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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. On October 26, 2005, Clemente was named a member of Major League Baseball's Latino Legends Team. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Several Latino fans wrote letters saying, as the greatest of all Latino players, he should have been awarded a spot on the team. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Later that year, Clemente was nominated as a finalist for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. In 1999, he ranked Number 20 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, the highest-ranking Latino player.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. The right field wall at the Pirates' PNC Park is 21 feet high in honor of Clemente. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. In 2003, he was inducted into the U.S. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. In 2002, Clemente was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. MLB presents the Roberto Clemente Award every year to the player who best follows Clemente's example with humanitarian work. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. In Pittsburgh, the 6th Street Bridge was renamed in his memory, and the Pirates retired his number 21 at the start of the 1973 season. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. New York immediately named a state park after him; he now has several schools and parks named after him.[1]. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". There is also a monument in his likeness created by Puerto Rican sculptor Jose Buscaglia Guillermety situated in Carolina.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Today this sports complex is called "Ciudad Deportiva Roberto Clemente" (Roberto Clemente Sports City). However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. His native city, Carolina, named an avenue after him and realized his dream of establishing a sports complex where the youth could learn and practice sports in a healthy environment. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. Puerto Rico has honored Roberto Clemente's memory by naming the coliseum in San Juan, Puerto Rico Coliseo Roberto Clemente. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). He died in a plane crash off the coast of isla verde, Puerto Rico on December 31, 1972 while en route to deliver aid to earthquake victims in Nicaragua.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. A hero in his native Puerto Rico, Clemente spent much of his time during the off-season involved in charity work. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. It was the last at-bat of his career. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. On September 30, he hit a double off Jon Matlack of the New York Mets for his 3,000th hit. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Struggling with injuries, Clemente managed to appear in only 102 games in 1972, but still hit .312 for his final .300 season.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. His efforts earned him the World Series MVP award. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. He was the clear star of the series, with an incredible .414 batting average (12 hits in 29 at-bats), typically spectacular defense, and a crucial solo home run in the deciding 2-1 Game 7 victory. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. Undaunted, Pittsburgh came back from down two games to none in the series to win it in seven for the second time in Clemente's career. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Baltimore had won 100 games and swept the American League Championship Series, both for the third consecutive year, and were the defending World Series champions.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. In 1971, the Pirates again won the National League pennant behind Willie Stargell's 48 home runs and Clemente's .341 batting average and faced the Baltimore Orioles in the World Series. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The 1966 MVP award was, in the eyes of many Pittsburgh fans, a long overdue acknowledgment of his greatness. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. He was also labeled a hypochondriac due to nagging injuries early in his career, although he played in 140 games in each season from 1960 to 1967. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. In protest Clemente reportedly never wore his 1960 World Series ring.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Despite being the offensive and defensive leader of the strong 1960 Pirates club, he finished only eighth in voting for the MVP that season; teammate Dick Groat received the award. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. Regardless of his unquestionable success, some (including, supposedly, Clemente himself) felt that the media did not give him the recognition he deserved. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. He led the National League in batting average four times (1961, 1964, 1965, and 1967), led the NL in hits twice (1964 and 1967), and won the MVP award for his 1966 season, when he hit .317 while setting career highs in home runs (29) and RBI (119). There are essentially three kinds of logos:. For the rest of his career, he batted over .300 in every year save 1968, when he hit .291; he was selected to every All-Star game; and he was given a Gold Glove after every season from 1961 onwards.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Through the rest of the decade, Clemente firmly established himself as one of the premier players in baseball. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. His .314 batting average, 16 home runs, and stellar defense earned him his first trip to the All-Star game. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Clemente batted .310 in the series, hitting safely at least once in every game. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. In 1960, however, the team broke through to a 95-59 record, a National League pennant, and a thrilling seven-game World Series victory over the Mantle-Maris New York Yankees.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. While Clemente had begun to fulfill his potential, the Pirates continued to struggle through the 1950s, although they did manage their first winning season since 1948 in 1959. Green is often associated with health foods.). It was the first of thirteen seasons in which Clemente would hit above .300. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. In 1956, though, he hit his stride, producing a .311 batting average (third in the league) at the age of 21. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Although Clemente's skill with the glove was immediately apparent, he was less impressive at the plate; he batted .255 with 5 home runs and 47 RBI in his first full season in 1955.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. With little to lose, the Pirates installed Clemente in place of incumbent right fielder Sid Gordon early in the 1955 season. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Pittsburgh at the time was a fixture at the bottom of the National League and had lost 100 games in each of the three previous seasons. A good logo:. Despite the Dodgers' efforts, Pittsburgh Pirates president Branch Rickey drafted Clemente with the first selection in the post-season draft. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. He hit only .257 and did not distinguish himself with the bat.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Aware of a rule that would make Clemente available in a minor league draft (the predecessor of today's Rule 5 Draft) after the 1954 season, the Dodgers tried to hide him with their minor league affiliate, the Montreal Royals. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. His new team, however, was unable to fit him into a star-studded outfield featuring 1953 National League All-Stars Carl Furillo, Duke Snider, and Jackie Robinson. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Scout Al Campanis signed Clemente for the Brooklyn Dodgers with a $10,000 bonus later in 1953. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. At the age of 18, he hit .356 for Santurce in the winter of 1952-1953.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. Clemente first caught the eye of major league scouts while playing with the Santurce Crabbers (alongside Willie Mays) in the Puerto Rican Winter League. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. A rising star was catching the eyes of many coaches in the MLB as he was in Puerto Rico. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. He is one of only four players (as of the end of the 2005 season) to have 10 or more Gold Gloves and a .300+ lifetime batting average. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. He also collected 166 triples, finishing in the top five of the league eleven times, and had 266 outfield assists.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. He compiled a lifetime batting average of .317 and batted .300 or better thirteen times, hitting 240 home runs and gathering 1305 runs batted in. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. He played in two World Series (1960 and 1971) and got a hit in every game in which he played. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Perhaps Clemente's greatest feat was leading the Pittsburgh Pirates to a seven-game World Series victory over the Baltimore Orioles in 1971. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. He also had one of the most powerful throwing arms of any outfielder in baseball history, which contributed to him winning 12 Gold Glove Awards for his outstanding defense.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. He was the 11th player in history to reach this number. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. He finished his career with exactly 3,000 hits. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. He could throw a runner out from his knees. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Clemente was a 4-time NL batting champion, finishing in the top ten in batting average thirteen times.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. . The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. He played 18 seasons in the majors from 1955 to 1972, all with the Pittsburgh Pirates, winning the National League MVP Award in 1966. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Clemente was born in Carolina, Puerto Rico, the youngest of seven children. Examples:. He was elected to the Hall of Fame posthumously in 1973, being the first Hispanic American to be selected, and the only exception to the mandatory five-year post-retirement waiting period since it was instituted in 1954.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. Roberto Clemente Walker (August 18, 1934 – December 31, 1972) was a Major League Baseball right fielder and right-handed batter. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. It also depicts an organisation's personality. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. .

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. The shape, color, typeface, etc. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Icon (symbol / brandmark).

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Combination (icon plus text ). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands.

do not use the face of a (living) person. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. brand standard manual). include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). produce alternatives for different contexts. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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