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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. Senator Boxer claimed that she had made the motion not to challenge the outcome, but to “shed the light of truth on these irregularities.”. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. During the debate, not one Senator, either Democrat or Republican, argued that the outcome of the election should be changed by either court challenge or revote. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. In the Senate, it was supported only by its maker, Senator Boxer, with 74 Senators opposed and 25 not voting. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. [17] Four people elected to the House had not yet taken office, and one seat was vacant.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Not voting were 52 Republicans and 80 Democrats. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. It was opposed by 178 Republicans, 88 Democrats and one independent. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. In the House of Representatives, the motion was supported by 31 Democrats. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. Because the motion was supported by at least one member of both the House of Representatives and the Senate, election law mandated that each house retire to debate and vote on the motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. At the official counting of the electoral votes on January 6, a motion was made contesting Ohio's electoral votes. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. This recount was completed December 28, 2004, amid allegations of illegal recount procedures in many counties. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Although the overall result of the election was not challenged by the Kerry campaign, third-party presidential candidates David Cobb and Michael Badnarik obtained a recount in Ohio. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". After the election, some sources reported indications of possible data irregularities and systematic flaws during the voting process, which are covered in detail by the election controversy articles.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Another permutation of this was “Anybody but Bush, Except for Kerry”, which gained popularity among disenchanted or secular Republicans, who were unwilling to vote for John Kerry. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Bush without regard to the person's record or political views. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. These voters believe that anyone put into the Oval Office would do a better job as President than George W. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). The driving force behind the movement was anger at the policies of the Bush Administration.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Bush. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. It was a group of voters who would vote for “anybody” before they voted for President George W. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. “Anybody but Bush” was an informal political movement during the 2004 US Presidential election. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. The Congressional Democrats who objected to the counting of Ohio's electoral votes relied on part on information about voting irregularities provided by observers working for the Cobb campaign.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. A statewide recount of the presidential vote was completed; however, some observers claim that the recount was conducted improperly, and illegally, and have filed a new lawsuit, which is currently pending. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. After announcing their intention and soliciting donations, they quickly raised $150,000 to cover the state's required fee and other costs. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. Two of the third-party candidates, Badnarik and Cobb, cooperated in requesting a recount of the Ohio vote (although Cobb led the effort). Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Bush declared victory the afternoon of the same day.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Nevertheless, after concluding that a recount would not change the election results, Kerry conceded defeat at about 11:00 EST that morning, and George W. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Democrats' hopes rested on the approximately 135,000 provisional ballots that had yet to be counted. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. As of the morning of November 3rd, the deciding state in the electoral vote count was Ohio, where Bush held a 136,000 vote lead. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. In Florida, for example, multiple lawsuits were filed even before the election, but few observers expected any of them to change the official result that Bush had outpolled Kerry by roughly 400,000 votes.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. These were considered unlikely to change the Electoral College result. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. In several states including Ohio, Colorado, Florida, and Nevada, there were lawsuits or other disputes about such issues as “voter challenging”, voter registration, and absentee ballots. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. Various states grappled with their own legal issues that could have affected the outcome of the vote, while both of the major political parties and a number of independent groups like the ACLU marshaled numbers of lawyers. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. Election watchers and political analysts forecast a number of contested election results in a manner similar to the Florida voting recount of 2000.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. Detractors claimed that this splitting would diminish Colorado's influence in the Electoral College, and the amendment ultimately failed, receiving only 34% of the vote. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. Rather than assigning all 9 of the state's electors to the candidate with a plurality of popular votes, under the amendment Colorado would have assigned presidential electors proportionally to the statewide vote count, which would be a unique system (Nebraska and Maine assign electoral votes based on vote totals within each congressional district). Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. A ballot initiative in Colorado, known as Amendment 36, would have changed the way in which the state apportions its electoral votes. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Not realizing that the law required the phrasing, some people viewing the ads reportedly questioned why Dean might say such a thing—such questions were easier to ask because of the maverick nature of Dean's campaign in general.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. This law was not well known or widely publicized at the beginning of the Democratic primary season, which led to some early misperception of Howard Dean, who was the first candidate to buy television advertising in this election cycle. Green is often associated with health foods.). Previously, television advertisements only required a written “paid for by” disclaimer on the screen. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Advertisements produced by political campaigns usually included the statement, “I'm [candidate's name], and I approve this message.” Advertisements produced by independent organizations usually included the statement, “[Organization name] is responsible for the content of this advertisement,” and from September 3 (60 days before the general election), such organizations' ads were prohibited from mentioning any candidate by name. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. To distinguish official campaigning from independent campaigning, political advertisements on television were required to include a verbal disclaimer identifying the organization responsible for the advertisement.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. (There was some similar activity, although on a much lesser scale, during the 2000 campaign.). Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Many such groups were active throughout the campaign season. A good logo:. Examples of 527s include Swift Boat Veterans for Truth, MoveOn.org, the Media Fund, and America Coming Together. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. Named for a section of the Internal Revenue Code, these groups were able to raise large amounts of money for various political causes as long as they do not coordinate their activities with political campaigns.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because of the Act's restrictions on candidates' and parties' fundraising, a large number of so-called 527 groups emerged. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The 2004 election was the first to be affected by the campaign finance reforms mandated by the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (also known as the McCain-Feingold Bill for its sponsors in the United States Senate). In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Proponents of computer voting say that the intent of the voter can be recorded with greater certainty and accuracy than using paper ballots. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Author Bev Harris, in her book Black Box Voting, describes in detail her opinion of the potential problems created by DRE systems.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. One of the largest manufacturers of DRE voting systems is Diebold Election Systems, whose parent company also manufacturers ATMs. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Machines which do not use a paper trail are called Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) systems. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Others said that recounts would be nearly impossible with the machines and criticized the lack of a “paper trail”, which is included in many other trivial events such as grocery shopping or using an ATM. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Many security analysts warned that computer voting terminals had a significant possibility of voter fraud or data corruption by a software attack.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. Some states rushed to have new electronic voting systems operational for the 2004 election. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. [16]. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. states could refuse to allow them to observe the elections on various grounds; for instance, a state law may require observers to be registered voters from the area. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. electoral law is largely state law, individual U.S.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. Because U.S. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. International observers faced a number of hurdles. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The OSCE is not affiliated with the United Nations. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. The move was met by considerable opposition from Republican lawmakers [15].

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. The UN responded that such a request could only come from the official national executive. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Representatives from the Democratic Party had sent a letter to United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan asking for the UN to monitor the elections. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Earlier, some 13 U.S. Examples:. In September 2004 the OSCE issued a report (PDF 168K) on US electoral processes.[14].

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. presidential election, although they had been invited in the past [13]. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. It was the first time the OSCE had sent observers to a U.S. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. At the request of the United States government, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) sent a team of observers to monitor the presidential elections in 2004. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. Kerry:.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Bush:. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. The two major parties chose to focus their advertising on these states:. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. The following is list of the states considered swing states in the 2004 election by most news organizations and which candidate they eventually went for. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. However, all the swing states are important.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. The upper Midwest bloc of Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin is also notable, casting a sum of 27 electoral votes. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. In the afternoon Ohio's Secretary of State, Kenneth Blackwell, announced that it was statistically impossible for the Democrats to make up enough valid votes in the provisional ballots, now reportedly numbering 140,000 (and later still estimated to be only 135,000), to win, and John Kerry conceded defeat. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Therefore, the outcome of the election hinged solely on the result in Ohio, regardless of the final totals elsewhere. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. That scenario would almost certainly have resulted in a Bush victory, because Republicans control more House delegations.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Bush had preliminary leads of less than 5 percent of the vote in only four states, but even if Iowa, Nevada and New Mexico had all eventually gone to Kerry, a Bush win in Ohio would have created a 269–269 tie in the Electoral College, resulting in the House of Representatives voting to decide the winner, with each state, regardless of its population, casting one vote. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Bush had established a lead of around 130,000 votes but the Democrats pointed to provisional ballots that had yet to be counted, initially reported to number as high as 200,000. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. The morning after the election both candidates were virtually neck and neck and it was clear that the result in Ohio, which along with two other states (New Mexico and Iowa) had still not declared, would decide the winner. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. As the final results came in, Kerry took Pennsylvania and then Bush took Florida, focusing all attention on Ohio.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. These three “swing” states were seen as evenly divided, and with each casting 20 electoral votes or more, they had the power to decide the election. It also depicts an organisation's personality. During the campaign and as the results came in on the night of the election there was much focus on Ohio, Florida, and Pennsylvania. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. Whether due to this campaign or other factors, the impact of Nader on the election's outcome ultimately proved inconsequential, as he received less than 1 percent of the national vote. . These voters used slogans such as, “Anybody but Bush,” and, “A vote for Nader is a vote for Bush.” A group of people who supported Nader in 2000 released a statement entitled Vote to Stop Bush, urging support for Kerry/Edwards in swing states.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. Some voters who preferred Ralph Nader's positions over John Kerry's voted for John Kerry to avoid splitting the vote against the incumbent, claiming to be choosing the “lesser of two evils”. The shape, color, typeface, etc. Opponents of Ralph Nader's candidacy often referred to vote splitting as the spoiler effect. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. While Ralph Nader and the Green Party ultimately support replacing the Electoral College with direct popular elections, both have also suggested that states instead use instant-runoff voting to select their presidential electors, which would partially address the issue of vote splitting. Icon (symbol / brandmark). For instance, a candidate who won narrow pluralities in a significant number of states could win a majority in the Electoral College even though they did not win a majority or even a plurality of the national popular vote.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Such splits are of particular concern because most states assign the presidential electors they send to the Electoral College, to the candidate with the most votes (a plurality), even if those votes are less than 50 percent of the total votes cast—in such a situation, a relatively small number of votes can make a very big difference. Combination (icon plus text ). Many Democrats blame Ralph Nader for splitting the vote in the 2000 presidential election when he ran as the candidate of the Green Party. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. Bush to win the 2004 election. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Some supporters of Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry were concerned that the independent candidacy of Ralph Nader would split the vote against the incumbent, thus allowing the Republican presidential candidate George W.

do not use the face of a (living) person. Some older party-affiliation maps on Wikipedia use the opposite color coding, for historical reasons.). do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. (This table uses the currently common Red->Republican, Blue->Democratic color association, as do the maps on this page. brand standard manual). Bush received a net gain of seven electoral votes due to reapportionment. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. Each of these states was won by the same party in 2004 that had won it in 2000; thus, George W.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. All states, except Nebraska and Maine, use a winner-take-all allocation of electors. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Red states represent those won by Bush; and Blue states, those won by both Gore and Kerry. produce alternatives for different contexts. The following table shows the change in electors from the 2000 election. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. Electoral College in 2004 than in 2000, since the number of electors allotted to each state is equal to the sum of the number of Senators and Representatives from that state.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). As a result, several states had a different number of electors in the U.S. represents the brand/company appropriately. With the completion of the 2000 census, Congressional reapportionment took place, moving some representative districts from the slowest growing states to the fastest growing. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. population is continuously shifting, and some states grow in population faster than others. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). The U.S.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. A more complete breakdown is also available, including changes between 2000 and 2004. should remain effective reproduced small or large. As of November 1, 2004, their tally showed the following:. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . The online edition of Editor & Publisher, a journal covering the North American newspaper industry, tabulated newspaper endorsements for the two major candidates. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. A partial list is given below, but it is by no means complete.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. The results produced many interesting features. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. (Polidata, 2005). Amazon.com: And you're done. They may include an allocation of absentee/early votes which were not tabulated by district. Impossibly small. These numbers are estimates based upon results collected from the 400 counties that contain a portion of more than one district.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Caveats: only a handful of states report the results by district. Army: An Army of One. The 2004 presidential election was the first following the 2001–2002 redistricting phase of congressional apportionment. U.S. In 1996, there were 110 turnover districts. In 2000 there were 86 turnover districts.

    This represents a continued decrease over recent presidential elections. Following the 2004 election, 41 districts of the 109th Congress were carried by Bush yet represented by a Democrat; 18 districts were carried by John Kerry yet represented by a Republican. House by a member of a party other than the winner of the presidential vote in the district. There were 59 “turnover” or “split” districts, i.e., those represented in the U.S.

    At 255, the President won 27 more districts than the 228 he carried in the 2000 election. Bush won the popular vote in 255 of the nation's 435 congressional districts, a 75-seat edge over Democrat John Kerry’s 180. In his successful bid for reelection in 2004, Republican George W. This was apparently the result of a typographical error, and an amended electoral vote certificate with the correct middle initial was transmitted to the President of the Senate prior to the official electoral vote count.

    New York's initial electoral vote certificate indicated that all of its 31 electoral votes for president were cast for “John L. Kerry of Massachusetts” instead of John F. Kerry, who won the popular vote in the state. It is worth noting that an Independence Party straw poll, which was published in lieu of an endorsement from that party, selected John Edwards for President, though there is no evidence to suggest that this is related to the Edwards electoral vote for President. It is not even known whether the vote for Edwards was deliberate or unintentional, although the Republican Secretary of State and several of the Democratic electors have expressed the opinion that this was an accident. Electoral balloting in Minnesota was performed by secret ballot, and none of the electors admitted to casting the Edwards vote for President, so it may never be known who the “faithless elector” was.

    history that an elector had voted for the same person for both President and Vice President. (John Edwards' name was spelled correctly on all ballots for Vice President.) This was the first time in U.S. All ten electors in the state cast ballots for John Edwards for Vice President. The remaining nine electors cast ballots for John Kerry.

    The Electoral College officials certified this ballot as a vote for John Edwards for president. One elector in Minnesota cast a ballot for president with the name of “John Ewards” [sic] written on it. Source: FEC. There, Kerry obtained 4,180,755 votes on the Democratic ticket and 133,525 votes on the Working Families ticket.
    (c) See “‘Faithless elector’ in Minnesota” below.
    (d) Candidates receiving less than 1/2000 of the total popular vote..

    There, Bush obtained 2,806,993 votes on the Republican ticket and 155,574 on the Conservative ticket.
    (b) In New York, Kerry vote was the fusion of Democratic and Working Families parties. (a) In New York, Bush vote was the fusion of Republican and Conservative parties. (August 7, 2005). Official website of the National Archives.

    Source (Electoral Vote): 2004 Presidential Election Results. Presidential Elections (May 28, 2005). Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. 2004 Presidential Election Results.

    Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. Only a complete reversal of Ohio's vote count and a new certification for Kerry could have changed the result.
    . If Ohio's votes had been deemed to have been cast, but not counted, so that no candidate had a majority, Bush and Cheney would have almost certainly been chosen by the House and Senate, respectively, under the Twelfth Amendment's procedures. With 518 valid votes cast (instead of 538), the majority necessary for election by the Electoral College under the Twelfth Amendment would have been 260 votes, which Bush and Cheney, each with 266, would have reached.

    Even if Congress had voted to reject Ohio's 20 electoral votes, the outcome would have been the same. For Vice President, 286 votes went to Bush's running mate, Dick Cheney, and 252 to Edwards. history that an elector had voted the same person for president and vice president. It was the first time in U.S.

    One vote went to Kerry's running mate, John Edwards, when one of the electors pledged to Kerry voted for John Ewards (sic) instead. In the final accepted count, Bush received 286 electoral votes, and Kerry received 251. The counting process is detailed in the United States Code (specifically 3 USC §§ 15, 16, 17, and 18). Within four hours of the objection, however, the last effective challenge to the election results ended, when the Senate voted 74–1 [11] and the House voted 267–31 [12] to reject the challenge to Ohio's votes.

    As a result, the House and Senate separately debated the inclusion of Ohio's votes. On January 6, 2005, when Congress met for the official counting of the electoral votes, Democratic Congresswoman Stephanie Tubbs Jones and Senator Barbara Boxer made an official objection to the counting of Ohio's electoral votes. The members of the Electoral College formally voted on December 13, 2004. Transcript and Video 51 million viewers watched the debate, while only 15.2 million viewers tune in to watch the Major League Baseball championship games broadcast simultaneously.

    Bush and Kerry met for the third and final debate at Arizona State University on October 13. [9] Bush attempted to deflect criticism of what was described as his scowling demeanor during the first debate, joking at one point about one of Kerry's remarks, “That answer made me want to scowl.” [10]. Conducted in a “town meeting” format, less formal than the first Presidential debate, this debate saw President Bush and Senator Kerry taking questions on a variety of subjects from a local audience. Louis, Missouri on October 8, moderated by Charles Gibson of ABC.

    The second presidential debate was held at Washington University in St. An initial poll by ABC indicated a victory for Cheney, while polls by CNN and MSNBC gave it to Edwards.[8] (BBC), (SF Chronicle) (ABC). It again focussed on Iraq and the War on Terror. On October 5, the Vice Presidential debate was held between Dick Cheney and John Edwards at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and was moderated by Gwen Ifill of PBS.

    [7] Kerry was also suspected of misconduct, allegedly violating debate rules by removing a pen from his jacket. [6] After the debate, pictures of what appeared to be a small square-shaped bump on George Bush's back lead to speculation that he was wearing a radio receiver and being fed answers. Bush replied to this by saying, “Well, actually, he forgot Poland.” Later, a consensus formed among mainstream pollsters and pundits that Kerry won the debate decisively, strengthening what had come to be seen as a weak and troubled campaign. During the debate John Kerry accused Bush of having failed to gain international support for the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, saying the only countries assisting the USA during the invasion were the United Kingdom and Australia.

    [5]. Though originally intended to focus on domestic policy, the War on Terror, questions are asked on the War in Iraq and America's international relations. The first debate was held on September 30 at the University of Miami, moderated by Jim Lehrer of PBS. As expected, these debates set the agenda for the final leg of the political contest.

    Three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate were organized by the Commission on Presidential Debates, and held in autumn of 2004. [3] [4]. A post-convention Gallup poll showed the President leading the Senator by 14 points. In the begining of September, the succesful Republican National Convention along with the allegations by Kerry's former mates gave President Bush his first comfortable margin since Kerry had won the nomination.

    Navy, and the disposition of his discharge. Meanwhile, Kerry was accused by the Swift Vets and POWs for Truth, who averred that “phony war crimes charges, his exaggerated claims about his own service in Vietnam, and his deliberate misrepresentation of the nature and effectiveness of Swift boat operations compels [sic] us to step forward.” The group challenged the legitimacy of each of the combat medals awarded to Kerry by the U.S. Bush was accused in the Killian documents of failing to fulfill his required service in the Texas Air National Guard, but the focus rapidly became the conduct of CBS News when the documents were revealed to be forgeries. This scrutiny was most intense in August and September of 2004.

    However, there was also a surprising focus on events that occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Kerry supporters attempted to capitalize on the dwindling popularity to rally anti-war sentiment, symbolized by the box-office success of Fahrenheit 9/11 in the summer of 2004. Over the course of the Bush's first term in office, his extremely high approval ratings immediately following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks steadily dwindled, peaking only during combat operations in Iraq in early 2003, and again following the capture of Saddam Hussein in December the same year [2]. Those who focused on the war in Iraq or economic issues like jobs and health care more often backed Kerry.

    Americans who based their vote on the issues of terrorism or moral values tended to support President Bush. Kerry's slogan was, “Stronger at home, respected in the world.” This seemed to indicate that he would pay more attention to domestic concerns; it also encapsulated Kerry's contention that Bush had alienated American allies by his foreign policy. His point was that Americans could trust him to be tough on terrorism while Kerry would be “uncertain in the face of danger”. President Bush attempted to focus the campaign on national security, presenting himself as a decisive leader and Kerry as a “flip-flopper”.

    Five other pairs of candidates appeared on the ballots in many states:. In accepting the nomination, he began his speech with, “I'm John Kerry and I'm reporting for duty.”. Kerry made his Vietnam War experience a prominent theme of the convention. On July 6, John Kerry selected John Edwards as his running mate, shortly before the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts, held later that month.

    Edwards finished only slightly behind Kerry in Georgia, but, failing to win a single state, chose to withdraw from the presidential race. Dean, despite having withdrawn from the race two weeks earlier, won his home state of Vermont. In March's Super Tuesday, Kerry won decisive victories in the California, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, and Rhode Island primaries and the Minnesota caucuses. Many other candidates dropped out during this time, leaving only Sharpton, Kucinich, and Edwards in the running.

    However, Kerry continued to dominate, taking in a string of wins in Michigan, Washington, Maine, Tennessee, Washington, D.C., Nevada, Wisconsin, Utah, Hawaii, and Idaho. After Howard Dean's withdrawal from the contest, Edwards became the only major challenger to Kerry for the Democratic nomination. The following week, John Edwards won the South Carolina primary and finished a strong second in Oklahoma. Clark took third place in New Hampshire, behind New Englanders Kerry and Dean.

    On January 27 Kerry triumphed again, earning first place in the New Hampshire primary. What hurt Dean even more than his poor performance, was a post-caucus rally in which he frantically yelled out the names of states and culminated with a yelp which has entered popular culture and is known as the dean scream. Former front-runner Howard Dean slipped to 18% and third place, and Richard Gephardt finished fourth (11%). However, the Iowa caucuses yielded unexpectedly strong results for Democratic candidates John Kerry, who earned 38% of the state's delegates and John Edwards, who took 32%.

    Leading up to the Iowa caucuses, Howard Dean was a strong front-runner. By October 2003, the field had dwindled down to nine candidates, as Bob Graham dropped out of the race. Nevertheless, many Democrats flocked to his campaign. This weakness was apparent in his first few debates, although he soon presented a range of position papers, including a major tax-relief plan.

    His late start left him with relatively few detailed policy proposals. His campaign focused on themes of leadership and patriotism; early campaign ads relied heavily on biography. In September 2003, retired four-star general Wesley Clark announced his intention to run in the presidential primary election for the Democratic Party nomination. Senator Lieberman, a liberal on domestic issues but a pro-war on terror hawk, failed to gain traction with the ultraliberal democratic primary voters.

    Generally regarded as a pragmatic centrist during his time as governor, Dean emerged during his presidential campaign as something of a left-wing populist, denouncing the policies of the Bush administration (especially the 2003 invasion of Iraq) as well as fellow Democrats, who, in his view, failed to strongly oppose them. The majority of his donations came from individual Dean supporters, who came to be known as Deanites, or, more commonly, Deaniacs. Dean's strength as a fundraiser was attributed mainly to his innovative embrace of the Internet for campaigning. By summer of 2003, Dean had become the apparent frontrunner for the Democratic nomination, performing strongly in most polls and leading the pack in fundraising.

    Notable in his absence was former Vice President and 2000 Presidential candidate Al Gore, who announced he would not run in December 2002. By the end of February 2003, the following field of candidates had formed exploratory committees and were actively campaigning to be the Democratic nominee:. (In New York, the ticket was also on the ballot as candidates of the Conservative Party of New York State.). Bush accepted the nomination on September 2, 2004, and selected Vice President Dick Cheney as his running mate.

    On March 10, 2004, Bush officially clinched the number of delegates needed to be nominated at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. Bush's popularity as a wartime president helped consolidate his base, and ward off any serious challenge to the nomination. [1] However, Bush's high approval ratings did not last. Bush's approval rating in the month of May rode at 66%, according to a CNN-USA Today-Gallup poll.

    Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war. On May 1, George W. The oil infrastructure of Iraq was rapidly secured with limited damage in that time. The invasion was swift, with the collapse of the Iraq government and the military of Iraq in about three weeks.

    The coalition invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003. This situation escalated to the point that the United States assembled a group of about forty nations, including the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and Poland, which Bush called the “coalition of the willing” to invade Iraq. sanctions. The stated premise was that Saddam's regime had tried to acquire nuclear material and had not properly accounted for biological and chemical material it was known to possess, potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in violation of U.N.

    The Bush administration argued that the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq had now become urgent. The next strategic target in the War on Terror became Iraq. By December, the Taliban had been removed as rulers of Afghanistan, although a long occupation would follow. Within a month, the forces of a coalition led by the United States invaded Afghanistan, which had been sheltering Osama bin Laden, mastermind of the September 11 attacks.

    Bush's approval ratings surged to near 90%. Just eight months into his presidency, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 suddenly transformed Bush into a wartime president. Supreme Court stopped a controversial recount, and became President amid bitter disputes over recounts in the state of Florida. Bush was elected president in 2000 after the U.S.

    George W. . November 2, 2004 has been nicknamed "11/2" by some liberal Democrats, meaning the "sequel" to 9/11 as some believed this day to be comparably depressing to 9/11. The Republican Party increased its majorities in both houses of Congress.

    The entire House of Representatives (435 members) and approximately one-third of the Senate (34 of 100 members) were also up for election. The final certified count showed 286 votes for Bush, 251 for Kerry, and 1 for Edwards (due to a faithless elector pledged to Kerry voting for Edwards). The election hinged on Ohio, a controversial battleground state, but at midday the day after the election, Kerry conceded he had lost the Buckeye State, and the election along with it. The popular vote election took place on Election Day, November 2, but it was not until the next day that the winner was determined.

    Bush defended the actions of his administration, while Kerry contended that the war had been fought incompetently, and that the Iraq War was a distraction from the War on Terror, not a part of it. One of the main issues was the conduct of the War on Terror. Kerry of Massachusetts. Bush of Texas, who defeated his main rival, Democratic Senator John F.

    presidential election of 2004 was won by the incumbent President, Republican George W. The U.S. Wisconsin. Pennsylvania.

    Oregon. New Hampshire. Minnesota. Michigan.

    Maine. West Virginia. Ohio. Nevada.

    New Mexico. Iowa. Florida. Colorado.

    Bush and John Kerry. Badnarik and Cobb were protesting their exclusion from the presidential debates between George W. Michael Badnarik and David Cobb were arrested in Saint Louis, Missouri on October 8, 2004 for an act of civil disobedience. A Los Angeles Times poll found that 45% of all people who voted for John Kerry voted for him because they disliked Bush, not because they liked Kerry.

    Unlike most states, the Texas legislature was unable to redistrict prior to the 2002 elections, instead having its districting imposed by a federal judge. Tom DeLay (R-TX). These gains may be attributed to the controversial redistricting that occurred in Texas in 2003, which was conceived of by Rep. Without the gains received in Texas, the Republicans would have suffered a net loss of three seats in the House.

    It was the first time for a Republican since William McKinley in the 1900 election.

      . The election marked the first time an incumbent president was reelected while his political party increased its numbers in both houses of Congress since Lyndon Johnson in the 1964 election. The combined minor-party total was the lowest since 1988. As in 2000, Ralph Nader finished in third place, but his total declined from 2.9 million to 400,000, leaving him with fewer votes than the Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan had received in finishing fourth in 2000.

      Minor-party candidates received many fewer votes, dropping from a total of 3.5 percent in 2000 to approximately one percent. The widespread support for Bush in the southern states continued the transformation of the formerly Democratic Solid South to the Republican South. As in 2000, electoral votes split along sharp geographical lines: The west coast, northeast, and most of the Great Lakes region for Kerry, and the South, Great Plains, and Mountain states for Bush. All three were very close states in both 2000 and 2004, and none gained or lost electoral votes due to reapportionment.

      Bush received a net gain of 8 electoral votes from these switches. Bush took Iowa and New Mexico (combined 12 electoral votes), both won by Democrat Al Gore in 2000, while Kerry took New Hampshire (4 electoral votes), which Bush had won. Only three states picked a winner from a different party than they had in 2000. If Bush won exactly the same states as he won in 2000, he would win by a margin of 278-260, a net gain of 7 electoral votes over his performance in 2000.

      Between the 2000 and 2004 elections, the House of Representatives (and therefore the Electoral College) had been reapportioned per the results of the 2000 Census. (excluding Alaska, which did not report results by borough/census area, but had all electoral districts but one of the two in Juneau vote for Bush). The counties where Bush led in the popular vote amount to 83% of the geographic area of the U.S. The record turnout—the highest since 1968—was attributed partly to the intensity of the division between the candidates and partly to intensive voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts by both major parties and their allies.

      Note that this is a percentage of the entire population, not of just eligible voters. population voted in the 2004 election. Based upon 2000 census figures, 42.45% of the U.S. At least 12 million more votes were cast than in the 2000 election.

      Truman in 1948. In terms of absolute number of popular votes, his victory margin (approximately 3 million votes) was the smallest of any sitting President since Harry S. Although Bush received a majority of the popular vote: 50.73% to Kerry's 48.27%, it was—percentage-wise—the closest popular margin ever for a sitting President; Bush received 2.5% more than Kerry; the closest previous margin won by a sitting President was 3.2% for Woodrow Wilson in 1916. It also marked the seventh consecutive election in which the Democratic nominee failed to reach that threshold.

      Bush, elected in 1988—to receive a majority of the popular vote. W. Bush became the first candidate since his father—George H. George W.

      Michael Peroutka (C) $709,087 / 144,498 = $4.91. Michael Badnarik (L) $1,093,013 / 397,265 = $2.75. Ralph Nader (i) $4,566,037 / 463,653 = $9.85. John Kerry (D) $326,236,288 / 59,028,111 = $5.52.

      Bush (R) $367,228,801 / 62,040,610 = $5.92 / vote. George W. Walt Brown/Mary Alice Herbert, Socialist Party. David Cobb/Pat LaMarche, Green Party.

      Michael Peroutka/Chuck Baldwin, Constitution Party. Michael Badnarik/Richard Campagna, Libertarian Party. Ralph Nader/Peter Camejo, independent (also Reform Party). Al Sharpton of New York.

      Rev. Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut. U.S. Representative Dennis Kucinich of Ohio.

      U.S. Senator John Kerry of Massachusetts. U.S. Senator Bob Graham of Florida.

      U.S. House Majority and Minority Leader Dick Gephardt of Missouri. Former U.S. Senator John Edwards of North Carolina.

      U.S. Former Vermont Governor Howard Dean. Retired General Wesley Clark. Senator Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois.

      Former Ambassador and former U.S.

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