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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. February 20, 2003. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. g1 g2. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. [24] The insurgents are known by the Coalition military (especially in the United States armed forces) as Anti-Iraqi Forces (AIF). flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. There is evidence that some guerrilla groups are organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Tactics include mortars, suicide bombers, roadside bombs, small arms fire, and RPGs, as well as sabotage against the oil, water, and electrical infrastructure. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. The militant forces have been described as a type of guerrilla warfare. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Critics point out that the regions where violence is most common are also the most populated regions. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. rotary aircraft with SAM-7 missiles bought on the global black market.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. In November, some of these forces successfully attacked U.S. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. These irregular forces favored attacking unarmored Humvee vehicles. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. In the fall, the anti-occupation groups, guerrilla units, and other elements (who called themselves "freedom fighters") began using ambush tactics, bombings, kidnappings, and improvised explosive devices, targeting coalition forces, checkpoints, and civilian targets. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". The beginning insurgency in Iraq was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to by the Western media and the occupying forces as the Sunni triangle which includes Baghdad [23].

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. The militants and guerrilla units favored attacking unarmored vehicles and avoiding major battles. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. These joined the insurgency and their attacks around Mosul, Tikrit and Fallujah. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. With the Ba'ath party organization disintegrated, elements of the secret police and Republican Guard formed guerrilla units, since some had simply gone home rather than openly fight the multinational forces. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). Al-Sadr then declared a national cease fire, and opened negotiations with the American and government forces on disbanding his militia and entering the political process.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Through the months of July and August, a series of skirmishes in and around Najaf culminated with the Imman Ali Mosque itself under siege, only to have a peace deal brokered by al-Sistani in late August. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Militia leader Muqtada al-Sadr took control of Najaf and, after negotiations broke down, the government asked the United States for help dislodging him. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. The new government began the process of moving towards open elections, though the insurgency and the lack of cohesion within the government itself, has lead to delays. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Fighting continued in the form of an insurgent rebellion against the new sovereignty, with some parts composed of non-Iraqi Muslim militant groups like Osama bin Laden's al Qaeda.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. Sovereign power handed to the interim government ended the occupation of Iraq. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Toward the end of June (2004), the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred the "sovereignty" of Iraq to a caretaker government, whose first act was to begin the trial of Saddam Hussein. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo.
. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Also, various insurgent leaders entered into negotiations with the provisional government to lay down arms and enter the political process.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Due to various setbacks, the Coalition gradually began admitting that it was facing independent organized rebel forces. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Over the next three months, the multinanational forces took back the southern cities. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. In all, April, May and early June saw more fighting. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. British forces in Basra were faced with increasing insurgency and became more selective in the areas they patrolled.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. The marines relieved the Poles and Italians, and put down the overt rebellion, but were unable to reestablish control over the centers of the towns. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. The marines were then shifted south, because Italian and Polish forces were having increasing difficulties retaining control over Nasiriya and Najaf. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. Meanwhile, the fighting continued in the Shiite south. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. By the end of the spring uprising, the cities of Fallujah, Samarra, Baquba, and Ramadi had been left under guerrilla control with coalition patrols in the cities at a minimum.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. This compromise soon fell apart and insurgent control returned. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. While the Marine Division attacking had clear superiority in ground firepower and air support, it decided to accept a truce and a deal which put a former Baathist general in complete charge of the town. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. A compromise was reached in order to ensure security within Fallujah itself by creating the local "Fallujah Brigade". Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. The Marines were ordered to stand-down and cordon off the city, maintaining a perimeter around Fallujah.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. The coalition forces were unable to dislodge the insurgents, and instead suffered repeated attacks on its own rear and flank. Green is often associated with health foods.). In the April battle for Fallujah, Coalition troops killed about 600 insurgents and a number of civilians, while 40 Americans died and hundreds were wounded in a fierce battle. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. The city of Fallujah remained under insurgent control despite the Marine's attempt to recapture it in Operation Vigilant Resolve. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. [22].

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. of white phosphorus as an incendiary weapon against insurgents in Fallujah attracted controversy. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. The usage by the U.S. A good logo:. Troops pulled back to the outskirts of the city; local leaders reciprocated the ceasefire, although lower-level intense fighting on both sides continued. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. On April 10, the military declared a unilateral truce to allow for humanitarian supplies to enter Fallujah.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. On April 9, the multinational force allowed more than 70,000 women, children and elderly residents to leave the besieged city, reportedly also allowing males of military age to leave. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. On April 4, the multinational forces began assaults to clear Fallujah of insurgents. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. After four private military contractors were killed and mutilated, preperation took place for the US Marines to take over responsibility for al-Anbar province in which Fallujah is located. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Just before the attack on Fallujah, four private military contractors, working for Blackwater USA, were ambushed and their corpses mutilated by a large crowd, receiving a great deal of media attention.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. The coalition and the Coalition Provisional Authority decided to face the growing insurgency with a pair of assaults: one on Fallujah, the center of the "Mohammed's Army of Al-Ansar", and another on Najaf, home of an important mosque, which had become the focal point for the Mahdi Army and its activities. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.
. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. The southern and central portions of Iraq were beginning to erupt in urban guerrilla combat as multinational forces attempted to keep control and prepared for a counteroffensive. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. The Mahdi Army also began launching attacks on coalition targets and to seize control from Iraqi security forces.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. An organized Sunni insurgency, with deep roots and both nationalist and Islamist motivations, was becoming clearer. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. The bombings indicated that as the relevance of Saddam Hussein and his followers was diminishing, radical Islamists, both foreign and Iraqi. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Hundreds of Iraqi civilians and police were killed over this period in a series of massive bombings. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. Terroristic acts increased during the beginning of 2004.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. In all, over 200 top leaders of the former regime were killed or captured, as well as numerous lesser functionaries and military personnel. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. [21] In the summer of 2003, the multinational forces focused on hunting down the remaining leaders of the former regime, culminating in the shooting deaths of Saddam's two sons in July. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. On 2 July 2003, President Bush declared that American troops would remain in Iraq in spite of the attacks, challenging the opponents with "My answer is, Bring 'em on," a line the President later expressed misgivings about having used. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. The failure to restore basic services to above pre-war levels, where over a decade of sanctions, bombing, corruption, and decaying infrastructure had left major cities functioning at much-reduced levels, also contributed to local anger at the IPA government headed by an executive council.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Several minor coalition members have pulled out of Iraq; this has been widely considered a political success for the anti-occupation forces. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The anti-occupation forces are believed to be predominantly, but not exclusively, Iraqi Sunni Muslim Arabs, plus some foreign Arab and Muslim fighters, some of the latter tied to al-Qaeda. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. During the early occupation, a number of widely-cited humanitarian, tactical, and political errors by United States and United Kingdom planners and forces led to a growing armed resistance, usually called the "Iraqi insurgency" (such as the mainstream media and coalition governments). Examples:. Guerrilla attacks were less intense.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. Insurgent forces reorganized during which the multinational forces' tactics were studied and a renewed offensive planned. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Early 2004 was marked by a relative lull in violence. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry.
. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. The two most turbulent centers were the area around Fallujah and the poor Shia sections of cities from Baghdad to Basra in the south.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. More insurgents stepped up their activities. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Most prominent among these was the Shia cleric Ali al-Sistani. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Shortly after the capture of Saddam, elements left out of the CPA began to agitate for elections and the formation of a Iraqi Interim Government. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. Oil revenues were also used for rebuilding schools and for work on the electrical and refining infrastructure.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. Of this, less than half a billion dollars had been spent in 10 months after it had been promised. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. The provisional government began training a security force intended to defend critical infrastructure, and the United States promised over $20 billion in reconstruction money in the form of credit against Iraq's future oil revenues. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. With the weather growing cooler, United States forces were able to operate in full armor which reduced their casualty rate. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. With the capture of Saddam and a drop in the number of insurgent attacks (an average of 18 a day), some concluded the multinational forces were prevailing in the fight against the insurgency.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Army's 4th Infantry Division and members of Task Force 121. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. The operation was conducted by the U.S. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. In the wave of intelligence information fueling the raids on remaining Ba’ath Party members connected to insurgency, Saddam Hussein himself was captured on December 13, 2003 on a farm near Tikrit. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind.
.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. 101st Airborne Division and men from Task Force 20, Saddam Hussein's sons (Uday and Qusay) and one of his grandsons were killed. It also depicts an organisation's personality. On 22 July 2003, during a raid by the U.S. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. In addition, two villages, including Saddam’s birthplace of al-Auja and the small town of Abu Hishma were wrapped in barbed wire and carefully monitored. . Surveillance of major routes, patrols, and raids on suspected insurgents were stepped up.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. Suspected ambush sites and mortar launching positions struck from the air and with artillery fire. The shape, color, typeface, etc. Coaliton forces brought to bear the use of air power for the first time since the end of the war. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. A sharp surge in guerrilla attacks, ushered in an insurgent effort that was termed the “Ramadan Offensive,” as it coincided with the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Toward the end of 2003, the intensity and pace of insurgent attacks began to increase.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). A series of similar operations were launched throughout the summer in the Sunni Triangle. Combination (icon plus text ). Coalition military forces launched several operations around Tigris River peninsula and in the Sunni Triangle. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. efforts to establish a democratic state capable of defending itself [20], versus various insurgent demands that the foreign forces leave the country. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. It centers around Coalition and U.N.

do not use the face of a (living) person. The post-invasion environment began after the Hussein regime had been overthrown. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. [19] The insurgents are generally known to the Coalition forces as Anti-Iraqi Forces or AIF. brand standard manual). There is evidence that some of the resistance was organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign terrorists. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. Insurgent tactics include mortars, suicide bombers, roadside bombs, small arms fire, and RPGs, as well as sabotage against the oil, water, and electrical infrastructure.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. This resistance has been described as a type of guerrilla warfare. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). This may be misleading because Baghdad has a low ratio of attacks per capita. produce alternatives for different contexts. Combined they account for 32% of the population. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. The three provinces that had the most number of attacks were Baghdad, Anbar, and Salah Ad Din.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Critics point out that the regions where violence was most common was also the most populated regions, but this was not entirely true. represents the brand/company appropriately. This location includes Baghdad [18]. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. The insurgency in Iraq was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to by Western media and the occupying forces as the Sunni triangle. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). According to the Pentagon, 250,000 tons (of 650,000 tons total) of ordnance were looted, providing an endless source of ammunition for the insurgents.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. In May of 2003, after the Iraqi conventional forces had been defeated, the coalition military noticed a gradually increasing flurry of attacks on the multinational troops in various regions, such as the "Sunni Triangle." In the chaos after the war, massive looting of the infrastructure, and most catastrophically, munitions occurred. should remain effective reproduced small or large. In the weeks that followed Bush's dramatic aircraft carrier landing, all types of crime significantly increased in Iraq due to the lack of law enforcement and security after the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . However, one crewmember later stated the banner referred specifically to the aircraft carrier's mission and not the war itself. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. Clearly visible in the background was a banner stating "Mission Accomplished." It was criticized by some as premature - especially later as the guerrilla war dragged on.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. Bush's landing was criticized by opponents as an overly theatrical and expensive stunt. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war. Amazon.com: And you're done. On 1 May 2003 George W. Impossibly small.
    .

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. The documented number of Iraqi civilians killed by the Coalition military forces since 2003 according to various estimates ranges from 27,295 up to 30,789 (as of December 2005). Army: An Army of One. By no means did the Coalition invasion force see the entire Iraqi military thrown against it, and it is assumed that most units disintegrated to either join the growing Iraqi insurgency or return to their homes. U.S. Army attacked. forces, and as a result the units within were both confused and further demoralized when the U.S.

    Worse, the Iraqi Army had incompetent leadership - reports state that Qusay Hussein, charged with the defense of Baghdad, dramatically shifted the positions of the two main divisions protecting Baghdad several times in the days before the arrival of U.S. Other Iraqi Army officers were bribed by the CIA or coerced into surrendering to coalition forces. Entire units simply melted away into the crowds upon the approach of Coalition troops. The Iraqi Army suffered from poor morale, even amongst the supposedly elite Republican Guard, their strength sapped after weeks of aerial bombardment.

    The only tank loss sustained by the British Army was a Challenger 2 of the Queen's Royal Lancers that was hit by another Challenger 2, killing two crewmen. Three British tank crew fatalities happened as result of friendly fire. Even with the large number of RPG attacks by irregular Iraqi forces, few Coalition tanks were lost and no tank crewmen were killed by hostile fire. M1 Abrams and British Challenger 2, proved their worth in the rapid advance across the country.

    The main battle tanks (MBT) of the Coalition forces, the U.S. Army, Marine Corps and Naval Aviation, and British Royal Air Force operated with impunity throughout the country, pinpointing heavily defended enemy targets and destroying them before ground troops arrived. Air Force, U.S. The U.S.

    The Iraqi T-72 tanks, the heaviest armored vehicles in the Iraqi Army, were both outdated and ill-maintained and were destroyed quickly, in part due to the Coalition's control of the air. The Iraqi's artillery proved almost worthless, and Iraq did not mobilize its air force to attempt a defense. Attacks on Coalition supply routes by Fedayeen militiamen were repulsed. anti-air batteries, or missed their targets.

    Missiles launched from Iraq were either interdicted by U.S. The Iraqi army, armed mainly with Soviet equipment, had no weapons that could stand up to invading forces, and managed only to stage a few ambushes that gained a great deal of media attention but in reality did nothing to slow the Coalition advance. This did prove short-sighted, however, due to the requirement for a much larger force to combat the irregular Iraqi forces in the aftermath of the war. Utilizing massive precision air strikes along with rapid ground attacks, the invasion seemed a success of the U.S., and did not require the huge army build-up like the 1991 Gulf War, which numbered half a million allied troops.

    Coalition forces managed to topple the government and capture the key cities of a large nation in 21 days, taking minimal losses while attempting to avoid large civilian deaths and high numbers of dead Iraqi military forces. According to The New Statesman this was "Located at the furthest extreme of the southern no-fly zone, far away from the areas that needed to be patrolled to prevent attacks on the Shias, it was destroyed not because it was a threat to the patrols, but to allow allied special forces operating from Jordan to enter Iraq undetected." [17]. The September attacks included a 5 September 100-aircraft attack on the main air defence site in western Iraq. The weight of bombs dropped increased from none in March 2002 and 0.3 in April 2002 to between 8 and 14 tons per month in May-August, reaching a pre-war peak of 54.6 tons in September - prior to Congress' 11 October authorisation of the invasion.

    A change in enforcement tactics was acknowledged at the time, but it was not made public that this was part of a plan known as Operation Southern Watch. began to change its response strategy, more carefully selecting targets in the southern part of the country in order to disrupt the military command structure in Iraq. In mid-2002, the U.S. Iraqi air-defense installations were engaged on a fairly regular basis after repeatedly targeting American and British air patrols.

    Prior to invasion, the United States and other coalition forces involved in the 1991 Persian Gulf War had been engaged in a low-level conflict with Iraq, enforcing Iraqi no-fly zones. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld:. Operation Iraqi Freedom — often rumored to have been originally called Operation Iraqi Liberation before being changed due to an unwanted acronym — had the following military objectives, according to U.S. (ed., the details of this are cover in this article).

    This conflict resulted in the defeat of the Iraqi regular Army and its supportive divisions. The "War of Iraq" refers to the war proper, beginning with the 2003 invasion, continuing in the occupation, and ending at the handover of sovereignty to the new Iraqi government. According to some opinion polls, the war was unpopular from the outset in many Coalition countries. efforts to establishing a sovereign state.

    In post-invasion Iraq (2003–2005), after the Hussein regime had been overthrown, activity centered around coalition and U.N. The Iraqi forces presented little resistance to the invasion. The forces opposing the coalition units were the conscript Iraqi Regular Army reinforced and strengthened by the Republican Guard and Fedayeen Saddam. The US and UK claimed that the invasion was justified because Saddam Hussein had not complied with 19 UN resolutions requiring Iraq to destroy its special weapons and programs after the previous war.[15][16].

    The United States and the United Kingdom were the two major components of the US-dubbed "Coalition of the willing" that invaded Iraq and deposed Saddam Hussein's regime. The war was between the Iraqi military and a coalition of multinational forces. The War of Iraq (2003) was the war in the Middle East country of Iraq, which resulted from the the Iraq disarmament crisis of late 2002 and began with the invasion of 2003. Sa.

    He also stated, in spite of missing stockpiles, that "the world is far safer with [...] the removal of Saddam Hussein." [http://www.ceip.org/. He stated, "the work of the Iraq Survey Group has shown that Saddam Hussein had WMD intentions, had WMD programs that did survive, and did outwit for 12 years the United Nations Security Council and the resolutions [...] in large measure." Kay did "believe that the effort that has been directed to this point has been sufficiently intense that it is highly unlikely that there were large stockpiles of deployed militarized chemical and biological weapons there". Kay went on though to say that, "Iraq was in clear violation of the terms of Resolution 1441". David Kay opened his testimony during the "Kay Report" at a Senate panel by stating "We were almost all wrong" on Iraq (a quote commonly missattributed to the later head of the ISG, Charles Duelfer,[13] [14]).

    The Iraq Survey Group later released the final ISG report which included the following points:. Kay testified on January 28, 2004 that "the effort that has been directed to this point has been sufficiently intense that it is highly unlikely that there were large stockpiles of deployed, militarized chemical weapons [in Iraq]". In October 2003, the Iraq Survey Group released the report of interim ISG findings which indicated that small amounts of weapons of mass destruction were uncovered, (including a number of vials containing biological agents stored in the home refrigerators of Iraqi scientists, for example) as well as discoveries of non-WMD programs banned by the United Nations and concealed during the IAEA and UNMOVIC inspections that began in 2002. The following countries' governments did not support the War of Iraq:.

    Concern is growing that corporations with ties to the Bush administration, notably Halliburton, which was provided no-bid contracts that many considered illegal due to their size, to be the primary beneficiaries of the execution of the war. [9] , with exceptionally poor accounting of how the funds are being spent. Critics have cited that, economically, the various engagements in Iraq has cost the United States about USD $200,000,000,000, and still costs about USD $6,000,000,000 a month. among other evidence that they believe connects this war to previous military actions.

    This includes:. Antiwar activists and opponents of the war draw direct parallels to the earlier actions (especially the Vietnam War) via several debated elements of evidence. The opponents to the wars' main rationales are, in their opinion, the "fixed intelligence" and "lack of connection to 9/11". Since the October 2005 indictment of Lewis Libby, politicians (including some of those who saw the same intelligence that was classified and used by the executive branch in America) and some citizens have begun to question pre-war intelligence and how it may have been misused in order to "sell", in their opinion, a war to the American people.[8] On the Senate floor during speeches, it was stated that,.

    By the summer of 2005, there was an increase in the number of individuals in the United States who felt the same way. Many viewed the war as improper (being a moral and ethical violation) and illegal under international law. The Iraq War was widely viewed by many critics as counterproductive. The war's unpopularity was reflected in widespread protests, including allegedly the largest worldwide protest in human history on February 15th, 2003 (eg., a day of Global protests against war in Iraq).

    According to opinion polls, the war was unpopular from its beginning in many Coalition countries. [7]. Some also posit that since the United States military has not lost a single battle, the multinational forces have removed a dictatorship, and the foundation for a new democracy in the Middle East has been set down. Zawahiri’s alleged intercepted letters).

    Proponents of the war say that "we should fight them over there, so we don't have to fight them over here."[citation needed] Others have pointed out that the insurgents are losing in Iraq (as exposed in Dr. Recently revealed US government records raise the issue that the US may have played a role in Saddam's rise to power and provided his government with weapons of mass destruction. During the 1980's, the United States was pleased with its relationship with Iraq, despite chemical weapons, war with Iran, and alleged violations of civil liberties [6]. Throughout the 1980's the United States supported Saddam Hussein as an ally in the protection of American financial and political interests in the region.

    No weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq following the invasion. Bush's 2003 State of the Union Address:. Saddam's regime's alleged abuse of Iraqi citizens' human rights and the spread of democracy was cited, as mentioned in US President George W. Leaders of the multinational coalition have also pointed to human rights issues to justify the war.

    These reasons were not those originally given (before the 2003 Iraq invasion) by the Bush administration of the United States before or after the initiation of the war, which instead included:. The first calls for war on Iraq came from the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), and the American Enterprise Institute, with arguments based largely on the disruption of the emerging modernizing Islamic Middle East, and the project of American influence into the next century. Over time, these have varied. Pretexts of the invasion and occupation as stated by the United States in 2002 before the Iraq invasion are likewise controversial factors.

    As stated in public speakings such goals have changed notably since 2002, and views differ as to whether past statements should be considered "failed goals" (or "deceptive premises") for the war. The failure of western intelligence to distinguish between these two possibilities is perceived by some as a failure of intelligence. Both critics and supporters of the war have disagreed about the validity of the rationales, and over whether the ex post facto failure to find weapons "stockpiles" indicates the destruction or transportation of such weapons prior to the war or failure of intelligence (or, by some, deliberate deceit). They hold to concepts defined largely by lessons learned from American involvement in Southeast Asia.

    Opponents of the war often hold that the current insurgency conflicts are a direct consequence of the U.S.-led invasion and occupation. To many critics, the Iraq War has numerous parallels with past wars (in particular the Vietnam War). military presence in a foreign country. Being dominantly driven by the United States various critics' eyes, the conflict is characterized by a large and dominant U.S.

    In contrast, individuals who believe that the "Iraq war" is a continuing conflict base their concept of "war" and "occupation" on more general concepts, as opposed to the definitions of the United Nations, International law, military laws, or political techniques for using language effectively. Because the United States has made no effort to estimate civilian casualities, the estimates vary considerably. A better metric to determine precisely who the war is being waged upon should compare the number of civilian Iraqi deaths with the number of Iraqi soldiers killed in the first year of the war. the operations delimited to major hostilities against the Saddam Hussein government of Iraq and limited to the 2003 invasion and the succeeding period of military occupation) rest on rationalisations which tend to disagree, in various opinions, with direct or meaningful comparisons with other conflicts, though these are largely found in stated (or perceived) goals by the Coalition for the invasion and occupation.

    The more exclusive definitions of the "Iraq War" term (ie. A derivative of this viewpoint sees much of the current violence almost exclusively as expressions of the Iraqi sectarian divisions, and characterize the occupation as democratic, and preventative of a larger civil war. Though Coalition military officials have used the capitalized phrase Iraq War in this relatively narrow sense, they, and those politically in support of the invasion and current military presence (or 'occupation') also consistently use the terms Iraq war and 'war in Iraq. Alternatively, if the term includes the subsequent military occupation of Iraq, the "War" ended with the ceremonial handover of sovereignty to the new Iraqi government in June 2004.

    According to this view, the "War" ended with the "cessation of major hostilities" between established military forces. Further definition of the term varies with usage and point of view; hence, depending on the context, the term 'Iraq War' or 'Iraq war' may refer to hostilities in Iraq that fit one of two general contexts: multinational forces"3 invasion of March 2003, and the three-week period of full-scale military hostilities between the multinational forces against the established, uniformed military forces (that is, Saddam Hussein "old" Iraqi Army). The term Iraq war is often left uncapitalized to indicate the legal informality and the lack of clarity in distinguishing among various operations and violent episodes. military forces.

    Formal declaration or not, Iraq was nevertheless invaded by U.S. In international law[1] however, an ultimatum is considered equal to a proper declaration. Constitution could only be done by Congress; the last time that Congress made a formal declaration of war was for World War II). For instance, the United States never formally declared war on Iraq (which under the U.S.

    Variance in the use of the 'Iraq war' term can be traced to basic differences in the operative definition for 'war' and 'occupation'; as well as the understanding of 'political authority' and 'sovereignty'. . The Iraq War or War in Iraq1,2 is both an informal and a formal American term for the military conflict in Iraq including the 2003 Invasion of Iraq by the United States and United Kingdom, overthrow of the governing dictatorship, occupation and subsequent military activities by US, UK and other forces.3. NewsMax.com Wires, Friday, 14 January 2005.

    ^  "President Regrets 'Bring 'Em On'". 30 April 2004 6:54 AM. USA TODAY. ^  Soriano, Cesar G., and Steven Komarow, "Poll: Iraqis out of patience".

    globalsecurity.org. ^  "Operation Iraqi Freedom Maps". Time Magazine, Thursday, 10 April 2003. could soon find itself policing an ugly brawl".

    The U.S. ^  Karon, Tony, "Why Turks and Kurds Prize Kirkuk : Kurdish fighters have captured Kirkuk and Turkey is agitated. CNN Washington Bureau, Wednesday, October 29, 2003. ^ , Dana, Bash, "White House pressed on 'mission accomplished' sign; Navy suggested it, White House made it, both sides say".

    gallup-international. ^  "Post War Iraq Poll". gallup-international. ^  "Iraq Poll 2003".

    New Statesman, 30 May 2005. ^  Smith, Michael, "The war before the war". whitehouse.gov, February 5, 2003. Security Council".

    Secretary of State Colin Powell Addresses the U.N. ^  "U.S. state.gov (Washington, DC), February 20, 2003. Powell, "Interview On BBC's NewsNight".

    ^  Secretary Colin L. An Ounce of Prevention- Looting of Munitions- Sept 2005. USAToday, 8 September 2005. speech a 'blot' on his record".

    ^  "Powell calls pre-Iraq U.N. ^  Hague Convention relative to the Opening of Hostilities, article one. Note 3: The term "multinational" in Multinational forces in Iraq is criticized due to the fact that most participating nations' troop contributions were vestigial when 98% of the invading forces were provided by the United States and the United Kingdom. Note 2: "War" is often written in lowercase, such as in "Iraq war", to indicate informal status or to distinguish its definition from the formal variant (as in "Iraq War").

    These terms are less frequently used today than "the Iraq War," "the war in Iraq," "War of Iraq," "the war on Iraq," or "Bush's War of 2003" (the last two used particularly by anti-war activists). Note 1: The conflict is also commonly referred to as Gulf War II or the Second Gulf War to distinguish it from the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Operation Red Dawn (13 December 2003). Operation Planet X (15 May 2003).

    to help the Iraqi people create conditions for a transition to a representative self-government. to secure Iraq's oil fields and resources, which belong to the Iraqi people. to end sanctions and to immediately deliver humanitarian support to the displaced and to many needy Iraqi citizens. to collect such intelligence as we can related to the global network of illicit weapons of mass destruction.

    to collect such intelligence as we can related to terrorist networks. to search for, to capture and to drive out terrorists from that country. to identify, isolate and eliminate Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. to end the regime of Saddam Hussein.

    [12]). There was "no indication [Iraq had] resumed fissile material or nuclear weapon research and development activities since 1991" (though there was extensive amount of "documents and equipment, hidden in scientists' homes, that would have been useful in resuming uranium enrichment by centrifuge and electromagnetic isotope separation"[11] and a "number of post-1995 activities that would have aided the reconstitution of the nuclear weapons program once sanctions were lifted". No senior Iraqi official interviewed by the ISG believed that Saddam had forsaken WMD forever;. Security Council member states;.

    Iraq used procurement contracts allowed under the Oil for Food program to buy influence among U.N. Iraq had intended to restart all banned weapons programs as soon as multilateral sanctions against it had been dropped, a prospect that the Iraqi government saw coming soon;. Iraq's main goal was to end sanctions while preserving the capability to reconstitute WMD production;. invasion force, in order to prevent a coup over the prospects of fighting the U.S.-led Coalition without these weapons;.

    Saddam Hussein convinced his top military commanders that Iraq did indeed possess WMD that could be used against any U.S. suitable for continuing chemical biological weapons research");. that contained equipment .. Iraq had destroyed its stockpiles of biological and chemical weapons after the Gulf War [10](but discoveries made by the ISG include a "clandestine network of laboratories ..

    Iraq. Chile. Mexico. Brazil.

    The Vatican. Luxembourg. Switzerland. Belgium.

    New Zealand. Canada. France. Sweden.

    Germany. Morocco. Pakistan. China.

    Russia. The majority of the 114 governments of the Non-Aligned Movement. evidence of fraud, incompetence, and inefficiency of the "reconstruction" (eg., Halliburton, reused MREs, etc.),. evidence of war crimes (eg., Abu Ghraib, indiscriminate bombing, extra-judicial killings, intentional targeting of civilians, etc.), and.

    lack of evidence of weapons of mass destruction,. evidence of local activity of paramilitary and militant groups (commonly known as the "insurgency" and, at other times, the "resistance"), political dissidence, and non-violent protests,. "colonize the government", blanket and unconditional diplomatic immunity for soldiers, etc.),. the colonialist character of the occupation (i.e.

    changes and conflicts in the publicly stated goals of the war and later occupation,. the sectarian factionalism,. the previous changing status of the local government,. its protracted nature, being defined by the continued dominant presence of coalition soldiers (in particular, United States units),.

    Promoting democratic self-government in the nearly-entirely autocratic Arab Middle East. That the Hussein regime had ties to al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations that posed a threat to international safety;[4]; and,. Iraqi government had failed to comply with 19 UN resolutions requiring a full accounting of its weapons of mass destruction and full cooperation with UN inspections.[2][3]. Hussein's regime produced and possessed stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction and posed a threat to the U.S.

    The reason was however obviated by the Bush administration itself, who set a deadline while inspectors were active in Iraq. The Hussein regime was in violation of United Nations demands for weapons inspections.

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