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Crips

The blue bandannas worn by most Crip gangs. The purple bandanas worn by grape street Crip gangs. The black bandanas worn by shotgun Crip and other Crip gangs.

The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs.

History of the Crips

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years.

The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). The name stuck.

Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods.

Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A.

Expansion

In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets.

The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries.

To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas.

Gang identification

For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs."

In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos.

Origin of the name "Crips"

There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:

  • The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding).
  • Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short."
  • Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts."
  • Some alleged backronyms for the name include:

Crips, hip-hop, and C-walk

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. County. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof).

It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only.

Entertainers with Crip affiliations

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  • Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]
  • Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]
  • MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]
  • Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]
  • Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]

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On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only. Other examples of fishing terms that carry a negative connotation are: "fishing for compliments", "to be fooled hook, line and sinker" (to be fooled beyond merely "taking the bait"), and the internet scam of Phishing. It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. For example, the expression "fishing expedition" (usually used to describe a line of questioning), describes a case where the questioner implies that he knows more than he actually does in order to trick the target into divulging more information than he wishes to reveal. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof). On the other hand, fishing with bait or lure sometimes has nuances of catching by deception, possibly with an implication of greed on the part of the victim. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. For example, in the New Testament, Jesus is reported to have said to his disciples: Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. Matthew 4:19.

Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. On the one hand, fishing with a net has nuances of gathering by honest effort. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Fishing is a widely used as a metaphor though as such it is possibly ambiguous. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion that is produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal industrially. County. Isinglass is a substance obtained from the swim bladders of fish (especially sturgeon), it is used for the clarification of wine and beer.

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. Fish glue has long been valued for its use in all manner of products from illuminated manuscripts to the Mongolian war bow. There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:. Fish glue is made by boiling the skin, bones and swim bladders of fish. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos. Sepia is a pigment made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish. In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Tyrian purple is a pigment made from marine snails Murex brandaris and Murex trunculus.

They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs.". Sea horse, star fish, sea urchin and sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). Sharkskin leather is used in the manufacture of hilts of traditional Japanese swords. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. These skins are also used to make leather. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. Sharkskin and rayskin which are covered with, in effect, tiny teeth (dermal denticles) were used for the purposes that sandpaper currently is.

One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. Traditional methods of pearl hunting are now virtually extinct. For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. Pearls and mother-of-pearl are valued for their lustre. Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas. There are several organizations devoted to improving the methods of collecting, handling, transporting, exporting and farming of wild and domesticated live food fish, as well as freshwater and marine tropical fish destined for aquaria. To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Such techniques are used most often by researchers for observation and study but are also used by those who collect fish for the aquarium trade.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries. Fish can also be collected in ways that do not injure them such as in a seine net or by placing an electric current into the water. The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. This brought the value of their live food fish trade industry to US$400 million as reported by the World Resources Institute[24]. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets. Hong Kong, for example, is estimated to have imported in excess of 15,000 tonnes of live food fish in 2000. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. The prevalence of cultural beliefs and consumer standards helps to drive the demand for the live food fish trade.

It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Suiting customer preference, this practice makes the seafood higher in quality and better in taste. In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. The majority of live fish kept at seafood restaurants, however, are desired for the freshness of the seafood, being killed only immediately before being cooked. Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A. Some seafood restaurants keep live fish in aquaria for display or for cultural beliefs. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods. Live fish are collected for the international live food fish trade.

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. Fish oil is valued as a dietary supplement. Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. In some cultures, for example China, Japan, and Vietnam, certain species of jellyfish are consumed[23]. The name stuck. Sea cucumber is considered a delicacy in Chinese cooking and is often served at New Year’s feasts, usually in soups[22]. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). Squid and octopus are valued as food.

This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. In some cultures, roe is considered a delicacy, for example caviar from the sturgeon. The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. Eggs, called roe, of various species may be eaten; roe comes from fish and certain marine invertebrates, such as sea urchins and shrimp. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years. Shelled molluscs include the clam, mussel, oyster, winkle and scallop; some crustaceans are the shrimp, lobster, crayfish, and crab. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Shellfish include shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food.

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. The flesh of many fish are primarily valued as a source of food; there are many edible species of fish as well as other sea food. . For example: sardines. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs. Canning, developed during the 19th century has also had a significant impact on fishing by allowing seasonal catches of fish that are possibly far from large centres of population to be exploited. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. Refrigeration and freezing also allow the catch to be distributed to markets further inland, reaching customers who previously would have had access only to dried or salted sea fish.

New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The development of refrigeration and freezing technologies transformed the commercial fishing industry: fishing vessels could be larger, spending more time away from port and therefore accessing fish stocks at a much greater distance. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. In the past, fishing vessels were restricted in range by the simple consideration that the catch must be returned to port before it spoils and becomes worthless. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. See:. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. All of these techniques are still used today but the more modern techniques of freezing and canning have taken on a large importance.

They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. Ancient methods of preserving fish included drying , salting, pickling and smoking. The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. Prices for fish caught in North American "pay to fish" waters are generally in the range of $0.10 to $0.20 per cm or from $5.00 to $10.00 per kg. WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]. In North America, establishments usually charge for the fish caught, by length or by weight, rather than for access to the site although some establishments charge both types of fees. Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. In the United Kingdom, commercial fisheries of this sort charge access fees, with prices ranging from £2 to £25 per day.

Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]. These provide fishing opportunities outside of the permitted seasons and quotas applied to public waters. Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]. In addition to the above, commercial fishing can also be thought of as encompassing "pay to fish" enterprises, which provide anglers with controlled access to stocked lakes, ponds or canals. Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Also see Krill fishery. Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Some common commercial techniques today are trawling, seining, driftnetting, handlining, longlining, gillnetting, and diving.

MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. A commercial fishing enterprise may vary from one man with a small boat with hand-casting nets or a few pot traps, to a huge fleet of trawlers processing tons of fish every day. Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]. Fishing methods vary according to the region, the species being fished for, and the technology available to the fishermen. Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. Many new restrictions are often integrated with varieties of fishing allocation schemes (quotas), and international treaties that have sought to limit the fishing effort and, sometimes, capture efficiency. Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Commercial fishing methods have become very efficient using large nets and sea-going processing factories.

Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]. Commercial fishermen harvest almost all aquatic species, from tuna, cod and salmon to shrimp, krill, lobster, clams, squid and crab, in various fisheries for these species. Some alleged backronyms for the name include:. Commercial fishing provides a large quantity of food to many countries around the world, but those who practice it as an industry must often pursue fish far into the ocean under adverse conditions. Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts.". Main article: Fishing industry. Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short.". Laws made to control recreational fishing frequently also attempt to control the harvest of other aquatic species, such as frogs and turtles.

The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding). Noodling and Trout tickling may be pursued as a recreation. Big-game fishing describes fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna, sharks and marlin. Other competitions is purely on length with mandatory catch and release, either longest fish or total length is documented with camera and a mandatory sticker, of more fair since it’s hard to weigh a living fish accurately in a boat. Competitors are most often professional fishermen who are supported by commercial endorsements.

This sport evolved from local fishing contests into large competitive circuits, especially in North America. A recent phenomenon of recreational fishing are fishing competitions (tournaments) where fishermen compete for prizes based on the total weight of a given species of fish caught within a predetermined time. Catch and release, in combination with techniques such as strong tackle (to get fish in quickly, for release in good condition), careful handling of fish and barbless hooks (to reduce physical damage) and quick release lead systems such as korda quick release system or the e.s.p variety may be useful tools in this endeavour. The only way for growing numbers of recreational fishermen to continue fishing is to reduce their impact on fish populations.

The fish which suffer most are those of large, slow growing species such as carp. Recreational fishermen can have profound deleterious effects on fish stocks in commercial lakes, this is due to anglers with poor knowledge of how to protect the fish from damage or stress once out of the water. Opponents would prefer to ban or to severely restricting angling, a suggestion most anglers find unpalatable. Proponents of catch and release also contend that the practice is increasingly necessary in order to conserve fish stocks in the face of burgeoning human populations, mounting fishing pressure and worsening habitat degradation.

Keeping fish trapped over long period of time creates a lot of noise which makes it hard to single out the effect of the catch from the effect of the chosen methodology. The difficulty of doing such experiments is closely linked to the fact that negative effects of being exposed to fishing gears (here barbless hooks) develop over long time. Scientific studies show a wide range of survival, depending on species, environmental conditions, fish density and research design (methodology). In a real sense, the suitability of catch and release is an ethical consideration and, as such, a science-based conclusion on the issue is unavailable.

They most likey do not have nerves in their due to that they eat animals such as crayfish that can pinch. There is also some research that shows certin types of fish such as catfish, do not have nerves around their mouth. Anglers deny this charge, pointing out that fish commonly feed on hard and spiky prey items, and as such can be expected to have tough mouths, and also that some fish will re-take a lure they have just been hooked on, a behaviour that is unlikely if being hooked was painful. The practice, however, is viewed by some with disapproval as they consider it unethical to inflict pain on a fish for fun or sport and not for reasons of capturing food.

In angling, it is sometimes expected or required that fish all be returned to the water (catch and release). Kayaks are extremely stealthy and can allow anglers to reach areas unfishable from land or by conventional boat. Kayak fisherman fish from sea kayaks in an attempt to level the playing field with fish and to further challenge their abilities. One method of growing popularity is kayak fishing.

This practice is known as angling. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, line and hooks attached to any of a wide range of lures or baits. Typically, these prohibit the use of nets and the catching of fish with hooks not in the mouth. Recreational fishing has conventions, rules, licensing restrictions and laws that limit the way in which fish may be caught.

Recreational fishing and the closely related (nearly synonymous) sport fishing describe fishing for pleasure or competition. Main article: Angling. Protective equipment must be worn to isolate the operator and prevent electrocution. They are typically equipped with a "dead-man switch" and a tilt switch to disable the device if the unit is tipped or the operator incapacitated.

Rigs can be battery powered back-packs or powered by a generator if they are mounted in a boat. Smaller fish also require shorter pulses, closer together, while large fish should have longer pulses at lower power and longer gaps between pulses. Also the smaller the fish, and consequently the less surface area in contact with the water, the higher the current required to produce galvanotaxis. Dissolved minerals in the water can decrease resistance causing less of the current to pass through the fish, whereas fish recently entering fresh water from the ocean have high salinity and are more prone to electric shock.

Techniques for setting pulse length and patterns, current and voltage require great skill to fish effectively without killing or injuring fish if they are to be left unharmed. A low voltage or short pulse with long gaps will cause the fish to swim away from the device, and high voltage or long pulses with short rests can cause galvanonarcosis, or unconsciousness. A gated pulse of direct current is used to cause muscular contractions in a fish, called galvanotaxis, causing them to turn towards the source of the electrical current and swim towards it when correct pulse speeds and durations are used, along with correct current. A relatively new fishing technique is electrofishing, typically used for stream classification surveys and catching brood stock for hatcheries, or making estimates of populations in a body of water.


. Blast fishing is also illegal in many waterways around the world. Explosions are particularly harmful to coral reefs[21]. The explosions indiscriminately kill large numbers of fish and other marine organisms in the vicinity and can damage or destroy the physical environment.

Fish are killed by the shock from the blast and are then skimmed from the surface or collected from the bottom. Dynamite or blast fishing, is done easily and cheaply with dynamite or homemade bombs made from locally available materials. The high concentrations of cyanide on reefs so harvested damages the coral polyps and has also resulted in cases of cyanide poisoning among local fishermen and their families. Those that survive often die from shock or from massive digestive damage.

Many fish caught in this fashion die either immediately or in shipping. This illegal fishing occurs mainly in or near the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Caribbean to supply the 2 million marine aquarium owners in the world. Cyanides are used to capture live fish near coral reefs for the aquarium and seafood market. Some of these poisons paralyse the fish, others are thought to work by removing oxygen from the water[20].

Many hunter gatherer cultures use poisonous plants to stun fish so that they become easy to collect by hand. Labrador Retrievers have been used by fishermen to assist in bringing nets to shore; the dog would grab the floating corks on the ends of the nets and pull them to shore. Dating from the 1500s in Portugal, Portuguese Water Dogs were used by fishermen to send messages between boats, to retrieve fish and articles from the water, and to guard the fishing boats. However, these accounts are probably apocryphal, and based on earlier accounts no longer extant.

The earliest surviving records of the practice are Peter Martyr d'Anghera's 1511 accounts of the second voyage of Columbus to the New World (1494)[19]. The practice of tethering a remora, a sucking fish, to a fishing line and using the remora to capture sea turtles probably originated in the Indian Ocean. The fish are instead collected by the fisherman[18]. Fishermen use the natural fish-hunting instincts of the cormorants to catch fish, but a metal ring placed round the bird's neck prevents large, valuable fish being swallowed.

In China and Japan, the practice of cormorant fishing is thought to date back some 1300 years. Similar traps are used in many areas to capture bait fish. The pots are baited and lowered into the water and checked daily. Pot traps such as the lobster trap may be constructed in various shapes, each is a mesh box designed with a convoluted entrance that makes entry much easier than exit.

Pot traps are typically used to catch crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish. Twice a day the adults Wagenya people pull out these baskets to check whether there are any fish caught; in which case somebody will dive into the river to fetch it. It is a very selective fishing, as these baskets are quite big and only large size fish are trapped. To these tripods are anchored large baskets, which are lowered in the rapids to "sieve" the waters for fish.

These tripods are anchored on the holes naturally carved in the rock by the water current. The Wagenya people, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, build a huge system of wooden tripods across the river. Basket weirs are about 2 m long and comprise two wicker cones, one inside the other — easy to get into and hard to get out[17]. They are shown in medieval illustrations and surviving examples have been found.

Basket weir fish traps were widely used in ancient times. The Magna Carta includes a clause requiring that they be removed:. Such fish traps were evidently controversial in medieval England. 'V' shaped structures in rivers could be as long as 60 m and worked by directing fish towards fish traps or nets.

In medieval Europe, large fishing weir structures were constructed from wood posts and wattle fences. This involves the construction of a temporary dam resulting in a drop in the water levels downstream -- allowing fish to be easily collected[15]. A technique called dam fishing is used by the Baka pygmies. Somewhat similar stone wall traps were constructed by native American Pit River people in north-eastern California[14].

Traps at different levels in the marsh came into operation as the water level rose and fell. The eels were caught by a variety of traps including stone walls constructed across canals with a net placed across an opening in the wall. The purpose of these canals was the encouragement and catching of eels, a fish of short coastal rivers (as opposed to rivers of the Murray-Darling system). In southern Victoria, indigenous people created an elaborate systems of canals, some more than 2 km long.

The Brewarinna fish traps caught huge numbers of migratory native fish as the Barwon River rose in flood and then fell. The largest and best known were the Brewarrina fish traps on the Barwon River at Brewarrina in New South Wales, which fortunately are at least partly preserved[13]. Unfortunately, most have been completely or partially destroyed. Here, where water levels fluctuate seasonally, indigenous people constructed ingenious, stone, fish traps[12].

Indigenous Australians were, prior to European colonisation, most populous in Australia's better-watered areas such as the Murray-Darling river system of the south-east. There are essentially two types of trap, a permanent or semi-permanent structure placed in a river or tidal area and pot-traps that are baited to attract prey and periodically lifted. Traps are culturally almost universal and seem to have been independently invented many times. It is practised by hunter-gatherers such as the Inuit and by sportsmen in many cold climates.

Ice fishing is the practice of catching fish with lines and hooks through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. Main article: Ice fishing.. Kites can also be used for trolling a lure through the water. Similarly, for boat owners, kites provide a way to fish in areas where it is not safe to navigate such as shallows or coral reefs where fish may be plentiful.

Kites can provide the boatless fishermen access to waters that would otherwise be available only to boats. The fishing line may be made from coconut fibre and the lure made from spiders webs[11]. Those of Tobi Island are a large leaf stiffened by the ribs of the fronds of the coconut palm. Suitable kites may be of very simple construction.

It is not clear whether kite fishing was communicated or of independent invention. Kite fishing was invented in China and was (and is) also known to the people of New Guinea and other Pacific Islands. Long-line fishing is a commercial fishing technique that uses hundreds or even thousands of baited hooks hanging from a single line. This technique allows anglers to cover a large body of water in a short time.

Trolling is also a freshwater angling technique most often used to catch Trout. Trolling from a moving boat is a technique of big-game fishing and is used when fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Trolling is a technique in which a fishing lure on a line is drawn through the water. Fishing with a hook and line is called angling.

The tightening of the line would fix it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture would be assured. A gorge is buried in the bait such that it would be swallowed end first. A fishing hook will pierce the mouthparts of a fish and may be barbed to make escape less likely. Fish are caught with a fishing line by encouraging a fish to bite upon a fish hook or a gorge.

Scallop dredging is very destructive to the seabed, and nowadays is often replaced by mariculture or by scuba diving to collect the scallops. They tend to have the form of a scoop made of chain mesh and they are towed by a fishing boat. There are types of dredges used for collecting scallops or oysters from the seabed. They may continue to be a menace to wildlife for many years.

Ghost nets are nets that have been lost at sea. Thus trapped, the fish can neither advance trough the net nor retreat. A gillnet catches fish which try to pass through it by snagging on the gill covers. Trawling is a method of fishing that involves actively pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.

Danish seine is a method which has some similarities with trawling. A simple and commonly used fishing technique is beach seining, where the seine net is operated from the shore. In purse seine fishing the net hangs vertically in the water by attaching weights along the bottom edge and floats along the top. A seine is a large fishing net that may be arranged in a number of different ways.

The nets are dipped into the water and raised again, but otherwise cannot be moved. Huge mechanical contrivances hold out horizontal nets of 20 m or more across. The Chinese fishing nets (Cheena vala) found at Kochi in India are an unusual method of fishing. When a fish is caught, each hauls up his end of the net until the two coracles are brought to touch and the fish is then secured.

Coracle-fishing is performed by two men, each seated in his coracle and with one hand holding the net while, with the other, he plies his paddle. Fish are caught as the net is hauled back in[10]. The net is thrown by hand in such a manner that it spreads out on the water and sinks. Sizes vary up to about 4 m diameter.

A casting net is circular with a weighted periphery. In England, hand netting is the only legal way of catching eels and has been practised for thousands of years on the River Parrett and River Severn. Such a net used by an angler to aid in landing a captured fish is known as a landing net. A small hand net held open by a hoop and possibly on the end of a long stiff handle has been known since antiquity and may be used for sweeping up fish near the water surface.

Modern nets are usually made of artificial polyamides like nylon, although nets of organic polyamides such as wool or silk thread were common until recently and are still used in certain areas. All fishing nets are meshes usually formed by knotting a relatively thin thread. Hunter gatherers may use the bow to kill fish in shallow water. With practice, divers are able to hold their breath for up to four minutes; of course, a diver with underwater breathing equipment can dive for much longer periods.

Traditional spear fishing is restricted to shallow waters, but the development of the speargun has made the method much more efficient. A small trident type spear with a long handle is used in the American South and Midwest for "gigging" bullfrogs with a bright light at night, or for gigging carp and other trash fish in the shallows. Spear fishing is an ancient method of fishing and may be conducted with an ordinary spear or a specialised variant such as an eel spear[8][9] or the trident. Catching Fish by hand is currently illegal in the state of Kansas.

Hand-line fishing is a technique requiring a fishing line with a weight and one or more lure-like hooks. Pearl diving is the practice of hunting for oysters by free-diving to depths of up to 30 m. Divers can catch lobsters by hand. Trout binning is a method of fishing, possibly fictional, performed with a sledgehammer[7].

In the British Isles, the practice of catching trout by hand is known as trout tickling; it is an art mentioned several times in the plays of Shakespeare. In the USA catching catfish in this way is known as noodling. It is possible to fish with minimal equipment by using only the hands. In traditional Chinese history, history begins with three semi-mystical and legendary individuals who taught the Chinese the arts of civilization around 2800-2600 BC: of these Fu Hsi was reputed to be the inventor of writing, hunting, trapping, and fishing.

From ancient representations and literature it is clear that fishing boats were typically small, lacking a mast or sail, and were only used close to the shore. Oppian’s description of fishing with a "motionless" net is also very interesting:. Oppian describes various means of fishing including the use of nets cast from boats, scoop nets held open by a hoop, spears and tridents, and various traps "which work while their masters sleep". This is the earliest such work to have survived intact to the modern day.

Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180. The Greek historian Polybius ((ca 203 BC-120 BC), in his Histories, describes hunting for swordfish by using a harpoon with a barbed and detachable head[6]. An early example from the Bible in Job 41:7: Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? or his head with fish spears?[5]. There are numerous references to fishing in ancient literature; in most cases, however, the descriptions of nets and fishing-gear do not go into detail, and the equipment is described in general terms.

The Greco-Roman sea god Neptune is depicted as wielding a fishing trident. He would fight against the murmillo, who carried a short sword and a helmet with the image of a fish on the front. In a parody of fishing, a type of gladiator called retiarius was armed with a trident and a casting-net. Various species such as conger, lobster, sea urchin, octopus and cuttlefish are illustrated[4].

Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics which show fishing from boats with rod and line as well as nets. This object is currently in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston[3]. It is clearly not a net. This has been identified as a fish-cage used for keeping live fish, or as a fish-trap.

In the water below, a rounded object of the same material with an opening on the top. There is a wine cup, dating from 510–500 BC, that shows a boy crouched on a rock with a fishing-rod in his right hand and a basket in his left. Fishing scenes are rarely represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. Some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime.

Nile perch, catfish and eels were among the most important fish. As is fairly common today, the fish were clubbed to death after capture. By the 12th dynasty, metal hooks with barbs were being used. Woven nets, weir baskets made from willow branches, harpoons and hook and line (the hooks having a length of between eight millimetres and eighteen centimetres) were all being used.

Simple reed boats served for fishing. The Egyptians invented various implements and methods for fishing and these are clearly illustrated in tomb scenes, drawings, and papyrus documents. The ancient river Nile was full of fish; fresh and dried fish were a staple food for much of the population[2]. There is a controversial proposal called the aquatic ape hypothesis which proposes that the ancestors of modern humans went through one or more periods of time living in a semi-aquatic setting and that they gathered most of their food from shallow coastal or other waters before their descendants returned to a more land-based existence.

Fishing may even pre-date the development of modern humans. With the new technologies of farming and pottery came the basic forms of most fishing methods known today. The Neolithic culture and technology spread worldwide between about 8,000 and 4,000 years ago. However, where there are a few early examples of permanent settlements (though not necessarily permanently occupied) such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are almost always associated with fishing as a major source of food.

During this time, most people lived a hunter-gather lifestyle and were, of necessity, constantly on the move. We know from archaeological features such as shell middens[1], discarded fish bones and cave paintings that sea foods were important and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing is a very ancient practice that dates back at least to the Mesolithic period which began about 10,000 years ago. .

An organized fishing effort, typically centred around a particular commercially valuable species, is known as a fishery. Fishing is an ancient and worldwide practice with many techniques and traditions, and it has been transformed by modern technological developments. The term fishing is usually not applied to the hunting of aquatic mammals such as whales. By extension, the term fishing is also applied to hunting for other aquatic animals such as various types of shellfish as well as squid, octopus, turtles, frogs and some edible marine invertebrates.

Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. Cod: stockfish (air dried), lutefisk (soaked in lye). Salmon: smoked salmon, cured salmon, and gravlax (fermented). Herring: kipper (salted and smoked), surströmming (fermented), rollmops (pickled), soused (salted).

Haddock: Arbroath Smokie (lightly smoked).

09-01-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.