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Crips

The blue bandannas worn by most Crip gangs. The purple bandanas worn by grape street Crip gangs. The black bandanas worn by shotgun Crip and other Crip gangs.

The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs.

History of the Crips

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years.

The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). The name stuck.

Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods.

Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A.

Expansion

In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets.

The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries.

To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas.

Gang identification

For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs."

In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos.

Origin of the name "Crips"

There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:

  • The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding).
  • Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short."
  • Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts."
  • Some alleged backronyms for the name include:

Crips, hip-hop, and C-walk

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. County. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof).

It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only.

Entertainers with Crip affiliations

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  • Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]
  • Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]
  • MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]
  • Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]
  • Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]

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On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only. However, even with all this success, on October 21st, 2005, the BMW Films were taken offline. It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. These videos are very popular within the enthusiast community and have opened the eyes of many owners looking for a sporty/fun car. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof). In the summer of 2001, BMW even went as far as starting the BMW Films website, showcasing some sporty models being driven to extremes. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. They're one of the few automakers that support driving their cars to their limits, suggesting "spirited driving" in certain operation manuals.

Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. BMW has always had a very tight and loyal community following. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Interestingly, in the German language, the correct pronunciation of the term "bimmer" is "beemer.". Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. As such, use of the word "beemer" to refer to a BMW automobile is frowned upon by BMW enthusiasts, because it is the term used for motorcycles, though the distinction is somewhat arbitrary. County. The term "bimmer" was later coined to refer (exclusively) to BMW automobiles.

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. Over time, the term became closely associated with BMW motorcycles. There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:. The term "beemer" started as a pronunciation of the acronym "BMW," adapted from the early-20th-Century British pronunciation of BSA (as "beeser" or "beezer"), whose motorcycles were often racing BMW's. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos. BMW has also gained a reputation as part of an Internet prank, in that it is intentionally referred to erroneously as "British Motor Works" in order to get a charge out of newbies. In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. In Germany:.

They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs.". The Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking, and is sometimes criticized by sport riders as insulating the rider from road inputs, therefore reducing the rider's "feel" for the roadway. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). Their trademark front suspension design, called the Telelever, was first seen in the early 1990s. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Most modern examples use single-sided rear swingarms. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. BMW is an innovator in motorcycle suspension design.

One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. BMW was one of the earliest manufacturers to offer anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles. For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. Innovations include a unique electronically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork BMW calls Duolever. Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas. It was BMW's latest attempt to keep up with the pace of development of sports machines from the likes of Honda, Kawasaki and Suzuki. To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". It is both powerful (the engine is a 167 bhp unit derived from the company's work with the Williams F1 team) and significantly lighter than previous K models.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries. In 2004, BMW introduced the new K1200S Sports Bike which marked a departure for BMW. The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. (Older Rs are principally air-cooled, and called airheads.) In 2004, BMW updated the oilhead boxer engine, adding double spark plugs per cylinder, a built-in balance shaft, an increased capacity to 1200 cc and enhanced performance to 100 hp (75 kW) for the R1200GS, compared to 85 hp (63 kW) of the previous oilhead s R1150GS. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets. These new bikes were principally oil-cooled (hence, called oilheads) and had 4 valves per cylinder. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. BMW updated the traditional R design in 1993.

It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. All BMW motorcycles except for the F series (which have a chain or belt drive) use shaft drive, a characteristic of BMW motorcycles since 1923. In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. BMW motorcycles tend to be relatively large and heavy, and relaxed and comfortable to ride. Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A. Combined with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road, an equivalent in many ways to the Jeep. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods. Unusually, the sidecar's wheel was also driven.

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. This motorcycle was essentially an 80% interchangeable copy of the ZUndapp KS750, made by BMW to avoid producing the KS750 under licence. Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. During WWII BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a sidecar attached. The name stuck. The R series currently designates machines with a boxer-twin engine, the K series has an I4 engine (1000 and 1200cc) or an I3 (750cc), and the F series has a single cylinder Rotax engine. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). Prior to this BMW built the "Flink" 2- stroke and "Helios" motorcycles, as well as supplying M2B15 motors to other companies such as Victoria.

This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. BMW branded motorcycles were first produced in 1923 and had an unusual "boxer twin" engine, with two air-cooled cylinders protruding from opposite sides of the machine. The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. BMW has competed and won many of the most coveted and prestigious races and motoring events. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years. BMW has been engaged in motorsport activities since the dawn of the first BMW motorcycle. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. These "chassis codes" only change to signify a major redesign of a series, or the introduction of a new series.

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Internally, BMW associates an "e-code" for each generation of a series ("E" stands for Entwicklung, German for development or evolution). . BMW made many cars over the years which have had great impact on the world of motoring. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs. A possible future V Series will offer MPV practicality for large families, similar to the Renault Scenic. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. BMW calls its SUV models Sports Activity Vehicles.

New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. With the advent of the SUV, BMW also added the X5 - and in 2004 the X3 - to their model range to capitalize on this growing market. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. The M3 and M5 are based respectively on the 3 and 5 Series and are recognised by enthusiasts all over the world as truly excellent sports cars while retaining the practicality of the models they extend. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. BMW M GmbH now makes sporty models based on the production cars with very extensive chassis and engine upgrades. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. As these models started gaining popularity the Motorsport division was split into a separate company.

They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The first such car was the M535i of 1979. The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. Later the M letter was used as a prefix to top-of-the-range models which had received special treatment by the BMW Motorsport division. WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]. The M letter was used prior to the shift to Series-named cars to designate special "Motorsport" models, beginning with the M1 supercar. Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The company had considered renaming future 2-door derivatives of the 3 Series as 4 Series cars, but this plan has reportedly been shelved.

Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]. Coupe versions of the 3 Series sedans have always been named 3 Series vehicles, as well. Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]. This practice was revived as the Z4 replaced the aging Z3 roadster in 2003 and continues as the new 6 Series augments the existing BMW 5 Series. Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. This convention started informally in 1976 with the introduction of the 6 Series and later continued in 1989 with the 8 Series, but died off when the latter was discontinued in 1999. Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]. In 2004 BMW announced plans to make odd-numbered models sedans and estates or wagons (BMW calls its estates/wagons Touring models), while even-numbered models will be two-door coupes and cabriolets.

MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. the 3 Series. Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]. The current BMW model lineup is split into what they call "Series", traditionally identified by a single digit - e.g. Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. The model, priced around US$330,000, has experienced disappointing sales worldwide. Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The new factory at Goodwood produced the new Rolls-Royce Phantom, unveiled on January 2, 2003, and officially launched at the Detroit Auto Show on January 5, 2003.

Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]. In the meantime, BMW was faced with the need to build a new factory and develop a new model. Some alleged backronyms for the name include:. Volkswagen was permitted to build Rolls-Royces at its Crewe factory only until 2003, but quickly shifted its emphasis to the Bentley brand. Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts.". Consequently, BMW was allowed to acquire the rights to the grille and mascot, and licensed the name and "RR" logo after 2003 for £40 million. Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short.". Rolls-Royce plc (the aero-engine business) retained the rights over the Rolls-Royce trademark and wished to strengthen its existing business partnership with BMW which extended to the BMW Rolls-Royce joint venture.

The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding). Although Volkswagen had bought rights to the "Spirit of Ecstasy" mascot and the shape of the radiator grille, it lacked rights to the Rolls-Royce name. Volkswagen outbid BMW and bought the company for £430 million, but BMW outflanked its German rival. In 1998, both BMW and Volkswagen tried to purchase Rolls-Royce Motors. In the early 1990s, BMW and Rolls-Royce Motors began a joint venture that would see the new Rolls-Royce Silver Seraph and Bentley Arnage adopt BMW engines.

BMW has established a joint venture with Chinese manufacturer Brilliance to build BMW 3 Series and 5 Series vehicles for the local market. Starting from October 2003, BMWs are produced in Shenyang, China. The plant now exports over 50,000 3 Series cars a year, mostly to the USA, Japan, Australia, Africa and the Middle East. In the mid-1990s, BMW invested R1 billion to make Rosslyn a world-class facility.

After a period of local assembly, BMW's Rosslyn, South Africa plant now manufactures cars, with over 70 percent of its output destined for export. It employs about 4,700 people and manufactures over 500 vehicles daily. The Spartanburg plant is open six days a week, producing automobiles approximately 110 hours a week. Today, the plant manufactures the BMW X5 and BMW Z4 Roadster.

BMW started producing automobiles at its Spartanburg, South Carolina plant in 1994. The first X5 sketches (which highly resembled the production car), were designed by him, and under his tenure the E46 came to be. What is not well known, however is that Bangle was indeed responsible for many 'conservative' BMW designs and has worked at BMW for almost a decade. Despite the controversy, BMW sales have increased year after year, showing the buying public's embrace of the new design philosophy.

While Bangle did not pen all of these designs, and has indeed been promoted within the company, some question what long term effect the disaffection of BMW traditionalists for these designs will have on sales, and on the company's future. These designs, which were much curvier and 'swoopier' -- a design cue called "flame surfacing" by Bangle, did not rest well at all with BMW enthusiasts or the automotive press which referred to the new designs as "Bangled" or "Bangle-ized". In the early part of the 2000s, BMW undertook another of its periodic cycles of redoing the styling design of its various series of vehicles, under the auspices of newly promoted design chief Christopher Bangle. MINI has been a highly successful business, though the Triumph name has not been used.

BMW retained the Mini and Triumph marques. Even the British press was not particularly sympathetic toward Rover. BMW itself, protected by its product range's image, was largely spared the blame — even though it was the serious marketing issues that brought Rover down. The German press ridiculed the English firm as "The English Patient", after a film at the time.

In the press, many years of under-investment by Rover before BMW's ownership were mainly blamed for the debacle; productivity and industrial relations were generally good during this period. In 2000, BMW disposed of Rover after years of losses, with Rover cars going to the Phoenix Venture Holdings for a nominal £10 and Land Rover going to the Ford Motor Company. BMW was more successful with the Mini and Land Rover brands, which did not have parallels in its own range at the time. In the six years under BMW, Rover was positioned as a premium automaker, a mass-market automaker, a division of BMW and an independent unit.

BMW found it difficult to reposition the English automaker alongside its own products and the Rover division was faced with endless changes in its marketing strategy. For years, Rover tried to rival BMW, if not in product, then in market positioning and "snob appeal". The venture was not successful. This brought the Rover, Mini, Land Rover and Triumph brands under BMW ownership.

Between 1994 and 2000, under the leadership of Bernd Pischetsrieder, BMW owned the Rover Group in an attempt to get into mass market production, buying it from British Aerospace. Other cars, like the 6 Series coupes that replaced the CS and the M1, were also added to the mix as the market demanded. Thus the three-tier sports sedan range was formed, and BMW essentially followed this formula into the 1990s. The New Class coupes were replaced by the 3 Series in 1975, and the New Six became the 7 Series in 1977.

In 1972, the 5 Series was launched to replace the New Class sedans, with a body styled by Marcello Gandini. By the 1970s, BMW was commercially successful and in December 1971, moved in to its present HQ in Munich, architecturally modelled after four cylinders. In 1968, BMW launched its large "New Six" sedans, the 2500, 2800, and American Bavaria, and coupés, the 2.5 CS and 2800 CS. These models were called the '02' series—the 2002 being the most famous—and began the bloodline that later developed into the BMW 3 Series.

In 1966, the two-door version of the 1600 was launched, along with a convertible in 1967. The "New Class" 1500 was developed into 1600 and 1800 models. It was the first BMW to officially feature the "Hofmeister kink", the rear window line that has been the hallmark of all BMWs since then. This modern specification further cemented BMW's reputation for sporting cars.

At the Frankfurt show in 1961, BMW launched the 1500, a powerful compact sedan, with front disc brakes and four-wheel independent suspension. Competition successes in the 700 began to secure BMW's reputation for sports sedans. There was also a more powerful RS model for racing. Its bodywork was designed by Giovanni Michelotti and the 2+2 model had a sporty look.

That same year, BMW launched the 700, a small car with an air-cooled, rear-mounted 697 cc boxer engine from the R67 motorcycle. Instead Quandt increased his share in BMW to 50% against the advice of his bankers, and he was instrumental in turning the company around. Major shareholder, Herbert Quandt was close to agreeing such a deal, but changed his mind at the last minute because of opposition from the workforce and trade unions and advice from the board chairman, Kurt Golda. In 1959 BMW's management suggested selling the whole concern to Daimler-Benz.

By the late 1950s, it was making bubble cars such as the Isetta. In 1952, BMW produced its first passenger car since the war, but its attempts to get into the premium sector were not commercially successful; models such as the acclaimed BMW 507 were too expensive to build profitably and were low volume. These plans, which became official war reparations, along with BMW engineer Fritz Fiedler allowed the newly formed Bristol Cars to produce a new, high-quality sports saloon (sedan), the 400 by 1947, a car so similar to the BMW 327 that it even kept the famous BMW grille. In the west, representatives from the Bristol Aeroplane Company inspected the factory, and returned to Britain with plans for the 326, 327 and 328 models.

Production continued until 1955. That company produced cars called "BMW" until in 1951 the Bavarian company prevented use of the trademarks — the BMW name, the logo and the "double-kidney" radiator grille — the cars being then rebranded EMW. In the east, the company's factory at Eisenach was taken over by the soviet Awtowelo group which finally formed Eisenacher Motor-Werke. BMW was banned from manufacturing for three years by the Allies and did not produce a car model until 1952.

After the war the Munich factory took some time to restart production in any volume. The factory in Munich was largely destroyed. Of its sites, those in eastern Germany (Eisenach-Dürrerhof, Wandlitz-Basdorf and Zühlsdorf) were seized by the Soviets. The BMW works were heavily bombed towards the end of the war.

BMW has admitted to using between 25,000 and 30,000 slave labourers during this period, consisting of both inmates of infamous concentration camps such as Dachau and prisoners of war. BMW also researched jet engines, producing the BMW 003, and rocket-based weapons. Over 30,000 were manufactured up to 1945. Planes used the aero-engines included the 801, one of the most powerful available.

BMW was also a major supplier of engines to the Luftwaffe and of engines and vehicles, especially motorcycles, to the Wehrmacht. BMW motorcycles, specifically the BMW R 12 and the BMW R 75 combination were used extensively by the Reconnaissance formations of German panzer and motorised divisions of the Heer, Waffen SS and Luftwaffe. The pre-war cars culminated in the 327 saloon and 328 roadster, fast 2.0 L cars, both very advanced for their time. By 1933 BMW were producing cars that could be called truly theirs, offering steadily more advanced I6 sports and saloons (sedans).

BMW bought the Dixi Company the following year, and this became the company's first car, the BMW 3/15. In 1927 the tiny Dixi, an Austin Seven produced under licence, began production in Eisenach. This had a 500 cc air-cooled horizontally-opposed engine, a feature that would resonate among their various models for decades to come, albeit with displacement increases and newer technology. In 1923 BMW built their first model motorcycle, the R32.

In 1919 BMW designed their first motorcycle engine to be used in a model called the Victoria which was built by a company in Nuremburg. Otto closed his factory and BMW switched to manufacturing railway brakes. After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles (1919) prohibited the production of aircraft in Germany. Over-expansion caused difficulties; Rapp left and the company was taken over by the Austrian industrialist Franz Josef Popp in 1917, and named BMW AG in 1918.

Needing extra financing, Rapp gained the support of Camillo Castiglioni and Max Friz, the company was reconstituted as the Bayerische Motoren Werke GmbH. In 1916 the company secured a contract to build V12 engines for Austria-Hungary. The blue-and-white circular logo BMW still uses (illustrated above right) alludes to the blue and white checkered flag of Bavaria and also indicates a spinning white propeller on a blue-sky background. The Milbertshofen district of Munich location was chosen because it was close to the Gustav Otto Flugmaschinenfabrik site, a German aircraft manufacturer.

BMW was founded by Karl Friedrich Rapp in October 1913, originally as an aircraft engine manufacturer, Bayerische Flugzeug-Werke. . BMW's main competitors include Alfa Romeo, Audi, Cadillac, Infiniti, Jaguar, Lexus and Mercedes-Benz. The company's taglines in English are "The Ultimate Driving Machine" and "Sheer Driving Pleasure." The original German slogan is "Freude am Fahren," which translates to "Joy in Driving" in English.

Jamaica), BMW cars are referred to as "bimmers," [1]while BMW motorcycles are called "beemers". In German, the acronym BMW is pronounced "bay emm vay." In North America and some other regions (i.e. BMW is the parent company of the BMW MINI and Rolls-Royce car brands, and, formerly, Rover. BMW AG (an abbreviation for Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, or in English, Bavarian Motor Works), is a German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles.

Bring mich Werkstatt - Roughly translates: Get me to a workshop. Bayerische Mistwagen - Roughly translates: Crappy Bavarian car. Bembara - The nickname used in Serbia. B M - This is what people say in Arab countries.

Beba - This is the word many BMW fans use for BMWs in Greece. Bummer - When you get a speeding ticket. Beamer/Beemer - slang for BMW motorcycles. Bimmer - slang for BMW cars [2] (may be pronounced "bimmer" or "beemer," depending on whether or not the original German pronunciation is used).

Paris Dakar Rally. Nürburgring. Mille Miglia. Le Mans 24 Hours.

Touring car racing. Team McLaren. Brabham Racing Organisation. WilliamsF1.

BMW Sauber F1 Team. Softlab GmbH: IT consulting and systems integration. Bavaria Wirtschaftsagentur GmbH: BMW Group subsidiary that offers insurance services. One of the latest designs is computer keyboard and mouse, which were sold by BenQ as x700 Pro keyboard, x730 Pro wireless keyborard and mouse combo, M306 wireless mouse.

DesignworksUSA has worked on various designs for BMW and other companies, not just automobile. Pelly, and owned by BMW AG since May 1995. DesignworksUSA: Design studio founded in 1972 by Charles W. Wiesmann: A company making sporty 2-seater coupes for which BMW supplies the engines.

BMW MINI: a small hatchback; inspired by the original Mini, which was the British competitor to the Volkswagen Beetle. Land Rover: sold to Ford; the current Range Rover was developed mostly by BMW during their ownership of the company and until recently was powered by their 4.4 L V8 petrol (gasoline) engine and continues to use the BMW 3.0 L I6 diesel engine. Rover: briefly owned by BMW, which retained the Mini after selling off the rest of the company (see MG Rover Group). Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Limited: BMW subsidiary that owns the Rolls-Royce trademark.

Glas. Isetta. Automobilwerk Eisenach. BMW E91 - (2005-present) 3 Series Wagon.

BMW E90 - (2005-present) 3 Series. BMW E87 - (2004-present) 1 Series. BMW E85 - (2003-present) Z4. BMW E83 - (2004-present) X3.

BMW E70 - future X5. BMW E66 - (2002-present) 7 Series long wheel base. BMW E65 - (2002-present) 7 Series short wheel base. BMW E64 - (2004-present) 6 Series convertible.

BMW E63 - (2004-present) 6 Series coupe. BMW E60 - (2004-present) 5 Series. BMW E53 - (2000-present) X5. BMW E52 - (2000-2004) Z8.

BMW E46 - (1998-2005) 3 Series. BMW E39 - (1996-2003) 5 Series. BMW E38 - (1994-2001) 7 Series. BMW E36 - (1991-1999) 3 Series/Z3 (as E36/7) (1999 model as M3 only).

BMW E34 - (1988-1995) 5 Series. BMW E32 - (1986-1994) 7 Series. BMW E31 - (1990-1999) 8 Series. BMW E30 - (1982-1991) 3 Series.

BMW E28 - (1981-1988) 5 Series. BMW E26 - (1978-1981) M1. BMW E24 - (1976-1989) 6 Series. BMW E23 - (1977-1986) 7 Series.

BMW E21 - (1975-1983) 3 Series. BMW E12 - (1972-1981) 5 Series. BMW E9 - (1969-1975) 2800CS, 3.0CS, 3.0CSL "New Six" coupés. BMW E3 - (1968-1977) 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, 3.3 "New Six" sedans.

New Class (1500/1502/1600/1800/1802/2000/2002) - Acknowledged as the first modern sports saloon and the predecessor to BMW's core product, the 3 Series. New Sixes (2500/2800/Bavaria/2.5/2.8/3.0/3.3) - Predecessor to today's 7 Series. 3200 CS, 2000 CS. 501, 502, 503, 507.

Isetta, 600, 700. Dixi, 3/20, 303, 309, 315, 319, 320, 321, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 335. This exciting roadster was built on a aluminium space frame design. Only 5000 were built, the last 500 being a special edition built by Alpina but sold directly from BMW.

Z8: flagship sports car; design based on the classic 507 roadster from the 1950s. Best known for the feature of the vertically sliding doors. Z1: a late 1980s two-seater with innovative modular construction; only 8,000 were made. 8 Series: a fast, high-technology coupe of the 1990s meant to replace the older 6 Series.

M coupé and roadster: high-performance hard-top and soft-top versions of the Z3, very popular with enthusiasts. Z3: a compact two-seater roadster.

    . As Lamborghini went into bankruptcy the production was shifted to the German Karmanwerke. M1: a 1970s mid-engine sports car, designed in conjunction with Lamborghini.

    Z10: A 2+2 coupe to succeed the Z8, to be produced in 2008. M Z4 The BMW M Z4 coupe is planned for production as a 2006 model. Available in 2.5 L and 3.0 L models.

      . Z4: a two-seater roadster and coupe that succeeded the Z3.

      X5: BMW's first SUV (called SAV or Sports Activity Vehicle by BMW) competing against the Porsche Cayenne and Mercedes M-Class. X3: a small SUV with emphasis on practicality and affordability. The 760Li is also made in a bulletproof version for clients who need extra protection. The 7 series comes in the 750i and 750Li with the same engine as the 550i, and in the 760i and 760Li, with a 6.0 L V12 producing 438 bhp.

      7 Series: a full-size, executive-class, luxury car competing with the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Audi A8, and Jaguar XJ. Developed by BMW's M Division, it powered by the same 5.0 L V10 507 bhp engine seen in the BMW M5. M6: A high performance version of the 6 Series. For the 2007 model year, the 630i (with the same engine as the 530i) and the 650i (with the same engine as the 550i) will be available.

        .

        6 Series: The coupe verson of the 5 series, the 6 series is currently available only in the 645i version with a 4.4 L V8 producing 325 bhp. The new M5 (E60) is powered by an F1-inspired V10 engine, producing 507 bhp and is mated with a 7-speed Sequential Manual Gearbox (SMG) transmission. M5: The motorsport division's version of the 5 Series. Other models, including diesel models, are available outside of the United States.

          .

          For the 2006 model year, the 545i will be phased out in favour of the 550i, with a 4.8 L V8 producing 360 bhp. This series has is available with three different engines: the 525i with the same engine as the 325i, the 530i with the same engine as the 330i, and the 545i with a 4.4 L V8 producing 325 bhp. 5 Series: a midsize sports/luxury sedan. A new revision is expected in 2007 with a 400 horsepower V8.

          Currently available only in the fourth generation E46 body style and with a 3.2 L engine producing 333 bhp. M3: The motorsport division's race-inspired version of the 3 Series. Other models, including diesel models, are available outside of the United States.

            . Also available is the all wheel drive Touring (wagon) model, the 325xiT.

            Currently the 3 series coupe and convertible is only available in the fourth generation E46 body style (with a 2.5 L I6 producing 184 bhp for the 325ci/cic and a 3.0 L I6 producing 225 bhp for the 330ci/cic) until the middle of 2006 when the E90 coupes will be available. The E90 is currently available in the 325i (with a detuned 3.0 L I6 engine producing 215 bhp) and the 330i (with a 3.0 L I6 engine producing 255 bhp) as well as the AWD-versions of these 2 models, named 325xi and 330xi. The E90 line (starting with the 2006 model year) is available now in the United States. 3 Series: the successor to the 2002; a compact entry-level luxury sedan, now in its fifth generation (E90).

            Plans to label these variants as 2 Series have reportedly been scrubbed. A coupe has been announced for 2006, and there are concepts of a hatchback and a minivan. It is the only rear wheel drive vehicle in its class. 1 Series: a small car launched in autumn 2004 in Europe; autumn 2006 in the USA.

07-31-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.