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Deep Throat

The term Deep Throat has several meanings:

  • Deep Throat is a 1972 pornographic movie. This is the origin of all the other meanings of the term.
  • Deep throating is a sexual act, a type of fellatio depicted in the movie.
  • Deep Throat was the name given to the source in the Washington Post investigation of the Watergate scandal, revealed on May 31, 2005 to be former FBI associate director W. Mark Felt.
  • In general, the term Deep Throat has since been used for secret inside informers or whistleblowers.
  • Deep Throat is the pseudonym of several fictional characters who have acted as a whistleblower:
    • Deep Throat in the television series The X-Files.
    • Deep Throat is the alias of a character in Metal Gear Solid.
  • Deep Throat or Win32.DeepThroat is a computer virus
  • Inside Deep Throat is a 2005 documentary about the 1972 movie.

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The term Deep Throat has several meanings:. Movies of most of these runs are available from the COMPET-N website. Inside Deep Throat is a 2005 documentary about the 1972 movie. In addition, a few players have also managed to complete Doom II in a single run on the Nightmare! difficulty setting, on which monsters are twice as fast and respawn some time after they have been killed (level designer John Romero characterized the idea of such a run as "[just having to be] impossible"[13]). Deep Throat or Win32.DeepThroat is a computer virus. Achievements include the completion of both Doom and Doom II on the Ultra-Violence difficulty setting in less than 30 minutes each. Deep Throat is the alias of a character in Metal Gear Solid. Devoted players have spent years creating speedruns for Doom, competing for the quickest completion times and sharing knowledge about routes through the levels and how to exploit bugs in the Doom engine for shortcuts.

Deep Throat in the television series The X-Files. There are well over 50 different Doom source ports, some of which remain under active development. Deep Throat is the pseudonym of several fictional characters who have acted as a whistleblower:

    . Fans then began porting the game to various operating systems, even to previously unsupported platforms such as the Dreamcast, PSP and the iPod, and adding new features such as OpenGL rendering and scripting, which allows WADs to alter the gameplay more radically. In general, the term Deep Throat has since been used for secret inside informers or whistleblowers. Interest in Doom was renewed in 1997, when the source code for the Doom engine was released (it was also placed under the GNU General Public License in 1999). Mark Felt. Although the popularity of the Doom games dropped with the release of Quake (1996) and afterwards, the games have retained a strong fan base that continues playing competitively and creating WADs (the idgames FTP archive receives a few to a dozen new WADs each week as of 2005), and Doom-related news is still tracked at multiple websites such as Doomworld.

    Deep Throat was the name given to the source in the Washington Post investigation of the Watergate scandal, revealed on May 31, 2005 to be former FBI associate director W. However, several game journalists have also contrasted the relatively simplistic gameplay in Doom unfavorably with more story-oriented first-person shooters such as Half-Life. Deep throating is a sexual act, a type of fellatio depicted in the movie. It was voted the "#1 game of all time" in a poll among over 100 game developers and journalists conducted by GameSpy in July 2001[12], and PC Gamer proclaimed Doom the most influential game of all time in its ten-year anniversary issue in April 2004. This is the origin of all the other meanings of the term. Doom is widely regarded as one of the most important titles in gaming history. Deep Throat is a 1972 pornographic movie. However, although Harris did design Doom levels, they were not simulations of Columbine (see Harris levels).

    A rumor spread afterwards that Harris had designed Doom levels that looked like the halls of the high school, populated with representations of Harris's classmates and teachers, and that Harris practiced for Columbine by playing these levels over and over. While planning for the massacre, Harris said that the killing would be "like fucking Doom" and that his shotgun was "straight out of" the game[11]. The game again sparked controversy throughout a period of school shootings in the United States when it was found that Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, who committed the Columbine High School massacre in 1999, were avid players of the game. David Grossman.[10] Doom prompted fears that the then-emerging virtual reality technology could be used to simulate extremely realistic killing, and in 1994 led to unsuccessful attempts by Washington state senator Phil Talmadge to introduce compulsory licensing of VR use.

    Col. It has been criticized numerous times by Christian organizations for its diabolic undertones and was dubbed a "mass murder simulator" by critic and Killology Research Group founder Lt. Doom was and remains notorious for its high levels of violence, gore, and Satanic imagery, which have generated much controversy from a broad range of groups. The game's development and impact on popular culture is also the subject of the book Masters of Doom by David Kushner.

    Doom has appeared in several forms in addition to games, including a comic book, four novels by Dafydd Ab Hugh and Brad Linaweaver (loosely based on events and locations in the games), and a film starring Karl Urban and The Rock released in 2005. A retelling of the original Doom using entirely new graphics technology, Doom 3 was hyped to provide as large a leap in realism and interactivity as the original Doom, but received mixed reactions when released in 2004. The franchise remained in that state until 2000, when Doom 3 was announced. When, three years later, 3D Realms released Duke Nukem 3D, a tongue-in-cheek science fiction shooter based on Ken Silverman's technologically similar Build engine, id Software had nearly finished Quake, its next-generation game, which mirrored Doom's success for the remainder of the 1990s and significantly reduced interest in its predecessor.

    [9]. The popularity of Star Wars-themed WADs is rumored to have been the factor that prompted LucasArts to create their first-person shooter Dark Forces. Doom's principal rivals were Apogee's Rise of the Triad and Origin Systems' System Shock. Some of these were certainly "clones"—hastily assembled and quickly forgotten about—others explored new grounds of the genre and were highly acclaimed.

    Dozens of new first-person shooter titles appeared following Doom's release, and they were often referred to as "Doom clones" rather than "first-person shooters". There is also a Doom-based game released by a breakfast cereal maker as a product tie-in called Chex Quest, and the United States Marine Corps released Marine Doom, designed to "teach teamwork, coordination and decision-making". The game engine was licensed to several other companies as well, who released their own games based on it, including Heretic, HeXen, Strife and HacX. The total number of copies of Doom games sold is unknown, but may be well over 4 million[8]; Doom II alone has sold for over $100 million.

    Doom became a killer application that all capable consoles and operating systems were expected to have, and versions of Doom have subsequently been released for the following systems: DOS, Microsoft Windows, QNX, Irix, NEXTSTEP, Linux, Apple Macintosh, Super NES, Sega 32X, Sony PlayStation, Game Boy Advance, RiscOS, Atari Jaguar, Sega Saturn, Nintendo 64, the Tapwave Zodiac and 3DO. The popularity of Doom led to the development of a sequel, Doom II: Hell on Earth (1994), as well as expansion packs and alternate versions based on the same game engine, including The Ultimate Doom (1995), Final Doom (1996), and Doom 64 (1997). Main articles: Doom clones, Versions and ports of Doom, Doom spin-offs and homages. A typical launcher would allow the player to select which files to load from a menu, making it much easier to start.

    Third party programs were also written to handle the loading of various WADs, since the game is a DOS game and all commands had to be entered on the command line to run. Several thousands of WADs have been created in total: the idgames FTP archive contains over 13,000 files[7], and this does not represent the complete output of Doom fans. A few WADs have been released commercially, including the Master Levels for Doom II, which was released in 1995 along with Maximum Doom, a CD containing 1,830 WADs that had been downloaded from the Internet. FTP servers became the primary method in later years.

    Around 1994 and 1995, WADs were primarily distributed online over bulletin board systems or sold in collections on compact discs in computer shops, sometimes bundled with editing guide books. Notable ones were samples from Beavis and Butthead and the famous orgasm scene from When Harry Met Sally.... Some addon files were also made which changed the sounds made by the various characters and weapons. Although the majority of WADs contain one or several custom levels mostly in the style of the original game, others implement new monsters and other resources, and heavily alter the gameplay; several popular movies, television series and other brands from popular culture have been turned into Doom WADs by fans (without authorization), including Aliens, Star Wars, The X-files, The Simpsons and Batman.

    The first level editors appeared in early 1994, and additional tools have been created that allow most aspects of the game to be edited. Several to-be professional game designers started their careers making Doom WADs as a hobby, among them Tim Willits, who later became the lead designer at id Software. Gaining the first large mod-making community, Doom affected the culture surrounding first-person shooters, and also the industry. The ability to create custom levels and otherwise modify the game, in the form of custom WAD files, turned out to be a particularly popular aspect of Doom.

    Main article: Doom WADs. Due to its widespread distribution, Doom hence became the game that introduced deathmatching to a large audience (and was also the first game to use the term "deathmatch"). Two player deathmatch was also possible over a phone line by using a modem. However, Doom was the first game to allow deathmatching over ethernet, and the combination of violence and gore with fighting friends made deathmatching in Doom particularly attractive.

    Doom was not the first first-person shooter with a deathmatch mode—MIDI Maze on the Atari ST had one in 1987, using the MIDI ports built into the ST to network up to four machines together. In addition to the thrilling nature of the single-player game, the deathmatch mode was an important factor in the game's popularity. It also received the Award for Technical Excellence from PC Magazine, and the Best Action Adventure Game award by the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences. In 1994, it was awarded Game of the Year by both PC Gamer and Computer Gaming World.

    Doom was also widely praised in the gaming press. [6]. One such presentation to promote Windows 95 had Bill Gates digitally superimposed into the game. The game's popularity prompted Bill Gates to briefly consider buying id Software, and led Microsoft to develop a Windows 95 port of Doom to promote the operating system as a gaming platform.

    In late 1995, Doom was estimated to be installed on more computers worldwide than Microsoft's new operating system Windows 95, despite million-dollar advertising campaigns for the latter. At the Microsoft campus, Doom was by one account[5a] equal to a "religious phenomenon". Intel, Lotus Development and Carnegie Mellon University are among many organizations reported to form policies specifically disallowing Doom-playing during work hours. This prediction came true at least in part: Doom became a major problem at workplaces, both occupying the time of employees and clogging computer networks with traffic caused by deathmatches.

    In a press release dated January 1, 1993, id Software had written that they expected Doom to be "the number one cause of decreased productivity in businesses around the world". In 1995, The Ultimate Doom (version 1.9, including episode IV) was released, making this the first time that Doom was sold commercially in stores. Although most users did not purchase the registered version, over one million copies have been sold, and the popularity helped the sales of later games in the Doom series which were not released as shareware. Released as shareware, people were encouraged to distribute Doom further, and did so: in 1995, Doom was estimated to have been installed on more than 10 million computers.

    (Many years later these alpha versions were sanctioned by id Software because of historical interest; they reveal how the game progressed from its early design stages.) The first public version of Doom was uploaded to an FTP run at the University of Wisconsin on December 10, 1993. In addition to news, rumors, and screenshots, unauthorized leaked alpha versions also circulated online. The large number of posts in Internet newsgroups about Doom led to the SPISPOPD joke, to which a nod was given in the game in the form of a cheat code. The development of Doom was surrounded by much anticipation.

    The ability to create custom scenarios contributed significantly to the game's popularity (see the section on WADs below). Wolfenstein 3D was not designed to be expansible, but fans had nevertheless figured out how to create their own levels for it, and Doom was designed to take the phenomenon further. Another important feature of the Doom engine is a modular approach that allows the game content to be replaced by loading custom WAD files. Another benefit was the clearness of the automap because it could be displayed with 2D vectors without the risk of overlapping.

    This two-dimensional representation does, however, have the benefit that rendering can be done very quickly, using a binary space partitioning method. This leads to several limitations: it is, for example, not possible for a Doom level to have one room over another. Most significantly, Doom levels are not truly three-dimensional; they are internally represented on a plane, with height differences added separately (a similar trick is still used by many games to create huge outdoor environments). Carmack had to make use of several tricks for these features to run smoothly on 1993's home computers.

    Monsters can also become aware of the player's presence by hearing distant gunshots. The player is kept on guard by the grunts and gnarls of monsters, and receives occasional clues to finding secret areas in the form of sounds of hidden doors opening remotely. The life-like feeling of the environment was enhanced further by the stereo sound system, which made it possible to roughly tell the direction and distance of a sound's origin. In contrast to the static levels of Wolfenstein 3D, those in Doom are highly interactive: platforms can lower and rise, floors can raise sequentially to form staircases, and bridges can raise and lower.

    The advance from id Software's previous game Wolfenstein 3D was enabled by several new features in the Doom engine:. Doom's primary distinguishing feature at the time of its release was its realistic 3D graphics, then unparalleled by other real-time-rendered games running on consumer-level hardware. Main article: Doom engine. [5].

    A heavy metal-ambient soundtrack was supplied by Bobby Prince. The graphics, by Adrian Carmack, Kevin Cloud and Gregor Punchatz, were created in various ways: although much was drawn or painted, several of the monsters were digitized from sculptures in clay or latex, and some of the weapons are toy guns from Toys "R" Us. Most of the level design that ended up in the final game is that of John Romero and Sandy Petersen. Designer Tom Hall wrote an elaborate design document called the Doom Bible, according to which the game would feature a detailed storyline, multiple player characters, and a number of interactive features.[4] However, many of his ideas were discarded during development in favor of simpler design primarily advocated by Carmack, resulting in Hall in the end being forced to resign due to not contributing effectively in the direction the rest of the team was going.

    The title of the game was picked by Carmack:. When the game design phase began in late 1992, the main thematic influences were the science fiction action movie Aliens and the horror movie Evil Dead II. The development of Doom started in 1992 with John Carmack creating the new game engine, the Doom engine, while the rest of the team finished Spear of Destiny. Main article: Making of Doom.


    . Aside from the single-player game mode, Doom features two multiplayer modes playable over a network: "co-operative", in which two to four players team up against the legions of Hell, and "deathmatch", in which two to four players fight each other. The monsters have very simple behavior, consisting of either walking toward the player or attacking by throwing fireballs, biting, and scratching (though they can also fight each other). There are 10 types of monsters (Doom II doubles this figure), including possessed humans as well as demons of different strength, ranging from weak but ubiquitous imps and red, floating cacodemons, to the bosses which survive multiple strikes even from the player's strongest weapons.

    The player faces them in large numbers, on the higher of the game's five difficulty levels often encountering a dozen or more in the same room. The enemy monsters in Doom make up the central gameplay element. There is a wide array of power-ups, such as a backpack that increases the player's ammunition-carrying capacity, armor, first aid kits to restore health, and blue demonic orbs that boost the player's health percentage beyond 100%, up to a maximum of 200%. The player starts armed only with a pistol, and brass-knuckled fists in case the ammunition runs out, but larger weapons can be picked up: these are a chainsaw, a shotgun, a chaingun, a rocket launcher, a plasma rifle, and finally the immensely powerful BFG 9000.

    Doom is notable for the weapons arsenal available to the player, which became prototypical for first-person shooters. The levels are sometimes labyrinthine (the automap is a crucial aid in navigating them), and feature plenty of hidden secret areas that hold power-ups as a reward for players who explore. Among the obstacles are monsters, pits of radioactive slime, ceilings that come down and crush the player, and locked doors for which a keycard or remote switch need to be located. The objective of each level is simply to locate the exit room that leads to the next area (usually labeled with an inviting red EXIT sign), while surviving all hazards on the way.

    Being a first-person shooter, Doom is experienced through the eyes of the main character. Main article: Gameplay of Doom. The expansion pack Ultimate Doom adds a fourth episode, Thy Flesh Consumed, chronicling the marine's return to Earth. After destroying the final boss, the Spider Mastermind, a hidden doorway opens for the hero who has "proven too tough for Hell to contain", leading back home to Earth.

    The player climbs down to the surface, and the final episode, Inferno, begins. After encountering the Cyberdemon, the truth about the vanished moon is discovered: it is floating above Hell. In the second episode, Shores of Hell, the player journeys through the Deimos installation, whose areas are interwoven with beastly architecture. It ends with the player fighting the Barons of Hell and afterwards entering the teleporter leading to Deimos, there getting overwhelmed by monsters and seemingly killed.

    Knee-Deep in the Dead, the first episode and the only one in the shareware version, is set in the high-tech military bases on Phobos. In order to beat the game, the player must fight through three episodes containing nine levels each (see Episodes and levels of Doom). A UAC team from Mars is sent to Phobos to investigate the incident, but soon radio contact ceases and only one human is left alive — the player, whose task is to make it out alive.[2]. At the same time, Deimos vanishes entirely.

    A defensive response from base security fails to halt the invasion, and the bases quickly get overrun by demons, all personnel getting killed or turned into zombies. Suddenly, something goes wrong and creatures from Hell come out of the teleportation gates. He is forced to work for the Union Aerospace Corporation (UAC), a military-industrial conglomerate that is performing secret experiments with teleportation between the moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. The player takes the role of a nameless space marine, "one of Earth's toughest, hardened in combat and trained for action", who has been deported to Mars for assaulting a senior officer when ordered to kill unarmed civilians.

    The background is only given in the game's manual, and the in-game story is mainly advanced with short messages displayed between the game's episodes. Doom has a science-fictionhorror theme, and a simple plot. . The franchise again received popular attention in 2004 with the release of Doom 3, a retelling of the original game using new technology, and an associated 2005 Doom motion picture.

    The series lost mainstream appeal as the technology of the Doom game engine was surpassed in the mid-1990s, although fans have continued making WADs, speedrunning, and modifying the source code which was released in 1997. Originally released for PC/DOS, these games have later been ported to many other platforms, including nine different game consoles. The Doom franchise was continued with Doom II: Hell on Earth (1994) and numerous expansion packs, including The Ultimate Doom (1995), Master Levels for Doom II (1995), and Final Doom (1996). Its graphic and interactive violence[1] has also made Doom the subject of much controversy reaching outside the gaming world.

    Distributed as shareware, Doom was downloaded by an estimated 10 million people within two years, popularizing the mode of gameplay and spawning a gaming subculture; as a sign of its impact on the industry, games from the mid-1990s boom of first-person shooters are often known simply as "Doom clones". It is widely recognized for its pioneer use of immersive 3D graphics, networked multiplayer gaming, and the support for players to create custom expansions (WADs). Doom (or DOOM)a is a 1993 computer game by id Software that is among the landmark titles in the first-person shooter genre. The variation DooM, stylized after the game's logo, is also occasionally encountered, but has fallen out of use almost completely in recent years.

    Note a: The variations Doom and DOOM have both been used in official contexts. URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. Planet Rome.ro. 1993: Doom.

    Romero, John. URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. The "Official" Doom FAQ. Leukart, Hank (1994).

    URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. Player profile for Thomas "Panter" Pilger. ^  Hegyi, Adam (1992). URL accessed on November 15, 2005..

    GameSpy. GameSpy's Top 50 Games of All Time. ^  GameSpy (2001). URL accessed on November 15, 2005..

    Basement Tapes: quotes and transcripts from Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold's video tapes. ^  4-20: a Columbine site. URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. Accuracy In Media.

    Video Games Can Kill. ^  Irvine, Reed & Kincaid, Cliff (1999). URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. GameSpy.

    Bringin' in the DOOM Clones. ^  Turner, Benjamin & Bowen, Kevin (2003). URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. Sales.

    ^  Doom Wiki (2005). URL accessed on September 3, 2005.. /idgames database. ^  Doomworld.

    URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. Reel Splatter. Bonus movie: Bill Gates "DOOM" video. ^  Lombardo, Mike.

    ISBN 0-3755-0524-5.. Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture, Random House Publishing Group. ^ a  Kushner, David (2003). URL accessed on November 15, 2005..

    Doomworld (1998). The Doom Bible. ^  Hall, Tom (1992). URL accessed on November 15, 2005..

    Interview with John Carmack. ^  Doomworld. URL accessed on November 15, 2005.. The Doom instruction manual (unofficial transcript).

    ^  id Software (1993). URL accessed on December 4, 2004.. Game ratings. ^  Entertainment Software Rating Board.

    While contributing to the game's visual authenticity by allowing effects such as highlights and shadows, this perhaps most importantly added to the game's atmosphere and even gameplay; the use of darkness as a means of frightening or confusing the player was an unseen element in games. Varying light levels (all areas in Wolfenstein 3D are fully lit at the same brightness). Full texture mapping of all surfaces (in Wolfenstein 3D, floors and ceilings are not texture mapped); and,. Non-perpendicular walls (all walls in Wolfenstein 3D run along a rectangular grid);.

    Height differences (all rooms in Wolfenstein 3D are at the same altitude);.

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