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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. Its is also shown in syndication within the United States. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. The Amazing Race is broadcast on various international television networks. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Main problems include:. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Despite The Amazing Race's recent surge of popularity, the show is not without its share of criticism and controversy.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. The popularity of the series has also spawned local races [3] [4], some which have been mistaken for actual filming of the television program. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. TARCon gives fans an opportunity to meet past and present racers and host Phil Keoghan. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. The event is held in New York City and is organized by Television Without Pity, a popular television website. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. TARCon is a convention and viewing party held after the evening of the season finale.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Thanks to word-of-mouth and the Emmy wins, popularity of The Amazing Race has recently surged, and is now one of the most-watched reality shows on the air. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. Reportedly, it was saved by calls to CBS President Les Moonves from celebrity fans including Sarah Jessica Parker. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Even with extensive critical praise the show faced low Nielsen Ratings for the first several seasons, facing cancelation a number of times. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". The Amazing Race is notable in that it is one of the few reality shows to grow substantially more popular in subsequent seasons.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. It only contains countries that fielded actual route markers, challenges or finish mats.. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Note: The table does not include airport stopovers, such as Japan. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. ° Vatican City fielded a Fast Forward in Season 1; however, it was neither used nor shown.. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). While the complete set of official rules has not been released to the public, certain rules have been revealed during the various editions of the race:.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Failure to do so can result in time penalties, which can negatively affect finishing position in that leg of the race. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. All teams must abide by the rules set at the beginning of the race. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. In this case, after the other two teams finish, they are informed that the race is over at their next Route Marker (Joe and Bill, Season 1; David and Jeff, Season 4). There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. On occasion, the third place team has fallen so far behind the other two teams that they cannot finish the race in a timely manner.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. Ideally, all three remaining teams arrive at the Finish Line within a reasonable amount of time. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. All other teams win lesser amounts of money on a sliding scale based on their finishing order, as follows:. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. The first team to reach the Finish Line wins the race and $1 million. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. At the Finish Line, host Phil Keoghan and all the eliminated teams wait for the remaining teams to arrive.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Remaining teams must complete one or more tasks before receiving the clue directing them to the Finish Line. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. city. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The second part of the leg has teams traveling to a final destination, usually located in a major U.S. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. This first part of the leg includes intermediate destination(s) where the teams must travel to complete a series of tasks (Alaska, United States Seasons 1 and 2; Hawaii, United States, Seasons 3, 4, and 6; Calgary, Canada, Season 5; Puerto Rico, United States, Season 7; Montreal and Toronto, Canada, Season 8).

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Three teams compete in the last leg of the race. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. This usually results in teams who believe they are coming in last checking in at the pit stop wearing every single article of clothing they have just in case it's a non-elimination leg, making for a rather comical sight in some cases. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In addition to being stripped of all their money and starting the next leg without an allowance, teams were forced to surrender all their possessions, except for their passports and the clothes they were wearing, for the remainder of the Race. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. Starting in Season 7, the penalty for arriving last during a non-elimination leg became more severe.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Teams generally beg from locals or even the other teams during the Pit Stop to rebuild their cash reserves. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. Additionally, the last team to arrive begins the next leg with zero dollars to their name, meaning they do not receive the money given to the other teams at the start of the leg and may not collect money during the Pit Stop. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. These teams are required to turn over all the money they accumulated throughout the race. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Season 5 introduced a penalty to the team arriving last at a Pit Stop in a non-elimination leg.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. Beginning in Season 5, the statement "The last team to arrive may be eliminated" has been used on every leg with the exception of the first. Green is often associated with health foods.). In Seasons 3-4, the clue preceding the Pit Stop ended with the statement "The last team to arrive will be eliminated" in the first few legs, and "The last team to arrive may be eliminated" after a certain point. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. In Seasons 1-2, the clue preceding the Pit Stop ended with the statement, "The last team to arrive will be eliminated," except in non-elimination legs. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Racers are not told in advance which legs are non-elimination legs.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Each race has a number of predetermined non-elimination legs, in which the last team to arrive at the Pit Stop is not eliminated and is allowed to continue on the race. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Season 8 also had a double-length leg, which worked the same as Season 7's; in addition, the 2-hour finale took place over a double-length leg. A good logo:. Season 7 had another, this time with teams meeting host Phil Keoghan on the usual Pit Stop mat at the halfway point, only to have him hand them the next clue instead of checking them in. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. The second half of the leg featured a second Detour and second Roadblock.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. The televised episode ended without a Pit Stop with a 'To Be Continued' message. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. Season 6 introduced the first double-length leg shown over two episodes. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. (Despite a flat tire, Uchenna and Joyce only finished 10 minutes behind the #1 team Ron and Kelly.) The longest amount of time Phil waited at a pit stop for the last team to arrive was more than 24 hours, due to the last team having flight problems and missing their departure time at the previous pit stop - see Season 2. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. The record for the shortest amount of time that Phil waited for the last team to arrive was around 10 minutes on the 11th leg of the 7th season.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. Alternately, host Phil Keoghan may go out to the team's location to eliminate them if they can't/won't finish a task (Marshall and Lance, Season 5, Lena and Kristy, Season 6). Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Occasionally, on an elimination leg, if all other teams have checked in and the last team is very far behind, Route Markers may instruct them to go directly to the Pit Stop without completing the rest of the leg (Peggy and Claire, Shola and Doyin, Mary and Peach, all from Season 2, Michael and Kathy and Andre and Damon in Season 3). Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Teams normally complete all tasks and check in at the Pit Stop before they are eliminated. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. The winners of the third leg in Season 8 won free gasoline for life, from BP and ARCO (specifically, $1200 of gasoline a year for 50 years, which is $60,000 per winner).

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. In Season 7, cash and automobile prizes were awarded for the first time on some legs; unlike season 6, however, at least two legs did not have a prize awarded. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. In Season 6, prizes were given to the winners of every leg. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. In some legs, the first team to arrive wins a prize such as a vacation or camera, which they receive at the end of the race. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The last team to arrive at the Pit Stop is eliminated, unless that leg of the race is one of the predetermined non-elimination legs (see below).

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. While a team arriving at 12:00 PM will depart at 12:00 AM, the total amount of rest time may be more than twelve hours, in which case the pit stop will be extended by 24 hour increments--such as one day and twelve hours (36 hours). The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. Teams depart for the next leg of the race at the time they arrived plus twelve hours. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. During the Pit Stop, teams are also interviewed to provide commentary and voice-overs for the completed leg. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. The production staff provides food free-of-charge to the teams at the Pit Stops (food during the legs must be purchased with the money the teams receive).

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Each Pit Stop is a mandatory rest period which allows teams to eat, sleep, and mingle with each other. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Pit Stops are the final destination in each leg of the race. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important.
. Examples:. The Weaver family in Season 8 was the first team in the history of the Amazing Race to be yielded twice, once by the Paolo Family, and another time by the Linz Family.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. In the family edition, the show said there were only two Yields, but there was another Yield on Leg 1 that didn't make it to air. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Also starting in Season 6, teams are warned about an upcoming Yield in the clue immediately preceding it. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. Starting in Season 6, the number of Yields was reduced from one on every leg to only three in the entire race. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. However, each team may be Yielded by other teams an unlimited amount of times.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Like the Fast Forward, each team may use only one Yield during the game, and only one team may use each Yield. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. When the yielded team arrives at the Yield, they must turn over an hourglass found on the Yield sign and wait for all the sand to drain before continuing. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. To do this, a team places the picture of the team they wish to yield onto the Yield sign (found near one of the Route Markers). A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The Yield, which was introduced in Season 5, allows any one team to force another team to stop racing for a predetermined amount of time.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. Similarly, NFL wives Monica and Sheree of Season 4 earned the Fast Forward but only placed 4th in the first leg (behind a three-way tie for first, the only time this has ever happened on the race).
. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Dennis and Andrew during Season 3 were eliminated. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Joe and Bill during Season 1 arrived last but were not eliminated due to a penalty to Nancy and Emily. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. In the history of the show, two teams who earned a Fast Forward still arrived last at the Pit Stop.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. A Fast Forward usually results in the team arriving at the Pit Stop first, but does not guarantee it. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Since each team may use only one Fast Forward during the whole race, they must decide when it is most advantageous to use it. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. Any team that is beaten to the Fast Forward will have wasted their time and must go back and pick up where they left off. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Only one team may use each Fast Forward.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. To find the Fast Forward, the team must perform the task described on the Fast Forward clue, which is found along with a regular clue at one of the Route Markers. It also depicts an organisation's personality. The Fast Forward allows the first team that finds it to skip all remaining tasks on that leg of the race and proceed directly to the Pit Stop. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. In Season 1, even the first leg had a Roadblock, but it was not originally aired; it was included in the DVD release.
. . A Roadblock is featured (although, in some episodes, not aired) in every leg except the first one.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. The six-Roadblock limit was dropped for Season 8; additionally, that season's four-member-team format required some Roadblocks to be completed by two people. The shape, color, typeface, etc. In contrast, Season 5 featured three teams that split the Roadblocks 11-1 or 10-1. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Since there normally are twelve Roadblocks in the Race, this rule forces each team to split the Roadblocks equally between the two members (unless a team uses a Fast Forward to skip one Roadblock, in which case the split can be 6-5). Icon (symbol / brandmark). Beginning in Season 6, each team member may only complete a maximum of six Roadblocks throughout the entire race.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Once a choice has been made, the teammates cannot switch roles. Combination (icon plus text ). They then must decide which team member would be best suited to complete it. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. Often, a team may figure out the specific task by observing their surroundings, using common sense, or even seeing other teams already performing the Roadblock task. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Before heading into a Roadblock, teams read a vague clue about the task to come, i.e., "Who's really hungry?" (for an ostrich-egg eating challenge), or "Who wants to get down and dirty?" (for a task involving making mud bricks).

do not use the face of a (living) person. A Roadblock is a task which only one team member may perform. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Should a team choose to switch Detour tasks part-way through, there is no penalty, other than naturally lost time.
. brand standard manual). Often, there may be some degree of luck involved with the "easier" option, such that a team may accomplish the task faster than if they had taken the quicker, harder, riskier option. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. In later seasons, the trend has been towards Detours which offer less clear-cut choices.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. One task is typically an easier option that takes more time to complete, while the other is usually a difficult or frightening option that can be finished quickly. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Teams must successfully complete one of the tasks described on the clue in order to receive their next clue. produce alternatives for different contexts. A Detour is a choice between two tasks, each with its own pros and cons. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. The Route Info clues can instruct teams to go to several types of locations, including a specific location in another city or country, another location within the team's present city, the Pit Stop of the leg, and the finish line of the race.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). In addition, teams may be required to take public transportation, drive a marked car, or walk, according to the clue's instructions. represents the brand/company appropriately. For example, the very first clue of the race specifies which flights teams may take. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. However, the clue may make specifications about how the teams have to travel. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). The clue usually only provides the name of the team's next destination; it is up to the teams to figure out how to get there.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. Route Info clues instruct the teams where to go next. should remain effective reproduced small or large.
. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . Route Markers are always colored yellow and red, with the following exceptions:. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. Most Route Markers are attached to the boxes that contain clue envelopes, but some may mark the place where the teams must go in order to complete tasks.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. Route Markers are the flags that mark the places where teams must go. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. One rule that was clarified in Season 7 is that teams may not beg for money at US airports. Amazon.com: And you're done. This includes borrowing money from other teams, begging from locals, or selling their possessions. Impossibly small. If a team spends all of their money or has it taken away in a non-elimination round, they may try to get more money in any way that doesn't violate the local laws.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. For more on this penalty, see Non-elimination Legs. Army: An Army of One. Teams were forced to surrender all collected money, would not be given any on the subsequent leg, and needed to start the next leg with zero dollars to their name. U.S. Starting in Season 5, there was a penalty for teams coming in last on a non-elimination leg. Any money left over after a leg of the race can be used on subsequent legs.

    The exception to this is the purchase of airline tickets (and, in Season 8, gasoline), which the teams pay for using a credit card supplied to them by the show. (In Season 1 teams were allocated nothing during one of the legs, and in Season 4, teams were given only one dollar for each of the final two legs.) During the race, all expenses (food, transportation, lodging, attraction admission, supplies) must be purchased from this allowance. The amount varies from leg to leg, ranging from one dollar to hundreds of dollars. Dollars regardless of the current location of the race.

    This money is usually given in U.S. At the beginning of each leg of the race, each team receives an allowance of cash with their first clue. The various relationship dynamics between the team members under the stress of competition is one focus of the show. Both teammates must also arrive at each Pit Stop together in order to clock in.

    If one teammate becomes injured and is unable to finish the race, the team must forfeit (for example, Marshall and Lance during Season 5). Teammates must race the entire race together; they cannot split up or continue on without each other. (Nicole actually beat Christie for the title of Miss Texas USA in 2003.[1]). Several contestants from Season 5 had previously competed against one another in the beauty pageant circuit.

    For example, Kris and Jon from Season 6 were long-distance daters for only a year. However, producers have shown more leniency and changed these rules in recent installments of the race. In addition, racers from different teams could not have previous acquaintances with one another. Originally, the race required team members to have a pre-existing relationship and to have known one another for at least three years.

    All contestants are at least 21 years of age, except for Season 8, which featured some children and teenagers. Past team relationships include: long-time married couples, siblings (including twins), parent/child, friends (roommates, fraternity brothers, platonic friends, high school friends, lifelong friends etc), romantic partners (both heterosexual and homosexual), and couples who are separated or formerly dating. The teams represent a wide demographic of different ages, races, sexual orientations, and personal relationships. Season 8 of the race featured teams of four, but Season 9 will return to the two-person team format.

    Each of the eleven teams (twelve in Seasons 3 and 4, ten in Season 8) on The Amazing Race is composed of two individuals who have some type of relationship to each other. . The ninth season will begin airing on February 28, 2006. It has defeated competitors including CBS' Survivor (which was the first reality show to win an Emmy), Fox's American Idol, and NBC's The Apprentice.

    For three consecutive years, (2003 to 2005), The Amazing Race was awarded the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Reality/Competition Program. Teams must then follow clues and instructions and make their way to checkpoints in places around the world, eventually racing back to the finish line in the US. The race starts in a US city. The race resembles a treasure hunt in amateur rally racing.

    The race utilizes progressive elimination similar to Survivor; the last team to arrive at a designated checkpoint leaves the game. It was created by Bertram van Munster. It is produced by Jerry Bruckheimer for CBS and Touchstone Television (technically making it partially a Disney show) and hosted by New Zealander Phil Keoghan. The CBS program has been on-air since 2001 and is currently in between seasons.

    The Amazing Race is a reality game show normally broadcast in one-hour episodes in which teams of two or four race around the world in competition with other teams. In an article according to Backstage.com, both "The Amazing Race" and "The Amazing Race: Family Edition", separately, were among the top 10 television shows with the most product placement in 2005. Season 8 had teams driving around in GMC Yukons, visiting a BP gas station that fielded no challenge in particular, receiving clues from AOL inboxes (done in Season 6 also), and completing a challenge with Buick luxury golf carts. Season 7 featured a gnome-hunting challenge, with the gnome featured being a Travelocity Roaming Gnome.

    Excessive product placement, particularly in recent seasons. USA Today shared similar opinions, adding that "the idea of being trapped in the back seat for a forced cross-country family drive comes closer to a nightmare relived than a dream come true." [7] Racers were also disappointed that they did not have a chance to travel to more exotic locations; in one episode Marion Paolo commented "Why are we going to Phoenix, Arizona for? I want to go to New Zealand!". Seeing parents yell at their children in exotic New Jersey? Not so fun." [6]. Entertainment Weekly commented that "Half the fun of The Amazing Race has always been watching the inter and intra-couple bickering that goes with being chronologically late and lost in a foreign land.

    The expanded cast also made it more difficult to develop individual story lines. The main issues were the lack of international travel and watered down challenges tailored to families. Fans, critics, and racers were lukewarm over the format changes implemented in the family edition. In the two most recent seasons, Season 7 and Season 8, the winners were revealed in online betting scandals well before the airing of the final episode.

    Recent betting scandals. In the latter reason however, in the case of a leg being in a poor country, penalized teams usually beg from tourists or from other teams. The second is that it is embarrassing to see Americans beg from people of Third World countries. One, is that the penalty is not sufficiently harsh enough.

    The implementation of the non-elimination penalty is generally criticized by fans basically into two camps. The one other reality series that possesses this trait is The Mole. The implementation of the Yield has been criticized as taking away from the virtually unique ability of teams to control their own destiny in a reality series rather than being at the mercy of opponents as shows such as Survivor. Season 7's Fast Forward task in Leg 8 featured the same hair-shaving task as Season 5, although Season 5's was not taken.

    Repetition of tasks in different seasons. Recent seasons have emphasized gross-out extreme eating contests reminiscent of Fear Factor, rather than focusing on the cultural aspect of the challenge. Design of challenges, especially food competitions. What had been clues are now more like simple directions in many cases; they remain more challenging in the final legs.

    In recent seasons, there have been few actual clues for teams to decipher. For example, in Season 1 the majority of Route Markers contained clues about the next location, not specifically stating the location itself. The watering down of the clues in subsequent seasons. For example, Dennis and Erika (Season 5) had known previous racers John Vito and Jill (Season 3) for many years.[5].

    In fact, many teams had connections to the producers or past contestants, trivializing the standard application process. For example, Season 5 featured only one past reality show contestant (Alison was on Big Brother) and Season 7 featured three past reality show contestants (Brian was on Fear Factor; Rob and Amber had been on multiple editions of Survivor). The stunt casting of teams where producers have tended to cast models, actors, and more recently past reality show stars. The confrontational, and sometimes abusive behaviour presented by certain players, most notably Jonathan (Season 6) and Colin (Season 5).

    Nevertheless, bunching teams also adds to the unending suspense that many feel some of the earlier seasons lacked. While all versions of the Race have suffered such problems, many fans feel that recent seasons (and Season 6 particularly) had more than usual or, perhaps, necessary. Bunching, where teams are constantly grouped together due to bottlenecks such as chartered flights and pre-planned hours of operation of businesses that the teams must use to complete tasks. (For an exception, see The Amazing Race 6 In-Race Trivia.)The finish line mats are an elevated red carpet with The Amazing Race logo enlarged on it.

    In season 8 the mats were yellow with a black and white border. Beginning in Season 4, they would feature an ornately decorated world map. In Season 2 and Season 3, they were black with a yellow border. In Season 1, check-in mats for pit stops were representative of local cultures.

    Due to the rather obvious nature of the crossing of the finish line, in later seasons several "decoy runs" have been done where teams from the final four are filmed crossing individual finish lines, to deter people from learning the identity of the winning team. Before the race actually begins, the teams are filmed running from the starting line several times, in order to get different close-ups and angles of all the teams. In doing so, the final destinations still remain a secret. However, to keep things as much of a surprise for the teams as possible, production will obtain visas from more countries than are actually on the race itinerary.

    Teams need to receive travel visas ahead of time for the countries that they will be visiting. The opening credits feature scenes and locations from past and current seasons of the race. Even after the race has aired, however, the amount is still required to remain confidential. Teams receive monetary compensation for the time away from their jobs back home.

    Eliminated teams are often sent to "sequesterville", a foreign location on the race where they get to relax and do some sightseeing until the race is over. Host Phil Keoghan is known to take the same flight as the teams on various legs of the race. The camera and sound crews rotate teams after each leg. [2] Occasionally, race personnel are shown to viewers, most notably during Season 7 where Brian and Greg's cameraman was shown lying on the ground after suffering minor injuries in an auto accident.

    Also, for similar reasons, the show makes the point of not actually showing the crews to the point where crewmen have occasionally been digitally removed from the picture in post-production. On the program, teams are only shown requesting two tickets, so that they don't break the fourth wall. When purchasing tickets, teams must also buy them for their camera crew. Each team is accompanied by a cameraman and soundperson throughout the race.

    The exact conditions that determine whether or not a time credit is awarded are unknown. However, in Season 8, two teams were stopped because of drained batteries and did not receive time credits. In early seasons, several teams were awarded time credits because of such difficulties. Sometimes, teams are delayed by production difficulties.

    (See The Amazing Race 2 Trivia). However, no time credit is given for their wait in this unlucky situation. If a team's vehicle breaks down through no fault of their own, they may request a replacement vehicle without receiving a time penalty. Through lucky guessing and help from other teams, they were able to reach the Pit Stop, but were assessed a 1-hour penalty.

    One exception to this was during Season 1, when Dave & Margaretta missed the cluebox at the base of the Eiffel Tower. A team that skips a Route Marker or performs a task incorrectly usually does not receive a penalty; rather, the racers will not be able to check in at the Pit Stop and will be told by host Phil Keoghan to complete the missed tasks. As no other team has quit a Detour since then, it is unknown whether that larger penalty still exists. In Season 1, Nancy and Emily voluntarily quit a Detour and received an even larger penalty: 24 hours.

    In Season 7, Rob and Amber, Ray and Deana and Meredith and Gretchen also quit a Roadblock and received a 4-hour penalty that did not start until the next team arrived at the task. In Season 6, Hayden and Aaron quit a Roadblock and received a 4-hour penalty. There is a larger penalty for quitting a task voluntarily. If a clue specifies a maximum speed, a team that exceeds that speed receives a penalty (Gary and Dave, Chris and Alex, Season 2).

    Speeding. Driving away in another team's car (Don and Mary Jean, Season 6). Taking more than one clue from the clue box (Freddy and Kendra, Season 6). Taking a shortcut when the clue specifies that a marked course must be followed (Andre & Damon, Season 3).

    For example, a team that takes a taxi when the clue specifies that they must walk would receive a penalty (Frank & Margarita and Joe & Bill, Season 1; Heather & Eve, Season 3; Reichen & Chip, Season 4). Using a prohibited form of transportation. This penalty is known to apply in the following cases:

      . The standard penalty for minor rule infractions is 30 minutes plus the time advantage gained (if any) by disobeying the rule.

      Teams may be forced to submit their backpacks and possessions to searches by production staff at any time. For filming purposes, team members are generally required to stay within 20 feet of each other, unless one person is performing a Roadblock. This results in the sometimes cantankerous attitude of some contestants, such as Ian (Season 3) who quit smoking just prior to the race. Racers are prohibited from smoking during the race.

      (Uchenna said this when he wanted to help Meredith with the boat in Season 7.) Otherwise, teams may assist one another in completing tasks, as seen in Season 8, where many teams had help setting up their tents, and the Linz and Godlewski teams cooperated to complete a Detour. When stated, teams may not help other teams in challenges. Teams could talk on the phone as long as they wanted, but had to end the call before getting in their cars."). As CBS's website explains, "They had the option of making one phone call to their loved ones back home before driving to the chateau.

      Teams were offered a cellular phone after completing a detour. (One exception to this rule occurred in Season 3. However, teams are allowed to stay in contact with and receive help from people they meet during the race, such as travel agents. Teams are not allowed contact with known friends, family, and personal acquaintances during the race.

      Teams are allowed to be upgraded to first or business class by the airline, as long as they only paid an economy fare (Frank and Margarita, Season 1; Reichen and Chip, Season 4; Ray and Deana, Season 7). Teams must purchase economy class tickets for airfare. Season 8's Route Markers were colored yellow, white, and black. During Season 3, the production visited Vietnam; while there, the flags used were a solid yellow, to avoid confusion with the flag of Vietnam (this change was not seen when production visited China in Season 6, though, where the national colors are similar).

      The current colors were adopted in subsequent seasons so that the teams would have an easier time spotting them. The original Route Markers used in Season 1 were colored yellow and white.

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