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Logo

A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. The shape, color, typeface, etc. should be distinctly different from others in a similar market.

Overview

The former United Airlines logo is an emblem and a name.

A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. It also depicts an organisation's personality.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes.

The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset.

A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype.

While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo.

Brand slogans

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign.

Examples:

  • U.S. Army: An Army of One.
  • iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Impossibly small.
  • Amazon.com: And you're done.
  • BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV.
  • Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor.

History

The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted.

The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype.

Logos today

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent.

Logo design

Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often.

A good logo:

  • is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers
  • is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity
    • should remain effective reproduced small or large
    • can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone.
    • may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo)
  • abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity
  • represents the brand/company appropriately

Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Green is often associated with health foods.)

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc.

Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:

  • use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry)
  • avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature
  • produce alternatives for different contexts
  • design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives)
  • be aware of design or copyright infringements
  • include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. brand standard manual)
  • do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature
  • do not use the face of a (living) person
  • avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands
  • avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke

There are essentially three kinds of logos:

  • Combination (icon plus text )
  • Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text)
  • Icon (symbol / brandmark)

Examples

The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color.

Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company.

There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line.

Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company).

Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer.

An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field.

Logos in subvertising

This section is a stub. You can help by adding to it. AdBusters corporate flag

The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos.

Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising.

The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters.

See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication.


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See also Culture jamming, Guerrilla communication. In the song "Internet Going Nutz", Texas rapper Paul Wall sings: "So I log on to the Facebook, I'm tryin' to find me a good look I'm lookin for a lil' one night love, I throw the bait and they bite the hook.". The best-known organizations subverting established logos and brands are ®™ark and AdBusters. Facebook has also been mentioned in other songs. Virtually all distinctive design elements related to brands or logos can become subjects to subvertising. In early 2006 a group of students at Cambridge University produced "The Facebook Song". flag with the white stars replaced with major corporate logos. In 2005 Nsami wrote and performed "Facebook Livin".

Another example is the AdBusters' corporate flag, a U.S. Various songs have been written about Facebook. Perhaps the best known example of a logo "hijacked" this way is the Swooshtika. According to Facebook spokesperson Chris Hughes, "In the past, we have removed profiles as soon as we were made aware of the student's death, but we are now re-evaluating the policy in light of numerous requests to the contrary from users." [33]. The wide recognition the most famous logos receive provides the brand's critics with the possibility of meme-hacking, a process also known as subvertising, turning the marketing message carried by the logo (either in its pristine form, or subtly altered) into a vehicle for an alternative message, frequently highly critical to the brand in question. This particular phenomenon has been documented at a number of schools, including Louisiana State University, University of Wisconsin, University of Texas, Western Illinois University, University of Missouri, Kansas City, Tufts University, University of Virginia, and Boston University. Perhaps the most famous (and possibly the oldest) of these is the emblem of the Olympic Games: the Olympic Rings, five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. Generally, students will leave messages of sadness, grief or hope on the Wall of the individual, transforming its role into one of a public book of condolences.

And, logos don't have to represent commercial enterprises to be well-known. This particular phenomenon is nameless, though it may be referred to as digital mourning. Note also, the right pointing arrow in the new logo is a subliminal hint of motion. A notable ancillary effect of social networking websites, particularly Facebook, is the abilitiy for participants to mourn publicly for a passed individual. Besides creating a much stronger, shorter brand name, they reduced the amount of color used on vehicles (planes, trucks) and saved hundreds of thousands of dollars in paint costs. At East Lansing High School, MI, many students were threatened with disciplinary action for joining a Facebook group about how much they hate the principal.[citation needed] Other schools, such as The Bullis School, MD, have threatened students with suspension for simply being members of the site under the Bullis School's name.[citation needed]. An interesting case is the refinement of the FedEx logo, where the brand consultants convinced the company to shorten their corporate name and logo from "Federal Express" to the popular abbreviation "Fed Ex". Some schools have even gone as far as to suspend students that are members of Facebook hate groups towards peers or staff members.

Some famous examples of his work were the UPS package with a string (updated in March 2003) IBM, Goodwill Industries and NeXT Computer. Many highschools across the United States have blocked access to Facebook on all school computers after students have started anti-school groups like the notorious School Sucks group. However, Paul Rand is considered the father of corporate identity and his work has been seminal in launching this field. The site forces use of UNM credentials (e.g., NetID or email address) for non-UNM business.". Corporate identities today are often developed by large firms who specialize in this type of work. The site is in violation of UNM's Acceptable Computer Use Policy for abusing computing resources (e.g., spamming, trademark infringement, etc.). He hired a young student (Caroline Davidson) to design his logo, paying her $35 for what has become one of the best known marks in the world (she was later compensated again by the company). UNM, in a message to students who tried to access the site from the UNM network, wrote, "This site is temporarily unavailable while UNM and the site owners work out procedural issues.

When Phil Knight started Nike, he was hoping to find a mark as recognizable as the Adidas stripes, which also provided reinforcement to the shoe. [32] After a UNM user signed into Facebook from off campus, a message from Facebook said, "We are working with the UNM administration to lift the block and have explained that it was instituted based on erroneous information, but they have not yet committed to restore your access.". Other logos that are recognized globally: the Nike "Swoosh" and the adidas "Three stripes" are two well-known brands that are defined by their corporate logo. The University of New Mexico in October 2005 blocked access to Facebook from UNM campus computers and networks, citing unsolicited e-mails and a similar site called UNM Facebook. Automotive brands can be summed up simply with their corporate logo- from the Chevrolet "Bow Tie" mark to the circle marks of VW, Mercedes and BMW, to the interlocking "RR" of Rolls-Royce each has stood for a brand and clearly differentiated the product line. [31]. There are some other logos that must be mentioned when evaluating what the mark means to the consumer. A counter-activist group called Pro-Test has warned students not to support the lab's construction on Facebook as they believe ALF is monitoring the site.

What started as International Business Machines is now just "IBM" and the color blue has been a signature in their unifying campaign as they have moved to become an IT services company. Militant members of the Animal Liberation Front in Britain appear to have threatened students at Oxford who support the university's proposed South Parks laboratory saying they are legitimate targets for attack. IBM, also known as "Big Blue" has simplified their logo over the years, and their name. [30]. Coca Cola's script is known the world over, but is best associated with the color red; its main competitor, Pepsi has taken the color blue, although they have abandoned their script logo. publically displayed the profiles of students at Yale who had made comments about homosexuality in an effort to show evidence of homophobia at the school. Other well-known examples are: Apple Computer, Inc.'s apple with a bite out of it started out as a rainbow of color, and has been reduced to a single color without any loss of recognition. A group calling itself Performing Politics, Inc.

The logotype will be recognized from afar because of its shape and its yellow color. [29]. The same will be true when one is looking at the airport for the booth of the Hertz Rent-A-Car company. Students who are related to politicians or other public figures have had screenshots of their profiles or photo albulms taken and shared in an attempt to embarrass their relatives. For example, a box of Kellogg's cereals will be easily recognized in a supermarket's shelf from a certain distance, due to its unique typography and distinctive red coloring. [28]. Due to the design, the color, the shape, and eventually additional elements of the logotype, each one can easily be differentiated from other logotypes. Whether or not this practice is common is unknown, but students looking for jobs should be aware that information posted on Facebook is potentially accessible to employers with faculty or alumni accounts.

In the next table, the name of these companies is shown in their specific design, their logotype. It has been rumored that employers are looking at Facebook profiles of prospective employees or interns. In these examples, recognizing the companies entails reading the name. [15]. The following table shows the names of six well-known companies in the same typeface in all cases. The police found only cake, no alcohol, and later claimed the dorm raid had been triggered by a noise complaint. There are essentially three kinds of logos:. [14] In one case at George Washington University, shown at CakeParty.org, students advertised their party and were raided by campus police.

When designing (or commissioning) a logo, practices to encourage are:. In response to the monitoring, some students have begun to submit "red herring" party listings. Conversely, cool colors (blue, purple) are associated with lightness and weightlessness, thus many diet products have a light blue integrated into the logo. For example:. Warm colors (red, orange, yellow) are linked to hot food and thus can be seen integrated into many fast food logos. Students who violate these policies may be discovered through photographs of illicit drinking behavior, membership in drinking-related groups, or party information posted on the Facebook website. Color is also useful for linking certain types of products with a brand. It has become increasingly common for colleges and universities to use Facebook to investigate underage drinking and violations of dry campus policies.

For other brands, more subdued tones and lower saturation can communicate dependability, quality, relaxation, etc. Facebook's Terms of Use specify that "the website is available for your personal, noncommercial use only," misleading some to believe that college administrators and police may not use the site for conducting investigations. Green is often associated with health foods.). The information students provide on Facebook has been used in investigations by university and local police. Red, white, and blue are often used in logos for companies that want to project patriotic feelings. Contrary to these rumors, we are not harvesting data for the CIA or any other group." [10]. Loud colors, such as red, that are meant to attract the attention of drivers on freeways are appropriate for companies that require such attention. In addition to assuring the removal of the opt-in features, he also denied any data mining, saying "we have absolutely no relationship with any government agency.

Some colors are associated with certain emotions that the designer wants to convey (e.g. He said that the Facebook "used to have a couple features on the site that aren’t still there, such as collecting users’ away messages from AIM (if they said they wanted it) and displaying mentions of their names in campus newspapers (again, upon request)". Color is important to the brand recognition, but should not be an integral component to the logo design, which would conflict with its functionality. In response to these concerns, on January 16, 2006, Chris Hughes (Facebook's spokesman), stated that the above clause related to the collection of information would not be included in a new version of the privacy policy. A good logo:. This information is gathered regardless of your use of the Web Site." There is also some concern because of this statement as well: "We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.". Because logos are meant to represent companies and foster recognition by consumers it is counterproductive to redesign logos often. According to the Privacy Policy, "Facebook also collects information about you from other sources, such as newspapers and instant messaging services.

The logo, or brand, is not just an image, it is the embodiment of an organization. There is also some concern over the privacy agreement. Logo design is commonly believed to be one of the most important areas in graphic design, thus making it the most difficult to perfect. Some theories have been written about the possible misuse of Facebook [9]. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross is an example of an extremely well known emblem which does not need a name to go with, though in Muslim countries it is the Red Crescent. Recently there have been some worries of the use of Facebook as a means of surveillance and data mining. A sign or emblem would keep the general proprietary nature of the product in both markets. Although this practice is against Facebook policy (as the Facebook FAQ says, "Dude, everyone knows that you aren't Paris Hilton") and requests for name changes must be approved by Facebook staff, new fake profiles continue to be created.

Emblems will sometimes will grow in popularity, especially across areas with differing alphabets; for instance, a name in the Arabic language would be of little help in most European markets. As a result, littering Facebook's database are profiles for real-life historical figures, celebrities, and campus personalities such as football coaches, university presidents, athletics mascots, and even inanimate objects such as beer. Examples of well-designed logos and logotypes are available in competitive design annuals. Since registration is open to all email addresses within a specific domain name (@school.edu), students with access to more than one such email address may take advantage of the situation to create fake profiles. Therefore, the trend in the recent years has been to use both logos and names, and to emphasize the design of the name instead of the logotype, making it unique by its letters, color, and additional graphic elements. Perhaps in response to this phenomenon, Facebook's "How do you know this person?" feature, introduced in December 2005, presents users with the option, "I don't even know this person." If this option is selected, the software replies, "Then why are you friends with them?" and presents the user with the option of removing them as a friend. The consequence is the notion that it makes less sense to use a sign as a logotype, even together with the name, if people will not duly identify it. Facebook has since placed a limit on how many friends a user may request at a time.

Today there are so many corporations, products, services, agencies and other entities using a sign or emblem as logotype that many have realized that only a few of the thousands of signs people are faced with are recognized without a name. Students have also created programs which spam others with friendship requests. During many decades, when a new logo was being designed, owners, advertising professionals, and graphic designers always attempted to create a sign or emblem which, together with the name of the company, product, or service, would appear as a logotype. Charlie Rosenbury's list of friends was lowered by Facebook staff to 4,000 [8]. The name being shaped often in a specific way by each manufacturer, these combined logotypes, which for the first time included sign and name, became extremely popular. Since then, Facebook staff have cracked down on those who collected too many friends, saying that Facebook "was not designed to do complex manipulations with exceedingly long lists of friends" and that the addition of users that one doesn't know as 'friends' "creates an unrealistic aberration in the real life social network that makes the site less useful for regular users" [7]. The manufacturers later began to add the name of the company or of the product to their sign. Newsweek called Charlie Rosenbury, the University of Missouri student who amassed over 70,000 friends, the site's celebrity [6].

More and more manufacturers began therefore to include a symbol, sign, or emblem on their products, labels and packages, so that all the buyers could easily recognize the product they wanted. With many users having friend counts of over 500, it is possible that the user does not know all of his or her "friends," let alone has met them all in person. The industrial leaders became soon aware that the public would not easily differentiate their product from the same product of their competitors. Users often boast of their "friend" count, with special emphasis going to the number of friends at other universities. At that time, a significant part of the population was still illiterate. Another criticism, which many claim as their reason for not using it, is its tendency to become a popularity contest. New competitors appeared from time to time, and the offer of products of a same kind increased notably. Furthermore, there are still many bugs in the coding that have caused minor problems for some users.

The new products were distributed in large geographical areas, even nationwide. Problems with maintenance have been an issue as many new accounts are made each day causing heavy traffic for the servers. The new industrial procedures allowed a much higher output than that of the former handmade products. Facebook has stated on its website that security purposes prevent them from allowing outsiders to see one's profile. The origin of logotypes goes back to the 19th century, when industrial manufacture of products became important. Facebook has been criticized for not allowing users to view profiles of people at other colleges who have not already listed them as a friend (or "poked" them). Examples:. Also provided are current trends: the fastest rising and falling items on the lists.

The difference between a slogan and a brand slogan is that brand slogan remains the same for a long time to build up the brands image while different slogans link to each product or advertising campaign. Movies, Music, Television, Books, Hometowns, etc.) for both the user's school and other institutions or the Facebook community in general. The main purpose of it is to support the identity of the brand together with the logotype. The page displays Top Ten lists for various sections of the profile (e.g. In this case it is a brand slogan also called a claim, a tagline or an endline in the advertising industry. The "Pulse" page provides statistics and trends (much like Google's Zeitgeist), updated daily, regarding members of the website. If the slogan appears always in the logotype, and in the same graphic shape, it can be considered as part of the logotype. The website also generates revenue from mainstream advertisers who are interested in targeting college students, such as Apple Computer.

Sometimes a slogan is included in the logotype. All features are free, except for public announcements, which are a type of advertising students can purchase on Facebook. While large corporations spend hundreds of thousands of dollars to update and implement their logos, many small businesses will turn to local graphic designers to do a corporate logo. Tagged users also have the option of "untagging" themselves from pictures. The image at right shows an example of the two elements of a logotype. This allows one to view all the pictures on Facebook of a particular person, regardless of who uploaded them. A logotype consists of either a name or a name and a sign. Users can "tag" or list who is in each photo with tags, tying photos to account holders or applying other tags of their choosing.

This is, however, not the way it is defined by graphic designers and by advertising professionals. Users can upload apparently unlimited numbers of photos to their Facebook accounts and sort them in named albums. A common misconception holds that a logotype is merely a graphic symbol or sign. Another feature is the My Photos page. If rights in relation to a logotype are correctly established and enforced, it can become a valuable intellectual property asset. Now, users have the ability to create new posts on others' walls, and the wall owner is able to remove unwanted posts. Once a logotype is designed, one of the most effective means for protecting it is through registration as a trademark, so that no unauthorised third parties can use it, or interfere with the owner's use of it. However, in late 2005, the "wall" was changed to a message board format, and users no longer edit it as before.

To the extent that a logotype achieves this objective, it may function as a trademark, and may be used to uniquely identify businesses, organizations, events, products or services. Initially, if one had his "wall" enabled, his friends could edit the wall as they chose, and walls were not divided into separate entries. The uniqueness of a logotype is of utmost importance to avoid confusion in the marketplace among clients, suppliers, users, affiliates, and the general public. Unlike poking and messaging which are completely private, visible to only the sender and designated receiver, walls are visible to every person who has access to that person's profile. Emblems with non-textual content are distinct from true logotypes. In addition to sending messages and poking other, people can also write on the "walls" of others' Facebooks to convey messages to their friends. In this article several examples of 'true' logotypes are displayed, which may generally be contrasted with emblems, or marks which include non-textual graphics of some kind. Although it is not possible to view the profiles of non-mutual friends from other schools, they can still be messaged or poked.

In recent times the term 'logo' has been used to describe signs, emblems, coats of arms, symbols and even flags. While it is sometimes used as a playful way to flirt on Facebook when a user develops an interest in another's picture or the information that he or she provides, it is most often used as a joke amongst mutual friends, since those who are already acquainted with each other have more efficient ways, such as Facebook's internal private messaging system, to make contact. It also depicts an organisation's personality. While the creators of Facebook maintain that there is no actual intended purpose for implementing the "poking" option, it is often used simply to gain the attention of the person who is poked. A logo is a tangible form used to represent any given article. The "poke" feature simply sends the text, "You have been poked," and provides an option to poke back. . Facebook also allows users to send private messages and “pokes” to other users.

should be distinctly different from others in a similar market. A user who creates a party listing can also invite friends from other schools. The shape, color, typeface, etc. Groups made by a user are limited to membership within the user's school; however, some advertisers can create groups that have membership from all campuses. A logotype, commonly known as a logo, is the graphic element of a trademark or brand, which is set in a special typeface and/or font, or arranged in a particular, but legible, way. Like the groups feature, the party listing has also been used for jokes, although fraternities often announce parties through this. Icon (symbol / brandmark). Facebook also includes a feature that allows users to list parties, invite users and receive RSVPs.

Logotype/Wordmark/Lettermark (text or abbreviated text). These groups range from online mirrors of real campus organizations, such as fraternities and sororities, sports, and recognized clubs, to common interest groups (such as people from the same area code or people who attended a public school), to joke groups. Combination (icon plus text ). Members may also create and join groups. avoid culturally sensitive imagery, such as religious icons or national flags, unless the brand is commited to being associated with any and all connotations such imagery may evoke. These individuals' Facebook pictures are also shown on the page according to the first point in time that the user has indicated he or she knew the friend. avoid photography or complex imagery as it reduces the instant recognition a logo demands. For each year, the timeline presents the people that the user had social contact with, through courses, clubs, residences, etc, and also groups them according to information that the user specifies, such as different courses or clubs.

do not use the face of a (living) person. The "Social Timeline" feature uses the information provided through friend details to construct a complete social timeline for the user. do not use a specific choice of third-party font or clip-art as a distinguishing feature. Until they are confirmed, these details are visible only to the user who submits them; once confirmed, they are visible to anyone who views either user's friend list. brand standard manual). Users are given the option of confirming or editing friend details about them submitted by other users. include guidelines on the position on a page and white space around the logo for consistent application across a variety of media (a.k.a. Most of these options are customizable; for example, a user who knows a particular friend through an organization can also specify what the name of the organization was and the time period that they knew each other through that group.

be aware of design or copyright infringements. For each friend, a user has the option of selecting how they know the individual, including these options:. design using vector graphics, so the logo can be resized without loss of fidelity (Adobe Illustrator is one of the main programs for this type of design work; open source programs like Inkscape are emerging as excellent free alternatives). It may have been removed for anti-spam purposes as the site no longer has direct email links within the user profiles and instead shows email addresses as graphics that are not clickable links. produce alternatives for different contexts. This feature was removed without explanation in mid 2004. avoid gradients (colors that transition from dark to light/light to dark) as a distinguishing feature. One of the early features of service was the ability for a user to download a csv or vCard file of that user's friends.

use few colors, or try to limit colors to spot colors (a term used in the printing industry). These details can then be confirmed by the other person. represents the brand/company appropriately. On December 21, 2005, a feature was introduced that allows users to select how they met the people on their friends list, such as "Went to school together", "From an organization or team", or "We dated". abides by basic design principles of space, color, form, consistency, and clarity. Users can then search for other users and request an acknowledgment that they are "friends." A count of one's friends and the ability to browse a list of friends is available on each user's profile. may be able to maintain its integrity printed on various fabrics or materials (where the shape of the product may distort the logo). Each user is given a "wall" on their profile, for public peer-to-peer messaging.

can work in "full-color", but also in two color presentation (black and white), spot color, or halftone. A user may only view the profiles of users at his or her institution, although mutual friends from different schools may access each other's profiles. should remain effective reproduced small or large. The profiles of users from each institution included in the network are stored on a unique subdomain, which limits profile viewing. is functional and can be used in many different contexts while retaining its integrity

    . Also, one may choose to use the site's search feature. is unique, and not subject to confusion with other logos among customers. By clicking on profile entries, such as favorite music, current residence, or high school, a user can browse through a list of users with the same entry although coding problems may sometimes search the keyword within people's entire profiles.

    Charles Schwab: On the side of the investor. Information that the user may display include:. BRAVIA: The next step in the evolution of TV. Personal information is voluntarily supplied by the user, and access to it can be restricted, as can access to the user's wall, whose entries are also deletable by the user. Amazon.com: And you're done. Like other social networking websites, Facebook allows users to create an online profile and upload a user picture. Impossibly small. On December 21, 2005, Facebook added two new features: a page showing the latest trends and most popular listings, called "Pulse," and the ability for a user to state how he or she is friends with someone, called "Friend Details." Only a few weeks later, January 13, 2006 marked the introduction of the "Social Timeline" feature, which utilizes Friend Details information from users to construct a complete chronology of a particular user's social setting.

    iPod nano: 1,000 songs. Also in the autumn of that year, Facebook users were presented with the option of listing their "Favorite TV Shows.". Army: An Army of One. On October 27, 2005, the "My Photos" feature came into existence, allowing users to post pictures in photo albums for friends to view. U.S. Individuals could also list the courses that they were taking for the first time that month, and the Wall feature appeared. (Previously it had not been uncommon to see references to the site as "TheStalkerbook." [4] [5]) That autumn, many students who until then had refused to join the Facebook for this reason finally relented primarily because the groups feature made the Facebook a component of nearly all student groups, both official and unofficial.

    One Saturday in September 2004, the Groups feature was introduced and rapidly gained popularity, practically revolutionizing the way people used the Facebook, which until then had frequently been seen as a way for singles to meet or, as some cynics claimed, stalk one another. In the spring of 2004, users were able to designate themselves as alumni for the first time, and users were also given the option of listing their summer plans. Originally, a user's profile consisted of little more than a picture that could be uploaded and a few fields of biographical information and favorites that could be filled in. The expansion of Facebook to colleges and high schools has been accompanied by a gradual increase in the number of features the site provides to its users.

    [3]. As of December 2005, the network had expanded to include 2,000+ college and 25,000+ high school institutions across the United States, Canada, Mexico, the UK, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland, including more than 11 million users worldwide. On December 11, 2005, Facebook expanded further, adding universities in Australia and New Zealand. Virgin Islands.

    In addition, Facebook expanded to 21 universities in the United Kingdom, and added the entire Instituto Tecnologico system in Mexico, the entire University of Puerto Rico system in Puerto Rico and the entire University of the Virgin Islands system in the U.S. By October 2005, Facebook had nearly completed its expansion to smaller universities and junior colleges throughout the United States and Canada. So far, high school Facebook has failed to achieve the same popularity as the college version. Although high school students could only join via an invitation for the first weeks, by September 17, an invitation was no longer necessary for most schools.

    On September 2, 2005, deeming it the "next logical thing" to do, Zuckerberg launched a high school version of Facebook, which is kept totally separate from the college version. Zuckerberg has since added more universities to Facebook (with an emphasis on forgotten schools in Canada as well as in the United States), but unlike in the past, the new schools are no longer publicized on the front page. Also included in the move was a site overhaul, making profile pages more "user-friendly," according to Zuckerberg. In late August 2005, it was announced on the main website that the domain name facebook.com was acquired from Aboutface Corporation, and the website moved domains and dropped the "the" from the site name effective August 23, 2005.

    In late 2004, the owners of the website ConnectU (Divya Narendra, Cameron Winklevoss, and Tyler Winklevoss), another social networking website targeted towards college students, filed a lawsuit against Facebook, alleging that Zuckerberg had stolen source code intended for their website while in their employ [1] [2]. Simultaneously, several competitor sites appeared attempting to capture some of the limelight. Stories about Facebook became commonplace in online and print media. The pair soon moved to Palo Alto, California, established an office and recruited a staff of eight, including Sean Parker and Matt Cohler.

    As the website’s popularity rose and advertising revenue grew, Moskovitz and Zuckerberg left Harvard to run Facebook fulltime. In November 2004, the number of registered users exceeded one million. Facebook was launched second to CampusNetwork, the world's first college-focused social network, but took off much more quickly and gained higher saturation at member schools. It became something of a network phenomenon, spreading rapidly to other schools, despite some competition from similar, local websites.

    Louis to register. The website then expanded to allow students from Cornell University, Columbia University, Stanford University, Georgetown University, Yale University, MIT, other Ivy League colleges, the University of Virginia, the Georgia Institute of Technology, Northwestern University, Carnegie Mellon University, UC Berkeley, and University of Chicago, and Washington University in St. Facebook was founded as Thefacebook in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Chris Hughes, and Dustin Moskovitz at Harvard College, where the photographic book of the freshman class that is distributed to all incoming students is popularly known as the "Face Book." The website spread across the Harvard campus and within a few weeks, over half the undergraduate population had registered. .

    The name of the site is based on the paper facebooks that many colleges give to incoming students, faculty, and staff depicting members of the campus community. The viewing of detailed profile data is restricted to users from the same school or confirmed friends, though one can change their personal options regarding this. Users create personal profiles, typically containing photos and lists of interests, exchange private or public messages, and join groups of friends. The site is free to users and is financed by advertising.

    Facebook is also available at 25,000+ American high schools. Anyone with access to a valid e-mail address from 2,000+ universities can register for and access the site, a group that includes students, alumni, faculty, and staff, although the vast majority of Facebook’s users are students. As of December 2005, it has the largest number of registered users among college-focused sites (at over six million US college student accounts created). The site has some similarities to MySpace, but differs in account availability, user control of display content, real-world identity, and overall neatness of appearance.

    Facebook, formerly known as thefacebook, is a social networking service for high school, college, and university communities, primarily in English-speaking countries. Accessed December 9, 2005. Facebook can hurt employment chances Red and Black. ^ Morgan, Lauren.

    [27]. In February 2006 The Daily Orange reported about another Syracuse University incident involving four SU students being placed on disciplinary probation after creating a group entitled "Clearly [instructor's first name] doesn't know what she's doing ever." [26] Students that had created a similar group about a professor at the University of Louisville help lead to the dismissal of their targeted instructor, and were not punished. [25]. The university denied the allegations and stated their own peace officers would have handled the case in any event.

    In January 2006 Syracuse University's student newspaper, The Daily Orange, featured an article about a student who claimed Syracuse City Police personally warned him in advance about having a party he had listed on Facebook. [24]. These images, as well as the "Interested in: Men" detail, were determined to be a violation of the Christian school's Community Covenant. In January 2006, John Brown University expelled a gay student after he mistakenly posted pictures (taken before attending the school) of himself dressed in drag under "public" privacy settings.

    [citation needed]. In December 2005, University of Rochester security alerted the Rochester Police Department of a sodomy charge when illicit photographs were shared in one student's public folder. [23]. University officials were said to be looking into the matter, however nothing has since become of this inquiry.

    There was an uploaded picture depicting a female duct taped to a chair drinking an alcoholic beverage, however the identity of the girl was never confirmed as Brooke Moody (the recently elected officer). In November 2005, the student newspaper of the University of Missouri, The Maneater, ran an article concerning the content of the student body vice president-elect's Facebook profile. [22]. Students used the message board of a Facebook group to share class information without authorization from the professor.

    In November 2005, Kansas State University authorities announced that they were using Facebook to investigate a possible violation of the school's honor code potentially involving over 100 students. [21]. As of November 2005, two students have been charged with criminal trespass for their involvement. In October 2005, Penn State University police used Facebook to track down students who rushed the field after the October 8 Ohio State game.

    [19][20]. Later in the election, election results were temporarily withheld from the public while the student court heard cases concerning the Facebook content of one of the slates. In October 2005, at the University of Missouri, Facebook content and postings caused various fines to be levied in the presidential election of the Missouri Students Association (student body government). [18].

    The University of California, Berkeley has also experienced similar problems. Though candidates were forbidden from campaigning before a certain date, many Facebook advocacy groups appeared before that date. In October 2005, University of Pennsylvania freshmen student government election results were delayed due to early campaigning violations on Facebook. [17].

    and needs to be eliminated", were judged to be in violation of the college's code of conduct. These comments, including the statement that the officer "loves to antagonize students . In October 2005, sophomore (at a two year school) Cameron Walker was expelled from Fisher College in Boston for comments about a campus police officer made on Facebook. [16].

    In March 2005, the United States Secret Service met with a University of Oklahoma freshman after he posted to the Facebook: “We could all donate a dollar and raise millions of dollars to hire an assassin to kill the president and replace him with a monkey.” The investigation began after a fellow OU student alerted the Secret Service to the threat. [13]. Also in 2005 Calvin College has had reports of using Facebook in order to find students involved in the breaking of rules in the student handbook (mainly alcohol uses). [12].

    In 2005, Emory University charged members of the Facebook group "Dobbs 2nd Alcoholics" with conduct code violations and also investigated the group "Woodruff=Wasted". [11]. The pictures, taken in one of NKU's dormitories, proved that the students were in violation of the university's dry campus policy. In November 2005, four students at Northern Kentucky University were fined for posting pictures of a drinking party on Facebook.

    In October 2005, the campus police of Berry College used Facebook to break up a freshman party on campus (where alcohol was being consumed), when a student invited the chief of police of the campus to join the party by way of Facebook. (Deletes them as friend). I don't even know this person. We dated.

    We hooked up. Met randomly. Through Facebook. Through a friend.

    In my family. Traveled together. Went to school together. From a summer / study abroad program.

    Took a course together. From an organization or team. Worked together. Lived together.

    "About Me": A short description of the user. Favorite Quotes. Favorite Books. Favorite Movies.

    Favorite TV Shows. Favorite Music. Interests. Intended vote (Available prior to the 2004 Presidential Election).

    Political Views. Sexual Orientation ("Interested in"). Relationship Status. High School.

    Hometown and State. Birthday. Concentration. Gender.

    City.

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