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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. She added: “Based upon forensic information late Tuesday afternoon that linked the .22 handgun owned by Joseph Materazzo both to Neil Entwistle and to Rachel, we believed we had probable cause to seek an arrest warrant for Neil Entwistle’s arrest.”. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. “He was then in Worksop with his parents.”. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. He was on an 8:15 flight to the United Kingdom on that day. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. on Saturday morning, January 22.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. “He purchased a one-way ticket on British Airways at approximately 5:00 a.m. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. As we know, he was observed at Logan Airport. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. “What we believe happened next was that Neil Entwistle returned the gun to his father-in-law’s home in Carver, then made preparations to leave the country. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. Obviously the murder was effected, but the suicide was not.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. “We believe possibly this was intended to be a murder suicide, but we cannot confirm that. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. “At sometime on Friday morning, Neil Entwistle - with a firearm we believe he had secured at sometime before that from father in-law Joseph Materazzo - shot Rachel Entwistle in the head and then proceeded to shoot baby Lillian, who was lying on the bed next to her mother. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Martha Coakley told a press conference after Entwistle’s arrest: “On Thursday night (January 19, 2006), Rachel was alive and had spoken with family members. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". And he added that the family had “always been confident that the person who did this would be brought to justice.”.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. “God didn’t do this - there is evil among us.”. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. He was a trusted husband and father and it’s incomprehensible how that love and trust was betrayed in the ultimate act of violence. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. “Rachel and Lilian loved Neil very much. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). Flaherty said: “The family is deeply saddened at the arrest of Neil Entwistle.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. while a Metropolitan Police team arrived about lunchtime and left with black bin liners containing undisclosed items taken from the garage and house where he previously lived with brother Russell. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Local officers interviewed the couple from 10:00 a.m. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. His arrest followed detailed searches by two teams of officers at his parents' house. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Entwistle did not put up a struggle.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. He had been stopped around mid-day while he sat on a London Underground train at west London’s Royal Oak tube station, by officers who had been tailing him since a warrant for his arrest was issued the previous evening. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Earlier, Middlesex County District Attorney Martha Coakley - the same person who successfully prosecuted nanny Louise Woodward - explained why a warrant for his arrest had been issued and reminded journalists that Entwistle was “innocent until proven guilty”. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. The previous day, Lawyer Joe Flaherty, a spokesman for Entwistle’s inlaws, said in reaction to his arrest that it was “incomprehensible how love and trust was betrayed in the ultimate act of violence”. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. She added that Entwistle "had always been inclined to consent" to an extradition request.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. He believes he will receive a fair and proper hearing in the United States on these very serious allegations.". The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. "He's anxious that a delay may cause his late wife's family, and his own, additional distress. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. Outside the court afterwards, Yale Law School-educated Seddon - who did not indicate whether her client intended to plead guilty - told reporters: "He has consented at the earliest opportunity because he wants to cooperate with the authorities in any way that he can. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. Just a few hours later, a Home Office minister signed Entwistle's extradition order.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. At a three-minute Bow Street hearing infront of Judge Nicholas Evans, Entwistle's lawyer Judith Seddon said he had decided to agree to being returned to the US as soon as possible. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. However, he changed his mind overnight. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. Saying little else - except confirmation of his name, age, and address - he was then remanded in custody until a hearing the following day. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. At a brief central London Bow Street magistrates court hearing, he requested not be sent back to the US ”at this stage”.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Entwistle appeared in court after being arrested in London on February 9. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. In addition, DNA matching his slain wife Rachel was found on the gun's muzzel. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. However, as well as confirming that a set of keys to Materazzo's house were found in the car Entwistle parked at Boston's Logan Airport before his flight, DNA matching Entwistle was found on the handle of a .22 handgun owned by Materazzo. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Finding the house locked, he then decided to fly to England and see his parents.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. Unable to bring himself to end his life with a knife, he then got in the family car and drove to his father-in-law Joseph Materazzo's house to get a .22 handgun. Green is often associated with health foods.). He didn't call 911, but instead decided to kill himself. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. EST, he says he found they had been shot dead and covered their bodies with a blanket. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. When he returned at around 11:00 a.m.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. He told them both his wife and daughter were in bed. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. EST three days previously to go on an errand. A good logo:. They say he told them that he left his Hopkinton home at around 9:00 a.m. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. On January 23, Hopkinton Police rang Entwistle at his parents Clifford and Yvonne's home in Worksop, Nottinghamshire, England.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. EST on the morning of January 21, and boarded a British Airways flight that left at 8:15 a.m. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. Hours after their deaths, Entwistle bought a one-way ticket to London about 5:00 a.m. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Autopsy results showed the mother died of a gunshot wound to the head and the baby died of a gun shot to the stomach. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Although the murders happened on January 20, 2006 the bodies of 27-year-old Rachel and 9-month-old Lillian were not found until January 22, in the master bedroom of the couple's rented Hopkinton, Massachusetts home where the Entwistles had moved into just ten days earlier.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. English-born Neil and American-born Rachel were married on Sunday, August 10, 2003 in Plymouth, Massachusetts. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Neil Entwistle (September 18, 1978) is the husband of Rachel Entwistle and father of Lillian Entwistle and is charged with their murder. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Examples:.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. It also depicts an organisation's personality. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. .

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. The shape, color, typeface, etc. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Icon (symbol / brandmark).

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Combination (icon plus text ). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands.

do not use the face of a (living) person. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. brand standard manual). include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). produce alternatives for different contexts. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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