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Flag of Denmark

The Dannebrog. This version, known as the Stutflag, is used for civilian purposes. Proportions: 28:37

The national flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side. The cross design of the Danish flag was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries: Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. During the Danish-Norwegian personal union, the Dannebrog was also the flag of Norway and continued to be, with slight modifications, until Norway adopted its current flag in 1821.

The royal Danish yacht is named after the flag.

The legendary origin of the flag

The legend of the flag is very popular among Danes, but most consider it to be a legend though a beautiful one. The legend says that during the Battle of Lyndanisse, also known as the Battle of Valdemar (Danish: "Volmerslaget"), near Reval (Tallinn) in Estonia, on 15 June 1219, the flag fell from the sky during a critical stage, resulting in Danish victory.

Dannebrog falling from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse, 15 June, 1219. Painted by Christian August Lorentzen in 1809. Original located on Statens Museum for Kunst, Denmark

No historical record supports this legend. The first record of the legend dates from more than 300 years after the campaign, and the first record connects the legend to a much smaller battle, though still in Estonia; the battle of Fellin (Viljandi) in 1208. Though no historical support exists for the flag story in the Fellin battle either, it is not difficult to understand how a small and unknown place is replaced with the much grander battle of Reval from the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II.

This story originates from two written sources from the early 16th century.

The first is found in Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike", which is a sequel to Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, written 1520-1523. It is not mentioned in connection to the campaign of King Valdemar II in Estonia, but in connection with a campaign in Russia. He also mentions that this flag, falling from the sky during the Russian campaign of King Valdemar II, is the very same flag that King Eric of Pomerania took with him when he left the country in 1440 after being deposed as King.

The second source is the writing of the Franciscan monk Petrus Olai (Peder Olsen) of Roskilde, from 1527. This record describes a battle in 1208 near a place called "Felin" during the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. The Danes were all but defeated when a lamb-skin banner depicting a white cross falls from the sky and miraculously leads to a Danish victory. In another record by Petrus Olai called "Danmarks Tolv Herligheder" (Twelve Splendours of Denmark), in splendour number nine, the same story is re-told almost to the word, however a paragraph has been inserted correcting the year to 1219.

Whether or not these records describe a truly old oral story in existents at that time, or a 16th century invented story, is not currently determined.

Some historians believe that the story by Petrus Olai refers to a source from the first half of the 15th century, making this the oldest reference to the falling flag.

The continuation of the romantic legend

The story of the original flag has a continuation that many Danes are not aware of.

According to tradition, the original flag from the Battle of Lyndanisse was used in the small campaign of 1500 when King Hans tried to conquer Dithmarschen (in western Holstein in north Germany). The flag was lost in a devastating defeat on 17 February 1500. In 1559, King Frederik II recaptured it during his own Dithmarschen campaign. In the capitulation terms it is stated that all Danish banners lost in 1500 were to be returned.

One of Hans Knieper’s heroic paintings of Danish kings from 1585. King Erik Menved storming a castle. Note the two Danish flags. Original located on Kronborg Castle.

This legend is found in two sources, Hans Svanning's History of King John from 1558-1559 and Johan Rantzau's History about the Last Dithmarschen War, from 1569. Both claims that this was the original flag, and consequently both writers knew the legend of the falling flag. In 1576, the son of Johan Rantzau, Henrik Rantzau, also writes about the war and the fate of the flag. He notes that the flag was in a poor condition when returned.

Sources from Dithmarschen, written shortly after the battle of 1500, do mention banners, including the Royal banner, being captured from the Danes, but there is no mention of Dannebrog or the "original" flag. It is quite plausible that the king’s personal banner as well as the leading banner of the army were both lost, as the battle was led by the King himself. However, it is more questionable if he indeed was carrying the "original" flag.

In a letter dated 22 February 1500 to Oluf Stigsøn, King John describes the battle, but does not mention the loss of an important flag. In fact, the entire letter gives the impression that the lost battle was noting more than an "unfortunate affair".

An indication that we are dealing with multiple flags, are the 1570 writings of Niels Hemmingsøn regarding a bloody battle between Danes and Swedes near the Swedish town of Uppsala in 1520. He writes that the "Danish head banner" ("Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner") was nearly captured by the Swedes. It was saved only by the combined efforts of the banner-carrier Mogens Gyldenstierne, taking multiple wounds, and a young man coming to his rescue. This young man was Peder Skram. This "Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner" was probably nothing short of the "Banner of the Realm'" (Rigsbanner), the Dannebrog.

This is however not the end of the story. A priest and historian from Dithmarschen, Johan Neocorus, wrote in 1598 that the banner captured in 1500, was brought to the church in Wohrden and hung there for the next 59 years, until it was returned to the Danes as part of the peace settlement in 1559. Henrik Rantzau states in his writing of 1576 that the flag was brought to Slesvig city and placed in the cathedral, following its return.

A historian from Slesvig, Ulrik Petersen (1656-1735), wrote in the late 17th century that the flag hung in Slesvig cathedral till about 1660 until it simply crumbled away, thus ending its more than 400-year-old story.

Historically, it is of course impossible to prove or disprove that these records speak of the same flag. If the flag of 1208 or 1219 ever existed. Many of these legends are apparently built on earlier ones.

Other theories of the origin of the flag

Other origin theories have been put forth in the late 19th and early 20th century.

The Danish flag from the front page of Christiern Pedersen’s version of Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, 1514. Full frontpage can be seen here.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #2

The Danish historian Caspar Paludan-Müller in 1873 in his book "Sagnet om den himmelfaldne Danebrogsfane" put forth the theory that it is a banner sent by the Pope to the Danish King to use in his crusades in the Baltic countries. Other kings and lords certainly received such banners.

One would though imagine that if this story was true, some kind of record ought to exist of the event and presumably Danish historians would not have failed to mention it in some way. Being granted a banner by the Pope would have been a great honour, but despite the many letters of the popes relating to the crusades, none of them mentions granting a banner to a King of Denmark. On the other hand, the letter in question might simply have been lost.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #3

A similar theory was suggested by Danish explorer, adventurer and Captain Johan Støckel in the early 20th century. He suggested that it was not a pope banner to the King but a pope banner to the Churchly legate in the North, more specifically to archbishop Andreas Sunesøn, which he - without the knowledge of the King – brought with him on the King's crusade in the Baltic countries, in an effort to make the army take on a Christian symbol (over the king's symbol) and thereby strengthen the power of the church.

It is unlikely that the very fair and loyal archbishop would do such a thing behind the king's back. Moreover, it is unlikely that the pope would send such a banner, given the fact that they already had one, namely the banner of the Knights Hospitaller (Danish: "Johanitterne").

Theories of the origin of the flag, #4

A theory brought forth by the Danish historian Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen in 1875 in his book Danebroges Oprindelse, is that the Danish flag is the banner of the Knights Hospitaller. He supports his theory with that the order came to Denmark in the latter half of the 12th century and during the next centuries spread to major cities, like Odense, Viborg, Horsens, Ribe and their headquarters in Slagelse, so by the time of the Baltic crusade, the symbol was already a known symbol in Denmark.

Furthermore he claims that Bishop Theodorik, already a part initiator of the order in Livonia, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, had the idea of starting a similar order in Estonia and that he was the original instigator of Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden inquiry to King Valdemar II in 1218, that set the whole Danish participation in the Baltic crusades in motion.

In the contemporary writing of the priest Henry of Livonia from Riga it is said that Bishop Theodorik was killed during the 1219 battle, as the enemy stormed his tent, thinking it was the King's tent. Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen explains that it was Bishop Theodorik who carried the flag, well planted outside his tent, thus as an already well-known Knights Hospitaller symbol in Livonia, the enemy thought this was the King's symbol and mistakenly stormed Bishop Theodorik tent. He claims that the origin of the legend of the falling flag comes from this confusion in the battle.

Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen does not give an explanation how the white Maltese cross on red of the Knights Hospitaller, found its way to the Danish flag of 1219, given the fact that in that time it was a white cross on black. The Knights Hospitaller is a monk-order and used black dresses. The white on red warrior-cloak cannot be traced until later.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #5

The Danish church-historian L. P. Fabricius put up yet another theory. It is explained in his study of 1934, titled "Sagnet om Dannebrog og de ældste Forbindelser med Estland'". In this study he put the location to 1208 Fellin and not the Battle of Lyndanisse in 1219, based on the earliest source available about the story.

He says in this theory that it might have been Archbishop Andreas Sunesøn's personal ecclestical banner or perhaps even the flag of Archbishop Absalon. That is based on his tireless efforts to expand Christianity to the Baltic countries and that under his initiative and supervision several smaller crusades had already been conducted in Estonia. The banner would then already be known in Estonia. He repeats the story about the flag being planted in front of Bishop Theodorik's tent which the enemy mistakenly attacks believing it to be the tent of the King.

All these theories centre on two battles in Estonia, whether it is in Fellin (1208) or Lyndanisse (1219), and thus try to explain the origin in relation to the tale brought forth over 300 years after the event.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #6

A much different theory is briefly discussed by Fabricius and elaborated more by Helga Bruhn in a book from 1949. She claims that it is neither the battle nor the banner that is central to the tale, but rather the cross in the sky. Similar tales of appearances in the sky at critical moments, particularly of crosses, can be found all over Europe.

Bruhn mentions a battle (also mentioned by Fabricius) taking place on September 10, 1217 between Christian knights and Moor warriors on the Iberian Peninsula near the castle Alcazar, where it is said that a golden cross on white appeared in the sky, to bring victory to the Christians. Likewise an almost identical Swedish tale from the 18th century about a yellow cross on blue appearing in 1157 during a Swedish battle in Finland. Probably a later invention to counter the legendary origins of the Danish flags, but never the less of the same nature. The English flag, the Saint George's Cross is also claimed to have appeared in the sky during a critical battle, in this case in Jerusalem during the crusades.

The similarities to the legends is obvious. In Spain, the colours of the Pope appears in the sky, in Finland the Swedish colours. In Estonia it is the Danish colours, and in Jerusalem the English colours. Basically, these are all variations of the same legend.

Since King Valdamar II was married to the Portuguese princess, Berengaria, it is not unthinkable that the origin of the story, if not the flag, was the Spanish tale or a similar tale, which again might have been inspired by an even older legend.

Earliest recorded use of the flag

One of the seals of Erik VII, 1398. Note the Dannebrog banner in the coat of arms

Danish literature of the 13th and 14th centuries remains suspiciously quiet about the national flag. Whether the flag has its origins in a divine sign, a banner of a military order, an ecclesiastical banner, or perhaps something entirely different, Danish literature is no help before the early 15th century.

However, several coins, seals and images exist, both foreign and domestic, from the 13th to 15th centuries and even earlier, showing flags similar to the Dannebrog. In the 19th and early 20th century, these images were used by many Danish historians, with a good flair of nationalism, trying to date the origins of the flag to 1219. However, if one examines the few existing foreign sources about Denmark from the 13th to 15th centuries, it is apparent that, at least from foreign point of view; the national symbol of Denmark was not a red-and-white banner but the royal coat of arms (three blue lions of a golden shield.) This coat of arms remains in use to this day.

An obvious place to look for documentation is in the Estonian city of Tallinn, the site of the legendary battle. In Tallinn, a coat-of-arms resembling the flag is found on several buildings and can be traced back to the middle of the 15th century where it appears in the coat-of-arms of the "Die Grosse Gilde", a sort of merchant consortium which greatly influenced the city's development. The symbol later became the coat-of-arms of the city. Efforts to trace it from Estonia back to Denmark have, however, been in vain.

The national Coat of Arms of Estonia, three blue lions on a golden shield, is almost identical to the Coat of Arms of Denmark, and its origin can be traced directly back to King Valdemar II and Danish rule in Estonia 1219-1346.

Earliest undisputed link

Page 55 verso in the Dutch book Wapenboek Gelre. Displaying the earliest known undisputed colourized image of Dannebrog

The earliest source that indisputably links the red flag with a white cross to a Danish King, and to the realm itself, is found in a Dutch register of coats-of-arms “Wapenboek Gelre”, written between 1340 and 1370 (some sources say 1378 or 1386). Most historians claim that the book was written by Geldre Claes Heinen. The book displays some 1700 coats-of-arms from all over Europe, in colour. It is now located on the Royal Library of Brussels (the "Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier").

On page 55 verso we find the Danish coat-of-arms with a helmet on top with horns. On the right horn is a Danish banner. The text left of the coat of arms says “die coninc van denmarke” (The King of Denmark). This is the earliest known undisputed colour rendering of the Dannebrog.

This image has been used to acknowledge a previously disputed theory that the cross found in Valdemar Atterdag's coats of arms located in his Danælog seal ("Rettertingsseglet") from 1356 is indeed the cross from the Danish flag.

This image from "Wapenboek Gelre" is near identical found in an old coats of arms book from the 15th century now located in the National Archives of Sweden, ("Riksarkivet")

From Queen Margaret I and King Erik VII time we also have a case that undisputedly links Dannebrog to Denmark. The royal seal of King Erik VII from 1398 - the first combined coat of arms found in Denmark - shows the flag twice; the cross that separates the four coats-of-arms is the cross of the Dannebrog and the coat of arms representing Denmark show the three lions holding a Dannebrog banner.

Origin and meaning of "Dannebrog"

From King's banner to National flag

Laws and flag variations

Denmark does not have a specified flag law, but various regulations and rules spread out over many documents, from King Christian IV's time till today, can be found. The quest to unite them into a specified flag law have been brought forth many times, especially in the 20th century, but it never amounted to anything.

National flag

The size and shape of the coufhordie flag ("Koffardiflaget") for merchant ships is given in the regulation of June 11, 1748, which says: A red flag with a white cross with no split end. The white cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form and the two outer fields most be 6/4 lengths of those.

The proportions are thus: 3:1:3 vertically and 3:1:4.5 horizontally. This definition are the absolute proportions for the Danish national flag to this day, for both the civil version of the flag, "Stutflaget", as well as the merchant flag ("Handelsflaget"). Both flags are identical.

A somewhat curious regulation came in 1758 concerning Danish ships sailing in the Mediterranean. These had to carry the King's cypher logo in the center of the flag, to distinguish them from Maltese ships, due to the similarity of the flag of the Order of St. John (a.k.a. the Knights Hospitaller). To the best of knowledge, this regulation has never been revoked, however it is probably no longer done.

According to the regulation of June 11, 1748 the colour was simply red, which is common known today as "Dannebrog rød" ("Dannebrog red"). The only available red fabric colour in 1748 was made of bracken root, which make a brownish red. The private company, Dansk Standard, regulation number 359 of 2005, defines the red colour of the flag as Pantone 186c. No official nuance definition of "Dannebrog rød" exists.

During the next about 150 years nobody paid much attention to actually abide fully to the proportions of the flag given in the 1748 regulation, not even the government. As late as 1892 it was stated in a series of regulations that the correct lengths of the two last fields in the flag were 6/4. Some interested in the matter made inquires into the issue and concluded that the 6/4 length would make the flag look blunt. Any new flag would also quickly become unlawful, due to wear and tear. They also noted that the flag currently used had lengths, of the last two fields, anywhere between 7/4 to 13/6.

So in May 1893 a new regulation to all chiefs of police, stated that the police should not intervene, if the two last fields in the flag were longer than 6/4 as long as these did not exceed 7/4, and provided that this was the only rule violated.

This regulation is still in effect today and thus the legal proportions of the National flag is today anywhere between 3:1:3 width / 3:1:4.5 length and 3:1:3 width / 3:1:5.25 length.

That some confusion still exists in this matter can be seen from the regulation of May 4, 1927, which once again states that Danish merchant ships have to fly flags according to the regulation of 1748.

Splitflag

The Splitflag - the Danish State Flag. Proportions: 56:107 The Orlogsflag - the Danish Naval Flag. Proportions: 56:107

The Splitflag or Orlogsflag have similar specifications, but legally, they are two different flags. The Splitflag is a Danish flag ending in a swallow-tail, it is Dannebrog red, and is used on land. The Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deeper red colour and is only used on sea.

The Orlogsflag with no markings, may only be used by the Royal Danish Navy. There are though a few exceptions to this. A few institutions have been allowed to fly the clean Orlogsflag. Same flag with markings has been approved for a few dozen companies and institutions over the years.

Furthermore, the Orlogsflag is only described as such if it has no additional markings. Any swallow-tail flag, no matter the color, is called a Splitflag provided it bears additional markings.

The first regulation regarding the Splitflag dates from 27 March, 1630, where King Christian IV orders that Norwegian "Defensionskibe" (merchants ships with guns) may only use the Splitflag if they are in war-service under Denmark. In 1685 an order, distributed to a number of cities in Slesvig, says that all ships must carry the Danish flag, and in 1690 all merchants ships is forbidden to use the Splitflag, with the exception of ships sailing in the East Indies, West Indies and at the coast of Africa. In 1741 it is re-stated that the regulation of 1690 is still very much in effect, that merchants ships may not use the Splitflag. At the same time it is now allowed the Danish East India Company to use the Splitflag when past the equator.

It is obvious that some confusion must have existed regarding the Splitflag. In 1696 the Admiralty presented the King with a proposal for a standard regulating both size and shape of the Splitflag. In the same year a Royal resolution defines the proportions of the Splitflag, which in this resolution is called Kongeflaget (the King's flag), as follows: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form with the sides three times the cross width. The two outer fields are rectangular and 1½ the length of the square fields. The tails are the length of the flag.

These numbers are the basic for the Splitflag, or Orlogsflag, today, though the numbers have been slightly altered. The term Orlogsflag dates from 1806 and denotes use in the Royal Danish Navy.

From about 1750 to early 1800's a number of ships / companies which the government has interests in, received approval to used the Splitflag. From the mid 1800's to 1899 another bunch of institutions and private companies also received approval to use the Splitflag. Especially after 1870 the government generous and with little thought hand out approval to all kinds to institutions.

In royal resolution of October 25, 1939 for the Danish Navy, it is stated that the Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deep red ("Kraprød" or "dybrød") colour. Like the National flag, no nuance is given, but in modern days this is given as 195U. Furthermore the size and shape is corrected in this resolution to be: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form with the height of 3/7 of the flags height. The two outer fields are rectangular and 5/4 the length of the square fields. The tails are 6/4 the length of the rectangular fields.

Comparing this to the 1696 resolution one can see that both the rectangular fields and the tails have become smaller.

Who may use what?

1. Stutflag: This is the national flag of Denmark and is used by for all civilian purposes including the merchant navy. Any Dane can have a flagpole in the garden and use the flag according to the law. When the flag is not hoisted, for instance during darkness, a long narrow version called a vimpel or a wider version called a stander can be flown.

2. Splitflag: The use of the swallow-tail flag is restricted to the Danish Government and Navy. Note: The Naval Flag has a darker hue than the State Flag. Private yachts and motor boats are allowed to use the Naval Flag with the letters Y.F.(for Yacht Flag) superimposed in the upper canton. This flag is not allowed on boats for hire.

3. Kongeflag (literally: The King's Flag): This is the flag of the Monarch. It is currently used by H.M. Queen Margrethe II.

4. Dronningeflag (literally: The Queen's flag). This is the flag of the consort of the monarch. The main difference from the flag of the monarch is that this version of the royal coat-of-arms lacks the supporters, two wild men. This flag was used by H.M. Queen Ingrid, and is currently not in use, since the Prince Consort, H.R.H. Prince Henrik uses a special flag with a his personal coat of arms in the centre (originally, he used a flag with a crowned "H" in the centre).

5. Rigsforstanderflag: This flag is used by the leading member of the Royal Family when the Queen is abroad, and shows that the person currently assumes the constitutional duties of the Monarch. This person remains the de facto Monarch, until the Monarch returns to Danish territory.

6. Tronfølgerflag: This is the flag of the Crown Prince of Denmark, currently H.R.H. Crown Prince Frederik.

7. Kongehusflag: This flag can be used by any member of the Danish Royal Family.

8. Forsvarsminister: This is the flag of the Minister of Defence.

9. Admiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Admiral is on board.

10. Viceadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that a Vice Admiral is on board.

11. Kontreadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Rear Admiral is on board.

12. Postflag: This is the former flag of the Royal Danish Mail and Telegraph (Danish: Kongelig Post og Telegrafvæsen), now Post Danmark.

13. Statens skibe: This flag is used on ships owned by the Danish State.

14. DSB: This flag is used by the DSB, the state railway company (Danske Statsbaner).

15. Havnepoliti: This is used by the Danish harbour police.

Flag days



References

  • Dannebrog - Vort Flag, Lieutenant Colonel Thaulow, Forlaget Codan, Copenhagen 1943
  • Dannebrog, Helga Bruhn, Forlaget Jespersen og Pios, Copenhagen 1949
  • Danebrog - Danmarks Palladium, E. D. Lund, Forlaget H. Hagerups, Copenhagen 1919
  • DS 359:2005 ’Flagdug’, Dansk Standard, 2005

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. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005, and many others.
. The importance of blind tasting is demonstrated in the historic Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, the Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, the St. Havnepoliti: This is used by the Danish harbour police. This is done because knowing the identity of a wine easily prejudices tasters for or against it because of its geographic origin, price, reputation, or other considerations. 15. Blind tasting of wine involves tasting and evaluating wines without any knowledge of their identities.

DSB: This flag is used by the DSB, the state railway company (Danske Statsbaner). The quantity of sulfites in a glass of wine is the same as a serving of dried apricots. 14. Many consumers who have adverse reactions to wine, such as headaches or hangovers, blame added sulfites but are probably reacting instead to naturally-occurring histamines. Statens skibe: This flag is used on ships owned by the Danish State. In the USA nearly all commercially produced wine, including that with no added sulfites, is required to state on the label "contains sulfites." In other countries they do not have to be declared on the label, leading to a common mistaken belief that only wine from the USA contains sulfites. 13. They can trigger a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction in a small percentage of consumers, primarily asthmatics.

Postflag: This is the former flag of the Royal Danish Mail and Telegraph (Danish: Kongelig Post og Telegrafvæsen), now Post Danmark. Sulfites (or sulphites) are chemicals that occur naturally in grapes and also are added to wine as a preservative. 12. Trace amounts of resveratrol exist in grapes, white wine and peanuts. Kontreadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Rear Admiral is on board. Sinclair of Harvard University and others claim that resveratrol is the active molecule responsible for the significant difference in lowering cancer risks and that the required amounts are only found in red wine. 11. Dr.

Viceadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that a Vice Admiral is on board. However, recent studies show that only red wine reduces the risk of contracting several types of cancer where beer and other alcoholic beverages show no change. 10. Other studies have shown that similar beneficial effects on the heart can be obtained from drinking beer, and distilled spirits. Admiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Admiral is on board. With excessive consumption, however, any health benefits are offset by the increased rate of various alcohol-related diseases, primarily cancers of mouth, upper respiratory tract, and ultimately, cirrhosis of liver. 9. Red wine also contains a significant amount of flavonoids and red anthocyanin pigments that act as antioxidants.

Forsvarsminister: This is the flag of the Minister of Defence. One particularly interesting polyphenol found in red wine is resveratrol, to which numerous beneficial effects have been attributed. 8. Compounds, known as polyphenols, are found in larger amounts in red wine, and there is some evidence that these are especially beneficial. Kongehusflag: This flag can be used by any member of the Danish Royal Family. Originally, the effect was observed with red wine. 7. It now seems clear that regular consumption of up to 1-2 drinks a day (1 standard drink is approximately equal to 5 oz, or 125 ml, of 13% wine) does reduce mortality, due to 10%–40% lower risk of coronary heart disease, for those over the age of 35 or so (see Alcohol consumption and health).

Crown Prince Frederik. In the USA, a boom in red wine consumption was touched off in the 1990s by '60 Minutes', and other news reports on the French paradox. Tronfølgerflag: This is the flag of the Crown Prince of Denmark, currently H.R.H. The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing debate and study. 6. 9:20-21) Wine remains an essential part of the Eucharistic rites in the Orthodox, Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican denominations of Christianity. This person remains the de facto Monarch, until the Monarch returns to Danish territory. (Gen.

Rigsforstanderflag: This flag is used by the leading member of the Royal Family when the Queen is abroad, and shows that the person currently assumes the constitutional duties of the Monarch. The New Testament even states that Jesus' very first miracle was to turn water into wine (John 2:1-11), and the Old Testament states that the fermentation of grapes was first discovered by Noah after the great flood described in Genesis. 5. Wine is also used in religious ceremonies in many cultures and the wine trade is of historical importance for many regions. Prince Henrik uses a special flag with a his personal coat of arms in the centre (originally, he used a flag with a crowned "H" in the centre). If in doubt, it is better to err on the side of too little aeration than too much. Queen Ingrid, and is currently not in use, since the Prince Consort, H.R.H. As a general rule, younger white wines normally require no more than 15-30 minutes of aeration while younger red wines should be no more than 30-60 minutes.

This flag was used by H.M. It should then be tasted every 15 minutes until the wine is, according to individual preference, ready to drink. The main difference from the flag of the monarch is that this version of the royal coat-of-arms lacks the supporters, two wild men. In general, wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it may be aerated, if at all. This is the flag of the consort of the monarch. Breathing, however, does not benefit all wines, and should not therefore be taken to the extreme. Dronningeflag (literally: The Queen's flag). Wines that are older generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration.

4. During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavours and makes them taste slightly smooth and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Queen Margrethe II. "Older", on the other hand, refers to the last one third of their lives. It is currently used by H.M. For most white wines, "younger" means up to one to two years, while for red wines, they could mean as little as a few months, for a Beaujolais Nouveau, up to ten years for a hearty Barossa Shiraz. Kongeflag (literally: The King's Flag): This is the flag of the Monarch. The word, "younger", refers to the first one third of a wine’s life, which varies from wine type to wine type and from wine to wine.

3. Generally, younger wines benefit from some aeration, while older wines do not. This flag is not allowed on boats for hire. 'Breathing' means allowing a wine to aerate before drinking. Private yachts and motor boats are allowed to use the Naval Flag with the letters Y.F.(for Yacht Flag) superimposed in the upper canton. to "breathe"), while other wines are recommended to be drunk as soon as they are opened. Note: The Naval Flag has a darker hue than the State Flag. The labels on certain bottles of wine suggest that they need to be set aside for an hour before drinking (ie.

Splitflag: The use of the swallow-tail flag is restricted to the Danish Government and Navy. Although there are many classes of dinner wines, they can be categorized under six specific classes as follows:. 2. The apéritif and dessert wines contain 14-20% alcohol, and are fortified to make them richer and sweeter than the light wines. When the flag is not hoisted, for instance during darkness, a long narrow version called a vimpel or a wider version called a stander can be flown. Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are also known as light wines, because they only contain approximately 10-14% alcohol. Any Dane can have a flagpole in the garden and use the flag according to the law. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex.

Stutflag: This is the national flag of Denmark and is used by for all civilian purposes including the merchant navy. Use of the term Meritage is protected by licensing agreements by The Meritage Association. 1. For example, Meritage is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Comparing this to the 1696 resolution one can see that both the rectangular fields and the tails have become smaller. Some blended wine names are marketing terms, and the use of these names is governed by trademark or copyright law, rather than a specific wine law or a patent on the actual varietal blend or process used to achieve it. The tails are 6/4 the length of the rectangular fields. Thus, the finest sparkling wines from California will be labeled "sparkling wine", while some less expensive sparkling wines from California as well as states, such as Ohio and New York, may bear the name "Champagne".

The two outer fields are rectangular and 5/4 the length of the square fields. For example, makers of American sparkling wines now generally find it to be of no advantage in the marketplace to use the name "Champagne" because the quality of their products is widely recognized. The two first fields must be square in form with the height of 3/7 of the flags height. Generally only less expensive, mass-produced wines (or vin ordinaire) make use of these place names as semi-generic wine names. Furthermore the size and shape is corrected in this resolution to be: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. Some European producers protest the practice for fear that it causes loss of sales, although only the most unsophisticated consumer would be confused or mislead by the practice. Like the National flag, no nuance is given, but in modern days this is given as 195U. winemakers to apply these terms to their wines even though the product does not come from these specific places.

In royal resolution of October 25, 1939 for the Danish Navy, it is stated that the Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deep red ("Kraprød" or "dybrød") colour. While most countries restrict the use of these place names, there exists a legal definition called semi-generic in the United States that enables U.S. Especially after 1870 the government generous and with little thought hand out approval to all kinds to institutions. All of these are names of specific regions in Europe. From the mid 1800's to 1899 another bunch of institutions and private companies also received approval to use the Splitflag. However, in the United States (except Oregon), the following European appellations are allowed to be used as generic wine names: Asti, Burgundy, Chablis, Champagne, Chianti, Madeira, Marsala, and Moselle. From about 1750 to early 1800's a number of ships / companies which the government has interests in, received approval to used the Splitflag. For example, in most of the world, wine labeled Champagne must be made from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France and fermented using a certain method, based on the international trademark agreements included in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.

The term Orlogsflag dates from 1806 and denotes use in the Royal Danish Navy. The inconsistent application of historical European designations can be confusing. These numbers are the basic for the Splitflag, or Orlogsflag, today, though the numbers have been slightly altered. New World wines are known primarily by their varietal content, and not by their region. The tails are the length of the flag. The AVA designations do not restrict the type of grape used. The two outer fields are rectangular and 1½ the length of the square fields. The appellation system is strongest in the European Union, but a related system, the American Viticultural Area, restricts the use of certain regional labels in America, such as Napa Valley, Santa Barbara and Willamette Valley.

The two first fields must be square in form with the sides three times the cross width. These naming conventions or "appellations" (as they are known in France) dictate not only where the grapes in a wine were grown, but also which grapes went into the wine and how they were vinified. In the same year a Royal resolution defines the proportions of the Splitflag, which in this resolution is called Kongeflaget (the King's flag), as follows: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. Historically, wines have been known by names reflecting their origin, and sometimes style: Bordeaux, Rioja, Mosel and Chianti are all legally defined names, reflecting the traditional wines produced in the named region. In 1696 the Admiralty presented the King with a proposal for a standard regulating both size and shape of the Splitflag. The taste of a wine depends not only on the grape species and varietal blend, but also on the ground and climate (known as terroir) where it is cultivated. It is obvious that some confusion must have existed regarding the Splitflag. To accommodate market demands, an increasing number of French wine makers are labeling their bottles with the variety or varieties of grapes included, as permitted by law.

At the same time it is now allowed the Danish East India Company to use the Splitflag when past the equator. Within Europe, a major exception to the no-grape rule is with German wines, for which it is not uncommon to find this information on the front label. In 1741 it is re-stated that the regulation of 1690 is still very much in effect, that merchants ships may not use the Splitflag. This is understandable; the many systems of geographic nomenclature with their precise meanings and implications are highly complex.[4]. In 1685 an order, distributed to a number of cities in Slesvig, says that all ships must carry the Danish flag, and in 1690 all merchants ships is forbidden to use the Splitflag, with the exception of ships sailing in the East Indies, West Indies and at the coast of Africa. For example, 72% of French adults report that they have difficulty understanding wine labels. The first regulation regarding the Splitflag dates from 27 March, 1630, where King Christian IV orders that Norwegian "Defensionskibe" (merchants ships with guns) may only use the Splitflag if they are in war-service under Denmark. However, to the typical or even to the well informed wine consumer, the system can be confusing if not impenetrable.

Any swallow-tail flag, no matter the color, is called a Splitflag provided it bears additional markings. This is not the case with most European wines because tradition and legal restrictions enable a well trained connoisseur or other expert to know what variety of grape is in the bottle. Furthermore, the Orlogsflag is only described as such if it has no additional markings. Examples of recognized locales include:Napa Valley, Russian River Valley, Willamette Valley, Sonoma, Walla Walla, etc., Still, though, the grape variety is almost invariably present on the label. Same flag with markings has been approved for a few dozen companies and institutions over the years. More and more, however, market recognition of particular regions and wineries is leading to their increased prominence on New World wine labels. A few institutions have been allowed to fly the clean Orlogsflag. New World wines (those from everywhere except Europe) are generally named for the grape variety.

There are though a few exceptions to this. Generally speaking, Old World (European) wines are named for the place of production, with the grapes used often not appearing on the label. The Orlogsflag with no markings, may only be used by the Royal Danish Navy. Wines are usually named either by their grape variety or by their place of production. The Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deeper red colour and is only used on sea. Instead of labels, the bottles (red, as well as white) had printing in gold on them, as seen in the illustration. The Splitflag is a Danish flag ending in a swallow-tail, it is Dannebrog red, and is used on land. An example is the Mildara Rhine Riesling produced in 1973 to mark the opening of the Sydney Opera House.

The Splitflag or Orlogsflag have similar specifications, but legally, they are two different flags. Some wines, produced to mark significant events in a country or region, can also become collectible because of labelling design. That some confusion still exists in this matter can be seen from the regulation of May 4, 1927, which once again states that Danish merchant ships have to fly flags according to the regulation of 1748. False labeling is another dishonest practice commonly used. This regulation is still in effect today and thus the legal proportions of the National flag is today anywhere between 3:1:3 width / 3:1:4.5 length and 3:1:3 width / 3:1:5.25 length. Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing. So in May 1893 a new regulation to all chiefs of police, stated that the police should not intervene, if the two last fields in the flag were longer than 6/4 as long as these did not exceed 7/4, and provided that this was the only rule violated. Wine fraud scams often work by charging excessively high prices for the wine, while representing that it is a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.

They also noted that the flag currently used had lengths, of the last two fields, anywhere between 7/4 to 13/6. Also investment in fine wine has attracted a number of fraudsters who have played on fine wine's exclusive image, and their clients' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. Any new flag would also quickly become unlawful, due to wear and tear. Many wine writers have decried the trend, as it has pushed up prices to the point that few people will consider drinking such valuable commodities, and consequently they are kept in bottles undrunk where they eventually deteriorate into a substance very much like red wine vinegar in taste (and desirability). Some interested in the matter made inquires into the issue and concluded that the 6/4 length would make the flag look blunt. The most common wines purchased for investment are Bordeaux and Port. As late as 1892 it was stated in a series of regulations that the correct lengths of the two last fields in the flag were 6/4. Secondary markets for these wines have consequently developed, as well as specialised facilities for post-purchase storage for people to "invest" in wine.

During the next about 150 years nobody paid much attention to actually abide fully to the proportions of the flag given in the 1748 regulation, not even the government. Exclusive wines come from all the best winemaking regions of the world. No official nuance definition of "Dannebrog rød" exists. Some high-end wines are veblen goods (for conspicuous consumption). The private company, Dansk Standard, regulation number 359 of 2005, defines the red colour of the flag as Pantone 186c. For restaurateurs, serving old vintages is a risk that is compensated through elevated prices. The only available red fabric colour in 1748 was made of bracken root, which make a brownish red. This is for a reason: diners will often return wines that have spoilt and not bear the expense.

According to the regulation of June 11, 1748 the colour was simply red, which is common known today as "Dannebrog rød" ("Dannebrog red"). Restaurants will often charge between two to five times the price of what a wine merchant may ask for an exceptional vintage. To the best of knowledge, this regulation has never been revoked, however it is probably no longer done. Part of the expense associated with high-end wine comes from the number of bottles which must be discarded in order to produce a drinkable wine. the Knights Hospitaller). On the other hand, they may spoil after such long storage periods, unbeknownst to the drinker about to open the bottle. John (a.k.a. Such wines are often at their best years, or sometimes decades, after bottling.

These had to carry the King's cypher logo in the center of the flag, to distinguish them from Maltese ships, due to the similarity of the flag of the Order of St. Red wines, at least partly because of their ability to form more complex subtleties, are typically the most expensive. A somewhat curious regulation came in 1758 concerning Danish ships sailing in the Mediterranean. At the highest end, rare, super-premium wines are amongst the most expensive of all foodstuffs, and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. Both flags are identical. It can sometimes profit from aging 2-3 years and some Prestige Cuvées even much longer. This definition are the absolute proportions for the Danish national flag to this day, for both the civil version of the flag, "Stutflaget", as well as the merchant flag ("Handelsflaget"). French Champagne is often non-vintage, but still expensive.

The proportions are thus: 3:1:3 vertically and 3:1:4.5 horizontally. There are exceptions though. The two first fields must be square in form and the two outer fields most be 6/4 lengths of those. Conversely, wines such as White Zinfandel, which don't age well, are made to be drunk immediately and may not be labeled with a vintage year. The white cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. Some vintage wines are only made in better-than-average years. The size and shape of the coufhordie flag ("Koffardiflaget") for merchant ships is given in the regulation of June 11, 1748, which says: A red flag with a white cross with no split end. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages.

The quest to unite them into a specified flag law have been brought forth many times, especially in the 20th century, but it never amounted to anything. Whilst vintage wines are generally made in a single batch so that each and every bottle will have a similar taste, climatic factors can have a dramatic impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Denmark does not have a specified flag law, but various regulations and rules spread out over many documents, from King Christian IV's time till today, can be found. They are therefore more expensive than non-vintage wines. The royal seal of King Erik VII from 1398 - the first combined coat of arms found in Denmark - shows the flag twice; the cross that separates the four coats-of-arms is the cross of the Dannebrog and the coat of arms representing Denmark show the three lions holding a Dannebrog banner. For most types of wine, the best-quality grapes and the most care in wine-making are employed on vintage wines. From Queen Margaret I and King Erik VII time we also have a case that undisputedly links Dannebrog to Denmark. These wines often improve in flavor as they age, and wine enthusiasts will occasionally save bottles of a favorite vintage wine for future consumption.

This image from "Wapenboek Gelre" is near identical found in an old coats of arms book from the 15th century now located in the National Archives of Sweden, ("Riksarkivet"). "Vintage wines" are made from grapes of a single year's harvest, and are accordingly dated. This image has been used to acknowledge a previously disputed theory that the cross found in Valdemar Atterdag's coats of arms located in his Danælog seal ("Rettertingsseglet") from 1356 is indeed the cross from the Danish flag. Wines may be classified by the year in which the grapes are harvested, known as the "vintage". This is the earliest known undisputed colour rendering of the Dannebrog. Specific flavors may also be sensed, at least by an experienced taster, due to the highly complex mix of organic molecules, such as esters, that a fully vinted wine contains. The text left of the coat of arms says “die coninc van denmarke” (The King of Denmark). Dry wine, for example, has only a tiny amount of residual sugar.

On the right horn is a Danish banner. The sweetness of wines can be measured in brix, at harvest, but is in actuality determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. On page 55 verso we find the Danish coat-of-arms with a helmet on top with horns. Wines may be described as 'dry' (meaning they are without sugar), off-dry, fruity, or sweet, for example. It is now located on the Royal Library of Brussels (the "Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier"). Different grape varieties are associated with the aromas and tastes of different compounds. The book displays some 1700 coats-of-arms from all over Europe, in colour. They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices.

Most historians claim that the book was written by Geldre Claes Heinen. Wines may be also classified by their primary impression on the drinker's palate. The earliest source that indisputably links the red flag with a white cross to a Danish King, and to the realm itself, is found in a Dutch register of coats-of-arms “Wapenboek Gelre”, written between 1340 and 1370 (some sources say 1378 or 1386). Grappa is a dry colorless brandy, distilled from fermented grape pomace, the pulpy residue of grapes, stems and seeds that were pressed for the winemaking process. The national Coat of Arms of Estonia, three blue lions on a golden shield, is almost identical to the Coat of Arms of Denmark, and its origin can be traced directly back to King Valdemar II and Danish rule in Estonia 1219-1346. Brandy is a distilled wine. Efforts to trace it from Estonia back to Denmark have, however, been in vain. Fortified wines are often sweeter, always more alcoholic wines that have had their fermentation process stopped by the addition of a spirit, such as brandy.

The symbol later became the coat-of-arms of the city. In most countries except the United States, champagne is legally defined as sparkling wine originating from a region in France. In Tallinn, a coat-of-arms resembling the flag is found on several buildings and can be traced back to the middle of the 15th century where it appears in the coat-of-arms of the "Die Grosse Gilde", a sort of merchant consortium which greatly influenced the city's development. Other international denominations of sparkling wine include Sekt or Schaumwein (Germany), Cava (Spain), Spumante or Prosecco (Italy). An obvious place to look for documentation is in the Estonian city of Tallinn, the site of the legendary battle. In France, wines that gain their carbonation from the traditional method of bottle fermentation are called Méthode Traditionnelle. However, if one examines the few existing foreign sources about Denmark from the 13th to 15th centuries, it is apparent that, at least from foreign point of view; the national symbol of Denmark was not a red-and-white banner but the royal coat of arms (three blue lions of a golden shield.) This coat of arms remains in use to this day. To have this effect, the wine is fermented twice, once in an open container to allow the carbon dioxide to escape into the air, and a second time in a sealed container, where the gas is caught and remains in the wine.

In the 19th and early 20th century, these images were used by many Danish historians, with a good flair of nationalism, trying to date the origins of the flag to 1219. They vary from just a slight bubbliness to the classic Champagne. However, several coins, seals and images exist, both foreign and domestic, from the 13th to 15th centuries and even earlier, showing flags similar to the Dannebrog. Sparkling wines, such as champagne, are those with carbon dioxide, either from fermentation or added later. Whether the flag has its origins in a divine sign, a banner of a military order, an ecclesiastical banner, or perhaps something entirely different, Danish literature is no help before the early 15th century. Rosé wines are a compromise between reds and whites: the skin of red grapes is left in for a short time during fermentation, or a small amount of red wine is blended with a white wine. Danish literature of the 13th and 14th centuries remains suspiciously quiet about the national flag. A white wine made from a very dark grape may appear pink or 'blush'.

Since King Valdamar II was married to the Portuguese princess, Berengaria, it is not unthinkable that the origin of the story, if not the flag, was the Spanish tale or a similar tale, which again might have been inspired by an even older legend. White wine can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. Basically, these are all variations of the same legend. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes, but its red colour is bestowed by the skin being left in contact with the juice during fermentation. In Estonia it is the Danish colours, and in Jerusalem the English colours. Grapes with colored juice are known as teinturiers, such as alicante bouchet. In Spain, the colours of the Pope appears in the sky, in Finland the Swedish colours. The colour of wine is not determined by the juice of the grape, which is almost always clear, but rather by the presence or absence of the grape skin during fermentation.

The similarities to the legends is obvious. These include classifications such as sparkling, still, fortified, rosé, and blush. The English flag, the Saint George's Cross is also claimed to have appeared in the sky during a critical battle, in this case in Jerusalem during the crusades. Wines may be classified by vinification methods. Probably a later invention to counter the legendary origins of the Danish flags, but never the less of the same nature. Their producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes, hide any hint of often-unremarkable "terroirs", or climatically under-performing harvest years, by:. Likewise an almost identical Swedish tale from the 18th century about a yellow cross on blue appearing in 1157 during a Swedish battle in Finland. However, flavor differences are not necessarily a desirable quality for large producers of table wine or more affordable wines, where consistency is more important for mass-market wine brands.

Bruhn mentions a battle (also mentioned by Fabricius) taking place on September 10, 1217 between Christian knights and Moor warriors on the Iberian Peninsula near the castle Alcazar, where it is said that a golden cross on white appeared in the sky, to bring victory to the Christians. Many small producers use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. Similar tales of appearances in the sky at critical moments, particularly of crosses, can be found all over Europe. The variety of grape(s), aspect (direction of slope), elevation, and topography of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, the climate and seasonal conditions under which grapes are grown, the local yeast cultures altogether form the concept of "terroir." The range of possibilities lead to great variety among wine products, which is extended by the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes. She claims that it is neither the battle nor the banner that is central to the tale, but rather the cross in the sky. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the World except for Chile, which has yet to be exposed to the bug. A much different theory is briefly discussed by Fabricius and elaborated more by Helga Bruhn in a book from 1949. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera.

All these theories centre on two battles in Estonia, whether it is in Fellin (1208) or Lyndanisse (1219), and thus try to explain the origin in relation to the tale brought forth over 300 years after the event. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. He repeats the story about the flag being planted in front of Bishop Theodorik's tent which the enemy mistakenly attacks believing it to be the tent of the King. Hybrids are not to be confused with the practice of grafting. The banner would then already be known in Estonia. Although generally prohibited by law in traditional wine regions, hybrids are planted in substantial numbers in cool-climate viticultural areas. That is based on his tireless efforts to expand Christianity to the Baltic countries and that under his initiative and supervision several smaller crusades had already been conducted in Estonia. Concord wine (Vitis labrusca species).

He says in this theory that it might have been Archbishop Andreas Sunesøn's personal ecclestical banner or perhaps even the flag of Archbishop Absalon. Vitis labrusca, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis muscadinia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes, usually grown for eating in fruit form or made into grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine, eg. In this study he put the location to 1208 Fellin and not the Battle of Lyndanisse in 1219, based on the earliest source available about the story.. Wine can also be made from other species or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. It is explained in his study of 1934, titled "Sagnet om Dannebrog og de ældste Forbindelser med Estland'". Blended wines are in no way inferior to varietal wines; indeed, some of the world's most valued and expensive wines from the Bordeaux, Rioja or Tuscany regions, are a blend of several grape varieties of the same vintage. Fabricius put up yet another theory. When one of these varieties, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot, for example, is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75 or 85%) the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended wine.

P. Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species, Vitis vinifera. The Danish church-historian L. In 2000, Great Britain imported more wine from Australia than from France for the first time in history. The white on red warrior-cloak cannot be traced until later. The leaders in export volume by market share in 2003 were:. The Knights Hospitaller is a monk-order and used black dresses. The vineyards of Algeria used to produce many fine wines, especially during and immediately after the era of French colonization, but civil strife since the 1970s has greatly reduced this industry.

Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen does not give an explanation how the white Maltese cross on red of the Knights Hospitaller, found its way to the Danish flag of 1219, given the fact that in that time it was a white cross on black. In the United States, California accounts for the largest share of wine producers, including Napa Valley, Sonoma Valley, Monterey, Paso Robles, and Santa Ynez. He claims that the origin of the legend of the falling flag comes from this confusion in the battle. The 13 largest export nations (2005 dates) – Italy, France, Spain, Australia, Chile, the United States of America, Germany, South Africa, Portugal, Moldova, Hungary, Croatia and Argentina. Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen explains that it was Bishop Theodorik who carried the flag, well planted outside his tent, thus as an already well-known Knights Hospitaller symbol in Livonia, the enemy thought this was the King's symbol and mistakenly stormed Bishop Theodorik tent. Grapevines prefer a relatively long growing season of 100 days or more with warm daytime temperatures (no greater than 95°F/35°C) and cool nights (a difference of 40°F/23°C or more). In the contemporary writing of the priest Henry of Livonia from Riga it is said that Bishop Theodorik was killed during the 1219 battle, as the enemy stormed his tent, thinking it was the King's tent. The world's most southerly vineyards are in the South Island of New Zealand near the 45th parallel.

Furthermore he claims that Bishop Theodorik, already a part initiator of the order in Livonia, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, had the idea of starting a similar order in Estonia and that he was the original instigator of Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden inquiry to King Valdemar II in 1218, that set the whole Danish participation in the Baltic crusades in motion. Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the Equator. He supports his theory with that the order came to Denmark in the latter half of the 12th century and during the next centuries spread to major cities, like Odense, Viborg, Horsens, Ribe and their headquarters in Slagelse, so by the time of the Baltic crusade, the symbol was already a known symbol in Denmark. The advent of wine in Europe was the work of the Greeks who spread the art of grape-growing and winemaking in Ancient Greek and Roman times. A theory brought forth by the Danish historian Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen in 1875 in his book Danebroges Oprindelse, is that the Danish flag is the banner of the Knights Hospitaller. By the end of the Old Kingdom, five wines, all probably produced in the Delta, constitute a canonical set of provisions, or fixed "menu," for the afterlife. Moreover, it is unlikely that the pope would send such a banner, given the fact that they already had one, namely the banner of the Knights Hospitaller (Danish: "Johanitterne"). Winemaking scenes on tomb walls, and the offering lists that accompanied them, included wine that was definitely produced at the deltaic vineyards.

It is unlikely that the very fair and loyal archbishop would do such a thing behind the king's back. The industry was most likely the result of trade between Egypt and Canaan during the Early Bronze Age, commencing from at least the Third Dynasty (2650 – 2575 BC), the beginning of the Old Kingdom period (2650 – 2152 BC). He suggested that it was not a pope banner to the King but a pope banner to the Churchly legate in the North, more specifically to archbishop Andreas Sunesøn, which he - without the knowledge of the King – brought with him on the King's crusade in the Baltic countries, in an effort to make the army take on a Christian symbol (over the king's symbol) and thereby strengthen the power of the church. 3000 BC. A similar theory was suggested by Danish explorer, adventurer and Captain Johan Støckel in the early 20th century. A thriving royal winemaking industry was established in the Nile Delta following the introduction of grape cultivation from the Levant to Egypt c. On the other hand, the letter in question might simply have been lost. In Ancient Egypt, wine played an important part in ceremonial life.

Being granted a banner by the Pope would have been a great honour, but despite the many letters of the popes relating to the crusades, none of them mentions granting a banner to a King of Denmark. None of these areas can be singled out, despite persistent suggestions that Georgia is the birthplace of wine[3]. One would though imagine that if this story was true, some kind of record ought to exist of the event and presumably Danish historians would not have failed to mention it in some way. Wild grapes grow in the northern Levant, coastal and southeastern Turkey, the Caspian coast of Iran, Armenia, and Georgia. Other kings and lords certainly received such banners. However, the first large-scale production of wine must have been in the region where grapes were first domesticated, the Near East. The Danish historian Caspar Paludan-Müller in 1873 in his book "Sagnet om den himmelfaldne Danebrogsfane" put forth the theory that it is a banner sent by the Pope to the Danish King to use in his crusades in the Baltic countries. It could have been anywhere in the vast region, stretching from Spain to Central Asia, where wild grapes grow.

Other origin theories have been put forth in the late 19th and early 20th century. Exactly where wine was first made will probably never be known. Many of these legends are apparently built on earlier ones. The identifications have not yet been replicated in other laboratories. If the flag of 1208 or 1219 ever existed. These identifications are regarded with caution by some biochemists because of the risk of false positives, particularly where complex mixtures of organic materials, and degradation products, may be present. Historically, it is of course impossible to prove or disprove that these records speak of the same flag. The identifications are based on the identification of tartaric acid and tartrate salts using a form of infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

A historian from Slesvig, Ulrik Petersen (1656-1735), wrote in the late 17th century that the flag hung in Slesvig cathedral till about 1660 until it simply crumbled away, thus ending its more than 400-year-old story. Records include jars from the Pottery Neolithic (5400-5000 BC) site of Hajji Firuz Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of present-day Iran and from Late Uruk (3500-3100 BC) occupation at the site of Uruk, in Mesopotamia[2]. Henrik Rantzau states in his writing of 1576 that the flag was brought to Slesvig city and placed in the cathedral, following its return. Wine residue has been identified by Patrick McGovern's team at the University Museum, Pennsylvania, in ancient pottery jars. A priest and historian from Dithmarschen, Johan Neocorus, wrote in 1598 that the banner captured in 1500, was brought to the church in Wohrden and hung there for the next 59 years, until it was returned to the Danes as part of the peace settlement in 1559. There is scanty evidence for earlier domestication of grape, in the form of grape pips from Chalcolithic Tell Shuna in Jordan, but this evidence remains unpublished. This is however not the end of the story. Grapes were, of course, also an important food.

This "Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner" was probably nothing short of the "Banner of the Realm'" (Rigsbanner), the Dannebrog.. There is also increasingly abundant evidence for wine making in Sumeria and Egypt in the third millennium BC. This young man was Peder Skram. Domesticated grapes were abundant in the Near East from the beginning of the Early Bronze Age, starting in 3200 BC. It was saved only by the combined efforts of the banner-carrier Mogens Gyldenstierne, taking multiple wounds, and a young man coming to his rescue. It is unlikely they could have been the basis of a wine industry. He writes that the "Danish head banner" ("Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner") was nearly captured by the Swedes. However, wild grapes are small and sour, and relatively rare at archaeological sites.

An indication that we are dealing with multiple flags, are the 1570 writings of Niels Hemmingsøn regarding a bloody battle between Danes and Swedes near the Swedish town of Uppsala in 1520. This would have been easier following the development of pottery vessels in the later Neolithic of the Near East, about 9000 years ago. In fact, the entire letter gives the impression that the lost battle was noting more than an "unfortunate affair". It is plausible that early foragers and farmers made alcoholic beverages from wild fruits, including wild grapes (Vitis sylvestris). In a letter dated 22 February 1500 to Oluf Stigsøn, King John describes the battle, but does not mention the loss of an important flag. Little is known of the prehistory of wine. However, it is more questionable if he indeed was carrying the "original" flag. [1].

It is quite plausible that the king’s personal banner as well as the leading banner of the army were both lost, as the battle was led by the King himself. Some believe this word was derived from the Georgian ghvino while still others have also argued that it originated from the Arabic "Wine" " which means grape. Sources from Dithmarschen, written shortly after the battle of 1500, do mention banners, including the Royal banner, being captured from the Danes, but there is no mention of Dannebrog or the "original" flag. The word wine comes from the Old English win, which derives from the Proto-Germanic *winam which was an early borrowing from the Latin vinum (related to Greek οἶνος), which can mean either the "wine" or the "vine" . He notes that the flag was in a poor condition when returned. . In 1576, the son of Johan Rantzau, Henrik Rantzau, also writes about the war and the fate of the flag. The English word wine and its equivalents in other languages are protected by law in many jurisdictions.

Both claims that this was the original flag, and consequently both writers knew the legend of the falling flag. However, in such cases a qualifier is often legally required (e.g., "elderberry wine"). This legend is found in two sources, Hans Svanning's History of King John from 1558-1559 and Johan Rantzau's History about the Last Dithmarschen War, from 1569. Wine-like beverages can be produced by the fermentation of other fruits and flowers (fruit or country wines), barley (barley wine), rice (sake), and even honey (mead). In the capitulation terms it is stated that all Danish banners lost in 1500 were to be returned. Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes and grape juice. In 1559, King Frederik II recaptured it during his own Dithmarschen campaign. The series was very popular and a wine named Falcon Crest even went on the market.

The flag was lost in a devastating defeat on 17 February 1500. Falcon Crest, USA 1981-1990: A CBS primetime soap opera about the fictional Falcon Crest winery and the family who owned it, set in the fictional Tuscany Valley of California. According to tradition, the original flag from the Battle of Lyndanisse was used in the small campaign of 1500 when King Hans tried to conquer Dithmarschen (in western Holstein in north Germany). In search of themselves., in which wine, particularly Pinot Noir, plays a central role. The story of the original flag has a continuation that many Danes are not aware of. In search of women. Some historians believe that the story by Petrus Olai refers to a source from the first half of the 15th century, making this the oldest reference to the falling flag. Sideways, 2004: A comedy/drama film, directed by Alexander Payne, with the tagline: In search of wine.

Whether or not these records describe a truly old oral story in existents at that time, or a 16th century invented story, is not currently determined. Mondovino, USA/France 2004: A documentary film directed by American film maker, Jonathan Nossiter, explaining the impact of globalization on the various wine-producing regions. In another record by Petrus Olai called "Danmarks Tolv Herligheder" (Twelve Splendours of Denmark), in splendour number nine, the same story is re-told almost to the word, however a paragraph has been inserted correcting the year to 1219. Yellow Tail A vineyard based in Australia. The Danes were all but defeated when a lamb-skin banner depicting a white cross falls from the sky and miraculously leads to a Danish victory. Trefethen Vineyards Winner of first place among Chardonnays at Wine Olympics. This record describes a battle in 1208 near a place called "Felin" during the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005.

The second source is the writing of the Franciscan monk Petrus Olai (Peder Olsen) of Roskilde, from 1527. Thirty Benches Wines: Selected for St. He also mentions that this flag, falling from the sky during the Russian campaign of King Valdemar II, is the very same flag that King Eric of Pomerania took with him when he left the country in 1440 after being deposed as King. The Wine Group: Third largest wine company in the world. It is not mentioned in connection to the campaign of King Valdemar II in Estonia, but in connection with a campaign in Russia. Sterling Vineyards Winner of first place in Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. The first is found in Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike", which is a sequel to Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, written 1520-1523. Stag's Leap Wine Cellars: Winner of first place in Paris Wine Tasting of 1976; winner of first place in San Francisco Wine Tasting of 1978.

This story originates from two written sources from the early 16th century. Spring Mountain Vineyard: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Though no historical support exists for the flag story in the Fellin battle either, it is not difficult to understand how a small and unknown place is replaced with the much grander battle of Reval from the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. Puligny-Montrachet Les Pucelles Domaine Leflaive Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. The first record of the legend dates from more than 300 years after the campaign, and the first record connects the legend to a much smaller battle, though still in Estonia; the battle of Fellin (Viljandi) in 1208. Massaya: Wine from Lebanon. No historical record supports this legend. Marchesi Antinori.

The legend says that during the Battle of Lyndanisse, also known as the Battle of Valdemar (Danish: "Volmerslaget"), near Reval (Tallinn) in Estonia, on 15 June 1219, the flag fell from the sky during a critical stage, resulting in Danish victory. Royal Wine Company: Also known as "Kedem", is a U.S.-incorporated Kosher food manufacturing and distribution corporation, run by the Herzog family since 1848; holds exclusive United States distribution rights for several Israeli wines and spirits, and is especially known for the Baron Herzog Varietals line of wines. The legend of the flag is very popular among Danes, but most consider it to be a legend though a beautiful one. Ridge Vineyards: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986 and Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986. . Remick Ridge Vineyards: A California-based vineyard and winery, owned and operated by the Smothers Brothers. The royal Danish yacht is named after the flag. Penfolds Grange: Won first place in Shiraz/Sirah at Wine Olympics.

During the Danish-Norwegian personal union, the Dannebrog was also the flag of Norway and continued to be, with slight modifications, until Norway adopted its current flag in 1821. Meursault Charmes Roulot: Selected for the New York Wine Tasting of 1973. The cross design of the Danish flag was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries: Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. Mayacamas Vineyards: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. The national flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side. KWV (Koöperatiewe Winjnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika): The name of the company, formed in 1997, from the former winemakers cooperative in South Africa. DS 359:2005 ’Flagdug’, Dansk Standard, 2005. Heitz Wine Cellars: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 and Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981; won first place in Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986.

Hagerups, Copenhagen 1919. Grgich Hills Cellar. Lund, Forlaget H. Freemark Abbey Winery: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 and Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. D. E & J Gallo Winery: Second largest wine company in the world. Danebrog - Danmarks Palladium, E. Douglas Green Bellingham (DGB).

Dannebrog, Helga Bruhn, Forlaget Jespersen og Pios, Copenhagen 1949. Distell. Dannebrog - Vort Flag, Lieutenant Colonel Thaulow, Forlaget Codan, Copenhagen 1943. David Bruce Winery: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Constellation Brands: Largest wine company in the world. Cloudy Bay Vineyards: A noted producer of Sauvignon Blanc.

Clos Du Val Winery: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976; winner of first place in French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Château Rauzan-Gassies: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005. Château Pontet-Canet: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005. Château Pichon Longueville Baron: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005.

Château Pétrus: A vineyard of the Pomerol wine region in Bordeaux. Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. The first estate to begin complete chateau bottling of the harvest. Château Mouton Rothschild: Located at Bordeaux, France.

Château Montrose: Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Chateau Montelena: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976; winner of first place in New York Wine Tasting of 1973. Château Margaux: Selected for both Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981 and Berlin Wine Tasting of 2004. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005.

Chateau Lynch-Moussas: Selected for St. Château Leoville Las Cases: Selected for Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986 and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Château Latour: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Château Lascombes: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005.

Château Lafite-Rothschild: Selected for both Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981 and Berlin Wine Tasting of 2004. Château Haut-Brion: Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, Wine Spectator Wine Tasting of 1986, and French Culinary Institute Wine Tasting of 1986. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005. Chateau Haut-Bages Liberal: Selected for St.

Château Ducru-Beaucaillou : selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Château Cheval Blanc: A vineyard in Saint-Émilion, France. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005. Chateau de Camensac: Selected for St.

Château Brane-Cantenac: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 2005. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005. Château Branaire-Ducru: Selected for St. Chalone Vineyard: Selected for the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976.

Beaune Clos des Mouches Joseph Drouhin: Selected for both the New York Wine Tasting of 1973 and the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Beaulieu Vineyard: Selected for Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981. Batard-Montrachet Ramonet-Prudhon: Selected for Paris Wine Tasting of 1976. Often referred to as a winemaker.

Oenologist: A wine scientist. Winemaker: A person that makes wine. Sommelier: A waiter in a restaurant who specializes in wine. Vintner: A wine merchant or producer.

Négociant: A wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers, and sells them under his own name. Cooper: Someone who makes wooden barrels, casks, and other similar wooden objects. Wine stopper: An accessory, used to close leftover wine bottles because it is hard to put the original cork back into the bottleneck. Wine-press: A device, comprising two vats or receptacles, one for trodding and bruising grapes, and the other for collecting the juice.

Wine label: The label on a wine bottle that must provide at least the minimum amount of information prescribed by law. Wine glass: Glasses used to drink wine from. Wine cooler: An accessory, such as an ice bucket, for cooling wine. Wine collar: This accoutrement slips over the neck of a wine bottle and absorbs any drips that may run down the bottle after pouring - preventing stains to table cloths, counter tops or other surfaces.

Wine bottle: A small container, with a neck that is narrower than the body, that allows long-term aging of wine when combined with a high-quality stopper, such as a cork. Also called a "Stelvin". Screwcap: An alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles, comprising a metal cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a bottle. Napkin is used around a bottleneck to stop drops running on bottle surface after pouring wine to glasses.

But unlike wine collars it is elastic and can accommodate many sizes of bottles. Drip dickey: Like a wine collar this accoutrement slips over the neck of a wine bottle and absorbs any drips that may run down the bottle after pouring - preventing stains to table cloths, counter tops or other surfaces. Corkscrew: A tool, comprising a pointed metallic helix attached to a handle, for drawing stopping corks from bottles. Cork (material): Tissue material, harvested from the Cork oak tree, and very suitable as a material for bottle stoppers.

Butt: An old English unit of wine casks, equivalent to about 477 litres (126 US gallons/105 imperial gallons). Barrel: A hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves, used for fermenting and aging wine. Amphora: A type of ceramic vase, used for transporting and storing wine. Aging barrel: A barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits.

Non-alcoholic wine. Rebujito: A mixture of manzanilla wine, mixed with a soft drink like Sprite or 7 Up. Zurracapote: A popular Spanish alcoholic drink comprising mainly of red wine, spirit, fruit juice, sugar and cinnamon. Wine cooler: An alcoholic beverage made from wine and fruit juice, often in combination with a carbonated beverage and sugar.

Spritzer: A tall, chilled drink, usually made of white wine and soda water. Sangria Spanish: A wine punch, comprising red wine, chopped fruits, sugar, and a small amount of brandy or other spirits. Mulled wine (known in Scandinavia as Glögg and in Germany as Glühwein): A red wine, combined with spices, and usually served hot. Calimocho: A cheap alcoholic drink, comprising 50% red wine and 50% cola drink.

Brandy: A general term for distilled wine. List of cocktails with wine. (Note, however, that most cooking authorities advise against cooking with any wine one would find unacceptable to drink.). Cooking wines: Typically containing a significant quantity of salt, cooking wine is wine of such poor quality that it is unpalatable and intended for use only in cooking.

Among these are port wine, sweet sherry, Tokay, and muscatel. Dessert wines: Ranging from medium-sweet to sweet, these wines are classified under dessert wines only because they are sometimes served with desserts. As such, unless a wine has more than 14 percent alcohol, or it has bubbles, it is a table wine or a light wine. In Europe, light wine must be within 8.5 percent and 14 percent alcohol by volume.

standards of identity, table wines may have an alcohol content that is no higher than 14 percent. According to U.S. Table wine: Table wine is not bubbly, although some have a very slight carbonation, the amount of which is not enough to disqualify them as table wines. The most common sparkling wines are Champagne (white) and sparkling Burgundy (red).

Sparkling wines: Usually served at any meal with any course, these wines are most frequently served at banquets, formal dinners and weddings. They include Rhine wines, Chablis, sauterne, and wine made from different grape varieties such as Chardonnay and White Riesling. White dinner wines: Usually either very dry or rather sweet, these wines should be served chilled, and go well with white meats, seafood, and fowl. Pink dinner wines (also called "rose wines"), a special class of red wines, can be served with almost any dish, but are considered best with cold meats, pork, and curries.

The most popular red dinner wines are claret, Burgundy, Chianti, and Cabernet Sauvignon. They should be served at a cool room temperature to bring out their aroma. Red dinner wines: These wines are usually dry and go extremely well with such main-course dishes as red meats, spaghetti, and highly-seasoned foods. Apéritif (or better known as "appetizer wines"): include dry sherry, Madeira, Vermouth, and other flavored wines, made to be consumed before eating a meal.

using flavor additives. pasteurizing the grape juice in order to kill indigenous yeasts (to be replaced with "choice" cultivated yeasts); and. blending harvests of various years and vineyards;. Germany 4%.

Portugal 4%. United States, 5%. Chile, 6%. Australia, 8%.

Spain, 16%. Italy, 20%. France, 22%.

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