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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. So in a small area of less than 40 km in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Milano there are 3 teams that won totally 10 European Champions Cup and played totally 16 finals of the same cup!. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Few miles western at 40 km from Milano there is the city of Varese (only 82,282 inhabitants), that won 5 European Champions Cups with the Pallacanestro Varese. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. Note that the Pallacanestro Cantù, that won the European Champions Cup twice is the team of a small city of only 35.172 inhabitans, located in the Milano Metropolitan Area, 25 km north of the main city. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. Suproleague 2001 was won by Maccabi Tel-Aviv (Israel).

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. *2001 was a transition year, with the best European teams split into two major leagues (Suproleague held by FIBA, Euroleague by ULEB). Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. . The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. The 2006 Final Four will be held at Sazka Arena in Prague, Czech Republic. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. The third-place game saw Panathinaikos erase a 22-point deficit in the third quarter and go on to defeat the hosts CSKA 94-91 in double overtime.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. In the final, Maccabi successfully defended its title, defeating TAU 90-78. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. The semifinal matchups were:. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. The following teams were involved:. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". The semifinals took place on May 6, with the third-place and championship games on May 8.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. The 2005 Final Four was held in Moscow, Russia. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. The semifinal losers play for third place; the winners play for the championship. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. The Final Four, held at a predetermined site, features the winners of the four quarterfinal series in one-off knockout matches. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). In the quarterfinal round, the first-place team from each group is matched against a second-place team from another group in a best-of-three series, with two of the three possible games scheduled at the first-place team's home court.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Now, the first- and second-place teams from each group advance. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. Before, only the group winners advanced to the Final Four (see below). Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. New for the 2004-05 season was a quarterfinal round. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. As in the regular season, each Top 16 group is contested in a double round-robin format.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. The second phase, known as the Top 16, then begins. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. At the end of the regular season, the field is cut from 24 to 16; the surviving teams are divided into four groups. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. Each team plays two games (home-and-home) against every other team in its group. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. The first phase is the regular season, in which 24 teams, divided into three groups of eight, participate.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. The Euroleague is currently contested in four phases. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Most of the founding clubs came from Spain, Italy and Greece. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring.
The Euroleague was established by ULEB, the Union of European Leagues of Basketball, which in turn was created by a group of 24 elite club teams. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. The Euroleague is a high-caliber professional basketball league with teams from all over Europe.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. The titles are dated back to 1958 when the first European Champions cup was played. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. 2005 Maccabi Tel-Aviv (Israel). The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. 2004 Maccabi Tel-Aviv (Israel). There are essentially three kinds of logos:. 2003 FC Barcelona (Spain).

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. 2002 Panathinaikos Athens (Greece). Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. 2001* Virtus (Kinder) Bologna (Italy). Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. 2000 Panathinaikos Athens (Greece). Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. 1999 Žalgiris Kaunas (Lithuania).

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. 1998 Virtus (Kinder) Bologna (Italy). Green is often associated with health foods.). 1997 Olympiacos (Greece). Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. 1996 Panathinaikos (Greece). Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. 1995 Real Madrid (Spain).

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. 1994 Joventut Badalona (Spain). Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. 1993 CSP Limoges (France). A good logo:. 1992 Partizan Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. 1991 KK Split (Pop 84) (Yugoslavia).

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. 1990 KK Split (Jugoplastika) (Yugoslavia). Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. 1989 KK Split (Jugoplastika) (Yugoslavia). In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. 1988 Olimpia (Philips) Milan (Italy). A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. 1987 Olimpia (Tracer) Milan (Italy).

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. 1986 Cibona Zagreb (Yugoslavia). Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. 1985 Cibona Zagreb (Yugoslavia). Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. 1984 Virtus (Banco di Roma) Rome (Italy). The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. 1983 Pallacanestro Cantù (Ford) (Italy).

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. 1982 Pallacanestro Cantù (Squibb) (Italy). During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. 1981 Maccabi Tel-Aviv (Israel). The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. 1980 Real Madrid (Spain). The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. 1979 KK Bosna Sarajevo (Yugoslavia).

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. 1978 Real Madrid (Spain). The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. 1977 Maccabi Tel-Aviv (Israel). At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. 1976 Pallacanestro Varese (Mobilgirgi) (Italy). New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. 1975 Pallacanestro Varese (Ignis) (Italy).

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. 1974 Real Madrid (Spain). The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. 1973 Pallacanestro Varese (Ignis) (Italy). The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. 1972 Pallacanestro Varese (Ignis) (Italy). Examples:. 1971 CSKA Moscow (USSR).

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. 1970 Pallacanestro Varese (Ignis) (Italy). The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. 1969 CSKA Moscow (USSR). In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. 1968 Real Madrid (Spain). If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. 1967 Real Madrid (Spain).

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. 1966 Olimpia (Simmenthal) Milan (Italy). While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. 1965 Real Madrid (Spain). The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. 1964 Real Madrid (Spain). A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. 1963 CSKA Moscow (USSR).

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. 1962 Tbilisi (USSR). A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. 1961 CSKA Moscow (USSR). If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. 1960 ASK Riga (USSR). Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. 1959 ASK Riga (USSR).

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. 1958 ASK Riga (USSR). The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Ülker (Istanbul). Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. Efes Pilsen (Istanbul). In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Winterthur FCB (Barcelona).

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. Unicaja (Málaga). It also depicts an organisation's personality. TAU Cerámica (Vitoria/Gasteiz). A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. Real Madrid-Teka. . Union Olimpija (Ljubljana).

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. Partizan PMB (Belgrade). The shape, color, typeface, etc. CSKA Moscow. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Prokom Trefl Sopot. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Žalgiris (Kaunas).

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). Lietuvos Rytas (Vilnius). Combination (icon plus text ). Montepaschi Siena. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. Climamio Bologna. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Benetton Treviso.

do not use the face of a (living) person. Armani Jeans Milano. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Maccabi Tel Aviv. brand standard manual). Panathinaikos (Athens). include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. Olympiacos Piraeus.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. AEK Athens. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Bamberg. produce alternatives for different contexts. Strasbourg. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. Pau-Orthez.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Cibona VIP (Zagreb). represents the brand/company appropriately. Maccabi 91-82 Panathinaikos. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. CSKA 78-85 TAU Cerámica. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). Panathinaikos (Greece).

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. TAU Cerámica (Spain) (official club name: Saski Baskonia, or simply Baskonia). should remain effective reproduced small or large. Maccabi Tel Aviv. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . CSKA Moscow. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Amazon.com: And you're done. Impossibly small.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Army: An Army of One. U.S.

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