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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. A fairly common practice in debate (especially concerning the supernatural) is to state that the opponent's views are akin to believing in fairies etc. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Interest in fairy themed art in Britain enjoyed a brief renaissance following the Cottingley fairies photographs, and a number of artists turned to painting fairy themes. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Another notable Victorian painter of fairies was the artist and illustrator Arthur Rackham. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Conversely, the Victorian painter Richard Dadd was responsible for some paintings of fairy-folk with an altogether more sinister and malign nature.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Artists such as Brian Froud, Alan Lee, Myrea Pettit, Ida Rentoul Outhwaite, Cicely Mary Barker, Amy Brown and Peg Maltby have all created beautiful illustrations of fairies. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Lewis, discusses the history of the faerie kingdom, its rulers Oberon and Titania, and the disastrous results of their world colliding with that of our own. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. The Revenge of the Shadow King, by Derek Benz and J.S. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. There are many species, including elfs, dwarfs, sprites, trolls, pixies, goblins and gremlins.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. In the Artemis Fowl series, by Eoin Colfer, Fairies are highly technologically advanced, peaceful beings who live underground in Haven City and Atlantis City, unbeknownst to humans. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. In the earlier versions of Tokien's Middle Earth, the creatures later known as Elves were called Fairies. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. The Susanna Clarke novel Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell is about a pair of rival magicians who make use of and are subsequently used by "the gentleman with the thistle-down hair" also known as the fairy king of "Lost-Hope". An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Feist's book, Faerie Tale, is about a small family in modern age meeting up with some of the darker aspects of fairies, as well as the Fairie Realm itself.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Raymond E. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. George MacDonald's book Phantastes. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. Fairies are imagined to be sentient insectoids, and the lepidoptera forms the ones most often associated with the term, though the protagonist fairy is of the beetle line!. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). Isaac Asimov includes a short story about fairies in his collection of fantasy tales, Magic.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Tad Williams's book War of the Flowers deals extensively with passing over into a modern realm of fairies. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Fairies figure prominently in most of Neil Gaiman's works, primarily The Books of Magic, Stardust, and Sandman. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. Typically Yeats's trooping fairies are compared to the elves of English lore. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. This is in contrast to the solitary fairies, such as the banshee, leprechaun, or pooka.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. Yeats coined the expression "trooping fairies" to refer to those fairies who liked to travel together in groups, related to the sidhe, Christianised remnants of the Tuatha Dé Danann. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. B. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. In his Fairy Folk Tales of Ireland (1892), W. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. The best is the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta Iolanthe which deals with a conflict between fairies and the House of Lords and, among other issues, touches on some of the practical consequences of fairy/human marriages and cross-breeding in a humorous manner.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Gilbert liked fairies and wrote several plays about them. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. William S. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. This work details the spell cast by the mischievous fairy Puck (at the behest of the fairy-king Oberon) on Oberon's wife Titania, who falls in love with the first mortal she casts eyes upon, the unfortunate Bottom, whom Puck has transmogrified into having a donkey's head. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream deals extensively with the subject of fairy-folk and their interaction with a group of amateur theatrical players.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Dwarves, giants, dragons, unicorns, and the like have at some point been made out to be faeries, if not faye themselves. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. However, the mercurial and inherently magical nature of fairies has led to their association and confusion with most other mythical creatures. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. Such beings are most often called "the shining ones.". There are essentially three kinds of logos:. There is a central archetypal figure behind most of the stories described as a tall, delicate, radiant being of humanoid aspect.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Consequently, faerie runs amok with creatures that are completely unrelated save that they are mythologic in origin. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. This is partially due to the fact that, by being supernatural and chaotic entities, they are difficult to pin down as being anything in particular and partially due to the fact that humans have yet to answer completely what constitutes the racial ethos of humanity. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. The question of a faerie "nature" has been the topic of many a myth or scholarly paper for a very long time. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. There is, however, a slight distinction between the two words "fae" and "faerie." Properly, "fae" is a noun referring to a specific race of otherworldly beings exercising mystical abilities (either the elves [or equivalent thereof] in mythology or their insect-winged, floral descendents in English folklore), while "faerie" is an adjective meaning "of, like, or associated with fays, their otherworldly home, their activities, and their produced goods and effects." Thus, a leprechaun and a ring of mushrooms are both faerie things (a fairy leprechaun and a fairy ring.).

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. If "fey" derives from "fata," which seems as like as "fairy" deriving from "fata," then the word history of the two words is itself fae.1. Green is often associated with health foods.). However, it gained the meaning "touched by otherworldly or magical quality; clairvoyant, supernatural." In modern English, the word seems to be conjoining into "fae" as variant spelling. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Another word, "fey," has historically meant "doomed to die," mostly in Scotland. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Since the subjects of the words are somewhat alien and ethereal, the terms are often used interchangeably and are more prone to spelling alterations than other words.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Modern English inherited the two terms "fae" and "fairy," along with all the associations attached to them. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Fata influenced modern Italian's fata and Spanish's hada, both of which mean fairy, and the Old French fée, which gained the meaning "enchanter." By adding the ending -rie, we get féerie, meaning a "state of fée" or "enchantment." This also befits the fae, who are known for casting illusions and altering emotions, particularly so as to make themselves alluring, frightening, or unseen. A good logo:. The Latin root fata, meaning fate in the sense of one of the Parcae, is an indication that fays have abilities associated with knowledge (foresight) and manipulation (luck, blessing, cursing) of fate, both of which are qualities of faeries in myth. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. An interesting correlation is the word "fey," which may be derived ultimately from the same Latin root and is now returning to mean the same as "fae.".

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. The words fae and faerie came to English from French and, ultimately, Latin or more further from Persia(the word Pari). Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. . In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. They are also regarded as aloof, ephemeral, mercurial, and whimsical, among other qualities that place them outside of a human scope and have a tendency to make them associated or confused with other mythological creatures. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. They are generally humanoid in form, though of a higher, spiritual nature and so possessed of preternatural abilities, along with such mystical qualities as otherworldly beauty and grace, an ethereal glow, wings, or the like.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A fairy is a spirit (supernatural being) found in the legends, folklore, and mythology of many cultures. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Fairy painting. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Examples:.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. It also depicts an organisation's personality. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. .

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. The shape, color, typeface, etc. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Icon (symbol / brandmark).

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Combination (icon plus text ). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands.

do not use the face of a (living) person. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. brand standard manual). include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). produce alternatives for different contexts. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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