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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. On 8 January 2006 Pope Benedict continued the tradition of his predecessor John Paul II and baptised several infants in the Sistine Chapel representing his pastoral role as Bishop of Rome. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Other traditional items unused by the pope include the vestmental gloves, known as gauntlets and the papal fanon, a shoulder-length vestment reserved to Popes, worn with Mass vestments underneath the pallium. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Like his two immediate predecessors, Benedict chose not to be crowned with the tiara during his Inauguration Mass, nor has he worn it since that time. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. One item of clothing that Benedict has not worn to date is the papal tiara.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. On December 21, 2005, the pope began wearing the camauro for his general audiences; the traditional papal hat had not been seen since the pontificate of John XXIII (1958 - 1963). Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Pope Benedict XVI has also taken up the use of the red papal tabarro (outdoor cloak), which Pope John Paul II did not use after 1995. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. His house cassock (his soutane or cassock with shoulder cape) also includes the upper half-sleeves discontinued for all other clerics by the authority of Paul VI's Motu Proprio "Pontificalis Domus". Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. He has also worn the red satin mozzetta and its ermine-trimmed winter version that has not been seen since Pope Paul VI.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. He has revived the use of the red papal buskins. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. During his installment address, he spoke at length about the significance of one item of vestiture: the pallium, and has reverted to an ancient form of the pallium worn by first millennium pontiffs. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Pope Benedict XVI has been using papal clothing which had previously fallen into disuse. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". The canonizations were part of a Mass that marked the conclusion of the Synod of Bishops and the Year of the Eucharist.[36].

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Peter's Square when he canonized Josef Bilczewski, Alberto Hurtado SJ and three others. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Pope Benedict XVI celebrated his first Canonizations on October 23, 2005 in St. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. On 29 September 2005 the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued a communiqué announcing that henceforth beatifications would be celebrated by a representative of the Pope, usually the Prefect of that Congregation. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). Unlike his predecessor, Benedict XVI delegated the beatification liturgical service to a Cardinal.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. The new Blesseds were Mother Marianne Cope and Mother Ascensión Nicol Goñi. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. The first beatification under the new Pope was celebrated on May 14, 2005 by José Cardinal Saraiva Martins. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. [35]. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Normally the beatification process for a person does not begin until five years have passed since his or her death, but due to the popularity of John Paul II — devotees chanted "Santo subito!" meaning "Saint now!" during the late pontiff's funeral — Benedict XVI dispensed with the rule and styled the late pope with the title given to all those being scrutinized in the beatification process, Servant of God.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. On May 9, 2005, Benedict XVI began the beatification process for his immediate predecessor, John Paul II. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Levada relinquished his see in San Francisco on August 17, 2005 and is expected to be made a Cardinal in a future consistory. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. Though elements of the press have chosen to present Levada as a staunch conservative for his involvement with the drafting of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, his private views and public policies have not been entirely clear. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. On May 13, 2005, Benedict XVI appointed a non-Cardinal, William Joseph Levada, Archbishop of San Francisco in the United States of America.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Benedict's only major new appointment was that of his successor as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The principal political officer, the Cardinal Secretary of State (often likened to the pope's Prime Minister), remains Angelo Cardinal Sodano, an Italian. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. This assured an easy transition into a new pontificate. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. Since their terms had ended on the death of the previous pope, Benedict reappointed after his election all former senior officers of the Roman Curia, though most only in a provisional manner.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. This has drawn a sharp criticism by Catholic gay rights advocates like journalist Andrew Sullivan, who claim that Benedict is espousing a form of fundamentalist edict and is opposed to an outside questioning of his doctrines. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. John Lateran basilica on June 6, 2005, Benedict remarked on the issues of same-sex marriage and abortion:. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In an address to a conference of the Diocese of Rome held at St. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. In the discussion with secularism and rationalism, one of Benedict's basic ideas can be found in his address on the "Crisis of Culture" in the West, a day before Pope John Paul II died, when he referred to Christianity as the Religion of the Word (in the original Greek, Logos, reason, meaning, intelligence).

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. He also traced the failed revolutions and violent ideologies of the 20th century to a conversion of partial points of view into absolute guides: "Absolutizing what is not absolute but relative is called totalitarianism," he said during World Youth Day. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. Continuing what he said in the pre-conclave Mass about what he has often referred to as the "central problem of our faith today": [31] the world "moving towards a dictatorship of relativism", [32] on June 6, 2005 he also said:. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. It is a message that helps to overcome what can be considered the great temptation of our time: the claim, that after the Big Bang, God withdrew from history." [30]. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. speaking to him as to a friend, knowing well that the Lord really is the true friend of everyone, even of those who cannot do great things on their own...that God is working today, and that all we have to do is put ourselves at his disposal...is an extremely important message.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. [29] He also said: "Truly we are all able, we are all called to open ourselves to this friendship with God.. Green is often associated with health foods.). For example, his address to the priests of Rome, his diocese as bishop, [27], to the cardinals in the pre-conclave, a key public address to the Church's top leaders [28], and to 150,000 people among whom were children going to their First Communion. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. "Friendship with Jesus Christ" is a theme of his preaching which is found in many of his homilies and his addresses. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. After referring to John Paul II's well-known words (Do not be afraid! Open wide the doors for Christ!), Benedict XVI says:.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. According to commentators, during the Inaugural Mass, the core of his message, the most moving and famous part, is found in the last paragraph of his homily where he referred to both Jesus Christ and John Paul II. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. The emphases of his teachings are stated in more detail in Theology of Pope Benedict XVI. A good logo:. As Pope, Benedict XVI's main role is to teach about the Catholic faith and the solutions to the problems of the faith, a role that he can play well being a former head of the Church's Congregation of the Faith. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. In a return to tradition, Benedict chose to resurrect the tradition of delegating the celebration of the beatification liturgies.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. However, all the cardinals had already sworn their obedience upon his election. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. During his inaugural Mass, the previous custom of all the cardinals submitting was replaced by having 12 people, representing cardinals, clergy, religious, a married couple and their child, and newly confirmed people, submit to him. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Since it is the shield and not the background which is unique to the individual Pope, various backgrounds are possible (though rarely used) for even a single shield. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Benedict's coat of arms has officially omitted the papal tiara, traditionally appearing in the background to designate the Pope's position and replaced it with a simple mitre.[25] However, there have been papal documents since his inauguration that have been appearing with the papal tiara present.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. It is notable that he has used an open popemobile, saying that he wants to be closer to the people. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Pope Benedict has confounded the expectations of many in the early days of his papacy by his gentle public persona and his promise to listen. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Peter's Square, on April 27, 2005, to explain to the world why he chose the name:. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Benedict XVI used his first General Audience in St.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The choice of the regnal name Benedict (Latin "the blessed") is significant. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. John Lateran. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. (Some sources, such as the Catholic Encyclopedia and a number of church historians, additionally count Pope Stephen II, who died before being consecrated.) Then, on May 7, he was enthroned in a mass at the Basilica of St. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. Peters, formally becoming the 265th pope by the official Vatican reckoning.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. On April 24, he was inaugurated in St. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. He then gave the blessing to the people. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. At the balcony, Benedict's first words to the crowd, given in Italian before he gave the traditional Urbi et Orbi blessing in Latin, were:. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Cardinal Medina Estévez first addressed the massive crowd as "dear(est) brothers and sisters" in Italian, Spanish, French, German and English — each language receiving cheers from the international crowd — before continuing with the traditional Habemus Papam announcement in Latin.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Before his first appearance at the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica after becoming pope, he was announced by the Jorge Cardinal Medina Estévez, protodeacon of the College of Cardinals. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Cardinal Ratzinger had hoped to retire peacefully and said that "At a certain point, I prayed to God 'please don't do this to me'...Evidently, this time He didn't listen to me." [23]. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Leo IX, the most important German pope of the Middle Ages, known for instituting major reforms during his pontificate. Examples:. Coincidentally, April 19 is the feast of St.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. On April 19, 2005, Cardinal Ratzinger was elected as the successor to Pope John Paul II on the second day of the papal conclave after four ballots. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Despite being the favourite (or perhaps because he was the favourite), it was a surprise to many that he was actually elected. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The elections of both John Paul II and his predecessor, John Paul I had been rather unexpected. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. Though Ratzinger was increasingly considered the front runner by much of the international media, others maintained that his election was far from certain since very few papal predictions in modern history had come true.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Piers Paul Read wrote in The Spectator on March 5, 2005:. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Ratzinger himself had repeatedly stated he would like to retire to a Bavarian village and dedicate himself to writing books, but more recently, he told friends he was ready to "accept any charge God placed on him.". The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. In April 2005, before his election as pope, he was identified as one of the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. On the death of John Paul II, the Financial Times gave the odds of Ratzinger becoming pope as 7–1, the lead position, but close to his rivals on the liberal wing of the church.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. On January 2, 2005, Time magazine quoted unnamed Vatican sources as saying that Ratzinger was a frontrunner to succeed John Paul II should the pope die or become too ill to continue as pope. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. A careful reading of the text will probably prove disappointing.". If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. He was quoted in the media as stating, "No great mystery is revealed; nor is the future unveiled. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. On June 26, 2000, following the release of the text of the prophecy, Ratzinger issued a joint statement with Cardinal Bertone that the third and final chapter of Mary's prophecy had been fulfilled in 1981 in a failed attempt on the Pope's life.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. In 1997, Ratzinger and Capovilla publicly stated that the Third Message was not being withheld for fears it would condemn the changes of the Vatican II council. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. In October 1987 he stated that "the things contained in [the] Third Secret correspond to what has been announced in Scripture and has been said again and again in many other Marian apparitions; first of all, that of Fatima in what is already known of what its message contains, conversion and penitence are the essential conditions for salvation". Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. A year later, the interview was re-published in The Ratzinger Report, although several statements were omitted. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. In 1984, an interview with Ratzinger was published in the Pauline Sisters newsletter and states that the message deals with "dangers threatening the faith and the life of the Christian and therefore of the world", while stating that it marks the beginning of the end-times.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. He was one of seven people known to have read the actual Third Message put into writing in 1944, and the author of the Theological Commentary on the Third Message, published with the message itself in 2000. It also depicts an organisation's personality. Until her death, Lúcia dos Santos, the last surviving of the three Fatima visionaries, was forbidden to discuss the Fatima revelations publicly unless given leave by Cardinal Ratzinger. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. In defending Dominus Iesus, Ratzinger himself has stated that his belief is that inter-faith dialogue should take place on the basis of equal human dignity, but that equality of human dignity should not imply that each side is equally correct. . They point out that Ratzinger has been very active in promoting inter-faith dialogue.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. Others also maintain that single quotes from Dominus Iesus are not indicative of intolerance or an unwillingness to engage in dialogue with other faiths, and this is clear from a reading of the entire document. The shape, color, typeface, etc. His defenders argue that it is to be expected that a leader within the Catholic Church would forcefully and explicitly argue in favor of the superiority of Catholicism over other religions. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. He said Turkey had always been "in permanent contrast to Europe" and that linking it to Europe would be a mistake.[22]. Icon (symbol / brandmark). In an interview in 2004 for Le Figaro magazine, Ratzinger said that Turkey, a country Muslim by heritage and staunchly secularist by its state constitution, should seek its future in an association of Islamic nations rather than the European Union, which has Christian roots.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). [21]. Combination (icon plus text ). The Dalai Lama congratulated Pope Benedict XVI upon his election. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. The World Jewish Congress "welcomed" his election to the pontificate, noted "his great sensitivity to the Jewish history and the Holocaust," and quoted the Pope in its press release:. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. The deliberate omission of the "filioque" clause ("and the Son") in the first paragraph [18] is seen as an outreach to the Greek Orthodox Church which has been in conflict with the Latin Catholic Church over its addition to the Nicene Creed for about one thousand years.[19].

do not use the face of a (living) person. Addressing the question that one religion is as a good as another (syncretism or indifferentism), it states, "...followers of other religions can receive divine grace, it is also certain that objectively speaking they are in a gravely deficient situation in comparison with those who, in the Church, have the fullness of the means of salvation." (par.22). do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. 4). brand standard manual). (par. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. This document pointed out the danger to the Church of relativistic theories which seek to justify religious pluralism by denying that God has revealed truth to humanity.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. [17]. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). This was misunderstood by some who mistakenly believed that the Church had previously repudiated its unique role in the world. produce alternatives for different contexts. In 2000, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith published a document entitled Dominus Iesus, which reaffirmed the historic doctrine and mission of the Church to proclaim the Gospel. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. [16].

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Shortly after his election, he told Francis Cardinal George, the Archbishop of Chicago, that he would attend to the matter. represents the brand/company appropriately. [15] His Good Friday reflections in 2005 were interpreted as strongly condemning and regretting the abuse scandals, which largely put to rest the speculation of indifference. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. [14] A report by the Catholic Church itself estimated that some 4,450 of the Roman Catholic clergy who served between 1950 and 2002 have faced credible accusations of abuse. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). In 2002, Ratzinger told the Catholic News Service that "less than one percent of priests are guilty of acts of this type." [13] Opponents saw this as ignoring the crimes of those who committed the abuse; others saw it as merely pointing out that this should not taint other priests who live respectable lives.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. [12]. should remain effective reproduced small or large. In past eras, some serious crimes by priests against sexual morality, including pedophilia, were handled by that congregation or its predecessor, the Holy Office, but this has not been true in recent years." [9] The promulgation of the norms by Pope John Paul II and the subsequent letter by the then Prefect of the CDF were published in 2001 in Acta Apostolicae Sedis [10] which, in accordance with the Code of Canon Law [11], is the Holy See's official journal, disseminated monthly to thousands of libraries and offices around the world. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . "The letter said the new norms reflected the CDF's traditional “exclusive competence” regarding delicta graviora—Latin for “graver offenses.” According to canon law experts in Rome, reserving cases of clerical sexual abuse of minors to the CDF is something new. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. [8] However, the letter did not discourage victims from reporting the abuse itself to the police; the secrecy related to the internal investigation.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. However, when the crime is sexual abuse of a minor, the "prescription begins to run from the day on that which the minor completes the eighteenth year of age." [7] Lawyers acting for two alleged victims of abuse in Texas claim that by sending the letter the cardinal conspired to obstruct justice. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. The letter extended the prescription (statute of limitations) for these crimes to ten years. Amazon.com: And you're done. As part of the implementation of the norms enacted and promulgated [5] on April 30, 2001 by Pope John Paul II, on May 18, 2001 Ratzinger sent a letter [6] to every bishop in the Catholic Church reminding them of the strict penalties facing those who revealed confidential details concerning enquiries into allegations against priests of certain grave ecclesiastical crimes, including sexual abuse, reserved to the jurisdiction of the CDF. Impossibly small. [4].

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. As Cardinal Ratzinger was Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), the sexual abuse of minors by priests was his responsibility to investigate from 2001, when that charge was given to the CDF by Pope John Paul II. Army: An Army of One. Because of these health problems, and in order to have time free to write, he had hoped to retire, but had continued at his post in obedience to the wishes of Pope John Paul II.[3]. U.S. France's Philippe Cardinal Barbarin further revealed that since the first stroke, Ratzinger has suffered from a heart condition. In May 2005, the Vatican revealed that he had subsequently suffered another mild stroke - it did not reveal when, other than that it occurred between 2003 and 2005.

    The existence of the stroke was known to the Conclave that elected him pope. In the early 1990s Ratzinger suffered a stroke, which slightly impaired his eyesight temporarily. (See also Theology of Pope Benedict XVI.). During his period in office, the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith took disciplinary measures against some outspoken liberation theologians in Latin America in the 1980s.

    In office, Ratzinger fulfilled his institutional role, defending and reaffirming official Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality, and inter-religious dialogue. He was promoted with the College of Cardinals to become to Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni in 1993, was made the College's vice-dean in 1998 and dean in 2002. Consequently, he resigned his post at Munich in early 1982. On November 25, 1981, Pope John Paul II named Ratzinger Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, formerly known as the Holy Office, the historical Inquisition.

    Of these only he and Cardinal William Baum took part in the Conclave. By the time of the 2005 Conclave, he was one of only 14 remaining cardinals appointed by Paul VI, and one of only three of those under the age of 80. In the consistory of June 1977, he was named a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. He took as his episcopal motto Cooperatores Veritatis, co-workers of the Truth, from 3 John: 8, a choice he comments upon in his autobiographical work, Milestones.

    In March 1977, Ratzinger was appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising. Until his election as Pope, he remained one of the journal's most prolific contributors. Communio, now published in seventeen editions (German, English, Spanish and many others), has become a prominent journal of Catholic thought. In 1972, he founded the theological journal Communio with Hans Urs von Balthasar, Henri de Lubac, Walter Kasper and others.

    Increasingly, his views, despite his reformist bent, contrasted with those liberal ideas gaining currency theological circles.[2] In 1969, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. Ratzinger came increasingly to see these and associated developments (such as decreasing respect for authority among his students, the rise of the German gay rights movement) as related to a departure from traditional Catholic teachings. During this time, he distanced himself from the atmosphere of Tübingen and the Marxist leanings of the student movement of the 1960s, that in Germany quickly radicalised in the years 1967 and 1968, culminating in a series of disturbances and riots in April and May 1968. These sentences, however, did not appear in later editions of the book.

    He also wrote that the Church of the time was too centralized, rule-bound and overly controlled from Rome. In his 1968 book Introduction to Christianity, he wrote that the pope has a duty to hear differing voices within the Church before making a decision, and downplayed the centrality of the papacy. In 1966, he was appointed to a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen, where he was a colleague of Hans Küng. (Later, as the Prefect for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Ratzinger most clearly spelled out the Catholic Church's position on other religions in the document Dominus Iesus (2000) which also talks about the proper way to engage in ecumenical dialogue.).

    He was viewed during the time of the Council as a reformer. At the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965), Ratzinger served as a peritus or theological consultant to Josef Cardinal Frings of Cologne, Germany, and has continued to defend the council, including Nostra Aetate, the document on respect of other religions and the declaration of the right to religious freedom. Ratzinger became a professor at the University of Bonn in 1959; his inaugural lecture was on "The God of Faith and the God of Philosophy." In 1963, he moved to the University of Münster, where his inaugural lecture was given in a packed lecture hall, as he was already well known as a theologian. It was completed in 1957 and he became a professor of Freising College in 1958.

    His Habilitationsschrift (which qualified him for a professorship) was on Bonaventure. Joseph Ratzinger's dissertation (1953) was on Augustine, entitled "The People and the House of God in Augustine's Doctrine of the Church". They were both ordained on June 29, 1951 by Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber of Munich. Following repatriation in 1945, the two brothers entered Saint Michael Seminary in Traunstein, and then studied at the Ducal Georgianum (Herzogliches Georgianum) of the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich.

    The family was reunited when his brother, Georg, returned after being repatriated from a prisoner-of-war camp in Italy. Ratzinger was briefly interned in an Allied prisoner-of-war camp near Ulm and was repatriated on June 19, 1945. His unit served at various posts around the city and was never sent to the front. He was eventually drafted into the German army at Munich to receive basic infantry training in the nearby town of Traunstein.

    After his class was released from the Corps in September 1944, Ratzinger was put to work setting up anti-tank defences in the Hungarian border area of Austria in preparation for the expected Red Army offensive. In 1943, when he was 16, Ratzinger was drafted with many of his classmates into the Luftwaffenhelfer programme. According to one of Ratzinger's biographers, the National Catholic Reporter correspondent John Allen, he was an unenthusiastic member who refused to attend meetings. Following his 14th birthday in 1941, Ratzinger joined the Hitler Youth, membership of which was legally required from December 1936[1].

    Struck by the Cardinal's distinctive costume, later that day he announced he wanted to be a cardinal. At the age of five, Ratzinger was in a group of children who welcomed the visiting Cardinal Archbishop of Munich with flowers. The pope's relatives agree that his priestly vocation was apparent from boyhood. His sister, Maria Ratzinger, who never married, managed Cardinal Ratzinger's household until her death in 1991.

    Pope Benedict's brother, Georg, a priest and former director of the Regensburger Domspatzen choir, is still alive. He was the third and youngest child of Joseph Ratzinger, Sr., a police officer, and Maria Ratzinger (née Peintner). He was baptized the same day. Joseph Alois Ratzinger was born on 16th April, Holy Saturday, 1927 at Schulstrasse 11, his parents' home in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria.

    He plays the piano and has a preference for Mozart and Beethoven. He is a member of a large number of academies, such as the French Académie des sciences morales et politiques. He can read ancient Greek and biblical Hebrew. Benedict speaks fluently his native German, and also Italian, French, English, Spanish and Latin.

    Benedict XVI's views appear to be similar to those of his predecessor in maintaining the traditional Catholic doctrines on artificial birth control, abortion, and homosexuality while promoting Catholic social teaching. He was the public face of the church in much of the sede vacante period, although technically he ranked below the camerlengo in administrative authority during that time. As Dean of the College of Cardinals he presided over the funeral of John Paul II and also over the Mass immediately preceding the 2005 conclave in which he was elected, in which he called on the assembled cardinals to hold fast to the doctrine of the faith. Before becoming pope, Cardinal Ratzinger was already one of the most influential men in the Roman Curia, and was a close associate of the late John Paul II.

    He was the first Dean of the College elected pope since Paul IV in 1555 and the first cardinal bishop elected pope since Pius VIII in 1829. In 1998, he became sub-dean of the College of Cardinals and on November 30, 2002, dean, adding also as is custom the title of Cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Ostia. He was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith by Pope John Paul II in 1981 and was also assigned the honorific title of the cardinal bishop of the suburbicarian diocese of Velletri-Segni on April 5, 1993. Born in Bavaria, Germany, Benedict had a distinguished career as a university theologian before being appointed Archbishop of Munich and Freising by Pope Paul VI, and very shortly afterwards made a cardinal in the consistory of June 27, 1977.

    The last pope named Benedict was Benedict XV, an Italian who reigned from 1914 to 1922, during World War I. He is the ninth German pope, the last being the Dutch-German Adrian VI (1522–1523). He served longer as a cardinal before being elected pope than did any pope since Benedict XIII (elected 1724). He is the oldest person to have been elected pope since Clement XII in 1730.

    Pope Benedict XVI was elected pope at the age of 78. . During his papacy, Benedict XVI has particularly emphasized what he sees as a need for Europe to return to fundamental Christian values, in response to increasing de-Christianization and secularization in many developed countries, where secular humanism is influential. At the time of his election as Pope, he was Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and Dean of the College of Cardinals.

    He served as a professor at various German universities, and was a theological expert at the Second Vatican Council before becoming Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Cardinal. One of the best-known theologians since the 1960s and a prolific author, he is viewed as a close conservative ally of his predecessor, Pope John Paul II. John Lateran, on May 7, 2005. He was elected on April 19, 2005 in a papal conclave, celebrated his Papal Inauguration Mass on April 24, 2005, and took possession of his cathedral, the Basilica of St.

    XVI), born Joseph Alois Ratzinger on April 16, 1927 in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany, is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church, and sovereign of Vatican City State. Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: Benedictus PP. On August 21, he led a mass at Marienfeld with about one million youths present. He also spoke with representatives of the Muslim and Protestant communities of Cologne.

    Benedict and his immediate predecessor John Paul II are the only two popes since St Peter known to have visited a synagogue. The Pope visited the synagogue of the Jewish community in Cologne, which is the oldest Jewish community in the world north of the Alps. There he met with President Horst Köhler, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Leader of the Opposition Angela Merkel and others, and visited the famous Cologne Cathedral. Germany (August 18 to August 21, 2005): The Pope arrived in Germany on August 18 in order to participate in the 20th World Youth Day in Cologne.

    It was his first pilgrimage outside Rome since being elected the 265th leader of the Roman Catholic Church on April 19. The Pope referred to Bari as a "land of meeting and dialog" with the Orthodox Church in his homily at a Mass that closed a national religious conference. Nicholas of Myra, a 4th-century saint who is one of the most popular in both the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. Bari, on Italy’s Adriatic coast, is considered a “bridge” between East and West and is home to the relics of St.

    Benedict made the pledge in a city closely tied to the Orthodox Church. Italy (May 29, 2005): Pope Benedict visited the Italian port of Bari and pledged to make the reconciliation with the Eastern Orthodox Church a "fundamental" commitment of his papacy.

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