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Deep Throat

The term Deep Throat has several meanings:

  • Deep Throat is a 1972 pornographic movie. This is the origin of all the other meanings of the term.
  • Deep throating is a sexual act, a type of fellatio depicted in the movie.
  • Deep Throat was the name given to the source in the Washington Post investigation of the Watergate scandal, revealed on May 31, 2005 to be former FBI associate director W. Mark Felt.
  • In general, the term Deep Throat has since been used for secret inside informers or whistleblowers.
  • Deep Throat is the pseudonym of several fictional characters who have acted as a whistleblower:
    • Deep Throat in the television series The X-Files.
    • Deep Throat is the alias of a character in Metal Gear Solid.
  • Deep Throat or Win32.DeepThroat is a computer virus
  • Inside Deep Throat is a 2005 documentary about the 1972 movie.

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The term Deep Throat has several meanings:. 101. Inside Deep Throat is a 2005 documentary about the 1972 movie. The Immigration and Nationality Act defines "refugee" in Sec. Deep Throat or Win32.DeepThroat is a computer virus. [99]. Deep Throat is the alias of a character in Metal Gear Solid. news outlets eliminated the usage of "refugees".

Deep Throat in the television series The X-Files. Most of the major U.S. Deep Throat is the pseudonym of several fictional characters who have acted as a whistleblower:

    . In one analysis, [98] it was found that "refugees" appeared 5 times more frequently in the global media than "evacuees", which some people see as more neutral. In general, the term Deep Throat has since been used for secret inside informers or whistleblowers. Another concern was the media's choice of terminology for the displaced. Mark Felt. [97].

    Deep Throat was the name given to the source in the Washington Post investigation of the Watergate scandal, revealed on May 31, 2005 to be former FBI associate director W. The photographers said they had written what they saw, finding items floating in the water in one case, and taking items from a store in the other case. Deep throating is a sexual act, a type of fellatio depicted in the movie. But the photos and captions were from two news organizations and two photographers. This is the origin of all the other meanings of the term. A caption said a white couple as had found items and a different caption said black man as having looted. Deep Throat is a 1972 pornographic movie. Some people perceived racism in a pair of photo captions that were posted at Yahoo.com.

    For instance, civil rights groups were very displeased with the use of the word "looter" in regard to the predominately black citizens of New Orleans. Language was one of the specific fields in which the debate about the racial elements of the aftermath played out. According to poll data and media accounts, the treatment of victims in New Orleans led to feelings of distrust, alienation and anger among black Americans nationwide. The impact of the racial dimension of the tragedy may affect African-Americans most.

    "Within days after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, Congress passed and the president signed legislation authorizing a 9/11 victims compensation fund, which eventually provided more than $7 billion in compensation for the victims of 9/11," Morial said in a press release.[96] "As it did then, Congress must take immediate and decisive action to begin compensating American citizens whose lives have been disrupted by this major national tragedy.". African-American leaders including Jesse Jackson and Marc Morial of the National Urban League have also called for the creation of a victims' compensation fund modeled after the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund. NBC also issued an apology for the comments.) [95]. (West's comments were heard in the entirety in the eastern U.S., where the telecast was shown live; NBC later removed a portion of the comments on the tape-delayed telecast shown in the west.

    During these comments NBC cut filming on West and footage resumed with Chris Tucker. This was perhaps crystalized on September 2, when, while presenting on the NBC Concert for Hurricane Relief, music producer and rapper Kanye West strayed from his script and addressed what he perceived as the racism of both the government and of the media, stating: "George Bush doesn't care about black people". Although some commentators suggest that FEMA's response was inadequate across the board, including its treatment of the predominantly white victims in Mississippi and suburban Louisiana, polls revealed that a majority of African-Americans believed that racial bias played a role in the indifference the administration, including FEMA.[94]. However, the greater amount of criticism was directed at the slow reaction of the Bush administration to the crisis.

    Mayor Nagin was criticized for failing to formulate an evacuation plan that provided transportation out of the city for those without private means. [92] [93] Critics say city, state and federal officials didn't bother to consider citizens who cannot afford private transportation when planning for a natural disaster in New Orleans. Members of the Congressional Black Caucus, Black Leadership Forum, National Conference of State Legislators, National Urban League and the NAACP held a news conference expressing anger and charging that the response was slow because those most affected are poor. Census Bureau estimates the 2004 New Orleans population to be 20.0% white and 67.9% black,[91] and the conventional wisdom became that black and poor people had suffered disproportionately.

    The U.S. In the aftermath of the hurricane, vivid images depicting the stranded as overwhelmingly black, the realization that those without private means of evacuation had been left behind, and the perception that the poorest areas were those most prone to flooding, very quickly gave the rise to racial and class interpretations of the response. I am a fashion god." The morning Katrina hit New Orleans, Michael Brown wrote, ""Can I quit now? Can I come home?" A few days later, he wrote to a friend, "I'm trapped now, please rescue me." [90]. Are you proud of me?" Adding an hour later, "If you'll look at my lovely FEMA attire, you'll really vomit.

    .. "Tie or not for tonight? Button-down blue shirt?" On August 29th, wrote Brown, "I got it at Nordstroms. A few days before the storm hit New Orleans, Michael Brown had been emailing his colleagues about what wardrobe would look best on television during the disaster. This massive migration is the largest since the Dust Bowl of the 1930's sent about 300,000 people from the Great Plains States to other regions of the US, most notably California.

    Even if licensed drivers had been available and the available buses had been used to evacuate the remaining approximately 150,000 people, they may not have made it to safety before landfall. Reports from the Associated Press state that 80% of the near 500,000 had evacuated safely from New Orleans prior to the hurricane's landfall. Some evacuees report that the drive from New Orleans to Baton Rouge took anywhere from five hours to nine hours; this drive usually takes up to an hour. Coordination of transportation from outside the Parish is the responsibility of the Governor according to the State Evacuation Plan (Part 1 Section D).[89] Governor Blanco had yet to exercise this responsibility.

    In a phone call to WWL radio made after the idle school and RTA buses were flooded[88], Mayor Nagin called for 500 Greyhound buses to be sent from outside the city to help evacuate. [87]. [85][86] A day later a commercially licensed driver's bus filled with evacuees flipped, resulting in one death and many injuries after a passenger fought with the driver. In spite of risks and his lack of formal training or license, 20-year-old Jabbar Gibson commandeered a New Orleans school bus and rescued 70 people from the rising floodwaters before making the 13-hour drive to Houston's Reliant Astrodome, arriving on Wednesday evening.

    During an emergency any driver is suitable as long as approved by the Governor. During non-emergency times, drivers of school buses must own and maintain a class D commercial license or better depending on the exact size and weight of the bus. The precise number of buses available was been cited anywhere from a couple of hundred to a likely exaggerated 2,000 [84]. Mayor Nagin testified in his hearing in Washington that those buses were owned by the school board and that he had no control over them.

    It is not clear whether these buses were owned by the city or by a private contractor to which the city had outsourced school bus services. School and municipal buses, government-owned vehicles and vehicles provided by volunteer agencies may be used to provide transportation for individuals who lack transportation and require assistance in evacuating." Several hundred school buses were left parked on low ground where they would be easily flooded with storm water and then later by the levee flooding making their use impossible in the emergency evacuation. With the following language: "The primary means of hurricane evacuation will be personal vehicles. State and city evacuation plans ([83] Part 1 Section C and part II-2) mention use of school buses for evacuation.

    Consequentially most of those stranded in the city are the poor, the elderly, and the sick.[81][82]. These factors may have prevented many people from being able to evacuate on their own. Additionally, at 38%, New Orleans has one of the highest poverty rates in the United States. Even so, a 2000 census revealed that 27% of New Orleans households, amounting to approximately 120,000 people, were without privately-owned transportation.

    It is also believed that many citizens, having survived previous hurricanes, did not anticipate the impending catastrophe and chose to ride out the storm. It was known that many residents of New Orleans lacked cars. According to the Louisiana Evacuation plan, evacuation was mainly left up to individual citizens to find their own way out of the city. [80].

    [79] The governor activated the National Guard with her August 26, State of Emergency Declaration page II-4 Red Cross relief in New Orleans remains forbidden by the Governor. The President had not yet authorized FEMA to enter the coastal areas despite the governors request including those parishes. Landry, Tensas, Union, Vernon, Webster, West Carroll, West Feliciana, and Winn." This includes all the parishes in the state of Louisiana except the coastal parishes which are inherently exposed to the most destructive forces of a hurricane. Helena, St.

    The statement authorized the DHS and FEMA to coordinate disaster relief and "...required emergency measures, authorized under Title V of the Stafford Act, to save lives, protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in the parishes of Allen, Avoyelles, Beauregard, Bienville, Bossier, Caddo, Caldwell, Claiborne, Catahoula, Concordia, De Soto, East Baton Rouge, East Carroll, East Feliciana, Evangeline, Franklin, Grant, Jackson, LaSalle, Lincoln, Livingston, Madison, Morehouse, Natchitoches, Pointe Coupee, Ouachita, Rapides, Red River, Richland, Sabine, St. Prior to this, on August 27 the White House issued a statement [78], effective August 26, authorizing federal emergency assistance for Louisiana. [77]. [76] Foreign nationals without transport claimed that the police refused to evacuate them, giving bus places only to American citizens.

    Hospitals, nursing homes, group homes, were supposed to have pre-determined evacuation and/or refuge plans in place. Many critics have noted that while Mayor Nagin gave a mandatory evacuation order on August 28, before the storm hit, they did not make sufficient prevention and provisions to evacuate the homeless, the poor, the elderly, the infirm, or the car-less households. In Orleans Parish that responsibility fell to Mayor Ray Nagin. The state evacuation plan (Part 1 Section D7) states [75], evacuation is the responsibility of the local parish.

    This will entail providing a coordinated, comprehensive federal response to any large-scale crisis and mounting a swift and effective recovery effort" [74]. According to the National Response Plan, the Department of Homeland Security "will assume responsibility on March 1st [2005] for ensuring that emergency response professionals are prepared for any situation. As high profile news coverage has reported, the American public in general blames all levels of government in different proportions for failures to perform their responsibilities in hurricane preparedness, reaction, and aftermath. Military research was also affected as state police broke into a high-security government lab in New Orleans and destroyed unspecified dangerous pathogens before they could escape or be stolen.

    Important work on heart disease, cancer, AIDS and many other other ailments may be lost to scientists at Tulane and Louisiana State universities' medical schools in New Orleans. [73]. Cybertelecom.org established a webpage to collect data on the status of and impact on the Internet from Katrina. Only those hotels with corporate housed servers in other cities have any internet possibility.".

    On September 1, 25% were unreachable, 20% were impaired, and 55% remained reachable.[71] The NO Visitor's Bureau [72] reports "There is virtually total internet disruption as well, as locally hosted servers and routers have gone down with the loss of primary and backup power. Perhaps one of the more interesting sets of status information is Googling New Orleans and checking the reachability of the top 20 websites. Earthlink network status [70] reports that DSL is unavailable in New Orleans. The Internet Traffic Report [69] was reporting code yellow for North America.

    Keynote Internet Health Report [68] is reporting code green for select Internet networks. As of September 1, 2005, Sans Infocon [67] is reporting code green for Internet attacks. The staff on site are working to restore more upstream connectivity, as well as Internet access to local municipal organizations. The effects of the storm disrupted the OC-12 Abilene Network [66] Internet2 link between Houston and Atlanta, as well as some of DirectNIC's many high-speed connections.

    It includes FAQs about the actions of the DirectNIC team in setting up Outpost Crystal. A LiveJournal community, InterdictorNews [65] has been started for those who have been commenting in this blog. They are currently running a very popular blog[64] that is documenting things that are happening around them, including pictures of the New Orleans aftermath, with a link to a webcam showing part of the Central Business District on Poydras St. According to Netcraft, DirectNIC is the 11th largest domain registrar on the Internet, at 1.1 million domains.

    They also worked to help procure fuel for telco providers, and provided a router for New Orleans' city hall, apparently so city officials could establish VoIP telephone service during the disaster. The DirectNIC (Intercosmos Media Group, [63]) data center in downtown New Orleans was able to continue operations uninterrupted, due in part to the efforts of a few determined individuals. [62] Cisco, Vonage, and SBC provided similar services at the Dallas Convention Center and Reunion Arena where another 8,000 evacuees were sheltered. There were also reports that SBC Communications and T-Mobile installed and provided free wifi access in the Astrodome.

    Technology for All [61] set up technology centers for Internet access in the Astrodome. In addition, the space center was used as a temporary evacuation center for areas near the Mississippi gulf coast region and for residents of New Orleans. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Mississippi was also damaged by Katrina, with structural damage to the main facility causing some water leakage into the interior portions of the research facility and halting any major tests while repairs are being made. The John C.

    Marine Corps effort in New Orleans, helping with the evacuation. This facility is also used as a temporary staging area and headquarters for the U.S. The next Shuttle flight, STS-121, could be postponed to May or later during the second half of 2006 [60]. [59] Plans to ship three tanks -- including the one for NASA's next mission -- back to Michoud for retrofitting are on indefinite hold.

    The Michoud Assembly Facility will remain closed until at least September 26. Evan McCollum, a Lockheed Martin Space Systems spokesman in Denver has reported that "there is water leakage and potential water damage in the buildings, but there's no way to tell how much at this point" [58]. The hurricane passed over the Michoud Assembly Facility and materially interrupted the production of external tanks for the Space Shuttle, leading to a further interruption of the shuttle flights [57]. [56].

    Wholesale prices were up 5% as of 6 September. In the UK, pump prices for unleaded petrol (gas) hit £1 per litre ($7 per US gallon) for the first time in a significant number of places (averaging about 95p), a rise of about 3% from pre-Katrina prices. International oil prices rose. There are also effects on ocean shipping, the casino industry, and tourism.

    Other predictions placed the minimum insured damage at around $12.5 billion (the insured figure is normally doubled to account for uninsured damages in the final cost). The Gulf Coast region accounts for 30% of US total oil production, 20% of natural gas production, and 40% of imported oil docks in that region. energy operations are in the Gulf Coast region), and decreased exports of commodities such as grain. Some early predictions in damages exceeded $100 billion, not accounting for potential catastrophic damage inland due to flooding, interruption of oil supply (much of the U.S.

    history. Most experts anticipate that Katrina will be recorded as the costliest natural disaster in U.S. The process is still ongoing, with serious concerns about toxic chemicals, volunteer safety, persistent black mold, and asbestos presenting substantial roadblocks. They include Hands On USA, Presbyterian Disaster Assistance, Mennonite Disaster Services, Four Square, Grassroots/Global Crossroads, Catholic Charities, Back Bay Mission, UMCOR, dozens of Baptist groups, Lutheran Episcopal Disaster Response, Nazarene Disaster Response, Mercy Ships, and others.

    Larger relief groups such as the Red Cross and Habitat for Humanity are not active in this process due to liability concerns, but many smaller organizations are stepping to the plate and providing this valuable service for the community. Due to FEMA restructuring and the scope of this disaster, local organizations such as the East Biloxi Coordination and Relief Center are handling the case management and order processing. In past disasters, FEMA coordinated the work order process. Prior to gutting, houses are assessed to ensure that less than 50% of the structure is compromised, and that the house is still on its foundation.

    In areas of Southern Mississippi and Louisiana, dozens of organizations have been collaborating in providing free house 'gutting' and tree removal for affected residents. In addition to providing shelter and relocation services, many organizations are also active in the recovery and rebuilding processes. The safety of Red Cross personnel was among the primary reasons given. On September 8, 2005, FOX News reported [55] that the Red Cross was prepositioned to provide water, food and essential supplies to the Superdome and convention center as soon as the storm finished, but was prohibited from entering the city prior to Hurricane Katrina making landfall by the Louisiana State Department of Homeland Security, under the direction of Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco.

    These organizations provided an infrastructure for shelters throughout Louisiana and other states that held thousands of evacuees. The American Red Cross, Salvation Army, and many other charitable organizations are trying to provide housing, food, and water to the victims of the storm. State Department; France, whose initial offer of concrete help was also declined. Russia, whose initial offer was to send at least two jets was declined by the U.S.

    Countries including Canada, Mexico, Singapore, and Germany have offered to send in supplies, relief personals, troops, ships and water pumps to aid in the disaster recovery. Countries like Sri Lanka, which is still recovering from the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Dominica, one of the smallest countries in the world by any measure, Cuba and Venezuela, despite their differences with the United States, have also offered to help. [54]. Over seventy countries pledged money or other assistance, including the single largest pledge of support from Kuwait for $500 million; $100 million from the country of Qatar; $5 million from India; $1 million from Bangladesh and $5 million from People's Republic of China.

    Army and Air National Guard troops have been activated from nearly every American state. See list compiled by Wikinews. have opened their doors to enroll students displaced. Higher institutions from across the U.S.

    About 100,000 New Orleans college and university students have been displaced as a result of Hurricane Katrina. Many religious organizations have traveled to Louisiana and Mississippi to offer relief and to help the people and the religious organizations. From Texas, thousands of evacuees have been dispersed to other states. As Texas shelters became filled to capacity, it became a waypoint for the other evacuees still leaving the area of crisis.

    The majority of the evacuees from this crisis were taken to Texas, with over 230,000 people taking shelter in Texas by Labor Day, September 5, 2005. states have offered to shelter evacuees displaced by the storm, including places as far away as Oregon and California. Many U.S. "As a result, response activities must begin without the benefit of a detailed or complete situation and critical needs assessment.".

    "A detailed and credible common operating picture may not be achievable for 24 to 48 hours (or longer) after the incident," the NRP's "Catastrophic Annex" states. The National Response Plan states that, when responding to a catastrophic incident, the federal government should start emergency operations even in the absence of clear assessment of the situation. Michael Chertoff, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, decided to take over the federal, state, and local operations officially on September 30, 2005 going forward by citing the National Response Plan. [53].

    Blanco hired James Lee Witt, the former FEMA director during the Clinton Administration, to oversee recovery efforts in Louisiana. On September 3, Gov. Bush to raise additional voluntary contributions, much as they did after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. In addition to asking for federal funds, President Bush has enlisted the help of former presidents Bill Clinton and George H.W.

    On September 7, another $51.8 billion in addition to the original $10.5 billion was proposed by President Bush to fund disaster relief. House of Representatives voted and approved on the measure Friday, September 2, 2005 without any debate; Bush signed it into law an hour later. The U.S. Senate has approved a bill authorizing $10.5 billion in aid for victims on September 1, 2005.

    The U.S. First Army in Fort Gillem, Georgia, is the commander. Lieutenant General Russel Honoré of the U.S. The United States Northern Command established Joint Task Force (JTF) Katrina based out of Camp Shelby, Mississippi to act as the military's on-scene command on Sunday, August 28 [52].

    Bush [51]. Brown resigned as director of FEMA in spite of having received praise from President George W. Three days after the recall, Michael D. Allen replaced him as chief of hurricane relief operations.

    Eight days later, Brown was recalled to Washington and Coast Guard Vice Admiral Thad W. However, the President and Secretary Chertoff have come under harsh criticism from many Americans, particularly in the media, for their lack of planning and coordination. Brown, head of FEMA, as the Principal Federal Official to lead the deployment and coordination of all federal response resources and forces in the Gulf Coast region. Chertoff designated Michael D.

    Bush directed Secretary Michael Chertoff of the Department of Homeland Security to coordinate the Federal response. In accordance with federal law, President George W. A network of volunteers have been rendering assistance to local residents and residents emerging from New Orleans and surrounding Parishes. Some disaster recovery response to Katrina began before the storm, with Federal Emergency Management Agency preparations that ranged from logistical supply deployments to a mortuary team with refrigerated trucks.

    Opponents of the MRGO have been lobbying for its closure, since the expected shipping traffic it was designed for has never materialized. [50] The Army Corps of Engineers disputes this causality and maintains Katrina would have overwhelmed the levees with or without the contributing effect of the MRGO. Bernard Parish, one of the more devastated areas, lies just south of the MRGO. St.

    According to new modeling and field observations by a team from Louisiana State University, the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO), a 200-meter wide canal designed to provide a shortcut from New Orleans to the Gulf of Mexico, helped provide a funnel for the storm surge, making it 20% higher and 100%-200% faster as it crashed into the city. [49]. Those responsible for the conception, design, construction, and maintenance of the region's flood-control system apparently failed to pay sufficient attention to public safety, according to an investigation by the National Science Foundation. System design flaws and lack of adequate maintenance helped contribute to the massive levee failures.

    Funeralgate. See also:. outsource Katrina body count to firm implicated in body-dumping scandals. FEMA, La.

    Katrina victims: "next of kin unknown" bodies being "disposed of". Main article: Humanitarian effects of Hurricane Katrina. Bernard Parish nursing home, where the bodies of thirty four residents, apparently drowned, were found.[48]. On September 13, officials announced that negligent homicide charges had been filed against the owners of a St.

    [47]. On September 9 FEMA ordered 50,000 body bags in addition to the 25,000 previously ordered. In face of the lawsuit, FEMA has since countermanded this request[46]. News organizations have filed suit in Federal Court, claiming a violation of the First Amendment's freedom of the press.

    At the same time, FEMA requested that journalists stop taking pictures of dead bodies. On September 6 FEMA stopped allowing journalists to accompany rescuers searching for victims, saying they would take up too much space. After protracted arguments over who would handle the costs, DNA testing began in early December to identify approximately 263 bodies that could not be identified by other means.[45]. Bernard Parish is slated to begin in January 2006.

    While there were news reports of marsh searches reported on CNN, a more comprehensive search of the marshes of Eastern St. It's feared that shrimpers and oystermen who usually ride out storms in their boats may have been swept into the marshes by the surge. Bernard Parish stands at 47 [44]. As of December 2005, The official missing list in St.

    [43] While there were some victims on this list whose bodies were found in their homes as recently as December 2005, the vast majority were tracked down through word-of-mouth and credit card records. The initial list of missing persons of around 200 residents was published at several local media outlets. According to an interview in the Times Picayune, the coroner was still trying to get a list of missing from the Red Cross in November 2005. Bernard Parish, which was 100% flooded by Katrina, the search for missing was slow.

    In hard-hit St. The New Orleans Times Picayune newspaper ran a story in November 2005 noting that 5000 missing New Orleans residents alone are still unaccounted for. Indirect deaths indicate those caused by hurricane-related accidents (including car accidents), fires or other incidents, as well as clean-up incidents and health issues. Direct deaths indicate those caused by the direct effects of the winds, flooding, storm surge or oceanic effects of Katrina.

    (This number includes often-omitted deaths in Ohio (2), Kentucky (1), and among evacuees (57).) [42]. As of January 24, the confirmed death toll stands at 1,417, mainly from Louisiana (1,101) and Mississippi (238). While Philadelphia police found no criminals at all in those evacuated to their city, the state police in West Virginia said roughly half of the nearly 350 Katrina victims evacuated by the government to that state had criminal records, and 22 percent have a history of committing a violent crime. Most of the checks have found little for police to be concerned about.

    In Texas, with more than 300,000 evacuees, local officials have run 20,000 criminal background checks on the evacuees, as well as the relief workers helping them and people who have opened up their homes. Issues of racial bias in media coverage began to surface as Caucasian flood victims were portrayed in one Agence France-Presse photo as "finding" supplies while a black person was described in an Associated Press photo as engaging in "looting." The photographers later clarified the two stories, one claiming he witnessed the black person looting a store, while the other photographer described the white people as finding the food floating in floodwaters[41]. A September 26, 2005 article from The Times Picayune, titled 'Rumors of deaths greatly exaggerated' [40]provides updated information on attempts to corroborate many of the reports of violence. A temporary jail was constructed of chain link cages in the city train station [38] although controversy arose over at least one inmate[39].

    A number of arrests were made throughout the affected area including near the New Orleans Convention Center. Over the first week of September, law and order was gradually restored to the city." Several shootings occurred between police and New Orleans residents including the fatal incident at Danziger Bridge[37]. There was sniping going on. "There was shooting going on.

    Congressman Bill Jefferson (D-LA) told ABC News. These troops know how to shoot and kill and I expect they will," Kathleen Blanco said. "They have M-16s and are locked and loaded. Thousands of National Guard and federal troops were mobilized and sent to Louisiana along with numbers of local law enforcement agents from across the country who were temporarily deputized by the state.

    Reports of carjacking, murders, thefts, and rapes flooded the news, but many of the stories were determined to likely be based on rumors—despite being spread by officials such as Mayor Nagin [36]. Some police officers barricaded their stations to avoid snipers and "resorted to looting for shoes, dry socks and food" [35]. "We're using exhausted, scarce police to control looting when they should be used for search and rescue while we still have people on rooftops.". The French Quarter has been attacked," Councilwoman Jackie Clarkson said.

    "The looting is out of control. Looting also occurred in other towns throughout the disaster area. Drug, convenience, clothing, and jewelry stores in the French Quarter and on Canal Street were hardest hit. Many looters were in search of food and water that was not available to them due to the destruction, though many people stole non-essential items as well.

    Shortly after the hurricane ended on August 30, some residents of New Orleans, including police officers, who remained in the city began looting stores [34]. The lobby and parking lot are over 20 feet above sea level of the Gulf of Mexico, and less than 1/4 mile away from the Gulf coastal road Highway 90 in Harrison County between Biloxi and Gulfport. Storm surge of near 30 feet high was observed, where during the height of the storm at the Mississippi Coast Coliseum scenes like a car floating outside the first floor lobby, and a boat is being swept across the parking lot as the surge comes in with the eyewall winds were not uncommon. The storm surge in Katrina as it was making landfall on August 29 was very high to the east of where the storm center crossed the coast.

    By September 2, NOAA had published satellite photography[33] of many of the affected regions. As of September 6, the flood pool had abated to covering 60% of the city.[32]. Three levees in New Orleans gave way, and 80% of the city was under water at peak flooding, which in some places was 20 to 25 feet (7 or 8 meters) deep[31]. Over 1,300 deaths have been reported in seven states, a number which is expected to rise as casualty reports come in from areas currently inaccessible.

    Areas affected include southern Florida, Louisiana (especially the Greater New Orleans area), Mississippi, Alabama, the western Florida Panhandle, western and north Georgia (hit by tornadoes), the Tennessee Valley and Ohio Valley regions, the eastern Great Lakes region and the length of the western Appalachians. By Labor Day, September 6, Texas had an estimated 250,000 evacuees and Governor Perry was forced to declare a state of emergency in Texas and issued an impassioned plea to other states to begin taking the 40,000-50,000 evacuees that were still in need of shelter. By the afternoon of September 5, with a total estimated number of over 230,000 evacuees in Texas, Governor Perry ordered that buses begin being diverted to other shelters outside the state resulting in 20,000 being sent to Oklahoma and 30,000 being sent to Arkansas. CST September 3, a wave of over 120,000 additional evacuees began pouring into Texas at a rate, such that as of September 5, it was estimated there are roughly 139,000 evacuees in official shelters in the state, adding to the estimated 90,000 already in hotels and homes.

    Beginning with a convoy of 50 buses (2,700 people) that arrived at the Dallas Reunion Arena at 3:00 a.m. When the Houston shelters began to reach capacity on September 2, Texas Governor Rick Perry activated an emergency plan that made space for an additional 25,000 in each of San Antonio and the Dallas/Fort Worth/Arlington, Texas Metroplex and smaller shelters in communities across Texas. Brown Convention Center was announced as an additional shelter site at the same time, but was not opened for use until September 3. The George R.

    The Reliant Astrodome was reopened a few hours later, and it was announced that the Reliant Center would have all events cancelled through December so as to open the building to ~11,000 additional evacuees. However, as of September 2, officials declared the Reliant Astrodome full and unable to accept additional hurricane refugees from the disaster. The evacuation began on September 1. On August 31, the Harris County, Texas Department of Homeland Security and Emergency Management and the State of Louisiana came to an agreement to allow at least 25,000 evacuees from New Orleans, especially those who were sheltered in the Louisiana Superdome, to move to the Astrodome until they could return home.

    There are currently reports that as many as 40 sexual assaults did indeed occur in New Orleans during and after hurricane Katrina [29][30]. By September 8 there were reports that the claims of rape and murder at the Convention Center and the Superdome could be false [28]. The Convention Center was completely evacuated by September 3. Those able to walk the distance could have left the Convention Center, and the city, via the Crescent City Connection Bridge, but were prevented from doing so at gunpoint by Gretna, LA sheriffs [27].

    However, even though there were thousands of evacuees at the center, along with network newscasters, pleading desperately for help on CNN, FOX, and other broadcast outlets, FEMA head Michael Brown and Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff both claimed to have no knowledge of the use of the Convention Center as a shelter until the afternoon of September 1 [26], although later Brown said he misspoke and had learned of them 24 hours earlier.[citation needed] For two days, still, the evacuees' pleas were ignored. Others were directed to the center by the police, headed by Eddie Compass, as a possible refuge. Reports indicated that up to 20,000 people had gathered at the Convention Center, many dropped off after rescue from flooded areas of the city. Several people died while sheltered within.

    Reports of violence, beatings, and rape among those gathered in the convention center were widespread, though later questioned. Morial Convention Center was broken into by August 30, and by September 1, the facility, like the Superdome, was overwhelmed and declared unsafe and unsanitary. The Ernest N. [25].

    15, 2006 But because earlier estimates put the target opening in November, Benson acknowledged he needed another 30 days to feel comfortable the September date can be met. New Orleans Saints team owner Tom Benson said the state agency managing the Superdome told him the stadium can be ready for games by Sept. By September 6, the Superdome was completely evacuated. On August 31, it was announced that evacuees would be moved to the Astrodome in Houston, Texas.

    There are currently reports that as many as 40 sexual assaults did indeed occur in New Orleans during and after hurricane Katrina [23][24]. Some of these reports were determined to be based on unverified rumors and myths [22]. There have been widespread reports of murders, rapes, beatings, robberies, and general mayhem in the Superdome[citation needed]. Air conditioning, electricity, and running water all failed, making for very unsanitary and uncomfortable conditions.

    A National Guard official said on Thursday, September 1, that as many as 60,000 people had gathered at the Superdome for evacuation, having remained there in increasingly difficult circumstances.[citation needed]. On August 29, Katrina passed over New Orleans with such force that it ripped two holes in the Superdome roof. The Superdome housed over 9,000 people along with 550 National Guard troops when Katrina came ashore [21]. Jay Mayeaux, deputy director of the Department of Homeland Security's Office of Emergency Preparedness [20].

    The New Orleans Times - Picayune reported that the Louisiana National Guard delivered three truckloads of water and seven truckloads of MRE's, enough to supply 15,000 people for three days according to Col. On August 28, as Hurricane Katrina grew into a Category 5 storm that had yet to make landfall, Nagin established several "refuges of last resort" for citizens who could not leave the city, including the massive Louisiana Superdome.
    . In Mississippi, evacuations were ordered for parts of Hancock, Harrison and Jackson counties.

    In Alabama, evacuations were ordered for parts of Mobile and Baldwin counties (including Gulf Shores). Tammany, Tangipahoa and Terrebonne parishes in Louisiana. James parishes and parts of St. Charles and St.

    Bernard, St. Mandatory evacuations were also ordered for Assumption, Jefferson (Kenner, Metairie, as well as Grand Isle and other low lying areas), Lafourche (outside the floodgates), Plaquemines, St. During the Hurricane Ivan evacuation, 600,000 people remained in the city [19]. Future analysis of motor vehicle registration, census and Social Security Information, and death certificates may help to provide more clarity.

    Fuel and rental cars were in short supply; also, Greyhound bus and Amtrak train service were halted well before the hurricane made landfall [18]. In addition to residents, many tourists were stranded. As many of these facilities relied on the same bus companies and ambulance services for evacuation, several were unable to evacuate before the storm hit, resulting in the deaths of their occupants. Before operating permits are given to homes/hospitals, emergency precautions are to be taken, such as the placement of emergency supplies and equipment (i.e., generators and potable water) on upper floors.." in Part 1 Section D.

    of Health and Hospitals (DHH). All facilities will have approved Multi-Hazard Emergency Operations Plans as mandated by the State of Louisiana, Dept. will have pre-determined evacuation and/or refuge plans if evacuation becomes necessary. The state evacuation plan also assigns the responsibility of evacuation of the sick and those needing assistance to the owners of the facilities with the language: "Hospitals, nursing homes, group homes, etc.

    The state evacuation plan also assigns the responsibility of evacuation to each Parish with the language [the parish will] "Conduct and control local evacuation in parishes located in the risk area and manage reception and shelter operations in parishes located in the host area" in Part 1 Section D. School and municipal buses, government-owned vehicles and vehicles provided by volunteer agencies may be used to provide transportation for individuals who lack transportation and require assistance in evacuating" in Part 1 Section D. The Louisiana State Evacuation Plan declares "The primary means of hurricane evacuation will be personal vehicles. Three quarters of evacuees had stayed within 250 miles but tens of thousands had located more than 1000 miles away.[citation needed].

    By four weeks after the storm, evacuees had been registered in all 50 states and in almost half the Zip codes of the U.S. Two weeks after the storm, over half the States were involved in providing shelter for evacuees. Contraflow lane reversal on Interstate 10 leading west and Interstates 55 and 59 leading north from New Orleans was ended that afternoon.[citation needed]. on August 28, shortly after Katrina was upgraded to a Category 5 storm, New Orleans mayor Ray Nagin, calling Katrina "a storm that most of us have long feared," ordered the first ever mandatory evacuation of the city.

    At a news conference 10 a.m. "Not since the Dust Bowl of the 1930s or the end of the Civil War in the 1860s have so many Americans been on the move from a single event."[17]. CSO magazine ran an interview with the National Weather Service's Gary Woodall in which he listed six steps that citizens and company executives can take to be prepared for hurricanes such as this[16]. Walter Williams did a serious short feature on it called "New Orleans: The Natural History", in which an expert said a direct hit by a hurricane could damage the city for six months [15].

    Scientific American covered the topic thoroughly in an October 2001 piece titled "Drowning New Orleans" [14]. National Geographic ran a feature in October 2004 [13]. Billions have been spent to protect us, but we grow more vulnerable every day." New Orleans Times-Picayune June 23 - 27 June 2002 [12]. "It's only a matter of time before South Louisiana takes a direct hit from a major hurricane.

    The New Orleans Times-Picayune newspaper ran a series on the risk in 2002 titled "Washing Away"; the series predicted many of the events that happened in 2005, including the breakdown of the levee system. The risk of devastation from a direct hit was well documented. These costs could run into many billions of dollars. These are "lifelines" to the east, but assessing the damage, there will be no quick fix.

    Interstate 10 seems, at first glance, to be the most critical to repair, especially the twin bridges over Lake Pontchartrain, which were destroyed. The State Departments of Transportation in the affected area, in conjunction with the Federal Highway Administration, have a huge job to rebuild the critical highways for access to the region. The Waterford nuclear power plant was shut down on Sunday, August 28, before Katrina's arrival. Amtrak announced that no alternate transportation options would be made available into or out of the affected area [11].

    Amtrak's westbound Sunset Limited originated in San Antonio, Texas, rather than its normal origin point of Orlando, Florida. The southbound Crescent from New York City, for the same period terminated in Atlanta, Georgia, with the corresponding northbound trains originating in Atlanta as well. Amtrak, America's rail passenger carrier, announced that the southbound City of New Orleans passenger trains from Chicago, Illinois, on August 29 and through September 3 would terminate in Memphis, Tennessee, rather than their usual destination of New Orleans; the corresponding northbound trains will also originate in Memphis. The CSX (former Louisville and Nashville Railroad) main line from Mobile to New Orleans is believed to have suffered extensive damage, especially in coastal Mississippi, but repair crews were not able to reach most parts of the line as of August 30.

    CSX Transportation also suspended service south of Montgomery, Alabama until further notice. To help ease the resumption of services after the storm passes, CN also issued an embargo with the Association of American Railroads against all deliveries to points south of Osyka, Mississippi. On Sunday, August 28, Canadian National Railway (CN) suspended all rail traffic on its lines south of McComb, Mississippi (lines owned by its subsidiary Illinois Central Railroad that extend into New Orleans), in anticipation of damage from the hurricane. Blanco standing beside him.

    At a news conference, New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin ordered a mandatory evacuation of the city with Gov. On August 28 the National Weather Service issued a [10] predicting "devastating" damage rivaling the intensity of Hurricane Camille. Bush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi two days before the hurricane made landfall[9]. On August 27, after Katrina crossed southern Florida and strengthened to Category 3, President George W.

    Louisiana governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco declared a state of emergency for state agencies. This scenario was considered a "potential catastrophe" because 80% of the New Orleans metropolitan area is below sea level. Some computer models were putting New Orleans right in the center of their track probabilities, and the chances of a direct hit were forecast at nearly 90%. By August 26 the possibility of "unprecedented cataclysm" was already being considered.

    Even so, NHC forecasts showed Katrina strengthening into a hurricane well in advance of landfall, and hurricane watches and warnings were indeed issued nearly 36 and 24 hours, respectively, before hurricane conditions were felt in the area (watches and warnings are supposed to be issued at those time periods)[7], [8]. Many living in the area felt that south Florida had minimal advance warning when Katrina strengthened from a tropical storm to a hurricane in one day, and struck southern Florida later that same day, on August 25. By 11 pm EDT, no discernable circulation remained. On August 31, Katrina was absorbed by a frontal boundary and became a powerful extratropical low, causing moderate rain and gale-force winds in southeastern Quebec.

    It was downgraded to a tropical depression near Clarksville, Tennessee and continued to race northward, and was last distinguishable in the eastern Great Lakes region on August 31. Katrina maintained hurricane strength well into Mississippi, but weakened thereafter, losing hurricane strength more than 150 miles (240 km) inland, near Jackson, Mississippi. Storm surge was high because of the hydrology of the location, the hurricane's extreme size, and the fact that it weakened only shortly before landfall; waves were even larger as many had been generated while the storm was at Category 5 intensity. Record storm surges smashed the entire Mississippi Gulf Coast and into Alabama, peaking at 34 feet in Bay St Louis, Mississippi and reaching 13 feet (4 m) even as far away as Mobile, Alabama.

    A few hours later, after weakening slightly, it made landfall for a third time near the Louisiana/Mississippi border with 120 mph (190 km/h) sustained winds, still a Category 3. At landfall, hurricane-force winds extended outward 120 miles (190 km) from the center and the storm's central pressure was 920 mbar (hPa). Katrina made landfall at 6:10 am CDT on August 29 as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph (200 km/h) with higher gusts, near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana. Overnight on August 29, Katrina began to enter another eyewall replacement cycle and its maximum winds quickly weakened even as the storm grew even larger.

    By August 29, Tropical storm-force winds extended 230 miles (370 km) away from the center, and hurricane-force winds extended about 100 miles (165 km) away; some areas of the Gulf Coast were already experiencing tropical storm-force winds. The minimum pressure made Katrina the fourth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record, though it would be surpassed by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma later in the season. Katrina reached its peak at 1:00 pm CDT with maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) and a central pressure of 902 mbar (hPa). A second period of rapid intensification led to Katrina strengthening to a Category 5 storm by 7 am CDT August 28.

    An eyewall replacement cycle disrupted the intensification but led to an almost doubling in size. On August 27, the storm was upgraded to Category 3 intensity, becoming the third major hurricane of the season. Rapid intensification occurred during the first 24 hours after entering the Gulf, due in part to the storm's movement over the warm sea surface temperatures of the Loop Current. Throughout August 26, parts of the Florida Keys experienced tropical storm winds, with the Dry Tortugas briefly experiencing hurricane-force winds.

    Katrina weakened over land to a tropical storm, but it regained hurricane status at 2 am EST about one hour after entering the Gulf of Mexico. Katrina had a well-defined eye on doppler radar which remained intact throughout its passage over Florida. The system was upgraded to Tropical Storm Katrina on the morning of August 24, and Katrina became a hurricane only two hours before it made landfall around 6:30 pm EST on August 25 between Hallandale Beach and Aventura, Florida. Tropical Depression Twelve formed over the southeastern Bahamas at 5 pm EST on August 23, partially from the remains of Tropical Depression Ten.

    For a timeline of events leading up to Hurricane Katrina through to the aftermath of the hurricane, see Timeline of Hurricane Katrina. Through brainstorms about issues, improvisational story-telling, and group-building activities, students design and build a performance that addresses the issues they face and educates their audiences as a way of making change within their community. ROiL performance development workshops delve into the layers below social issues through expression, communication, and healing. ROiL is partnering with area artists, actors, youth workers and educators to facilitate a performance workshop that will be performed and toured in the area.

    Most kids are enrolled in the now crowded Baton Rouge school system, but they and their parents have lost the lives they once had. ROiL will conduct a performance workshop at Renaissance Village, a newly created FEMA resettlement area on the outskirts of Baton Rouge, which is the "temporary home" to about 750 evacuated families from New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. (For the most current and best information, go to http://www.fema.gov for news releases and information on assistance programs.). To date, FEMA has provided housing assistance (rental assistance, trailers, etc...) to over 700,000 applicants - families and individuals.

    Over 30,000 units have been occupied in Louisiana and over 50,000 in Mississippi. FEMA continues to house victims in trailers. There are hundreds of thousands of Katrina evacuees living in temporary shelters and/or trailer parks set up by FEMA and other relief organizations in the first months after the disaster hit. Additionally, different cities and states are providing rental assistance programs, and HUD is working with people to provide Section 8 housing and other types of low-income housing programs.

    Victims are expected to call FEMA at 1-800-621-FEMA (3362) and register for assistance. After the February 7 deadline, Katrina victims can use the FEMA Housing Locator service to find more permanent housing. The Federal Emergency Management Agency set a deadline of February 7, 2006 (extended from January 7 [6]) as the official end of any further coverage of hotel costs for Katrina victims. On September 3, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff described the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as "probably the worst catastrophe, or set of catastrophes" in the country's history, referring to the hurricane itself plus the flooding of New Orleans.

    The hurricane left an estimated three million people without electricity, taking some places several weeks for power to be restored (but faster than the four months originally predicted). Federal disaster declarations blanketed 90,000 square miles (233,000 km²) of the United States, an area almost as large as the United Kingdom. history. The damage is estimated to be about $75 billion by the NHC (with other estimates ranging from $40 to $120 billion) [5], almost double the previously most expensive Hurricane Andrew, making Katrina the most expensive natural disaster in U.S.

    since the Great Depression. More than 1.5 million people were displaced — a humanitarian crisis on a scale unseen in the U.S. By early September, people were being forcibly evacuated, mostly by bus to neighboring states. After 11:00 am CDT, several sections of the levee system in New Orleans collapsed.

    Over 1.2 million people were under an evacuation order before landfall.[4] In Louisiana, the hurricane's eye made landfall at 6:10am CDT on Monday, August 29. [3]. [2] As of November 22, 2005, 1,300 of those missing were either in heavily-damaged areas or were disabled and "feared dead"; if all 1,300 of these were to be confirmed dead, Katrina would surpass the Okeechobee Hurricane and become the second-deadliest in US history and deadliest in over a century. As of January 18, 2006, more than 3,200 people remain unaccounted for, so the death toll may still grow.

    history (behind the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928, the 1893 Chenier Caminanda Hurricane, and possibly the 1893 Sea Islands Hurricane). The official combined (direct and indirect) death toll now stands at 1,417, the fourth or fifth highest in U.S. Heavy damage was also inflicted onto the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, making Katrina the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of the United States and the deadliest since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. Most of the city was subsequently flooded mainly by water from the lake.

    On August 29, its storm surge breached the levee system that protected New Orleans from Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River. The sheer physical size of Katrina caused devastation far from the eye of the hurricane; it was possibly the largest hurricane of its strength ever recorded, but estimating the size of storms from before the 1960s (the pre-satellite era) is difficult or impossible. It weakened considerably as it was approaching land, making its second landfall on the morning of August 29 along the Central Gulf Coast near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana with 125 mph winds and a central pressure of 920 mbar, a strong Category 3 storm (having just weakened from Category 4 as it was making landfall). In the Gulf of Mexico it strengthened into a formidable Category 5 hurricane with maximum winds of 175 mph and minimum central pressure of 902 mbar.

    Katrina first made landfall as a Category 1 hurricane just north of Miami, Florida in late August, resulting in a dozen deaths in South Florida and spawning several tornadoes which happened not to strike any dwellings. . hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane. Katrina is estimated to be responsible for $75 billion in damages, making it the costliest hurricane in United States history; the storm has killed 1,417 people, becoming the deadliest U.S.

    Wind damage was reported well inland, impeding relief efforts. Levees separating Lake Pontchartrain from New Orleans were breached by the surge, ultimately flooding about 80% of the city. The storm surge from Katrina caused catastrophic damage along the coastlines of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. The storm weakened considerably before making its second landfall as an extremely large Category 3 storm on the morning of August 29 along the Central Gulf Coast near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana.

    Katrina formed over the Bahamas on August 23, 2005, and crossed southern Florida at Category 1 intensity before strengthening rapidly in the Gulf of Mexico, becoming the strongest hurricane in the central Gulf since Hurricane Camille. It was the third most powerful storm of the season, and the sixth-strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded. Hurricane Katrina was the eleventh named tropical storm, fifth hurricane, third major hurricane, and first Category 5 hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Tropical Storm Katrina threatens Florida, Bahamas.

    Hurricane Katrina strikes Florida, kills seven. Mandatory evacuation declared in New Orleans. Hurricane Katrina causes upwards of $12bn of damage; oil prices surge. At least 55 killed by Hurricane Katrina; serious flooding across affected region.

    Louisiana locked down; New Orleans could become a "toxic soup". Total evacuation of New Orleans planned. Navy helping New Orleans pets.

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