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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. However, modern Jews prefer to play pranks on April Fools' day. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. In Judaism, the traditional day of pranks, hoaxes and mockery is Purim. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. It is believed that people should go out on this date in order to escape the bad luck of number 13. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. This day is called "Sizdah bedar" (Out-door thirteen).

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. In Iran, people play jokes on each other on April 3, the 13th day of the Persian calendar new year (Norooz). Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. The Flemish tradition is for children to lock out their parents or teachers, only letting them in if they promise to bring treats the same evening or the next day. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. This custom also exists in certain areas of Belgium, including the province of Antwerp. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. In Spanish-speaking countries, similar pranks are practiced on December 28, the Day of the Holy Innocents.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. The April 1 tradition in France includes poisson d'avril (literally "April's fish"), attempting to attach a paper fish to the victim's back without being noticed. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. They told the truth on the following week's show, where outtakes of Redknapp messing up his lines were also shown. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs.
. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". The advent of the Internet as a worldwide communications medium has also assisted the pranksters in their work.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Even normally serious news media consider April Fools' Day hoaxes fair game, and spotting them has become an annual pastime. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Many media organizations have either unwittingly or deliberately propagated hoaxes on April Fools' Day. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. Children born on this day will experience good luck in most matters, except when it comes to gambling. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). It is believed that marriage on April Fools' Day is inadvisable for a man, for he will be permanently ruled by his wife.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. It is said that one fooled by a pretty girl will later marry, or at least become friends, with her. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Anyone who fails to respond with a sense of humor to the tricks played on them is also said to be liable to suffer bad luck. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. This stipulation may have been contrived by annoyed parents and school teachers wanting a respite from a full day of pranks. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Those done afterwards are supposed to bring bad luck to the perpetrator.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. Traditionally, pranks are to be performed before noon. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. A far more natural explanation would seem to be that the April fish would be a young fish and therefore easily caught. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. This has been explained from the association of ideas arising from the fact that in April the sun quits the zodiacal sign of the fish. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. In France the person befooled is known as poisson d'avril.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. In Scotland the custom was known as "hunting the gowk," i.e. the cuckoo, and April-fools were "April-gowks," the cuckoo being there, as it is in most lands, a term of contempt. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Though the 1st of April appears to have been anciently observed in Great Britain as a general festival, it was apparently not until the beginning of the 18th century that the making of April-fools was a common custom. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. Well before 1582 when King Charles IX of France brought in the new Gregorian calendar, French and Dutch references from respectively 1508 and 1539 describe April Fool's Day jokes and the custom of making them on the first of April. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. However, it is unlikely that this explanation of April Fool's Day’s origin is correct.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Thus the New Year's gifts and visits of felicitation which had been the feature of the 1st of April became associated with the first day of January, and those who disliked or did not hear about the change were fair butts for those wits who amused themselves by sending mock presents and paying calls of pretended ceremony on the 1st of April. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. They were the first nation to adopt the reformed Gregorian calendar, Charles IX in 1564 decreeing that the year should begin with the 1st of January. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. It has been plausibly suggested that Europe derived its April-fooling from the French [1]. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. The festival of the spring equinox is there termed the feast of Huli, the last day of which is the 31st of March, upon which the chief amusement is the befooling of people by sending them on fruitless errands.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. This view gains support from the fact that the exact counterpart of April-fooling is found to have been an immemorial custom in India. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. What seems certain is that it is in some way or other a relic of those once universal festivities held at the vernal equinox, which, beginning on old New Year's day, the 25th of March, ended on the 1st of April. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. The origin of this custom has been much disputed, and many theories have been suggested, e.g. that it is a farcical commemoration of Christ being sent from Annas to Caiaphas, from Caiaphas to Pilate, from Pilate to Herod, and from Herod back again to Pilate, the crucifixion having taken place about the 1st of April. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. .

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. The day is marked by the commission of hoaxes and other practical jokes of varying sophistication on friends and neighbours, or sending them on fools' errands, the aim of which is to embarrass the gullible. Green is often associated with health foods.). April Fool's Day or All Fools' Day, though not a holiday in its own right, is a notable day celebrated in many countries on April 1. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. There have been cases when a hoax in a newspaper caused many readers to send mail to a nonexistent address, causing problems at postal sorting offices. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. That prank, repeated across many people, causes serious problems for zoos' telephone exchanges.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Fant (or various others) at a number that turns out to be a zoo. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. E. A good logo:. L. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. Lion or Mr.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. C. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. One type of April Fool's Day hoax is to leave a message telling someone to telephone Mr. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. 1 April, 2005. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. 1 April, 2004.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. 1 April, 2002. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Redknapp was being 'interviewed' on the training ground where his goalkeepers were getting to grips with bigger goals. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Using West Ham United manager, Harry Redknapp, the report claimed that the size of the goals would increase by two feet in height and four feet in length. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. The BBC's Saturday lunchtime show 'Football Focus' broadcast a piece centred on the upcoming change of the size of goals.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. Seattle area TV program Almost Live! set up a phony broadcast room and dressed actors as TV anchors to pull an April Fool's joke of legendary proportions. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. The Space Needle collapsed in a windstorm on April 1st, 1989. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. It was later announced at the Sea FM dance party that it was a hoax. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. This left a huge number of under 21s angry and frustrated, and incited protests.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. Change of drinking age: On the Gold Coast, Australia's biggest tourist destination (particularly amongst school leavers), radio station Sea FM announced the drinking age would be changed from 18 to 21. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. The station played pop songs until 7:00 am, when Stern came back on. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. Cancellation of the Howard Stern Show: The April 1st, 2004 show started off with an announcement by the station manager stating that due to increased pressure from the FCC, Viacom had cancelled the Howard Stern Show. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Shuttle landing: In 1993, a San Diego radio station fooled many listeners into believing that the space shuttle had been diverted from Edwards Air Force Base and was about to make an emergency landing at a small local airport.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. He invited his audience to jump in the air and experience "a strange floating sensation." Dozens of listeners phoned in to say the experiment had worked. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. that day. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Defy Gravity: In 1976 British astronomer Patrick Moore told listeners of BBC2 that unique alignment of two planets would result in an upward gravitational pull making people lighter at precisely 9:47 a.m. Examples:. Mainstream media (including Channel 9's Today Show) picked up the story.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. New South Wales Premier Bob Carr was also in on the joke. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Sydney Olympics: Australian radio station Triple J breakfast show co-host Adam Spencer announced in 1999 that he had a journalist on the line at the site of a secret IOC meeting and that Sydney had lost the 2000 Summer Olympics. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. This hoax can also be considered a parody of late 1990s media consolidations.). If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. New Format: Radio station KFOG in San Francisco, claiming new corporate ownership, switched to a new format - the best 15 seconds of every song! All morning they mixed in bogus calls from perky listeners calling with compliments.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. Both DJs were later jailed for creating a public nuisance. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Several police were needed to deal with traffic gridlock and enraged listeners who threatened to harm the DJs responsible. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. Free Concert: Radio station 98.1 KISS in Chattanooga, Tennessee falsely announced in 2003 that rapper Eminem would be doing a free show in a discount store parking lot. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The pair were fired shortly thereafter.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. The rumor spread quickly across the city, eventually causing news stations to issue alerts denying the hoax. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Menino happened to be on a flight at the time, lending truth to the prank as he could not be reached. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Death of a Mayor: In 1998, local shock jocks Opie and Anthony reported that Boston mayor Thomas Menino had been killed in a car accident. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. Google's hoaxes.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. April 1st RFC. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. "Uninventing the wheel" to counter the "EU ban" on right-hand drive cars. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. Marque-Wiper - mini-wipers for each exterior "BMW" logo coming as standard on all future models ,. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. SHEF ("Satellite Hypersensitive Electromagnetic Foodration") Technology, which sees the car's GPS systems synchronise with home appliances to perfectly cook a meal for the instant you return home ,.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. IDS ("Insect Deflector Screen") Technology - using elastic solutions to bounce insects off the windscreen as you drive. It also depicts an organisation's personality. MINI cars being used in upcoming space missions to Mars,. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. The "Toot and Calm Horn", which calms rather than aggravates other drivers, so reducing the risk of road rage,. . Annual BMW Innovations see a new "cutting-edge invention" by BMW advertised across British newspapers every year , examples including:

    .

    should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. China Decapitates Taiwan: In 2005, an undergraduate nicknamed SkyMirage, who was well-known in Taiwan for his humor, fabricated a series of news that China's airforce was bombarding Office of President, Taiwan. The shape, color, typeface, etc. He was charged for this incident. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The rumor, which was intended as an April Fool's prank, was started by a student by imitating the design of Ming Pao newspaper website. Icon (symbol / brandmark). The Hong Kong government held a press conference to deny the rumor.

    Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Hong Kong supermarkets were immediately overwhelmed by panicked shoppers. Combination (icon plus text ). SARS Infects Hong Kong: In 2003 it was rumored that many people in Hong Kong had become infected with SARS, that all immigration ports would be closed to quarantine the region, and that Tung Chee Hwa, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong at that time, had resigned. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. The Canadian news site bourque.org announced in 2002 that Finance Minister Paul Martin had resigned "in order to breed prize Charolais cattle and handsome Fawn Runner ducks." The Canadian dollar dropped to its lowest level in a month before Martin's office debunked the hoax. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. It should be noted that in Norway alcohol is relatively expensive and has limited availability due to government legislation.

    do not use the face of a (living) person. That morning staff were met by about 200 men & women with bottles, buckets, and other suitable vessels for carrying the prized goods. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. The inhabitants of Bergen were invited to the main store in town to receive their share of the goods, rather than spill good wine down the drain. brand standard manual). Free wine for all:The Norwegian newspaper "Bergens Tidende" announced in 1987 that the state alcohol monopoly had 10,000 litres of confiscated smuggler-wine. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. VeryCD: This P2Pweb site, one of the largest in China, announced in 2005 that it had ceased operation without specifing a cause.

    be aware of design or copyright infringements. Another year, TVM announced that Malta would adopt the European continent convention of driving on the right-hand side of the road. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). National Television Station (TVM) in Malta: In 1995, TVM announced the discovery of a new underground prehistoric temple with a mummy. produce alternatives for different contexts. Several media outlets fell for the hoax. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. The original series is widely considered to be one of the worst sitcoms ever produced.

    use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). The Trouble with Tracy: In 2003, The Comedy Network in Canada announced that it would be producing and airing a remake of the 1970s Canadian sitcom The Trouble with Tracy. represents the brand/company appropriately. The 1997 switch was particularly widespread. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. Cartoonists have done this sort of "switcheroo" in several years. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). In some cases, the artist draws characters in the other strip's milieu, while in others, the artist draws in characters from other visiting characters from his own.

    can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. Comic strip switcheroo: Cartoonists of popularly syndicated comic strips draw each others' strips. should remain effective reproduced small or large. White's position was filled by Sajak's wife Leslie. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

      . In addition to Sajak hosting Jeopardy!, he and co-host Vanna White appeared as contestants on the episode of Wheel hosted by Trebek. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. Wheel of Fortune/Jeopardy! Double Switch: In 1997, Pat Sajak, the host of Wheel of Fortune, traded hosting duties with Jeopardy!'s Alex Trebek for one show.

      Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. Write Only Memory: Signetics advertised Write Only Memory IC databooks in 1972 through the late 1970s. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Assassination of Bill Gates: Many Chinese and South Korean websites claimed that CNN reported Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft, was assassinated. Amazon.com: And you're done. This kid, known as "Barefoot" Sidd[hartha] Finch, reportedly learned to pitch in a Buddhist monastery. Impossibly small. Sidd Finch: George Plimpton wrote a 1985 article in Sports Illustrated about a New York Mets prospect who could throw a 168 mph fastball with pinpoint accuracy.

      iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Within a few hours, aluminium foil was sold out throughout the country. Army: An Army of One. Wrapping Televisions in Foil: In another year, the Dutch television news reported that the government had new technology to detect unlicensed televisions (in many European countries, television licence fees fund public broadcasting), but that wrapping a television in aluminium foil could prevent its detection. U.S. Many shocked and even mourning people contacted the station. Tower of Pisa: The Dutch television news reported once in the 1950s that the Tower of Pisa had fallen.

      Many viewers reportedly contacted the BBC to report the trial's success. Smell-o-vision: In 1965, the BBC purported to conduct a trial of a new technology allowing the transmission of odor over the airwaves to all viewers. Metric time: Repeated several times in various countries, this hoax involves claiming that the time system will be changed to a one where units of time vary by powers of 10. FBI Crackdowns on On-line File Sharing of Music: Such announcements on April Fools Day have become common.

      Intrigued readers were later disappointed to learn that sans serif did not exist except as references to typeface terminology. San Serriffe: The Guardian printed a supplement in 1977 praising this fictional resort, its two main islands (Upper Caisse and Lower Caisse), its capital (Bodoni), and its leader (General Pica). Kremvax: In 1984, in one of the earliest on-line hoaxes, a message was circulated that Usenet had been opened to users in the Soviet Union. Weekly printed an entire page of fake things to do on April Fools day, which hundreds of people were suckered in by.

      Lies to Get You Out of the House In 1985, the L.A. Taco Liberty Bell: In 1996, Taco Bell took out a full-page advertisement in The New York Times announcing that they had purchased the Liberty Bell to "reduce the country's debt" and renamed it the "Taco Liberty Bell." When asked about the sale, White House press secretary Mike McCurry replied with tongue in cheek that the Lincoln Memorial had also been sold and would henceforth be known as the Ford Lincoln Mercury Memorial. Left Handed Whoppers: In 1998, Burger King ran an ad in USA Today, saying that people could get a Whopper for left-handed people whose condiments were designed to drip out the right side. A lot of people wanted spaghetti trees of their own.

      Spaghetti trees: The BBC television program Panorama ran a famous hoax in 1957, showing the Swiss harvesting spaghetti from trees. Alabama Changes the Value of Pi: The April 1998 newsletter of New Mexicans for Science and Reason contained an article claiming that the Alabama state legislature had voted to change the value of the mathematical constant pi to the "Biblical value" of 3.0.

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