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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


This page about logo includes information from a Wikipedia article.
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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. The US Congress is studying possible reforms to the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which may in the future affect broadband and Internet services. The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. As each user must pay a fee to access the audio, this may allow royalties to be distributed to the correct recipients. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. The technology used by London's LBC 97.3 for its premium rate podcasting service may be applied in the future to podcasts which contain royalty-sensitive content such as music. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. He would appear to stop mid-sentence and restart in a different thought, because of cuts required to remove royalty-protected music.

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. One effect was to render some of Premiere broadcaster Glenn Beck's podcasts difficult to follow. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh began offering "podcasts" early in 2005, his employer, Premiere Radio Networks, tightened its editing of intro and bumper music, which it previously had allowed on other MP3 files. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. For example, when popular U.S. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. Regular radio broadcasters' podcasts (and MP3 file downloads without subscription feeds) have run into complications regarding royalties for incidental music on "talk" broadcasts, even when identical programs are "streamed." The broadcasters apparently believe companies that license the music will challenge its use in easily downloaded MP3 files, while "streaming" is closer to a broadcasting model.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. From the beginning, the use of licensed music in podcasts has been a delicate legal issue. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. Podcasting's initial appeal was to allow individuals to distribute their own "radio shows," but the system is increasingly used for other reasons, including:. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Since the release of Apple's 5th Generation iPod in October 2005, which incorporated playing video files, Video Podcasting has become a major selling point for Apple. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Known by some as a vodcast, the services handle both audio and video feeds.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. As of September 2005, a number of services began featuring video-based podcasting including Apple, via its iTunes Music Store, Participatory Culture Foundation and Loomia. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Possible solutions were proposed, including the addition of a content delivery system, such as liberated syndication; Podcast Servers;Akamai; a peer-to-peer solution, BitTorrent; or use of free hosting services, such as those offered by Ourmedia, BlipMedia and the Internet Archive. Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. Some podcasters found that exposure to iTunes' huge number of downloaders threatened to make great demands on their bandwidth and related expenses. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). Two days after release of the program, Apple reported one million podcast subscriptions.[43].

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. Apple's software enabled AAC encoded podcasts to use chapters, bookmarks, external links, and synchronized images displayed on iPod screens or in the iTunes artwork viewer. Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When it added a podcast-subscription feature to its June 28, 2005, release of iTunes 4.9[42], Apple also launched a directory of podcasts at the iTunes Music Store, starting with 3,000 entries. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. Apple president Steve Jobs demonstrated creating a podcast during his January 10, 2006 keynote address to the Macworld Conference & Expo using new "podcast studio" features in GarageBand 3. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Apple was not actively involved until mid-2005, when it joined the market on three fronts: as a source of "podcatcher" software, as publisher of a podcast directory, and as provider of tutorials on how to create podcasts with Apple products GarageBand and Quicktime Pro.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. While podcasting's innovators took advantage of the sound-file synchronization feature of Apple Computer's iPod and iTunes software -- and included "pod" in the name -- the technology was always compatible with other players and programs. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. Other broadcasters, anxious to generate some revenue to cover the costs of podcasting, may follow. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. The technology used by LBC marks a watershed in podcasting, which had been almost an entirely free phenomenon. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Subscribers get access to extra podcast channels and the use of an online podcast player similar to the BBC's Listen Again service.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. London's LBC 97.3 has launched the s first paid-for podcasting service [2]. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. That summer, when the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation locked out more than 5,000 of its regular on-air and technical staff, they responded by creating their own unofficial podcast of original programming, CBC Unplugged, which also appeared on some campus and community radio stations, including CIUT in Toronto and CFRU in Guelph, Ontario. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The entire format of KYOU Radio, a San Francisco radio station, became based around broadcasting Podcasts. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. On March 30 Sirius Satellite began playing Wichita Rutherford's podcast 5 Minutes with Wichita making him the first person who started out as a podcaster to find a home on Satellite Radio.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. In late March, 2005, the trend began to go the other way, with podcasts becoming a source of content for broadcast radio programs by Leo Laporte, Christopher Lydon and others. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. In May, Sydney station 2MBS became the first Australian community radio station to deliver content via the format, when its Ultima Thule ambient music programme was made available as a podcast. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In April 2005 the BBC announced it was extending the trial to twenty more programs, including music radio[40] and in the same month Australia's ABC launched a podcasting trial across several of its national stations[41]. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. March saw Virgin Radio become the first UK radio station to produce a daily podcast of its popular breakfast show.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. United States National Public Radio member stations WNYC and KCRW adopted the format for many of their productions. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. The CBC trial also included CBC Radio 3's Canadian Music Podcast as well as limited podcasting of CBLA's popular Metro Morning Toronto show. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Also in January 2005, CBC Radio began a trial with its weekly national science and technology show Quirks and Quarks[39], which has offered listeners Real Audio, MP3 and OGG downloads since February 1996. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. These trials were extended in January 2005 to BBC Radio 4's In Our Time[38].

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. The BBC began a trial in October 2004 with BBC Radio Five Live's Fighting Talk. Green is often associated with health foods.). While there had been experimental feeds of radio broadcast material, such as Dave Slusher's August 2004 feed of WREK programs from Georgia Tech[36], the American syndicated radio show Web Talk Radio[37] apparently became the first to adopt the format on a regular basis, in September 2004, followed within weeks by Seattle news radio station KOMO and by individual programs from KFI Los Angeles and Boston's WGBH. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Traditional broadcasters were extremely quick to pick up on the podcasting format, especially those whose news or talk formats spared them the complications of music licensing. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. The show, produced by the Guardian Unlimited and hosted by Positive Internet maintained an average of over a quarter of a million downloads per weekly episode.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. In February 2006 the first official Guinness Book of Records World Record for most popular podcast was awarded to The Ricky Gervais Show. Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. The term "poditorial" was coined by author John Hedtke in July 2005 while writing half of "Podcasting Now: Audio Your Way!". A good logo:. The term "podmercial" was coined in early 2005 by John Iaisuilo, a radio broadcaster/podcaster in Las Vegas, who promptly trademarked it. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. "Podcast" was named the word of the year in 2005 by the New Oxford American Dictionary and would be in the dictionary in 2006.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. In November 2005 the Podcast News Network was launched that focuses on news and world events to include Sports, Business, Lifestyle, Politics, Religion and World and US National News. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. On December 3, 2005 Sony Computer Entertainment America announced that the PlayStation Portable would support podcasting using the RSS Channel feature after upgrading to 2.60. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. In his keynote speech he demonstrated the video podcasts Tiki Bar TV and Rocketboom. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. On October 12, 2005 Apple Computer CEO Steve Jobs unveiled the first iPod with video capabilty.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. The Dolby encoding lasted for only a few minutes of the podcast. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. In September 2005, the first podcast encoded in 5.1-channel encoded Dolby Headphone was created by Revision3 Studios with their 14th episode of Diggnation. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. (See also Podcasting and Music Royalties.). The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Out of this demand, a growing number of tracks, by independent as well as signed acts, are now being designated "podsafe".

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The growing popularity of podcasting introduced a demand for music available for use on the shows without significant cost or licensing difficulty. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. Other approaches include enlisting a class full of MBA students to research podcasting and compare possible business models[35], and venture capital flowing to influential content providers. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. As is often the case with new technologies, pornography has become a part of the scene, producing what is sometimes called podnography. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. Awards were given in 20 categories.

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. In July 2005 the first People's Choice Podcast Awards were held during Podcast Expo. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. Apple also promoted creation of podcasts using its GarageBand and Quicktime Pro software and the MPEG 4, m4a audio format instead of mp3. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The new iTunes could subscribe to, download and organize podcasts, which made a separate aggregator application unnecessary for many users. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. In June, 2005, Apple staked its claim on the medium by adding podcasting to its free iTunes 4.9 music software and building a directory of podcasts at its iTunes Music Store.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Some experienced Internet users declared podcasting to be either nothing special (just a variant of blogs and mp3s), or already past its peak (because of growing exposure, and/or adoption by unsavvy Internet users). The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. By mid-2005, the medium had acquired backlash. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. In May 2005 the first book on podcasting was released, the award-winning Podcasting The Do it Yourself Guide, by Todd Cochrane. Examples:. Bush became a podcaster of sorts, when the White House website added an RSS 2.0 feed to the previously downloadable files of the president's weekly radio addresses[34].

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. President George W. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. Later in the summer of 2005, U.S. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. Within a few episodes, the show had all the features of a major podcast: a web site with subscription feeds and show notes, guest appearances, questions from the audience, reviews and discussion of books, musical interludes of podsafe (noninfringing) songs, light banter (sports and recreation talk), even limited soundseeing from on location. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In March of 2005, John Edwards became the first national-level US politician to hold his own podcast[33].

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. The first was the Tech Podcasts Network, followed by the Association of Music Podcasters and others. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. In February 2005, podcasting networks started to appear on the scene with podcasters affiliating with one another. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. After Dawn and Drew, such "couplecasts" became quite popular among independent podcasts (those not derived from a preexisting radio show). A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. Those Top Ten programs gave further indication of podcast topics: four were about technology (including Curry's Daily Source Code, which also included music and personal chat), three were about music, one about movies, one about politics, and—at the time number 1 on the list—The Dawn and Drew Show, described as "married-couple banter," a program format that USA Today noted was popular on American broadcast radio in the 1940s.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. The newspaper quoted one directory as listing 3,300 podcast programs in February, 2005. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. USA Today told its readers about the "free amateur chatfests" the following February [31][32], profiling several podcasters, giving instructions for sending and receiving podcasts, and including a "Top Ten" list from one of the many podcast directories that had sprung up. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Capturing the early distribution and variety of podcasts was more difficult than counting Google hits, but before the end of October, The New York Times had reported podcasts across the United States and in Canada, Australia and Sweden, mentioning podcast topics from technology to veganism to movie reviews[30]. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. On October 11, 2004 the first phonetic search engine for podcasting was launched called Podkey to assist podcasters to easily connect to each other.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. A year later, Google found more than 100,000,000 hits on the word "podcasts.". The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. The number doubled every few days, passing 100,000 by October 18. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. There were 526 hits on September 30, then 2,750 three days later. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. On that day, the result was 24 hits[29].

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. Fellow blogger and technology columnist Doc Searls began keeping track of how many "hits" Google found for the word "podcasts" on September 28, 2004. It also depicts an organisation's personality. The word about podcasting rapidly spread through the already-popular weblogs of Curry, Winer and other early podcasters and podcast-listeners. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. The first radio show to publish in this format was Web Talk Guys, produced by Rob and Dana Greenlee. . Besides scheduling and recording audio, one of the features was a Direct Download link, which would scan a radio publishers site for new files and copy them directly to a PC's hard disk.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. In 2001, Applian Technologies of San Francisco, CA introduced Replay Radio, a TiVo-like recorder for Internet Radio Shows. The shape, color, typeface, etc. Archive.org has an August 2000 snapshot of the MyAudio2Go site. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The service lasted over a year, but succumbed when the I2Go company ran out of capital during the dotcom crash and folded. Icon (symbol / brandmark). There were dozens of focused daily feeds covering national news, business news, entertainment news, even a recap of the previous days TV shows.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). The eGo's file transfer application could be programmed to pull down specific feeds to a user's PC every evening. Combination (icon plus text ). To supply content for its players the I2Go company, makers of the eGo player, introduced a digital news service called MyAudio2Go.com that created daily audio news feeds users could download to the eGo or any other MP3 player. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. A fully-conceived precursor to podcasting came from another early MP3 player manufacturer. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. Called PocketDJ, it would have been launched as a service for the Personal Jukebox or a successor, the first hard-disk based MP3-player.

do not use the face of a (living) person. Independent of the development of podcasting via RSS, a portable player and music download system had been developed at Compaq Research as early as 1999 or 2000. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. The development of downloaded music did not reach a critical mass until the launch of Napster, another system of aggregating music, but without the subscription services provided by podcasting or video blogging aggregation client or system software. brand standard manual). There were a few websites that provided audio subscription services. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. Many other jukeboxes and websites in the mid 1990's provided a system for sorting and selecting music or audio files, talk, segue announcements of different digtal formats.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. The MBone was a multicast network over the Internet used primarily by educational and research institutes, but there were audio talk programs[28]. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). Prior to online music digital distribution, the midi format as well as the Mbone, Multicast Network was used to distribute audio and video files. produce alternatives for different contexts. Prior to the Internet, in the 1970s, RCS, Radio Computing Services, provided music and talk related software to radio stations in a digital format. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. In November of 2005, they signed a Network wide sponsorship deal with Motorola.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). Reilly described his vision for the network to be the Time Warner of New media. represents the brand/company appropriately. In Feburary 2005, Australians Cameron Reilly and Mick Stanic started what was the first Commercial Podcast Network, The Podcast network. abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. By October 2004, detailed how-to podcast articles[27] had begun to appear online, and a month later, liberated syndication libsyn launched what was apparently the first Podcast Service Provider, offering storage, bandwidth, and RSS creation tools. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). In September 2004, Curry launched an ipodder-dev mailing list, then Slashdot had a 100+ message discussion[26], bringing even more attention to the ipodder developer projects in progress at SourceForge.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. The use of 'podcast' by Gregoire was picked up by podcasting evangelists such as Dave Slusher[24], Winer[25] and Curry, and entered common usage. should remain effective reproduced small or large. podcast.net). is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . In September of 2004, Dannie Gregoire also used the term to describe the automatic download[23] and synchronization of audio content; he also registered several 'podcast' related domains (e.g. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. But what to call it? Audioblogging? Podcasting? GuerillaMedia?")[22].

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. The term "podcasting" was one of several terms for portable listening to audioblogs suggested by Ben Hammersley in The Guardian on February 12, 2004, referring to Lydon's interview programs ("...all the ingredients are there for a new boom in amateur radio. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Shortly thereafter, another group (iSpider) rebranded their software as iPodder and released it under that name as Free Software. Amazon.com: And you're done. While many of the early efforts remained command-line based, the first podcasting client with a user interface was iPodderX, developed by August Trometer and Ray Slakinski and released in mid-September, 2004. Impossibly small. The iPodder idea was picked up by multiple developer groups.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. After the conference, Curry offered his blog readers an RSStoiPod[21] script that moved mp3 files from Userland Radio to iTunes, and encouraged other developers to build on the idea. Army: An Army of One. Curry and Marks discussed collaborating. U.S. CDs of Lydon's interviews were distributed as an example of the high-quality MP3 content enclosures could deliver[18]; Bob Doyle demonstrated the portable studio he helped Lydon develop[19]; Harold Gilchrist presented a history of audioblogging, including Curry's early role, and Kevin Marks demonstrated a script to download RSS enclosures and pass them to iTunes for transfer to an iPod[20]. A month later, in October of 2003, Winer and friends organized the first Bloggercon weblogger conference at Berkman Center.

    Not long after, Pete Prodoehl released a skin for the Amphetadesk aggregator that displayed enclosure links[17]. Announcing the feed in his weblog, Winer challenged other aggregator developers to support this new form of content and provide enclosure support. Lydon, a former New York Times reporter and NPR talkshow host, had posted 25 in-depth interviews with bloggers, futurists and political figures, which Winer gradually released to the feed[16]. In September 2003, Winer created a special RSS-with-enclosures feed for his Harvard Berkman Center colleague Christopher Lydon's weblog, which previously had a text-only RSS feed.

    Ed Radio scanned RSS feeds for MP3 files, collected them into a single feed, and made the result available as SMIL or Webjay audio feeds. While few developers of RSS-capable blogging software or aggregators made use of the enclosure element, in June 2003, Stephen Downes demonstrated aggregation and syndication of audio files in his Ed Radio application[15]. All that was needed for "podcasting" was a way to automatically move audio files from Radio Userland's download folder to an audio player (either software or hardware [1]) -- along with enough compelling audio to make such automation worth the trouble. Since Radio Userland had a built-in aggregator, it provided both the "send" and "receive" components of what was then called audioblogging[13][14].

    Winer's company incorporated the new feature in its weblogging product, Radio Userland, the program favored by Curry, audioblogger Harold Gilchrist and others. For its first two years, the enclosure element had relatively few users. Winer demonstrated how the feature would work by enclosing a Grateful Dead song in his Scripting News weblog on January 11th, 2001[12]. He included the new functionality in RSS 0.92[9], by defining a new element[10] called "enclosure"[11], which would simply pass the address of a media file to the RSS aggregator.

    Winer had discussed the concept, also in October 2000, with Adam Curry[8], a user of his software, as well as having other customer requests for audioblogging features. The concept was proposed in a draft by Tristan Louis in October, 2000[7], and implemented in somewhat different form by Dave Winer, a software developer and an author of the RSS format. What makes podcasting unique from other digital audio and video delivery is the use of syndication feed enclosures. The downloaded episodes can then be played, replayed, or archived as with any other computer file.

    (This is only the typical behavior of a podcatcher; some podcatchers behave—or can be set to behave—differently.). Some podcatchers, such as iTunes, also automatically make the newly downloaded episodes available to a user's portable media player. If the feed data has substantively changed from when it was previously checked (or if the feed was just added to the podcatcher's list), the program determines the location of the most recent episode and automatically downloads it to the user's computer. It manages a set of feed URIs added by the user and downloads each at a specified interval, such as every two hours.

    A podcatcher is usually an always-on program which starts when the computer is started and runs in the background. This program retrieves and processes data from the feed URI. A consumer enters this feed URI into a software program called a podcatcher or aggregator (the former term is specific to podcasting while the latter is general to all programs which collect news from feeds). The content provider makes this feed URI known to the intended audience.

    This location is known as the feed URI (or, perhaps more often, feed URL). (Unlike the episode file itself, the feed is published to a webserver, usually not by other means.) The location at which the feed is posted is expected to be permanent. The content provider posts the feed to a known location on a webserver. The feed may contain entries for all episodes in the series, but is typically limited to a short list of the most recent episodes, as is the case with many news feeds.

    This list is usually published in RSS format, which provides other information, such as publish dates, titles, and accompanying text descriptions of the series and each of its episodes. The feed is a machine-readable list of the URIs by which episodes of the show may be accessed. The content provider then acknowledges the existence of that file by referencing it in another file known as the feed. This file is often referred to as one episode of a podcast.

    The only requirement is that the file be accessible through some known URI (a general-purpose Internet address). This is usually done by posting the file on a publicly-available webserver; however, BitTorrent trackers also have been used, and it is not technically necessary that the file be publicly accessible. The content provider begins by making a file (for example, an MP3 audio file) available on the Internet. A podcast is generally analogous to a recorded television or radio series.

    In general, these files contain audio or video, but also could be images, text, PDF, or any file type. Podcasting is an automatic mechanism by which multimedia computer files are transferred from a server to a client which pulls down XML files containing the Internet addresses of the media files. Earlier Internet "push" services (e.g., PointCast) allowed a much more limited selection of content. While the user is not "pulling" individual files from the Web, there is a strong "pull" aspect in that the receiver is free to subscribe to (or unsubscribe from) a vast array of channels.

    The publish/subscribe model of podcasting is a version of push technology, in that the information provider chooses which files to offer in a feed and the subscriber chooses among available feed channels. As use of RSS enclosures for video spread in 2005, podcasting of video data was called, among other things, "video blogging", "video podcasting", "vlogging", "vodcasting", or "vidcasting". Podcasting as a medium was first associated with, but never limited to, audio data. Other terms have been suggested, but had shortcomings -- "audioblogging," "audio magazines" and "webcasting" could describe other forms of media distribution, and "rsscasting," would be difficult to pronounce.

    Another Apple rival in the portable audio and video market, Creative Technology, began using the "Personal On Demand" interpretation, while offering its own "Zencasts."[6]. [3] The "Personal On Demand" interpretation was in international circulation as early as October 2004.[4] In July 2005, Microsoft blogger Robert Scoble mentioned that interpretation while countering reports that his company was pushing the word "blogcasting" to avoid mentioning an Apple product.[5] "Blogcasting" also implied content based on, or similar in format to, blogs, which was not always the case. From the beginning various writers suggested other names or alternative interpretations of the letters "P-O-D." Technology writer Doc Searls had proposed "Personal Option Digital" in September, 2004. The editors of the New Oxford American Dictionary declared "podcasting" the 2005 word of the year in December, defining the term as "a digital recording of a radio broadcast or similar program, made available on the Internet for downloading to a personal audio player".[2].

    However, the use of the "pod" name in 2004 probably played a part [1] in Apple's development of podcasting products and services in 2005, further linking the device and the activity in the news media. The name association came about simply because Apple Computer's iPod was the best-selling portable digital audio player when podcasting began and was used by early practitioners. Neither podcasting nor listening to podcasts requires an iPod or other portable player, and no over-the-air broadcasting is required. "Podcasting" is a portmanteau word coined in 2004 (see "History" below), that combined two words: "iPod" and "broadcasting.".

    (This difference may make a podcast legally distinct from a webcast or streamed media file.). Although streamed programs, like broadcast radio signals, can be recorded or captured by the receiver, their transient nature distinguishes them from podcast episodes, which arrive already in archived form. Unlike podcasts, streaming also can be used to broadcast live events over the Internet at the moment they occur. The ability to "aggregate" programs from multiple sources is a major part of the attraction of podcast-listening.

    "Streaming" files from the Internet can remove the specified-time restriction, but still offers only one source at a time, and requires the user to be connected to the Internet while playing the files. One easy way to find podcasts is to use the Podcast Directory in iTunes; these automatically-updated podcasts can then be easily synchronised to your iPod for offline listening. While podcasts are gaining ground on personal sites and blogs, they're not yet widespread. In contrast, traditional broadcasting provides only one source at a time, and the time is broadcaster-specified.

    Subscribing to podcasts allows a user to collect programs from a variety of sources for listening or viewing offline at whatever time and place is convenient. . Podcasting's essence is about creating content (audio or video) for an audience that wants to listen when they want, where they want, and how they want. Other "pod-" derived neologisms include "podcasters" for individuals or organizations offering feeds, and "podcatchers" for special RSS aggregators with the ability to transfer the files to media player software or hardware.

    Use of "podcast" to describe both audio and video feeds seemed natural to some users, while others preferred to reserve the word for audio and coin new terms for video subscriptions. In fact, any file with a URL, including still images and text, can be delivered as an enclosure. While the name was primarily associated with audio subscriptions in 2004, the RSS enclosure syndication technique had been used with video files since 2001, before portable video players were widely available. Podcasters' websites also may offer direct download of their files, but the subscription feed of automatically delivered new content is what distinguishes a podcast from a simple download or real-time streaming (see below).

    A podcast is a web feed of audio or video files placed on the Internet for anyone to subscribe to, and also the content of that feed. Podcasting is the distribution of audio or video files, such as radio programs or music videos, over the internet using RSS syndication for listening on mobile devices and personal computers. It documents community policing (CAPS) success stories. Law enforcement: The Chicago Police Department has a free video podcast of its half-hour weekly news magazine called "CrimeWatch," which airs on local TV.

    Public libraries can podcast local publications free of Copyright, offering spoken word alternatives to the visually impaired. Academic journal digests: The Society of Critical Care Medicine has a podcast used to update clinicians with summaries of important articles, as well as interviews[50]. Hong Kong's South China Morning Post was the first to use its own website and the first in Asia, having launched on April 19, 2005[49]. The San Franciso Chronicle is believed to be the first major daily newspaper to start podcasting using an external website[48], in Feb 2005.

    Newspapers use podcasts to brodcast audio content from print interviews and drive traffic to their websites. Newspapers. Podcasting has become a way for youth media organizations, such as Youth Radio (Youth Radio site), to bring youth perspectives to a wider audience. Youth media.

    The 5,500 locked out staff (editors, journalists, technicians, hosts, etc.) of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation were podcasting news and other programming during August and September of 2005. Advocacy. Podcasts can be packaged to alert attendees to agendas, hosted roundtables and daily feedback. Conference and meeting alerts.

    The Cubscast founders also formed the first city-specific sports podcast network, hosting one podcast for each major Chicago team at Chicagosportscasts.com. Pioneers include Cubscast. In 2005, unofficial podcasts for major sports teams launched, providing fans both in and outside of the teams' direct broadcast areas with on-demand commentary. Sports.

    Other television shows have since followed suit. Moore creates commentary podcasts for each new episode of Battlestar Galactica (download audio commentary). Battlestar Galactica writer and executive producer Ronald D. Television commentary.

    (transcript & audio). American astronaut Steve Robinson claimed the first podcast from space during the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-114 - although there was no subscription feed, merely an audio file that required manual downloading. On 7 August 2005. Communication from space.

    Official cultural or historic audio tours of cities ([audisseyguides]). Unofficial audio tours of museums (musecast)[47]. Porncasting and podnography are sometimes used to refer to pornography in podcasts. Pornography.

    Disciples with Microphones provides podcasts relating to the Catholic church[46]. Many churches produce podcasts of talks and sermons. Godcasting has been used by many religious groups [45]. Religion.

    In the U.S., both major political parties have various podcasts, as do numerous politicians. Politics. In the second half of 2005, a Communication Studies course at the University of Western Australia (iGeneration: Digital Communication and Participatory Culture) used student-created podcasts as the main assessment item. In 2004 Musselburgh Grammar School pioneered podcast lessons with foreign language audio revision and homework [44], other pioneers include The Room 208 Podcast, Radio WillowWeb, and Room 613 Talk.

    Education. For example, Wikinews began to podcast its News Briefs in 2005. A way for news organizations to distribute audio as an addition to their existing text (or mostly text) news products. A way for people and organizations to avoid regulatory bodies, such as the British Ofcom, that would not allow a program to be broadcast in traditional media.

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