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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. Methods:. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Required components:. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Isaac Asimov, on the other hand, proposes (in his first jokebook, Treasury of Humor) that the essence of humour is anticlimax: an abrupt change in point of view, in which trivial matters are suddenly elevated in importance above those that would normally be far more important. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Heinlein proposes that humour comes from pain, and that laughter is a mechanism to keep us from crying.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. In Stranger in a Strange Land, Robert A. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. A number of science fiction writers have explored the theory of humour. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Americans visiting Australia have gained themselves a reputation for gullibility and a lack of a sense of humour by not recognising that tales of kangaroos hopping across the Sydney Harbour Bridge exemplify the propensity for this style of leg-pulling. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. One notable trait of Australians (perhaps inherited from the British) lies in their use of deadpan humour, in which the joker will make an outrageous or ridiculous statement without giving any explicit signs of joking.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Users of some psychoactive drugs tend to find humour in many more situations and events than one normally would. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. Although many writers have emphasised the positive or cathartic effects of humour some, notably Billig, have emphasises the potential of humour for cruelty and its involvement with social control and regulation. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Prominent theoreticians in this field include Raymond Gibbs, Herbert Clark, Michael Billig, Willibald Ruch, Victor Raskin, Eliot Oring, and Salvatore Attardo. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". There also exist linguistic and psycholinguistic studies of humour, irony, parody and pretence.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Puns classify words not by what lives (their meaning) but by mechanics (their mere sound). However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. A Bergsonian might explain puns in the same spirit. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. He used as an instance a book by an English humorist, in which an elderly woman who desired a reputation as a philanthropist provided "homes within easy hail of her mansion for the conversion of atheists who have been specially manufactured for her, so to speak, and for a number of honest folk who have been made into drunkards so that she may cure them of their failing, etc." This idea seems funny because a genuine impulse of charity as a living, vital impulse has become encrusted by a mechanical conception of how it should manifest itself. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). The French philosopher Henri Bergson wrote an essay on "the meaning of the comic", in which he viewed the essence of humour as the encrustation of the mechanical upon the living.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Notable studies of humour have come from the pens of Aristotle in The Poetics (Part V), of Sigmund Freud in Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious and of Schopenhauer. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Typically, the priest will make a remark, the rabbi will continue in the same vein, and then the lawyer will make a third point that forms a sharp break from the established pattern, but nonetheless forms a logical (or at least stereotypical) response. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. For instance, a class of jokes exists beginning with the formulaic line "A priest, a rabbi, and a lawyer are sitting in a bar..." (or close variations on this). There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. For this reason also, many jokes work in threes.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. For example:. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Perhaps the essence of humour lies in the presentation of something familiar to a person, so they think they know the natural follow-on thought or conclusion, then providing a twist through presentation something different from what the audience expected (see surprise), or else the natural result of interpreting the original situation in a different, less common, way. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. White once said that "Humor can be dissected as a frog can, but the thing dies in the process and the innards are discouraging to any but the pure scientific mind." However, attempts to do just that have been made, such as this one:. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Author E.B.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. Some claim that humour cannot or should not be explained. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. This is why jokes are often funny only when told the first time. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. Once the problem in meaning has been described through a joke, people immediately begin correcting their impressions of the symbols that have been mocked. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. In other words, comedy is a sign of a 'bug' in the symbolic make-up of language, as well as a self-correcting mechanism for such bugs.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Irony is explicitly this form of comedy, whereas slapstick takes more passive social norms relating to physicality and plays with them. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. Language is an approximation of thoughts through symbolic manipulation, and the gap between the expectations inherent in those symbols and the breaking of those expectations leads to laughter. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. One explanation of humour is based on the fact that a great deal of humour is a consequence of language. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. Arthur Schopenhauer lamented the misuse of the term (the German loanword from English) to mean any type of comedy.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. By comparison, the use of irony creates the perception of a passage from the serious to the comic, while in humour the opposite is true. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. For this reason humour is often a subjective experience as it depends on a special mood or perspective from its audience to be effective. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. The term "humour" as formerly applied in comedy referred to the interpenetration of the sublime and the ridiculous. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Examples of various different styles of humour, or techniques for evoking humour or creating a humourous situation are listed below.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. . Green is often associated with health foods.). For example, young children (of any background) particularly favour slapstick, while satire tends to appeal to more mature audiences. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. A sense of humour is the ability to experience humour, a quality which all people share, although the extent to which an individual will personally find something humorous depends on a host of absolute and relative variables, including, but not limited to geographical location, culture, maturity, level of education and context. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. The origin of the term derives from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks, which stated that a mix of fluids known as humours controlled human health and emotion.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. The term encompasses a form of entertainment or human communication which evokes such feelings, or which makes people laugh or feel happy. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Humour (Commonwealth English) or humor (American English) is the ability or quality of people, objects or situations to evoke feelings of amusement in other people. A good logo:. timing. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. reframing.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. hyperbole. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. metaphor. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. similar to reality, but not real. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. appealing to feelings or to emotions.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. some surprise, contradiction, ambiguity or paradox. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Exemplified by The Larry Sanders Show and Curb Your Enthusiasm. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Character Driven, deriving humour from the way characters act in specific situations, without punchlines. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Unintentional humour, that is, making people laugh without intending to (as with Ed Wood's Plan 9 From Outer Space).

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. Deliberate ambiguity and confusion with reality, often performed by Andy Kaufman. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. Anti-humour

    . The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Visual humour: Like the above, but encompassing narrative in theater or comics ,or on film or video. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. Funny pictures: Photos or drawings/cartoons that are intentionally or unintentionally humorous.

    More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. Form-versus-content humour. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. Practical joke: luring someone into a humorous position or situation and then laughing at their expense. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. Surreal humour or absurdity. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Clash of context humour, such "fish out of water".

    The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Faking stupidity. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Inflicting pain, such as kick in the groin. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Exaggerated or unexpected gestures and movements. Examples:. Slapstick

      .

      The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. Deadpan Fake stern manner. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Nonverbal

        . In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. Ridicule of self through absurdism, as in the surreally dry and bizarre comedy of Steven Wright. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. Self-ridicule, such as Rodney Dangerfield's self-deprecating humour
          .

          Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Ridicule, such as the Darwin Awards

            . While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Self-irony. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Satire. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. Sarcasm.

            This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. Parody. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Obscenity. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Droll. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. Non-sequitur.

            To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Wit, as in many one-liner jokes. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Irony, where a statement or situation implies both a superficial and a concealed meaning which are at odds with each other. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. Riddle. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Sick Jokes, arousing humour through grotesque, violent or exceptionally cruel scenarios.

            In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. Stereotyping, such as blonde jokes, lawyer jokes, racial jokes, viola jokes. It also depicts an organisation's personality. Adages, often in the form of paradox "laws" of nature, such as Murphy's law. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. Joke

              . . Comic sounds or inherently funny words with sounds that make them amusing in a language.

              should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. Pun. The shape, color, typeface, etc. Oxymoron. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Word play

                . Icon (symbol / brandmark). Understatement.

                Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Hyperbole. Combination (icon plus text ). Syllepsis (zeugma). avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. Enthymeme. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Triple and paraprosdokian.

                do not use the face of a (living) person. Figure of speech

                  . do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Verbal
                    . brand standard manual). include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a.

                    be aware of design or copyright infringements. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). produce alternatives for different contexts. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature.

                    use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). represents the brand/company appropriately. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo).

                    can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. should remain effective reproduced small or large. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

                      . is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

                      Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

                      iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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