets the pie right in the face. Army: An Army of One. Finally the guest asks, "Young man, what's wrong with you? You act as if the Sword of Damocles was hanging over your head.", to which Moe replies, "Lady, you must be psychic!" and walks away. U.S. One of the guests starts talking with Moe Howard, who is getting increasingly nervous as the pie starts coming loose. The legend of the Sword of Damocles gets mentioned in Half-Wits' Holiday (1946), when a pie get thrown up and stuck to the ceiling during a party.

    Stooges folklore has it that the Soviet government asked permission for the aging Stooges shorts to be shown on Soviet TV, and that the Stooges declined, their theory being that the Soviets planned to use the Stooges as Cold War propaganda, i.e., evidence that the American people were pathologically violent and/or stupid. Legend has it that the eye poke started when Shemp accused Larry of cheating in a card game, and Shemp poked him in the eyes! Moe, watching all this, laughed so hard he fell off his chair and through his patio glass door. The appearance of the Second Doctor in the British science fiction series, Doctor Who, played by Patrick Troughton, was often compared to that of Moe Howard, although it's not known if this was intentional. The folk trio Modern Man perform the song "Moe" (written by pianist/singer George Wurzbach), about a boy whose father looks like Moe Howard.

    An episode of MTV's Celebrity Deathmatch featured the stooges, who were brought to the present age via a time machine invented by "Stone Cold" Steve Austin to battle the Three Tenors. Another Vulcan, who is depicted as being familiar with human pop culture, agrees with the assessment. One of the Vulcans is annoyed at being nicknamed "Moe" because of his resemblance to "something called a 'Stooge'". The Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Carbon Creek" features a group of Vulcans stranded in a small American town in the 1950s.

    In Louis Sachar's children's novel The Boy Who Lost His Face, a group of three children (one of which being a girl called Mo) is nicknamed after the Stooges. Doctor John Zoidberg from the Futurama TV show makes Curly's trademark "Woo, woo, woo" sound when running away from trouble (sometimes after squirting ink), and sometimes makes Shemp's trademark "Heep, heep, heep" sound when frustrated. (Source: http://www.2112.net/powerwindows/RushInspirations.htm; and...first-hand experience at multiple Rush concerts). A picture of the Stooges and their names is included in the Counterparts linernotes, and they are included in the "assistance, inspiration, comic relief" listing.

    The Stooges television series theme music, a derivative of "Three Blind Mice", was used by Rush as introductory music during the Signals through Hold Your Fire tours, and again for the Vapor Trails tour. Tribute to a famous trio by...another famous trio: the legendary Canadian rock group Rush. The movie was executive produced by Mel Gibson. Moe was played by Paul Ben-Victor, Larry by Evan Handler, Shemp by John Kassir, and Curly by Michael Chiklis.

    The Stooges were brought back to life (so to speak) in a 2000 TV movie. Homer Simpson from the TV show The Simpsons imitates Curly occasionally, while character Mr Burns suffers from 'Three Stooges Syndrome', where he has every disease known to man, but survives because they all cancel each other out. The Super NES RPG Final Fantasy VI features as bosses the "Three Dream Stooges" (also named Larry, Curly and Moe), who entered Cyan Garamonde's mind while he was facing his inner demons in Doma Castle. The King of the Hill episode "A-Fire Fighting We Will Go" contains several references to the Stooges.

    Larry", Pinky and The Brain are inexplicably joined by a third wheel Larry in their plan to get into the White House posing as wallpaperers, whose unwelcome addition to the team causes Stooge-style antics to ensue. In an episode of the cartoon Pinky and the Brain entitled "Pinky & The Brain And.. These three guards are none other than the three stooges. In the computer game remake of Quest for Glory 1, three guards attempt to kill the hero in the Brigand fortress.

    In the 1995 computer game Space Quest 6, there was a minigame called Stooge Fighter, which was a humorous tribute to the stooges. The game was also ported to the NES in 1989 by Activision, and then to Game Boy Advance in 2002 Metro 3D (M3). A 1987 computer game by Cinemaware, The Three Stooges, has the stooges trying to save an orphanage where they engage in wacky adventures and engage in some of their classic comic scenes. The 1994 Song, "Two Reelers" by Frank Black tells the story of the four "original" stooges and Jules White, and protests the dismissal of the Three Stooges as mere low-brow slapstick: "If all you see is violence/Well then I make a plea in their defense/Don't you know they speak vaudevillian?".

    Among these: the blood flowing in the basement in Evil Dead (an homage to 1940's A-Plumbing We Will Go), the fight with his hand in the kitchen in Evil Dead 2, and the fight with the skeleton hands and with the little Ashes in Army of Darkness. The Evil Dead film series has a number of stooge inspired moments. The 1985 film, Stoogemania tells the story of an obsessed Three Stooges fan, and includes clips of their classic Shorts. The 1984 song "The Curly Shuffle," recorded by Jump N'The Saddle Band, expressed admiration for the Stooges and included several Curly imitations in the chorus.

    Kook's Tour (1970). The Outlaws Is Coming (1965). 4 for Texas (1963) (Cameo). It's a Mad Mad Mad Mad World (1963) (Cameo).

    The Three Stooges Go Around the World in a Daze (1963). The Three Stooges in Orbit (1962). The Three Stooges Meet Hercules (1962). Snow White and the Three Stooges (1961).

    Have Rocket, Will Travel (1959). Columbia Laff Hour (1956). Gold Raiders (1951). Swing Parade of 1946 (1946).

    Rockin' in the Rockies (1945). Yates (1943) (scenes deleted). Good Luck, Mr. My Sister Eileen (1942) (Cameo).

    Time Out for Rhythm (1941). Start Cheering (1938). The Captain Hates the Sea (1934). Hollywood Party (1934).

    Fugitive Lovers (1934). Myrt and Marge (1933). Dancing Lady (1933). Meet the Baron (1933).

    Turn Back the Clock (1933). Soup to Nuts (1930). Ironically, the actual song is mournful. The verse portion of "Listen to the Mockingbird", played in a comic way, complete with sounds of cuckoo birds and such.

    Another version was played fast all the way through. "Three Blind Mice", beginning as a slow but straightforward presentation, often breaking into a "jazzy" style before ending. Larry: OW!!. Moe: Yeah, an eye fer an eye! (Moe immediately pokes Larry in the eyes).

    Larry: (points out) That's an eye. Moe: (pointing to his left eye) What's that?. Curly: YEOW!!. (Moe immediately pokes Curly in the eyes.).

    Curly: (pointing out Moe's first and second fingers) One, two!. Moe: (holding out his hand) Pick out two fingers. "Poifect!". (after Moe kicks his right foot causing his right fist to hit his chin).

    Moe: "This!". Curly and/or Larry: "What happens now?". (After Moe gets Larry or Curly to put his right fist up to his chin and puts his right knee up to his right elbow)

      . "Yeah, I got a tape woim, 'n' tha's good enough fer 'im." (any of the Stooges).

      "Buint toast 'n' a rotten egg?" (any of the Stooges). "I'll take some buint toast 'n' a rotten egg." (any of the Stooges)

        . Curly and/or Larry: "Oh, I just thought I'd ask.". Moe: "Nothin', what about it?!".

        Curly and/or Larry: "Wait a minute! What're you gonna do?". "Get out (of here)! (Moe to Larry, Curly, or Shemp)

          . (Double-slaps Larry after that) "GO ON!". "Pappy!" (Moe gets on his knees to Larry)
            .

            "Mammy!" (Larry gets on his knees to Moe). (After Moe tells them to do something). "I'm tryin' to think, but nothin' happens!" (Curly). (Moe pokes them in the eyes again).

            Curly and/or Larry: "I got my eyes closed.". Moe: "What'sa matter?". Curly and/or Larry: "I can't see! I can't see!". (After Moe pokes them in the eyes)

              .

              "Hold Hands, You Love Birds" (Emil Sitka). "Hey Lorna, How ya do'in?" (Shemp introduction to Lorna Doone). "Meep-meep-meep-meep!". "Vee-vee-vee-vee!".

              "Bee-bee-bee-bee!". "Hee-hee-hee-hee!". "Heep-heep-heep-heep!". "Mee-mee-mee-mee!" (Shemp, frightened or surprised): Uttered very fast, difficult to transcribe exactly; some other attempts:

                .

                (or "Woop-oop-oop-oop-oop-oop!"). (or "Whoop-whoop-whoop-whoop!"). "Woo-woo-woo-woo!" (Curly)

                  . Howard." (over the public address system in a hospital).

                  Fine, Dr. Howard, Dr. "Calling Dr. "Okay, buddy boy" (Curly-Joe DeRita).

                  "Come on and fight like a man!" (Joe Besser). "that's good for you! "that's good for you! (get's hit by something) that's bad for me! (Joe Besser). "You crazy you!" (Joe Besser). "Oh, cut it ouuuuuut!" (Joe Besser).

                  "That huuuuurts!" (Joe Besser). "Not so haaaaaard!" (Joe Besser). "Cotton!!" (Stooges to each other whenever performing surgery). "Seenophran!" (Moe, demanding another surgical instrument).

                  "Anakanapuner!" (Moe, demanding a surgical instrument). "I'm sorry, Moe, it was an accident!" (Larry). "Say a few syllables!" (Curly to Moe when trying to wake him). Yuhhh-uh-uh-uh!.

                  Other attempts: "Nyuhhh-uh-uh!". "Nyahhh-ah-ah!" (Stooges frightened)

                    . "Hey! Wake up and go to sleep!" (Moe). "What's the big idea?!" (Moe).

                    "Niagara Falls! Slowly I turn, step by step, inch by inch..." (Moe or Larry). "Hello (Moe, low tone), Hellooo (Larry, a note higher, with Moe still holding his 'o'), Hellooooo (Curly, another note higher, with Larry and Moe both holding their 'o's)!". "I'll make a note of it!" (Larry or Curly). "Remind me to kill you later!" (Moe, to others)

                      .

                      "I'll moider ya!" (Moe). "Hey, porcupine!" (Moe, to Larry). "I'm a victim of soicumstance" (circumstance) (Curly). "Oh, you're an intelligent imbecile!" (Moe).

                      "Oh, a wise guy, eh?" (Curly). "You knucklehead!" (Moe, to others). (Sometimes Moe on some Shemp and Joe shorts). Other attempt: (Ruff! Ruff!)

                        .

                        "Rrrowf! Rrrowf!" (Curly) (when angry or defiant)

                          . "Mmmmmmmmh!" (Curly) (when frustrated; difficult to transcribe exactly). "La-la-la, la-la-la..." (Curly, humming). "Yauauaua!" (Curly).

                          "You nitwit!" (Moe, to others). "You imbecile!" (Moe, to the others). "Soitenly!" (certainly) (Curly). "Hey, Moe! Hey, Larry!" (Curly, Shemp).

                          "Why I oughta..." (Moe). "Spread Out!" (Moe, to others). "Come 'ere!" (Moe, to others). "Why you...!" (Moe, to others).

                          "A hot stake is better than a cold chop." (Curly, on why he would rather be burned at the stake instead of decapitated). "Ngah-ngah-ngah!" (Curly frightened). "Nyuk Nyuk Nyuk!" (Curly laughing). Sitka was officially named a member of the Stooges following Larry Fine's stroke, but never got to appear in a movie with the group.

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