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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. He believes that a statue should be erected in her honour. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. We must have a ceremony every year to remember her". Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. "We need to admire and remember her. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. This was a wrong person", he said on November 17.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. "(The killers) made a very big mistake. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. The director of the spinal cord clinic she supported in Baghdad, Qayder al-Chalabi, called her loss a huge blow to all Iraqis. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. The last CARE project Hassan completed was one for children with spinal injuries. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. CARE International suspended operations in Iraq because of Hassan's kidnapping.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. On May 1, 2005 three men were questioned by Iraqi police in connection with the murder. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. It is not clear who was responsible for Hassan's abduction and murder, and there have been no claims of responsibility as with previous abductions. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. The British Foreign Office stated that they still believed she was dead. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". On December 1, newspapers reported that dental tests carried out on the body found in Fallujah showed that the body was not Hassan's.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. The video shows a woman, referred to as Hassan, being shot with a handgun by a masked man. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Al-Jazeera reported that it had received a tape allegedly showing Hassan's murder but was unable to confirm its authenticity. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. The British Foreign Office has yet to confirm the tape as genuine. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). On November 16, CNN reported that 'CARE' had issued a statement [2] indicating that the organization was aware of a videotape allegedly showing Hassan's murder.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Khalifa was released by her hostage takers on November 20. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. There was one other western woman known missing in Iraq at the time the body was discovered, Teresa Borcz Khalifa, 54, Polish-born and also a long-time Iraqi resident. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. The body could not be immediately identified, but was thought unlikely to be Hassan, who had brown hair. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Marines in Fallujah uncovered the body of an unidentified blonde- or grey-haired woman with her legs and arms cut off and throat slit.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. On November 15, U.S. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Hassan's whereabouts were unknown in the video. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. However, the statement could not immediately be authenticated. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Hassan unless the kidnappers had information she was aligned with the invading coalition.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. However, on November 6, a statement purportedly from al-Zarqawi appeared on an Islamist website calling for the release of Ms. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. On November 2, Al Jazeera reported that the kidnappers threatened to hand her over to the group led by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi who were responsible for the murder of Kenneth Bigley. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. Prominent elements of the Iraqi resistance, such as the Shura Council of Fallujah Mujahedeen, condemned the kidnapping and called for her release. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. On October 25, between 100 and 200 Iraqis protested outside CARE's offices in Baghdad, demanding her release.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Patients of an Iraqi hospital (where her work had some effect) have taken to the streets in protest against the hostage takers' actions. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. The British people, tell Mr Blair to take the troops out of Iraq and not bring them here to Baghdad" and that she did not "want to die like Bigley", a reference to Kenneth Bigley who was beheaded in Iraq only weeks earlier. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. She stated that "these might be [her] last hours", "Please help me. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. Her kidnappers did not issue any specific demands, but in a video released of her in captivity she pleaded for the withdrawal of British troops.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Hassan was kidnapped in Baghdad on October 19, 2004, and apparently killed some four weeks later. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. [1]. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Her presence could draw large crowds of locals. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Well known in many of Baghdad's slums and other cities, Hassan was especially interested in Iraq's young people, whom she called "the lost generation".

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. By 2004 she was head of Iraqi operations for CARE. Green is often associated with health foods.). They do not have the resources to withstand an additional crisis brought about by military action". Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. She was opposed to the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003, arguing before it that the Iraqis were already "living through a terrible emergency. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Sanitation, health, and nutrition became major concerns in the sanctioned Iraq; she became a vocal critic of the United Nations restrictions.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Hassan joined humanitarian relief organisation CARE International in 1991, the aid group having established itself in Iraq during that year. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. She remained in Baghdad during the 1991 Gulf War, although the British Council suspended operations in Iraq, and she was left jobless at the end of it. A good logo:. Meanwhile, Tahseen worked as an economist. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. During the early 1980s Hassan became the assistant director of studies at the British Council; later in the decade she became director.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. A requiem Mass was held for her, after her death was confirmed, at Westminster Cathedral by Cardinal Cormac Murphy O'Connor. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. She remained a Roman Catholic throughout her life and never converted to Islam as was widely reported after her death. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Eventually she learned Arabic and became an Iraqi citizen, as was required of foreigners under Saddam Hussein's regime. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. She moved to Iraq with him in 1972, when she began work with the British Council of Baghdad, teaching English.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. At the age of seventeen, she married Tahseen Ali Hassan, a twenty-six-year-old Iraqi studying engineering in the United Kingdom. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. However, soon after the end of World War II her family moved to London, England, where she spent most of her early life and where her younger siblings were born. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. She was born Margaret Fitzsimmons in Dalkey, County Dublin, Ireland, to parents Peter and Mary Fitzsimmons. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. .

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. Margaret Hassan (also known as Madam Margaret) (April 18, 1945 – November 2004) was an aid worker who worked in Iraq for many years and was kidnapped and murdered there at the age of 59 by Islamic militants. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Examples:.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. It also depicts an organisation's personality. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. .

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. The shape, color, typeface, etc. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Icon (symbol / brandmark).

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Combination (icon plus text ). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands.

do not use the face of a (living) person. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. brand standard manual). include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). produce alternatives for different contexts. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

09-02-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.