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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. In recent years, many Canadians feel that the number of public holidays (and holidays in general) in Canada pales in comparison to other Western countries. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Patricks day a national holiday (as opposed to only Newfoundland and Labrador), lead, and promoted, by the Guinness corporation. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. In Canada a large lobby exists to make St. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Such acts are not as common in Ireland.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Patrick's Day items hosting phrases such as "Can't pinch me!" It's also said, and shown in the TV show Angela Anaconda, that if you pinch someone wearing green, everyone else can double pinch you back, even if you are wearing green. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Traditionally, those who are caught not wearing green are pinched, leading to several St. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Patrick's day by wearing green colored clothing and items. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. celebrate St.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Children in the U.S. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. (Former Mayor of New York Ed Koch once proclaimed himself "Ed O'Koch" for the day and is one of the most famous people of non-Irish descent to publicly revel on the holiday.). Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Patrick's Day, usually by consuming large quantities of alcoholic beverages, including lager often dyed green, Irish beer, such as Murphys, Smithwicks, Harp or Guinness, or other Irish liquors such as Irish whiskey, Irish Coffee or Baileys Irish Cream, by wearing at least one article of green-colored clothing, and by listening to Irish folk music. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". In many parts of the U.S., Britain, and Australia, expatriate Irish, those of Irish descent, and ever-growing crowds of people with no Irish connections but who may proclaim themselves "Irish for a day" also celebrate St.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. In Britain, the late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother used to present bowls of shamrock specially flown over from Ireland to members of the Irish Guards, a regiment in the British Army made up of Irishmen from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland (as well as many Liverpudlians and other Britons). However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. In 2003, the President of Ireland celebrated the holiday in Sydney, the Taoiseach was in Washington, while other Irish government members attended ceremonies in New York, Boston, San Francisco, San Jose, Savannah, Chicago, Philadelphia, San Diego, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Africa, Korea, Japan and Brazil. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. In recent years, it is common for the entire Irish government to be abroad representing the country in various parts of the world. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). No northern Irish parties were invited for these functions in 2005.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Originally only representatives of the Republic of Ireland attended, but since the mid-1990s all major Irish political parties from north and south are invited, with the attendance including the representatives of the Irish government, the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party, Sinn Féin and others. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. A similar presentation is made to the Speaker of the House. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. Patrick's Day or a day or two earlier, in the White House, where they present shamrock to the President of the United States. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Since the 1990s, Irish Taoiseach (prime ministers) have sometimes attended special functions either on St.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. Patrick's Day parade in Canada takes place in Montreal, which began in 1824. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. The longest running St. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. are:. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Patrick's Day parades in the U.S.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. The longest running St. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Others, including Chicago, dye their principal rivers green, an act that most native Irish find bizarre. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. cities paint the traffic stripe of their parade routes green. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. Some U.S.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. In many other American cities (such as San Francisco), the parade is always held on the Sunday before March 17, regardless of the permutations of the liturgical calendar. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. The event is also moved on the rare occasions when, due to Easter falling on a very early date, March 17 would land in Holy Week—this last occurred in 1913, when the parade was held on Saturday, March 15 because Easter that year was March 23 (making March 17 the Monday of Holy Week); this same scenario is scheduled to arise again in 2008, when Easter will also fall on March 23. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. The New York parade is moved to the previous Saturday (March 16) in years where March 17 is a Sunday. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. On occasion the AOH has appointed controversial Irish republican figures (some of whom were barred from the U.S.) to be its Grand Marshal.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Patrick's Day Parade was the primary public function of the AOH. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. For many years, the St. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. The parade is organized and run by the Ancient Order of Hibernians (AOH) [1]. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Patrick's Day parade which is open to all organizations wishing to march.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. A tradition has begun in Queens, New York of organizing a parade the week before the official St. Green is often associated with health foods.). The gay groups and their sympathisers would lie down in the middle of the street at the start of the parade route, and would be arrested when they refused to move; in the late 1980s such arrests averaged several hundred per year, but had dwindled to a dozen or less annually by the early 2000s. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Gay rights groups have fought in court to obtain the right to march alongside other organizations, and there have been calls in Ireland (which, since 1992, has some of the most liberal gay laws in the world) for a boycott of the parade. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. The New York parade has been dogged with controversy in recent years as its organisers have banned Irish gays and lesbians from marching as a group.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. The parade marches up 5th Avenue in Manhattan and it attracts roughly 2 million people. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. The parade itself dates back to 1762, and in 2003 more than 150,000 marchers participated, including bands, military and police groups, county associations, emigrant societies, social and cultural clubs. A good logo:. Patrick's Day parade in the world. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. Since then the New York celebration has become the largest St.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Patrick's Day celebrated in New York City was held at the Crown and Thistle Tavern in 1756. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The first St. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Patrick's Day in the American Colonies took place in Boston in 1737. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. The first civic and public celebration of St.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. Boulder, Colorado claims to have the shortest parade which is also less than a single city block. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. The smallest parade is said to take place in Hot Springs, Arkansas in the United States; this parade is less than a single city block and is nevertheless the highlight of the day. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Some people believe St.Patrick's day is a bigger holiday in the U.S than it is in Ireland, however, despite this, many Americans travel to Ireland for the festivities. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Previously the parade was privately funded.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. Belfast City Council recently agreed to give some funding to its parade for the first time. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. Patrick's Day as a celebration of Irish culture is rarely acknowledged by British loyalists in Northern Ireland, who consider it a republican festival. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Although celebrated by the Church of Ireland as a Christian festival, St. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The parade was watched by over 30,000 people.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. Patrick's Festival, had over 2000 participants and 82 floats, bands and performers. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. In Downpatrick in 2004, according to Down District Council, the parade, during the week-long St. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The biggest celebrations in Ireland outside Dublin are in Downpatrick, where Saint Patrick was buried following his death on March 17, 461. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Girls traditionally wore green ribbons in their hair (many still do).

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Nevertheless, many Irish people still wear a bunch of shamrock on their lapels or caps on this day, while children wear tri-colour (green, white and orange) badges. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Since 1996, there has been a greater emphasis on celebrating and projecting a fluid and inclusive notion of 'Irishness' rather than a fixed identity based around traditional religious or ethnic allegiance. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Patrick's Symposium was "Talking Irish," during which the nature of Irish identity, economic success and the future was discussed. Examples:. The topic of the previous year's (2004) St.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. The most recent Festivals have encompassed spectacular fireworks displays (Skyfest), open-air music, street theatre and the traditional parade. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. In 1997, it became a three day event, and since 2000 has been a 4 day event. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. Patrick's Festival was held in 1996, and was celebrated only on the day. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. The first St.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Patrick's Festival was set up by the government with the aim to:. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. In the mid-90's, a group called St. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Patrick's Day parades in Ireland date from the late 19th century, originating in the growing sense of nationalism of the period. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. St.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. . A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Patrick's Day. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. In Ireland it is traditional that those observing a lenten fast may break it for the duration of St. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If it falls in Holy Week, it is moved to the second Monday after Easter.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Patrick's Day falls on a Sunday, it is moved to the following Monday. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. In church calendars, though rarely in secular ones, if St. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. The day always falls in the season of Lent, and it may fall in Holy Week. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Patrick's Day sometimes is required to give way to a more important feast.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. However, as a Christian festival, St. It also depicts an organisation's personality. Patrick's Day is a Christian festival celebrated in the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Ireland (among other churches in the Anglican Communion) and some other denominations. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. As well as being a celebration of Irish culture, St. . Parades also take place in other places, including London, Paris, Rome, Munich, Moscow, Beijing, Hong Kong, Singapore, Copenhagen and throughout the Americas.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. The four largest parades of recent years have been held in Dublin, New York City, Manchester, and Montreal. The shape, color, typeface, etc. A major parade takes place in Dublin and in most other Irish towns and villages. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. It is celebrated worldwide by the Irish and those of Irish descent and increasingly by many of non-Irish descent. Icon (symbol / brandmark). It is a legal holiday in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, the overseas territory of Montserrat and the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Saint Patrick's Day (March 17), is the Irish feast day which celebrates Saint Patrick (386-461), the patron saint of Ireland. Combination (icon plus text ). San Francisco, California, since 1852. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. New Haven, Connecticut, since 1845. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Chicago, Illinois, since 1843.

do not use the face of a (living) person. Carbondale, Pennsylvania, since 1833. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Savannah, Georgia, since 1813. brand standard manual). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, since 1780. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. New York, New York, since 1762.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. Boston, Massachusetts, since 1737. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Project, internationally, an accurate image of Ireland as a creative, professional and sophisticated country with wide appeal, as we approach the new Millennium. produce alternatives for different contexts. Provide the opportunity and motivation for people of Irish descent, Scottish decent, (and those who sometimes wish they were Irish) to attend and join in the imaginative and expressive celebrations. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. Create energy and excitement throughout Ireland via innovation, creativity, grassroots involvement, and marketing activity.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Offer a national festival that ranks amongst all of the greatest celebration in the world. represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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