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Flag of Denmark

The Dannebrog. This version, known as the Stutflag, is used for civilian purposes. Proportions: 28:37

The national flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side. The cross design of the Danish flag was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries: Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. During the Danish-Norwegian personal union, the Dannebrog was also the flag of Norway and continued to be, with slight modifications, until Norway adopted its current flag in 1821.

The royal Danish yacht is named after the flag.

The legendary origin of the flag

The legend of the flag is very popular among Danes, but most consider it to be a legend though a beautiful one. The legend says that during the Battle of Lyndanisse, also known as the Battle of Valdemar (Danish: "Volmerslaget"), near Reval (Tallinn) in Estonia, on 15 June 1219, the flag fell from the sky during a critical stage, resulting in Danish victory.

Dannebrog falling from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse, 15 June, 1219. Painted by Christian August Lorentzen in 1809. Original located on Statens Museum for Kunst, Denmark

No historical record supports this legend. The first record of the legend dates from more than 300 years after the campaign, and the first record connects the legend to a much smaller battle, though still in Estonia; the battle of Fellin (Viljandi) in 1208. Though no historical support exists for the flag story in the Fellin battle either, it is not difficult to understand how a small and unknown place is replaced with the much grander battle of Reval from the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II.

This story originates from two written sources from the early 16th century.

The first is found in Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike", which is a sequel to Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, written 1520-1523. It is not mentioned in connection to the campaign of King Valdemar II in Estonia, but in connection with a campaign in Russia. He also mentions that this flag, falling from the sky during the Russian campaign of King Valdemar II, is the very same flag that King Eric of Pomerania took with him when he left the country in 1440 after being deposed as King.

The second source is the writing of the Franciscan monk Petrus Olai (Peder Olsen) of Roskilde, from 1527. This record describes a battle in 1208 near a place called "Felin" during the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. The Danes were all but defeated when a lamb-skin banner depicting a white cross falls from the sky and miraculously leads to a Danish victory. In another record by Petrus Olai called "Danmarks Tolv Herligheder" (Twelve Splendours of Denmark), in splendour number nine, the same story is re-told almost to the word, however a paragraph has been inserted correcting the year to 1219.

Whether or not these records describe a truly old oral story in existents at that time, or a 16th century invented story, is not currently determined.

Some historians believe that the story by Petrus Olai refers to a source from the first half of the 15th century, making this the oldest reference to the falling flag.

The continuation of the romantic legend

The story of the original flag has a continuation that many Danes are not aware of.

According to tradition, the original flag from the Battle of Lyndanisse was used in the small campaign of 1500 when King Hans tried to conquer Dithmarschen (in western Holstein in north Germany). The flag was lost in a devastating defeat on 17 February 1500. In 1559, King Frederik II recaptured it during his own Dithmarschen campaign. In the capitulation terms it is stated that all Danish banners lost in 1500 were to be returned.

One of Hans Knieper’s heroic paintings of Danish kings from 1585. King Erik Menved storming a castle. Note the two Danish flags. Original located on Kronborg Castle.

This legend is found in two sources, Hans Svanning's History of King John from 1558-1559 and Johan Rantzau's History about the Last Dithmarschen War, from 1569. Both claims that this was the original flag, and consequently both writers knew the legend of the falling flag. In 1576, the son of Johan Rantzau, Henrik Rantzau, also writes about the war and the fate of the flag. He notes that the flag was in a poor condition when returned.

Sources from Dithmarschen, written shortly after the battle of 1500, do mention banners, including the Royal banner, being captured from the Danes, but there is no mention of Dannebrog or the "original" flag. It is quite plausible that the king’s personal banner as well as the leading banner of the army were both lost, as the battle was led by the King himself. However, it is more questionable if he indeed was carrying the "original" flag.

In a letter dated 22 February 1500 to Oluf Stigsøn, King John describes the battle, but does not mention the loss of an important flag. In fact, the entire letter gives the impression that the lost battle was noting more than an "unfortunate affair".

An indication that we are dealing with multiple flags, are the 1570 writings of Niels Hemmingsøn regarding a bloody battle between Danes and Swedes near the Swedish town of Uppsala in 1520. He writes that the "Danish head banner" ("Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner") was nearly captured by the Swedes. It was saved only by the combined efforts of the banner-carrier Mogens Gyldenstierne, taking multiple wounds, and a young man coming to his rescue. This young man was Peder Skram. This "Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner" was probably nothing short of the "Banner of the Realm'" (Rigsbanner), the Dannebrog.

This is however not the end of the story. A priest and historian from Dithmarschen, Johan Neocorus, wrote in 1598 that the banner captured in 1500, was brought to the church in Wohrden and hung there for the next 59 years, until it was returned to the Danes as part of the peace settlement in 1559. Henrik Rantzau states in his writing of 1576 that the flag was brought to Slesvig city and placed in the cathedral, following its return.

A historian from Slesvig, Ulrik Petersen (1656-1735), wrote in the late 17th century that the flag hung in Slesvig cathedral till about 1660 until it simply crumbled away, thus ending its more than 400-year-old story.

Historically, it is of course impossible to prove or disprove that these records speak of the same flag. If the flag of 1208 or 1219 ever existed. Many of these legends are apparently built on earlier ones.

Other theories of the origin of the flag

Other origin theories have been put forth in the late 19th and early 20th century.

The Danish flag from the front page of Christiern Pedersen’s version of Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, 1514. Full frontpage can be seen here.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #2

The Danish historian Caspar Paludan-Müller in 1873 in his book "Sagnet om den himmelfaldne Danebrogsfane" put forth the theory that it is a banner sent by the Pope to the Danish King to use in his crusades in the Baltic countries. Other kings and lords certainly received such banners.

One would though imagine that if this story was true, some kind of record ought to exist of the event and presumably Danish historians would not have failed to mention it in some way. Being granted a banner by the Pope would have been a great honour, but despite the many letters of the popes relating to the crusades, none of them mentions granting a banner to a King of Denmark. On the other hand, the letter in question might simply have been lost.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #3

A similar theory was suggested by Danish explorer, adventurer and Captain Johan Støckel in the early 20th century. He suggested that it was not a pope banner to the King but a pope banner to the Churchly legate in the North, more specifically to archbishop Andreas Sunesøn, which he - without the knowledge of the King – brought with him on the King's crusade in the Baltic countries, in an effort to make the army take on a Christian symbol (over the king's symbol) and thereby strengthen the power of the church.

It is unlikely that the very fair and loyal archbishop would do such a thing behind the king's back. Moreover, it is unlikely that the pope would send such a banner, given the fact that they already had one, namely the banner of the Knights Hospitaller (Danish: "Johanitterne").

Theories of the origin of the flag, #4

A theory brought forth by the Danish historian Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen in 1875 in his book Danebroges Oprindelse, is that the Danish flag is the banner of the Knights Hospitaller. He supports his theory with that the order came to Denmark in the latter half of the 12th century and during the next centuries spread to major cities, like Odense, Viborg, Horsens, Ribe and their headquarters in Slagelse, so by the time of the Baltic crusade, the symbol was already a known symbol in Denmark.

Furthermore he claims that Bishop Theodorik, already a part initiator of the order in Livonia, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, had the idea of starting a similar order in Estonia and that he was the original instigator of Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden inquiry to King Valdemar II in 1218, that set the whole Danish participation in the Baltic crusades in motion.

In the contemporary writing of the priest Henry of Livonia from Riga it is said that Bishop Theodorik was killed during the 1219 battle, as the enemy stormed his tent, thinking it was the King's tent. Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen explains that it was Bishop Theodorik who carried the flag, well planted outside his tent, thus as an already well-known Knights Hospitaller symbol in Livonia, the enemy thought this was the King's symbol and mistakenly stormed Bishop Theodorik tent. He claims that the origin of the legend of the falling flag comes from this confusion in the battle.

Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen does not give an explanation how the white Maltese cross on red of the Knights Hospitaller, found its way to the Danish flag of 1219, given the fact that in that time it was a white cross on black. The Knights Hospitaller is a monk-order and used black dresses. The white on red warrior-cloak cannot be traced until later.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #5

The Danish church-historian L. P. Fabricius put up yet another theory. It is explained in his study of 1934, titled "Sagnet om Dannebrog og de ældste Forbindelser med Estland'". In this study he put the location to 1208 Fellin and not the Battle of Lyndanisse in 1219, based on the earliest source available about the story.

He says in this theory that it might have been Archbishop Andreas Sunesøn's personal ecclestical banner or perhaps even the flag of Archbishop Absalon. That is based on his tireless efforts to expand Christianity to the Baltic countries and that under his initiative and supervision several smaller crusades had already been conducted in Estonia. The banner would then already be known in Estonia. He repeats the story about the flag being planted in front of Bishop Theodorik's tent which the enemy mistakenly attacks believing it to be the tent of the King.

All these theories centre on two battles in Estonia, whether it is in Fellin (1208) or Lyndanisse (1219), and thus try to explain the origin in relation to the tale brought forth over 300 years after the event.

Theories of the origin of the flag, #6

A much different theory is briefly discussed by Fabricius and elaborated more by Helga Bruhn in a book from 1949. She claims that it is neither the battle nor the banner that is central to the tale, but rather the cross in the sky. Similar tales of appearances in the sky at critical moments, particularly of crosses, can be found all over Europe.

Bruhn mentions a battle (also mentioned by Fabricius) taking place on September 10, 1217 between Christian knights and Moor warriors on the Iberian Peninsula near the castle Alcazar, where it is said that a golden cross on white appeared in the sky, to bring victory to the Christians. Likewise an almost identical Swedish tale from the 18th century about a yellow cross on blue appearing in 1157 during a Swedish battle in Finland. Probably a later invention to counter the legendary origins of the Danish flags, but never the less of the same nature. The English flag, the Saint George's Cross is also claimed to have appeared in the sky during a critical battle, in this case in Jerusalem during the crusades.

The similarities to the legends is obvious. In Spain, the colours of the Pope appears in the sky, in Finland the Swedish colours. In Estonia it is the Danish colours, and in Jerusalem the English colours. Basically, these are all variations of the same legend.

Since King Valdamar II was married to the Portuguese princess, Berengaria, it is not unthinkable that the origin of the story, if not the flag, was the Spanish tale or a similar tale, which again might have been inspired by an even older legend.

Earliest recorded use of the flag

One of the seals of Erik VII, 1398. Note the Dannebrog banner in the coat of arms

Danish literature of the 13th and 14th centuries remains suspiciously quiet about the national flag. Whether the flag has its origins in a divine sign, a banner of a military order, an ecclesiastical banner, or perhaps something entirely different, Danish literature is no help before the early 15th century.

However, several coins, seals and images exist, both foreign and domestic, from the 13th to 15th centuries and even earlier, showing flags similar to the Dannebrog. In the 19th and early 20th century, these images were used by many Danish historians, with a good flair of nationalism, trying to date the origins of the flag to 1219. However, if one examines the few existing foreign sources about Denmark from the 13th to 15th centuries, it is apparent that, at least from foreign point of view; the national symbol of Denmark was not a red-and-white banner but the royal coat of arms (three blue lions of a golden shield.) This coat of arms remains in use to this day.

An obvious place to look for documentation is in the Estonian city of Tallinn, the site of the legendary battle. In Tallinn, a coat-of-arms resembling the flag is found on several buildings and can be traced back to the middle of the 15th century where it appears in the coat-of-arms of the "Die Grosse Gilde", a sort of merchant consortium which greatly influenced the city's development. The symbol later became the coat-of-arms of the city. Efforts to trace it from Estonia back to Denmark have, however, been in vain.

The national Coat of Arms of Estonia, three blue lions on a golden shield, is almost identical to the Coat of Arms of Denmark, and its origin can be traced directly back to King Valdemar II and Danish rule in Estonia 1219-1346.

Earliest undisputed link

Page 55 verso in the Dutch book Wapenboek Gelre. Displaying the earliest known undisputed colourized image of Dannebrog

The earliest source that indisputably links the red flag with a white cross to a Danish King, and to the realm itself, is found in a Dutch register of coats-of-arms “Wapenboek Gelre”, written between 1340 and 1370 (some sources say 1378 or 1386). Most historians claim that the book was written by Geldre Claes Heinen. The book displays some 1700 coats-of-arms from all over Europe, in colour. It is now located on the Royal Library of Brussels (the "Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier").

On page 55 verso we find the Danish coat-of-arms with a helmet on top with horns. On the right horn is a Danish banner. The text left of the coat of arms says “die coninc van denmarke” (The King of Denmark). This is the earliest known undisputed colour rendering of the Dannebrog.

This image has been used to acknowledge a previously disputed theory that the cross found in Valdemar Atterdag's coats of arms located in his Danælog seal ("Rettertingsseglet") from 1356 is indeed the cross from the Danish flag.

This image from "Wapenboek Gelre" is near identical found in an old coats of arms book from the 15th century now located in the National Archives of Sweden, ("Riksarkivet")

From Queen Margaret I and King Erik VII time we also have a case that undisputedly links Dannebrog to Denmark. The royal seal of King Erik VII from 1398 - the first combined coat of arms found in Denmark - shows the flag twice; the cross that separates the four coats-of-arms is the cross of the Dannebrog and the coat of arms representing Denmark show the three lions holding a Dannebrog banner.

Origin and meaning of "Dannebrog"

From King's banner to National flag

Laws and flag variations

Denmark does not have a specified flag law, but various regulations and rules spread out over many documents, from King Christian IV's time till today, can be found. The quest to unite them into a specified flag law have been brought forth many times, especially in the 20th century, but it never amounted to anything.

National flag

The size and shape of the coufhordie flag ("Koffardiflaget") for merchant ships is given in the regulation of June 11, 1748, which says: A red flag with a white cross with no split end. The white cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form and the two outer fields most be 6/4 lengths of those.

The proportions are thus: 3:1:3 vertically and 3:1:4.5 horizontally. This definition are the absolute proportions for the Danish national flag to this day, for both the civil version of the flag, "Stutflaget", as well as the merchant flag ("Handelsflaget"). Both flags are identical.

A somewhat curious regulation came in 1758 concerning Danish ships sailing in the Mediterranean. These had to carry the King's cypher logo in the center of the flag, to distinguish them from Maltese ships, due to the similarity of the flag of the Order of St. John (a.k.a. the Knights Hospitaller). To the best of knowledge, this regulation has never been revoked, however it is probably no longer done.

According to the regulation of June 11, 1748 the colour was simply red, which is common known today as "Dannebrog rød" ("Dannebrog red"). The only available red fabric colour in 1748 was made of bracken root, which make a brownish red. The private company, Dansk Standard, regulation number 359 of 2005, defines the red colour of the flag as Pantone 186c. No official nuance definition of "Dannebrog rød" exists.

During the next about 150 years nobody paid much attention to actually abide fully to the proportions of the flag given in the 1748 regulation, not even the government. As late as 1892 it was stated in a series of regulations that the correct lengths of the two last fields in the flag were 6/4. Some interested in the matter made inquires into the issue and concluded that the 6/4 length would make the flag look blunt. Any new flag would also quickly become unlawful, due to wear and tear. They also noted that the flag currently used had lengths, of the last two fields, anywhere between 7/4 to 13/6.

So in May 1893 a new regulation to all chiefs of police, stated that the police should not intervene, if the two last fields in the flag were longer than 6/4 as long as these did not exceed 7/4, and provided that this was the only rule violated.

This regulation is still in effect today and thus the legal proportions of the National flag is today anywhere between 3:1:3 width / 3:1:4.5 length and 3:1:3 width / 3:1:5.25 length.

That some confusion still exists in this matter can be seen from the regulation of May 4, 1927, which once again states that Danish merchant ships have to fly flags according to the regulation of 1748.

Splitflag

The Splitflag - the Danish State Flag. Proportions: 56:107 The Orlogsflag - the Danish Naval Flag. Proportions: 56:107

The Splitflag or Orlogsflag have similar specifications, but legally, they are two different flags. The Splitflag is a Danish flag ending in a swallow-tail, it is Dannebrog red, and is used on land. The Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deeper red colour and is only used on sea.

The Orlogsflag with no markings, may only be used by the Royal Danish Navy. There are though a few exceptions to this. A few institutions have been allowed to fly the clean Orlogsflag. Same flag with markings has been approved for a few dozen companies and institutions over the years.

Furthermore, the Orlogsflag is only described as such if it has no additional markings. Any swallow-tail flag, no matter the color, is called a Splitflag provided it bears additional markings.

The first regulation regarding the Splitflag dates from 27 March, 1630, where King Christian IV orders that Norwegian "Defensionskibe" (merchants ships with guns) may only use the Splitflag if they are in war-service under Denmark. In 1685 an order, distributed to a number of cities in Slesvig, says that all ships must carry the Danish flag, and in 1690 all merchants ships is forbidden to use the Splitflag, with the exception of ships sailing in the East Indies, West Indies and at the coast of Africa. In 1741 it is re-stated that the regulation of 1690 is still very much in effect, that merchants ships may not use the Splitflag. At the same time it is now allowed the Danish East India Company to use the Splitflag when past the equator.

It is obvious that some confusion must have existed regarding the Splitflag. In 1696 the Admiralty presented the King with a proposal for a standard regulating both size and shape of the Splitflag. In the same year a Royal resolution defines the proportions of the Splitflag, which in this resolution is called Kongeflaget (the King's flag), as follows: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form with the sides three times the cross width. The two outer fields are rectangular and 1½ the length of the square fields. The tails are the length of the flag.

These numbers are the basic for the Splitflag, or Orlogsflag, today, though the numbers have been slightly altered. The term Orlogsflag dates from 1806 and denotes use in the Royal Danish Navy.

From about 1750 to early 1800's a number of ships / companies which the government has interests in, received approval to used the Splitflag. From the mid 1800's to 1899 another bunch of institutions and private companies also received approval to use the Splitflag. Especially after 1870 the government generous and with little thought hand out approval to all kinds to institutions.

In royal resolution of October 25, 1939 for the Danish Navy, it is stated that the Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deep red ("Kraprød" or "dybrød") colour. Like the National flag, no nuance is given, but in modern days this is given as 195U. Furthermore the size and shape is corrected in this resolution to be: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The two first fields must be square in form with the height of 3/7 of the flags height. The two outer fields are rectangular and 5/4 the length of the square fields. The tails are 6/4 the length of the rectangular fields.

Comparing this to the 1696 resolution one can see that both the rectangular fields and the tails have become smaller.

Who may use what?

1. Stutflag: This is the national flag of Denmark and is used by for all civilian purposes including the merchant navy. Any Dane can have a flagpole in the garden and use the flag according to the law. When the flag is not hoisted, for instance during darkness, a long narrow version called a vimpel or a wider version called a stander can be flown.

2. Splitflag: The use of the swallow-tail flag is restricted to the Danish Government and Navy. Note: The Naval Flag has a darker hue than the State Flag. Private yachts and motor boats are allowed to use the Naval Flag with the letters Y.F.(for Yacht Flag) superimposed in the upper canton. This flag is not allowed on boats for hire.

3. Kongeflag (literally: The King's Flag): This is the flag of the Monarch. It is currently used by H.M. Queen Margrethe II.

4. Dronningeflag (literally: The Queen's flag). This is the flag of the consort of the monarch. The main difference from the flag of the monarch is that this version of the royal coat-of-arms lacks the supporters, two wild men. This flag was used by H.M. Queen Ingrid, and is currently not in use, since the Prince Consort, H.R.H. Prince Henrik uses a special flag with a his personal coat of arms in the centre (originally, he used a flag with a crowned "H" in the centre).

5. Rigsforstanderflag: This flag is used by the leading member of the Royal Family when the Queen is abroad, and shows that the person currently assumes the constitutional duties of the Monarch. This person remains the de facto Monarch, until the Monarch returns to Danish territory.

6. Tronfølgerflag: This is the flag of the Crown Prince of Denmark, currently H.R.H. Crown Prince Frederik.

7. Kongehusflag: This flag can be used by any member of the Danish Royal Family.

8. Forsvarsminister: This is the flag of the Minister of Defence.

9. Admiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Admiral is on board.

10. Viceadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that a Vice Admiral is on board.

11. Kontreadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Rear Admiral is on board.

12. Postflag: This is the former flag of the Royal Danish Mail and Telegraph (Danish: Kongelig Post og Telegrafvæsen), now Post Danmark.

13. Statens skibe: This flag is used on ships owned by the Danish State.

14. DSB: This flag is used by the DSB, the state railway company (Danske Statsbaner).

15. Havnepoliti: This is used by the Danish harbour police.

Flag days



References

  • Dannebrog - Vort Flag, Lieutenant Colonel Thaulow, Forlaget Codan, Copenhagen 1943
  • Dannebrog, Helga Bruhn, Forlaget Jespersen og Pios, Copenhagen 1949
  • Danebrog - Danmarks Palladium, E. D. Lund, Forlaget H. Hagerups, Copenhagen 1919
  • DS 359:2005 ’Flagdug’, Dansk Standard, 2005

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. See also Webpage (Graphics), PDF (Layers), Mapquest, Google Maps, Google Earth or Yahoo! Maps.
. Navy SEALs and Counter-Strike, that players choose to compete on, as a synonym for level. Havnepoliti: This is used by the Danish harbour police. The word "map" has also been used to describe places within video games, such as SOCOM II: U.S. 15. For example:.

DSB: This flag is used by the DSB, the state railway company (Danske Statsbaner). From the computer scientist's standpoint, zooming in entails one or a combination of:. 14. In-car satellite navigation systems are computerised maps with route-planning and advice facilities which monitor by satellite the position of the user. Statens skibe: This flag is used on ships owned by the Danish State. Interactive, computerised maps are commercially available, allowing users to zoom in or zoom out (respectively meaning to increase or decrease the scale), sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale, centred where possible on the same point. 13. Even when GIS is not involved, most cartographers now use a variety of computer graphics programs to generate new maps.

Postflag: This is the former flag of the Royal Danish Mail and Telegraph (Danish: Kongelig Post og Telegrafvæsen), now Post Danmark. Much of cartography, especially at the data-gathering survey level, has been subsumed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS). 12. From the last quarter of the 20th century, the indispensable tool of the cartographer has been the computer. Kontreadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Rear Admiral is on board. This allows the pilots to plot a great-circle route approximation on a flat, two-dimensional chart. 11. The cone intersects the sphere (the earth) at one or two parallels which are chosen as standard lines.

Viceadmiral: Used on a ship to indicate that a Vice Admiral is on board. Airplane pilots use aeronautical charts based on a Lambert conformal conic projection, in which a cone is laid over the section of the earth to be mapped. 10. Perhaps the best-known world-map projection is the Mercator Projection, originally designed as a form of nautical chart. Admiral: Used on a ship to indicate that an Admiral is on board. Maps that depict the surface of the Earth also use a projection, a way of translating the three-dimensional real surface of the geoid to a two-dimensional picture. 9. Geological maps show not only the physical surface, but characteristics of the underlying rock, fault lines, and subsurface structures.

Forsvarsminister: This is the flag of the Minister of Defence. The most important purpose of the political map is to show territorial borders; the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography such as mountains, soil type or land use. 8. Maps of the world or large areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. Kongehusflag: This flag can be used by any member of the Danish Royal Family. For example, a road map may or may not show railroads, and if it does, it may show them less clearly than highways. 7. With the end-user similarly in mind, cartographers will censor the content of the space depicted by a map in order provide a useful tool to that user.

Crown Prince Frederik. In fact, most commercial navigational maps, such as road maps and town plans, sacrifice an amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user, for example by exaggerating the width of roads. Tronfølgerflag: This is the flag of the Crown Prince of Denmark, currently H.R.H. The simple maps shown on some directional road signs are further examples of this kind. 6. This is not a cartogram (since there is no consistent measure of distance) but a topological map that also depicts approximate bearings. This person remains the de facto Monarch, until the Monarch returns to Danish territory. A famous example of a map without scale is the London Underground map, which best fulfils its purpose by being less physically accurate and more visually communicative to the hurried glance of the commuter.

Rigsforstanderflag: This flag is used by the leading member of the Royal Family when the Queen is abroad, and shows that the person currently assumes the constitutional duties of the Monarch. Maps which use some quality other than physical area to determine relative size are called cartograms. 5. For example, maps designed for the hiker are often scaled at the ratio 1:24,000, meaning that 1 of any unit of measurement on the map corresponds to 24,000 of that same unit in reality; while maps designed for the motorist are often scaled at 1:250,000. Prince Henrik uses a special flag with a his personal coat of arms in the centre (originally, he used a flag with a crowned "H" in the centre). A larger scale shows more detail, thus requiring a larger map to show the same area. Queen Ingrid, and is currently not in use, since the Prince Consort, H.R.H. Many but not all maps are drawn to a scale, allowing the reader to infer the actual sizes of, and distances between, depicted objects.

This flag was used by H.M. If the map is prepared on a table, to be attached to the ceiling, then on the table it is a mirror image of a normal map. The main difference from the flag of the monarch is that this version of the royal coat-of-arms lacks the supporters, two wild men. Occasionally a map is on a ceiling, correctly showing directions; in that case, looking up we have in clockwise direction forward, left, backward, and right. This is the flag of the consort of the monarch. For a vertically positioned map representing a horizontal area true orientation is not possible, of course, but it is sometimes approximated by putting the forward direction up. Dronningeflag (literally: The Queen's flag). The practice of navigating in this way is orienteering.

4. If a person is located at an identifiable point within the area of such a map, then the map can be oriented in such a way that every point on the map lies in the same direction as the corresponding point in reality. Queen Margrethe II. Maps that don't put north at the top:. It is currently used by H.M. Conventionally, on most geometrically accurate maps text is upright when the map is oriented with the north up, hence north is identified with the top of a sheet. Kongeflag (literally: The King's Flag): This is the flag of the Monarch. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military, such as the British Ordnance Survey (now a civilian government agency internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work).

3. In terms of quantity, the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys, carried out by municipalities, utilities, tax assessors, emergency services providers, and other local agencies. This flag is not allowed on boats for hire. Community maps, including GreenMaps, are growing in importance. Private yachts and motor boats are allowed to use the Naval Flag with the letters Y.F.(for Yacht Flag) superimposed in the upper canton. Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today, and form a subset of navigational maps, which also include aeronautical and nautical charts, railroad network maps, and hiking and bicycling maps. Note: The Naval Flag has a darker hue than the State Flag. This conceit is elaborated in a one-paragraph story by Jorge Luis Borges and Adolfo Bioy Casares, generally known in English as "On Exactitude in Science".

Splitflag: The use of the swallow-tail flag is restricted to the Danish Government and Navy. A character notes some practical difficulties with this map and states that "we now use the country itself, as its own map, and I assure you it does nearly as well". 2. Lewis Carroll made this point humorously in Sylvie and Bruno with his mention of a fictional map that had "the scale of a mile to the mile". When the flag is not hoisted, for instance during darkness, a long narrow version called a vimpel or a wider version called a stander can be flown. It is, of course, this abstraction that makes them useful. Any Dane can have a flagpole in the garden and use the flag according to the law. Because maps are abstract representations of the world, they are not neutral documents and must be carefully interpreted.

Stutflag: This is the national flag of Denmark and is used by for all civilian purposes including the merchant navy. Harley, Mark Monmonier, and Denis Wood. 1. Even today, maps can be powerful rhetorical tools beyond their purely practical value, and this has been the source of much fruitful map criticism over the last twenty years, notably in the works of J.B. Comparing this to the 1696 resolution one can see that both the rectangular fields and the tails have become smaller. By contrast, navigational (or "Portolan") charts of the Mediterranean from the same period are remarkably accurate. The tails are 6/4 the length of the rectangular fields. Medieval "T-O" maps, for example, show Jerusalem at the centre of the world, and in some cases related the "body" of the Earth to the body of Christ.

The two outer fields are rectangular and 5/4 the length of the square fields. Pre-modern maps, and mapping traditions outside the Western tradition, often merge geography with non-scientific cosmography, showing the relationship of the viewer to the universe. The two first fields must be square in form with the height of 3/7 of the flags height. While we tend to think of maps today as products of a rationalistic, scientific world-view, maps also have a mythic quality. Furthermore the size and shape is corrected in this resolution to be: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. 142]. Like the National flag, no nuance is given, but in modern days this is given as 195U. [Harvey 2000, p.

In royal resolution of October 25, 1939 for the Danish Navy, it is stated that the Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deep red ("Kraprød" or "dybrød") colour. One of the oldest surviving maps is painted on a wall of the Catal Huyuk settlement in south-central Anatolia (now Turkey); it dates from about 6200 BC. Especially after 1870 the government generous and with little thought hand out approval to all kinds to institutions. Map-making dates back to the Stone Age and appears to predate written language by several millennia. From the mid 1800's to 1899 another bunch of institutions and private companies also received approval to use the Splitflag. . From about 1750 to early 1800's a number of ships / companies which the government has interests in, received approval to used the Splitflag. The science and art of map-making is cartography.

The term Orlogsflag dates from 1806 and denotes use in the Royal Danish Navy. Most usually a map is a two-dimensional, geometrically accurate representation of a three-dimensional space. These numbers are the basic for the Splitflag, or Orlogsflag, today, though the numbers have been slightly altered. A map is a simplified depiction of a space, a navigational aid which highlights relations between objects within that space. The tails are the length of the flag. http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics/Cartography.html. The two outer fields are rectangular and 1½ the length of the square fields. Andrews University, 2002.

The two first fields must be square in form with the sides three times the cross width. Scotland : St. In the same year a Royal resolution defines the proportions of the Splitflag, which in this resolution is called Kongeflaget (the King's flag), as follows: The cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. Robertson, The History of Cartography. In 1696 the Admiralty presented the King with a proposal for a standard regulating both size and shape of the Splitflag. and E.F. It is obvious that some confusion must have existed regarding the Splitflag. O'Connor, J.J.

At the same time it is now allowed the Danish East India Company to use the Splitflag when past the equator. Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps, [ISBN 0226534219]. In 1741 it is re-stated that the regulation of 1690 is still very much in effect, that merchants ships may not use the Splitflag. [ISBN 0767908260, cited above; also ISBN 0375501517]. In 1685 an order, distributed to a number of cities in Slesvig, says that all ships must carry the Danish flag, and in 1690 all merchants ships is forbidden to use the Splitflag, with the exception of ships sailing in the East Indies, West Indies and at the coast of Africa. New York : Random House, 2000. The first regulation regarding the Splitflag dates from 27 March, 1630, where King Christian IV orders that Norwegian "Defensionskibe" (merchants ships with guns) may only use the Splitflag if they are in war-service under Denmark. Miles Harvey, The Island of Lost Maps: A True Story of Cartographic Crime.

Any swallow-tail flag, no matter the color, is called a Splitflag provided it bears additional markings. David Buisseret, ed., Monarchs, Ministers and Maps: The Emergence of Cartography as a Tool of Government in Early Modern Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992, [ISBN 0226079872]. Furthermore, the Orlogsflag is only described as such if it has no additional markings. For a single raster graphics image (2) applies until the pixels in the image file correspond to the pixels of the display, thereafter (3) applies. Same flag with markings has been approved for a few dozen companies and institutions over the years. The map may also have layers which are partly raster graphics and partly vector graphics. A few institutions have been allowed to fly the clean Orlogsflag. Similarly, a road represented by a double line may or may not become wider when one zooms in.

There are though a few exceptions to this. Text is not necessarily enlarged when zooming in. The Orlogsflag with no markings, may only be used by the Royal Danish Navy. (1) may apply to the text (displaying labels for more features), while (2) applies to the rest of the image. The Orlogsflag is a Splitflag with a deeper red colour and is only used on sea. (2) may apply to text and (3) to the outline of a map feature such as a forest or building. The Splitflag is a Danish flag ending in a swallow-tail, it is Dannebrog red, and is used on land. The increase in detail is, of course, limited to the information contained in the file: enlargement of a curve may eventually result in a series of standard geometric figures such as straight lines or arcs of circles.

The Splitflag or Orlogsflag have similar specifications, but legally, they are two different flags. Typically (2) applies to a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. That some confusion still exists in this matter can be seen from the regulation of May 4, 1927, which once again states that Danish merchant ships have to fly flags according to the regulation of 1748. A variation of this method is that interpolation is performed. This regulation is still in effect today and thus the legal proportions of the National flag is today anywhere between 3:1:3 width / 3:1:4.5 length and 3:1:3 width / 3:1:5.25 length. enlarging the same map with the pixels enlarged (replaced by rectangles of pixels); no additional detail is shown, but, depending on the quality of one's vision, possibly more detail can be seen; if a computer display does not show adjacent pixels really separate, but overlapping instead (this does not apply for an LCD, but may apply for a cathode ray tube), then replacing a pixel by a rectangle of pixels does show more detail. So in May 1893 a new regulation to all chiefs of police, stated that the police should not intervene, if the two last fields in the flag were longer than 6/4 as long as these did not exceed 7/4, and provided that this was the only rule violated. enlarging the same map without enlarging the pixels, hence show more detail.

They also noted that the flag currently used had lengths, of the last two fields, anywhere between 7/4 to 13/6. replacing the map by a more detailed one. Any new flag would also quickly become unlawful, due to wear and tear. Medieval European T and O maps such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi were centred on Jerusalem, with East at the top. Some interested in the matter made inquires into the issue and concluded that the 6/4 length would make the flag look blunt. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head. As late as 1892 it was stated in a series of regulations that the correct lengths of the two last fields in the flag were 6/4. Old maps of Edo show the Japanese imperial palace as the "top," but also at the centre, of the map.

During the next about 150 years nobody paid much attention to actually abide fully to the proportions of the flag given in the 1748 regulation, not even the government. Other modern maps put south on top, generally either out of a sense of playful confusion or to make a political statement about the North-South divide. No official nuance definition of "Dannebrog rød" exists. These are primarily intended as novelty and tourist maps. The private company, Dansk Standard, regulation number 359 of 2005, defines the red colour of the flag as Pantone 186c. To someone used to seeing the map the other way around, this map may appear to be "upside down". The only available red fabric colour in 1748 was made of bracken root, which make a brownish red. Some rectangular maps produced in Australia show the south pole at the top.

According to the regulation of June 11, 1748 the colour was simply red, which is common known today as "Dannebrog rød" ("Dannebrog red"). Dymaxion maps. To the best of knowledge, this regulation has never been revoked, however it is probably no longer done. Polar maps. the Knights Hospitaller). John (a.k.a.

These had to carry the King's cypher logo in the center of the flag, to distinguish them from Maltese ships, due to the similarity of the flag of the Order of St. A somewhat curious regulation came in 1758 concerning Danish ships sailing in the Mediterranean. Both flags are identical. This definition are the absolute proportions for the Danish national flag to this day, for both the civil version of the flag, "Stutflaget", as well as the merchant flag ("Handelsflaget").

The proportions are thus: 3:1:3 vertically and 3:1:4.5 horizontally. The two first fields must be square in form and the two outer fields most be 6/4 lengths of those. The white cross must be 1/7 of the flags height. The size and shape of the coufhordie flag ("Koffardiflaget") for merchant ships is given in the regulation of June 11, 1748, which says: A red flag with a white cross with no split end.

The quest to unite them into a specified flag law have been brought forth many times, especially in the 20th century, but it never amounted to anything. Denmark does not have a specified flag law, but various regulations and rules spread out over many documents, from King Christian IV's time till today, can be found. The royal seal of King Erik VII from 1398 - the first combined coat of arms found in Denmark - shows the flag twice; the cross that separates the four coats-of-arms is the cross of the Dannebrog and the coat of arms representing Denmark show the three lions holding a Dannebrog banner. From Queen Margaret I and King Erik VII time we also have a case that undisputedly links Dannebrog to Denmark.

This image from "Wapenboek Gelre" is near identical found in an old coats of arms book from the 15th century now located in the National Archives of Sweden, ("Riksarkivet"). This image has been used to acknowledge a previously disputed theory that the cross found in Valdemar Atterdag's coats of arms located in his Danælog seal ("Rettertingsseglet") from 1356 is indeed the cross from the Danish flag. This is the earliest known undisputed colour rendering of the Dannebrog. The text left of the coat of arms says “die coninc van denmarke” (The King of Denmark).

On the right horn is a Danish banner. On page 55 verso we find the Danish coat-of-arms with a helmet on top with horns. It is now located on the Royal Library of Brussels (the "Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier"). The book displays some 1700 coats-of-arms from all over Europe, in colour.

Most historians claim that the book was written by Geldre Claes Heinen. The earliest source that indisputably links the red flag with a white cross to a Danish King, and to the realm itself, is found in a Dutch register of coats-of-arms “Wapenboek Gelre”, written between 1340 and 1370 (some sources say 1378 or 1386). The national Coat of Arms of Estonia, three blue lions on a golden shield, is almost identical to the Coat of Arms of Denmark, and its origin can be traced directly back to King Valdemar II and Danish rule in Estonia 1219-1346. Efforts to trace it from Estonia back to Denmark have, however, been in vain.

The symbol later became the coat-of-arms of the city. In Tallinn, a coat-of-arms resembling the flag is found on several buildings and can be traced back to the middle of the 15th century where it appears in the coat-of-arms of the "Die Grosse Gilde", a sort of merchant consortium which greatly influenced the city's development. An obvious place to look for documentation is in the Estonian city of Tallinn, the site of the legendary battle. However, if one examines the few existing foreign sources about Denmark from the 13th to 15th centuries, it is apparent that, at least from foreign point of view; the national symbol of Denmark was not a red-and-white banner but the royal coat of arms (three blue lions of a golden shield.) This coat of arms remains in use to this day.

In the 19th and early 20th century, these images were used by many Danish historians, with a good flair of nationalism, trying to date the origins of the flag to 1219. However, several coins, seals and images exist, both foreign and domestic, from the 13th to 15th centuries and even earlier, showing flags similar to the Dannebrog. Whether the flag has its origins in a divine sign, a banner of a military order, an ecclesiastical banner, or perhaps something entirely different, Danish literature is no help before the early 15th century. Danish literature of the 13th and 14th centuries remains suspiciously quiet about the national flag.

Since King Valdamar II was married to the Portuguese princess, Berengaria, it is not unthinkable that the origin of the story, if not the flag, was the Spanish tale or a similar tale, which again might have been inspired by an even older legend. Basically, these are all variations of the same legend. In Estonia it is the Danish colours, and in Jerusalem the English colours. In Spain, the colours of the Pope appears in the sky, in Finland the Swedish colours.

The similarities to the legends is obvious. The English flag, the Saint George's Cross is also claimed to have appeared in the sky during a critical battle, in this case in Jerusalem during the crusades. Probably a later invention to counter the legendary origins of the Danish flags, but never the less of the same nature. Likewise an almost identical Swedish tale from the 18th century about a yellow cross on blue appearing in 1157 during a Swedish battle in Finland.

Bruhn mentions a battle (also mentioned by Fabricius) taking place on September 10, 1217 between Christian knights and Moor warriors on the Iberian Peninsula near the castle Alcazar, where it is said that a golden cross on white appeared in the sky, to bring victory to the Christians. Similar tales of appearances in the sky at critical moments, particularly of crosses, can be found all over Europe. She claims that it is neither the battle nor the banner that is central to the tale, but rather the cross in the sky. A much different theory is briefly discussed by Fabricius and elaborated more by Helga Bruhn in a book from 1949.

All these theories centre on two battles in Estonia, whether it is in Fellin (1208) or Lyndanisse (1219), and thus try to explain the origin in relation to the tale brought forth over 300 years after the event. He repeats the story about the flag being planted in front of Bishop Theodorik's tent which the enemy mistakenly attacks believing it to be the tent of the King. The banner would then already be known in Estonia. That is based on his tireless efforts to expand Christianity to the Baltic countries and that under his initiative and supervision several smaller crusades had already been conducted in Estonia.

He says in this theory that it might have been Archbishop Andreas Sunesøn's personal ecclestical banner or perhaps even the flag of Archbishop Absalon. In this study he put the location to 1208 Fellin and not the Battle of Lyndanisse in 1219, based on the earliest source available about the story.. It is explained in his study of 1934, titled "Sagnet om Dannebrog og de ældste Forbindelser med Estland'". Fabricius put up yet another theory.

P. The Danish church-historian L. The white on red warrior-cloak cannot be traced until later. The Knights Hospitaller is a monk-order and used black dresses.

Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen does not give an explanation how the white Maltese cross on red of the Knights Hospitaller, found its way to the Danish flag of 1219, given the fact that in that time it was a white cross on black. He claims that the origin of the legend of the falling flag comes from this confusion in the battle. Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen explains that it was Bishop Theodorik who carried the flag, well planted outside his tent, thus as an already well-known Knights Hospitaller symbol in Livonia, the enemy thought this was the King's symbol and mistakenly stormed Bishop Theodorik tent. In the contemporary writing of the priest Henry of Livonia from Riga it is said that Bishop Theodorik was killed during the 1219 battle, as the enemy stormed his tent, thinking it was the King's tent.

Furthermore he claims that Bishop Theodorik, already a part initiator of the order in Livonia, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword, had the idea of starting a similar order in Estonia and that he was the original instigator of Bishop Albert of Buxhoeveden inquiry to King Valdemar II in 1218, that set the whole Danish participation in the Baltic crusades in motion. He supports his theory with that the order came to Denmark in the latter half of the 12th century and during the next centuries spread to major cities, like Odense, Viborg, Horsens, Ribe and their headquarters in Slagelse, so by the time of the Baltic crusade, the symbol was already a known symbol in Denmark. A theory brought forth by the Danish historian Adolf Ditlev Jørgensen in 1875 in his book Danebroges Oprindelse, is that the Danish flag is the banner of the Knights Hospitaller. Moreover, it is unlikely that the pope would send such a banner, given the fact that they already had one, namely the banner of the Knights Hospitaller (Danish: "Johanitterne").

It is unlikely that the very fair and loyal archbishop would do such a thing behind the king's back. He suggested that it was not a pope banner to the King but a pope banner to the Churchly legate in the North, more specifically to archbishop Andreas Sunesøn, which he - without the knowledge of the King – brought with him on the King's crusade in the Baltic countries, in an effort to make the army take on a Christian symbol (over the king's symbol) and thereby strengthen the power of the church. A similar theory was suggested by Danish explorer, adventurer and Captain Johan Støckel in the early 20th century. On the other hand, the letter in question might simply have been lost.

Being granted a banner by the Pope would have been a great honour, but despite the many letters of the popes relating to the crusades, none of them mentions granting a banner to a King of Denmark. One would though imagine that if this story was true, some kind of record ought to exist of the event and presumably Danish historians would not have failed to mention it in some way. Other kings and lords certainly received such banners. The Danish historian Caspar Paludan-Müller in 1873 in his book "Sagnet om den himmelfaldne Danebrogsfane" put forth the theory that it is a banner sent by the Pope to the Danish King to use in his crusades in the Baltic countries.

Other origin theories have been put forth in the late 19th and early 20th century. Many of these legends are apparently built on earlier ones. If the flag of 1208 or 1219 ever existed. Historically, it is of course impossible to prove or disprove that these records speak of the same flag.

A historian from Slesvig, Ulrik Petersen (1656-1735), wrote in the late 17th century that the flag hung in Slesvig cathedral till about 1660 until it simply crumbled away, thus ending its more than 400-year-old story. Henrik Rantzau states in his writing of 1576 that the flag was brought to Slesvig city and placed in the cathedral, following its return. A priest and historian from Dithmarschen, Johan Neocorus, wrote in 1598 that the banner captured in 1500, was brought to the church in Wohrden and hung there for the next 59 years, until it was returned to the Danes as part of the peace settlement in 1559. This is however not the end of the story.

This "Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner" was probably nothing short of the "Banner of the Realm'" (Rigsbanner), the Dannebrog.. This young man was Peder Skram. It was saved only by the combined efforts of the banner-carrier Mogens Gyldenstierne, taking multiple wounds, and a young man coming to his rescue. He writes that the "Danish head banner" ("Danmarckis Hoffuitbanner") was nearly captured by the Swedes.

An indication that we are dealing with multiple flags, are the 1570 writings of Niels Hemmingsøn regarding a bloody battle between Danes and Swedes near the Swedish town of Uppsala in 1520. In fact, the entire letter gives the impression that the lost battle was noting more than an "unfortunate affair". In a letter dated 22 February 1500 to Oluf Stigsøn, King John describes the battle, but does not mention the loss of an important flag. However, it is more questionable if he indeed was carrying the "original" flag.

It is quite plausible that the king’s personal banner as well as the leading banner of the army were both lost, as the battle was led by the King himself. Sources from Dithmarschen, written shortly after the battle of 1500, do mention banners, including the Royal banner, being captured from the Danes, but there is no mention of Dannebrog or the "original" flag. He notes that the flag was in a poor condition when returned. In 1576, the son of Johan Rantzau, Henrik Rantzau, also writes about the war and the fate of the flag.

Both claims that this was the original flag, and consequently both writers knew the legend of the falling flag. This legend is found in two sources, Hans Svanning's History of King John from 1558-1559 and Johan Rantzau's History about the Last Dithmarschen War, from 1569. In the capitulation terms it is stated that all Danish banners lost in 1500 were to be returned. In 1559, King Frederik II recaptured it during his own Dithmarschen campaign.

The flag was lost in a devastating defeat on 17 February 1500. According to tradition, the original flag from the Battle of Lyndanisse was used in the small campaign of 1500 when King Hans tried to conquer Dithmarschen (in western Holstein in north Germany). The story of the original flag has a continuation that many Danes are not aware of. Some historians believe that the story by Petrus Olai refers to a source from the first half of the 15th century, making this the oldest reference to the falling flag.

Whether or not these records describe a truly old oral story in existents at that time, or a 16th century invented story, is not currently determined. In another record by Petrus Olai called "Danmarks Tolv Herligheder" (Twelve Splendours of Denmark), in splendour number nine, the same story is re-told almost to the word, however a paragraph has been inserted correcting the year to 1219. The Danes were all but defeated when a lamb-skin banner depicting a white cross falls from the sky and miraculously leads to a Danish victory. This record describes a battle in 1208 near a place called "Felin" during the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II.

The second source is the writing of the Franciscan monk Petrus Olai (Peder Olsen) of Roskilde, from 1527. He also mentions that this flag, falling from the sky during the Russian campaign of King Valdemar II, is the very same flag that King Eric of Pomerania took with him when he left the country in 1440 after being deposed as King. It is not mentioned in connection to the campaign of King Valdemar II in Estonia, but in connection with a campaign in Russia. The first is found in Christiern Pedersen's "Danske Krønike", which is a sequel to Saxo’s Gesta Danorum, written 1520-1523.

This story originates from two written sources from the early 16th century. Though no historical support exists for the flag story in the Fellin battle either, it is not difficult to understand how a small and unknown place is replaced with the much grander battle of Reval from the Estonia campaign of King Valdemar II. The first record of the legend dates from more than 300 years after the campaign, and the first record connects the legend to a much smaller battle, though still in Estonia; the battle of Fellin (Viljandi) in 1208. No historical record supports this legend.

The legend says that during the Battle of Lyndanisse, also known as the Battle of Valdemar (Danish: "Volmerslaget"), near Reval (Tallinn) in Estonia, on 15 June 1219, the flag fell from the sky during a critical stage, resulting in Danish victory. The legend of the flag is very popular among Danes, but most consider it to be a legend though a beautiful one. . The royal Danish yacht is named after the flag.

During the Danish-Norwegian personal union, the Dannebrog was also the flag of Norway and continued to be, with slight modifications, until Norway adopted its current flag in 1821. The cross design of the Danish flag was subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries: Sweden, Norway, Finland, and Iceland. The national flag of Denmark, the Dannebrog, is red with a white Scandinavian cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side. DS 359:2005 ’Flagdug’, Dansk Standard, 2005.

Hagerups, Copenhagen 1919. Lund, Forlaget H. D. Danebrog - Danmarks Palladium, E.

Dannebrog, Helga Bruhn, Forlaget Jespersen og Pios, Copenhagen 1949. Dannebrog - Vort Flag, Lieutenant Colonel Thaulow, Forlaget Codan, Copenhagen 1943.

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