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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


This page about logo includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.
. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. The concept is powered by the 400 hp LS2 V8 and equipped with the T-56 six-speed manual transmission. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. The concept car features a 110" (279.4 cm) wheelbase, which is nine inches (23 cm) longer than the previous generation, but an overall length of just 186" (474.4 cm), seven inches (18 cm) shorter. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Photographs, as well as a short video of the car, are available in this online Road and Track article.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. A Pontiac Firebird version is unlikely, as the GM Zeta platform will also underpin the next-generation Pontiac GTO. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. AutoWeek editors unanimously awarded the Camaro concept "Best In Show.". The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. The first official word regarding a fifth-generation Camaro from General Motors came at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, where a concept Camaro was released. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. The return of the Camaro name has been anticipated by enthusiasts since fourth-generation production ended in 2002.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. The Sainte-Thérèse plant, the only GM plant in Canada outside of Ontario, then closed down. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. The final Camaro was built on August 27, 2002; total production for 2002 was 42,098. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. 3,000 Camaros with the anniversary package were produced for the United States and 152 for Canada.[citation needed]. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". The 35th anniversary SS Camaro was only available as a convertible or with T-Tops.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Other 35th anniversary SS Camaro's had silver racing stripes down the hood and trunk lid against Bright Rally Red paint, and the slogan "Leave a Lasting ImpreSSion" embroidered in the seats. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. A 35th Anniversary Edition was offered on all trim levels (base, Z28, and SS.) At least one 35th Anniversary SS Camaro was Navy Blue, with black leather interior and a "35th anniversary" marker in the dashboard. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. GM announced that this would be the final year of production for the Camaro, as the sales were not high enough to justify redesigning the platform again and the car could not be priced high enough to make low volumes profitable (unlike the Corvette.). He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). The Camaro remained almost completely unchanged from 1999 to 2002; sales declined as the enthusiast market continued to switch to smaller four- and six-cylinder cars.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. The 2001 Z28 and SS models received the intake manifold from the LS6 (the engine used in the fifth-generation Corvette Z06.) Accordingly, the horsepower rating was increased to 310 for the Z28 and 325 for the SS, although both models remained underrated. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Just 29,009 Camaros were built for this year. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. 2001 was the lowest production year ever for the Camaro, partly due to slow sales and partly due to ceasing production earlier than usual to begin early work on the 35th Anniversary 2002 cars. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. While the new design did spark sales, the total production for 1998 was just 48,490 -- a far cry from the 110,000 units sold in 1994 or the 200,000+ units per year sold in the 1970s.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. The SS and RS option packages continued, with a revised body kit for the RS -- the most notable change being removing the center section of the front lip, a piece that is cracked on a very large number of 1996-1997 RS cars. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. The suspension was updated and softened to appeal to a wider market and the brakes were increased in size. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. Dyno reports and perfromance figures support the notion that all LS1 cars, regardless of Chevrolet's figures put out 345 horsepower. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. While the engine had been "detuned" slightly with only single exhaust (which would split into two when it exited the underside of the car) the small number of changes between it and the Corvette version -- as well as the real-world performance -- make the 305hp rating that GM assigned it in the Z28 a rather conservative estimate.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. It featured the same OHV design, but was cast in aluminum, reducing weight. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Replacing the LT1 was GM's all-new LS1, which had been introduced with the fifth-generation Corvette in 1997. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The interior also received some updates, but the change that was most important to enthusiasts was under the hood. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. The grille and bumper were revised to match.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. The most obvious is the revised front bodywork, with the headlights now being rounded and flush with the bodywork, intead of square and inset. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. In 1998, the Camaro received its most major update since 1993. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. The exterior of the car remained largly unchanged other than the addition of amber to the rear tail lights, however the interior received a major facelift. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. While this made it the fastest Camaro available at the time, it was also by far the most expensive with a price of over $38,000.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Also, 100 30th Anniversary Camaro SS cars were sent to SLP to have the 330hp LT4 engine installed. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. For the 1997 model year, the Camaro was offered with a "30th Anniversary Package", which included unique orange stripes on white base paint. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Two option packages also returned: the "RS" package, which was an appearance option for V6 cars, and the "SS" package, a performance and appearance package for V8 cars. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. 1996 saw a minor mechanical revision of the Camaro, as well as some power gains from the new OBD II-compliant engine controls and improved exhaust.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. The use of the OBD-1 computer system was still used; however, the connection to the PCM was via the newer style OBD-2 plug. Green is often associated with health foods.). For the V8 Camaros, the often-problematic OptiSpark distributor was updated to include a vent to remove moisture from the unit, greatly extending its longevity. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. In 1995, V6 Camaros sold to meet California emissions standards were produced with the 3800 Series II engine, while V6 Camaros sold elsewhere retained the old 3.4L engine. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Same as the 1993 Camaro but with minor changes (the 4L60 automatic was replaced with an electronic version—the 4L60E).

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. A 5-speed manual or 4-speed automatic transmission was available. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. 1993 V6 models were powered by the 160hp 3.4L V6. A good logo:. V8 models remained largely unchanged through 1995. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. In celebration of this, the 1993 Camaro Z28 was selected as the official pace car for the 1993 Indianapolis 500; a pace car edition was produced in limited quantities, with a unique black and white color scheme.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. The 1993 Camaro also featured the LT1 V8 engine that had been introduced in the Corvette one year earlier, as well as an optional six-speed manual transmission when ordered with the V8. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. Though the car would no longer be produced in the US, the new design which incorporated lightweight plastic body panels over a steel space frame, and a better suspension, further improved upon the Camaro line. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Production of the fourth and final generation was moved from GM's Van Nuys, California assembly plant to one in Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec in 1993. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. 1993 began the fourth and last generation of Camaros, lasting through the 2002 model year.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. The 305 was the only engine to receive the Tuned Port Injection considering the L98 350 was not available until 1987. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. The Camaro IROC-Z was on Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1985. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Third generation Camaros also had a suspension system that was more capable in corners than the previous generation. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. IROC-Z Camaro featured upgraded suspension, special decal package and Tuned Port Injection system taken from the Corvette.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. In 1985 Chevrolet introduced a new Camaro model—the famous IROC-Z, named after the popular competition International Race of Champions. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. Engine choices in the pace cars were the same as the regular Z28 (Cross-Fire fuel injection or 4BBL carb). The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. The pace car edition featured special two-tone silver/blue paint and special stiping, orange pin-striping on 15" Z28 wheels, and a silver/blue interior with 6-way Lear-Seigler manual adjustable seating. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The Camaro Z28 paced the Indy 500 in 1982 and over 6000 replicas were sold through Chevy dealers.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. The Camaro Z28 was Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for 1982. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. The 1982 model introduced the first Camaros with factory fuel injection, four-speed automatic transmissions (three-speed on the earlier models), five-speed manual transmissions (four-speed manual transmissions in 1982, and some 1983 to 1984 models), 15 or 16 inch (381 or 406 mm) rims, hatchback body style, and even a four-cylinder engine for a brief period (due to concerns over fuel economy in the wake of the 1979 energy crisis). At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. Total production had dropped down to 126,139 from a high of 282,571 in 1979. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. The 1981 model was virutally unchanged from 1980 and would be the last model year for the second generation Camaro.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. The Z-28 hood included a rear-pointing raised scoop with a solenoid operated flap which opened at full throttle, allowing the engine to breathe cooler air. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. For 1980 the aged 250 in³ (4.1 L) inline six was replaced with a 229 in³ (3.8 L) V6, 231 in³ (3.8 L) in California. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. A new instrument panel was introduced, and the Z-28 dubbed "the hugger" boasted eye-catching dual-color stripes which wrapped around the lower sides and front bumper. Examples:. The Type LT model was replaced by the more luxurious Berlinetta with dual mirrors, special wheels, paint, emblems, and interior.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. This was also the first year the T-top — a t-bar roof with dark tinted glass lift-out panels — became available as an option. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The 1978 model featured new soft front and rear bumpers and much larger taillamps. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. More than one Z28 was sold as a stripped radio-delete bare-bones performance car, and in this trim the Z28 could out-perform Pontiac Trans-Ams and aging C3 Corvettes on highways and canyon roads. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. The car was capable of turning in quarter-mile times comparable to many of the nineteen sixties' performance cars, and the chassis was developed to reward the driver with a first-class grand touring experience, capable of outstanding handling, especially in the hands of a competent high-performance driver.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. The half-year model was one of the few American performance vehicles available at the time. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. The cars were also available with a Borg-Warner Super T-10 4-speed manual and minimal option packaging for those buyers interested in a performance-oriented vehicle. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. This car was an instant hit, with most cars sold equipped with air-conditioning and an automatic transmission for a comfort-oriented public. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The Z28 was re-introduced to the buying public in the spring of 1977 as a 1977-1/2.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. These power-robbing additions -- along with stringent new emissions laws -- were instrumental in creating the vastly smaller power figures found in subsequent cars.). A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Net power ratings were taken from the engine crankshaft as before, but now all accessories had to be attached and operating, and all emissions equipment and a full production exhaust system had to be in place. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Two 350 in³ (5.7 L) V8s produced 145 hp (108 kW) and 155 hp (116 kW) (power ratings were now net as opposed to the prior gross ratings. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. The Z-28 option was dropped for the 1975 and 1976 models, and power continued to decline drastically.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Round taillights were replaced with a more rectangular wraparound design. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. The 1974 Camaro grew seven inches longer thanks to new aluminum bumpers and forward sloping grille. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. Power was down due to new emissions standards, with the top rated 350 in³ (5.7 L) V8 producing 245 hp (183 kW). In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. The Super Sport package was dropped, and the big block 396 in³ (6.5 L) V8 could no longer be ordered.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. A new LT option was offered in 1973, and new impact-absorbing bumpers were standard. It also depicts an organisation's personality. 970 SS396 were produced in 1972, and this was the last year for the SS model. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. The latter group eventually convinced those in favor of dropping the F Cars to reconsider, and Chevrolet would go on to produce 68,656 Camaros in 1972. . Some at GM seriously considered dropping the Camaro and Firebird altogether, while others were convinced the models remained marketable.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. A UAW strike at a GM assembly plant in Ohio disrupted production for 174 days, and 1100 Camaros had to be scrapped because they did not meet 1973 Federal bumper safety standards. The shape, color, typeface, etc. The 1972 Camaro suffered two major setbacks. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Besides the base model, buyers could select the "Rally Sport" option with a distinctive front nose and bumper, a "Super Sport" package, and the "Z-28 Special Performance Package" featuring a new high-performance 360 hp (268 kW) 350 in³ (5.7 L) V8. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Two 454 in³ (7.4 L) engines—the LS-6 and LS-7—were listed on early specification sheets but never made it into production.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Starting in 1970, the 396 in³ (6.5 L) nominal big block V8's actually displaced 402 in³ (6.6 L), yet Chevrolet chose to retain the 396 badging. Combination (icon plus text ). The top performing motor was a L-78 396 in³ (6.5 L) V8 rated at 375 hp (280 kW). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. Most of the engine and drivetrain components were carried over from 1969 with the exception of the 230 in³ (3.8 L) six cylinder -- the base engine was now the 250 in³ (4.1 L) six rated at 155 hp (116 kW). avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. The 1970–1/2 Camaro debuted as a 2+2 coupe; no convertible was offered and would not appear again until well into the third generation.

do not use the face of a (living) person. The larger second-generation Camaro featured an all-new sleek body and improved suspension. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Production numbers:. brand standard manual). Equipped with the lighter weight "split bumper" in the front (i.e., no bumper across the central grill opening) and with all the refinements and enhancements up to that point, these "1970 1/2" model year vehicles are generally regarded as the most desirable of the early Camaros, since the performance of those immediately following was to be hampered by the addition of heavy Federally mandated bumpers as well as the power-reducing automobile emissions control systems of the period. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. A small number of 1969 model year cars were titled as 1970 cars; this is also the source of the "1970 1/2" moniker sometimes applied to early 1970 model year cars.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. The 1969 model year was exceptionally long, extending into December of 1969, due to production problems with the completely redesigned second generation model. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Though rated at 430 hp (321 kW) gross, the ZL-1 made closer to 550 hp (410 kW), making it both the fastest and rarest of all Camaros. produce alternatives for different contexts. Just 69 ZL-1 Camaros were produced, probably because the engine alone cost over 4,000 USD—nearly twice that of a base V-8 coupe. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. This option installed an all-aluminum 427 in³ (7.0 L) big-block called the ZL-1.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Even rarer was COPO 9560. represents the brand/company appropriately. Overall, Chevrolet produced just 1,015 L-72 equipped Camaros. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. Don Yenko ordered several hundred of these cars, along with a variety of other high performance options, to create the now-legendary Yenko Camaro. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). The COPO 9561 option brought the fire-breathing L-72 big-block engine, making an underrated 425 hp (317 kW) gross.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. So, Chevrolet quietly offered two Central Office Production Orders (COPO) options, numbers 9560 and 9561, for the 1969 model year. should remain effective reproduced small or large. Chevy also knew that there was a market for ultra-powerful Camaros armed with the Corvette's L-72 427 in³ (7.0 L) engine, as evidenced by the success of dealerships like Yenko Chevrolet, Nickey Chevrolet, and Dana Chevrolet, who installed their own. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . A GM corporate edict forbid Chevrolet from installing engines larger than 400 in³ (6.6 L) in the Camaro. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. The real treat for the 1969 model year, however, was the vast array of new performance options.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. Collectors often debate the merits of smooth, rounded lines of 1967 and 1968 model versus the heavily creased and sportier looks of the 1969. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. This styling would serve for the 1969 model year only. Amazon.com: And you're done. New door skins, rear quarter panels, and rear valence panel also gave the car a much lower, wider, more aggressive look. Impossibly small. The grille was redesigned with a heavy "Y" cant and deeply inset headlights.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. The 1969 Camaro carried over the previous year's drivetrain and major mechanical components, but all new sheet metal, except the hood and trunk lid, gave a car a substantially sportier look. Army: An Army of One. Production numbers:. U.S. 6.5 L (396 in³) 350 hp (261 kW) engine was added as an option for the SS, and Z28 became known by buyers and 7199 units were sold. On some models, multi-leaf rear springs replaced single-leaf units, and shock absorbers were staggered.

    SS models received optional chrome hood inserts. Also added were side marker lights, a more pointed front grill, and divided rear tailights. 1968 saw the deletion of the side vent windows and the introduction of Astro Ventilation, a fresh-air-inlet system. Production numbers:.

    The 290 hp (216 kW), 5.7 L (350 in³) V8 first saw duty in the 1967 Camaro and virtually every engine in the Chevrolet lineup was offered as an option. The TH350 was also an option on SS396 cars from late 1967 onwards. The two-speed "Powerglide" automatic transmission was a popular option in 1967-68 until the three-speed "Turbo Hydra-Matic 350" replaced it starting in 1969. A Muncie four-speed manual was also available.

    The Camaro's base powertrain was a 3.8 L (230 in³) I6 engine rated at 140 hp (104 kW) and backed by a Saginaw three-speed manual transmission. Almost 80 factory and 40 dealer options including three main packages were available. Chevrolet offered the car in only two body styles, a coupe and convertible. Sharing mechanicals with the upcoming 1968 Chevrolet Nova, the Camaro featured unibody structure, combined with a sub-frame supporting the front end.

    . Four distinct generations of the car were produced. If its frequent inclusion in automotive enthusiast magazines is any indication, the Chevy Camaro is one of the most popular cars for modification in automotive history. While the Camaro was never the flagship for Chevrolet, it was always one of the most popular models.

    Though the car's name was contrived with no meaning, GM researchers found the word in a French dictionary as a slang term for "friend" or "companion." Ford Motor Company researchers discovered other definitions, including "a shrimp-like creature" and an arcane term for "loose bowels." In some automotive periodicals before official release, it was code-named "Panther." Historical examples exist of Chevrolet product managers being asked by the automotive press "what is a Camaro?", with the tongue-in-cheek answer being "a small, vicious animal that eats Mustangs," a sideways reference to the competing Ford Mustang. Production of both cars ceased in 2002. The car shared the same General Motors "F-Body" platform and major components with the Pontiac Firebird, also introduced in 1967. It may also be classified as an intermediate touring car, a sports car, or a muscle car.

    Although it was technically a compact car (by the standards of the time), the Camaro, like the entire class of Mustang competitors, was soon known as a pony car. The Chevrolet Camaro was introduced in North America by the Chevrolet Motor Division of General Motors at the start of the 1967 model year as competition for the Ford Mustang. However, the 2006 NAIAS concept Camaro clearly demonstrates that, to borrow a phrase from Mark Twain, the reports of Zeta's death were greatly exaggerated. Rumors then shifted to suggest a stretched Kappa platform may be used for a future Camaro instead.

    A March 2005 Detroit News article claimed the Zeta platform had been killed off by GM Chairman Robert Lutz, effectively killing off any hope for a resurrected Camaro as well. The article predicted that the car would be built on the Zeta platform. The most prominent of early revival rumors was reported in the May 2004 Popular Hot Rodding article "The Return of the Chevrolet Camaro in 2007" in which it was reported that a new pony car was being developed for 2007. 1998-2002 5.7 L (346 in³) LS1 V8.

    1993-1997 5.7 L (350 in³) LT1 V8. 1995-2002 3.8 L (231 in³) 3800 Series II V6. 1993-1995 3.4 L (208 in³) 60° Gen III V6. 1987-1992 5.7 L (350 in³) L98 Small-Block V8.

    1985-1992 5.0 L (305 in³) LB9 Small-Block V8. 1988-1992 5.0 L (305 in³) LO3 Small-Block V8. 1983-1986 5.0 L (305 in³) L69 Small-Block V8. 1982-1987 5.0 L (305 in³) LG4 Small-Block V8.

    1982-1983 5.0 L (305 in³) LU5 Small-Block V8. 1990-1992 3.1 L (191 in³) 60° Gen II V6. 1985-1989 2.8 L (173 in³) LB8 V6. 1982-1984 2.8 L (173 in³) LC1 V6.

    1982-1985 2.5 L (151 in³) Iron Duke I4. 1970 to 1972 6.6 L (402 in³) Big-Block V8. 1970 to 1981 5.7 L (350 in³) Small-Block V8. 1976 to 1981 5.0 L (305 in³) Small-Block V8.

    1970 to 1973 5.0 L (307 in³) Small-Block V8. 1970 to 1978 4.1 L (250 in³) Inline-6 I6. 1979 to 1981 3.8 L (231 in³) Buick V6 V6. 1979 to 1981 3.8 L (229 in³) Chevrolet V6 V6.

    1969 COPO 9560/ZL-1: 7.0 L (427 in³) Big-Block V8 430 hp (321 kW) @ 5200 rpm, 450ft.lbf (610 Nm) @ 4400 rpm. 1969 COPO 9561/L-72: 7.0 L (427 in³) Big-Block V8 425 hp (317 kW) @ 5600 rpm, 460ft.lbf (624 Nm) @ 4000 rpm. 1968 to 1969 SS396: 6.5 L (396 in³) Big-Block V8 350 hp (261 kW) @ 5200 rpm, 415 ft.lbf (563 Nm) @ 3200 rpm. 1967 to 1969 SS396: 6.5 L (396 in³) Big-Block V8 375 hp (280 kW) @ 5600 rpm, 415 ft.lbf (563 Nm) @ 3600 rpm.

    1967 to 1969 SS396: 6.5 L (396 in³) Big-Block V8 325 hp (242 kW) @ 4800 rpm, 410 ft.lbf (556 Nm) @ 3200 rpm. 1967 to 1969 SS350: 5.7 L (350 in³) Small-Block V8 295 hp (220 kW) @ 4800 rpm, 380 ft.lbf (515 Nm) @ 3200 rpm. 1967-1969 5.7 L (350 in³) Small-Block V8 255 hp (190 kW). 1967 to 1969 5.4 L (327 in³) Small-Block V8 275 hp (205 kW).

    1967 to 1969 5.4 L (327 in³) Small-Block V8 210 hp (157 kW). 1967 to 1969 Z28: 4.9 L (302 in³) Small-Block V8 290 hp (216 kW) @ 5800 rpm, 290 ft.lbf (393 Nm) @ 4200 rpm. 1967 to 1969 4.0 L (250 in³) 250 I6 155 hp (116 kW) @ 4200 rpm, 235 ft.lbf (319 Nm) @ 1600 rpm. 1967 to 1969 3.8 L (230 in³) 230 I6 140 hp (104 kW).

    The Z28 could be combined with the RS appearance package. 1967 Z28s had 15" Rallye wheels, while all other 1967 Camaros had 14" wheels. The hood was a standard flat hood. In 1967 the optional Z28 cowl induction received air from a cowl plenum duct attached to the side of the air cleaner that ran to the firewall and truly got air from the cowl vents.

    Contrary to popular belief, 1967 Z28s did not have raised cowl induction hoods like 69 Z28s did. Only 602 Z28's were sold. It was possible to combine Z28 package with RS package. Z28 also came with upgraded suspension and racing stripes on the hood.

    Advertised power of this engine was listed at 290 hp (216 kW) while actual dyno readings rated it at 360 to 400 hp (269 to 298 kW). Z28 package featured unique 302 in³ (4.9 L) "small block" engine, designed specifically to compete in the Sports Car Club of America(SCCA) Trans Am racing series (which required engines smaller than 305 in³ (5.0 L) and public availability of the car). The only way to order Z28 package was to order base Camaro with Z28 option, front disc brakes, power steering and Muncie 4-speed transmission. This option package wasn't mentioned in any sales literature so was unknown by most of the buyers.

    Z28 option code was introduced in December 1966 for the 1967 model year. In 1967 Camaro RS/SS Convertible Camaro with 396 in³ (6.5 L) engine paced the Indianapolis 500 race. It was possible to order both RS and SS packages to receive RS/SS Camaro. SS featured non-functional air inlets on the hood, special striping and SS badging on grill, gas cap, and horn button.

    SS Package included modified 5.7 L (350 in³) V8 engine (first engine of that size by Chevrolet), also L35 396 in³ (6.5 L) "big block" was available. RS Package included many cosmetic changes such as RS badging, hidden headlights, revised taillights, and exterior rocker trim.

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