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Crips

The blue bandannas worn by most Crip gangs. The purple bandanas worn by grape street Crip gangs. The black bandanas worn by shotgun Crip and other Crip gangs.

The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs.

History of the Crips

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years.

The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). The name stuck.

Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods.

Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A.

Expansion

In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets.

The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries.

To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas.

Gang identification

For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs."

In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos.

Origin of the name "Crips"

There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:

  • The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding).
  • Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short."
  • Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts."
  • Some alleged backronyms for the name include:

Crips, hip-hop, and C-walk

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. County. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof).

It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only.

Entertainers with Crip affiliations

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  • Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]
  • Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]
  • MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]
  • Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]
  • Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]

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On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only. Many things that displace golf courses range from neighborhoods to shopping malls. It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. Many golf courses have been displaced by urban planning practices. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof). In New Zealand it is not uncommon for rural courses to have greens fenced off and sheep graze the fairways. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. You carry a small piece of astroturf from which you tee.

Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. In Coober Pedy, Australia, there is a famous golf course that consists of nine holes dug into mounds of sand, diesel and oil and not a blade of grass or a tree to be seen. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. However, in some cities such as Dhahran, modern, grass golf courses have been built recently. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. In Saudi Arabia, golf courses have been constructed on nothing more than oil-covered sand. County. Resisting golf tourism and golf's expansion has become an objective of some land-reform movements, especially in the Philippines and Indonesia.

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. Although golf is a relatively minor issue compared to other land-ethics questions, it has symbolic importance as it is a game normally associated with the wealthier Westernized population, and the culture of colonization and globalization of non-native land ethics. There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:. In some parts of the world, attempts to build courses and resorts have led to significant protests along with vandalism and violence by both sides. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos. Many Western countries have instituted significant environmental restrictions on where and how courses can be built. In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Golf courses are built on many different types of land, including sandy areas along coasts, abandoned farms, strip mines and quarries, deserts and forests.

They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs.". (Sources include the National Golf Foundation and the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America [GCSAA].). Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). While most modern 18-hole golf courses occupy as much as 60 ha (150 acres) of land, the average course has 30 ha (75 acres) of maintained turf. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. At the same time, water restrictions placed by many communities have forced many courses to limit the amount of maintained turf grass. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. This has led to a ten percent increase in the amount of area that is required for golf courses today.

One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. In a concern for safety, modern golf course architects have had to lengthen and widen their design envelope. For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. A major result of modern equipment is that today's players can hit the ball much further than previously. Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas. While many people continue to oppose golf courses for environmental reasons, there are others who feel that they are beneficial for the community and the environment as they provide corridors for migrating animals and sanctuaries for birds and other wildlife. To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". The turf on golf courses is an excellent filter for water and has been used in many communities to cleanse grey water.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries. This has led to reductions in the amount of chemicals and water used on courses. The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. The modern golf course superintendent is well trained in the uses of these practices and grasses. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets. These, along with health and cost concerns, have led to significant research into more environmentally sound practices and turf grasses. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Specific concerns include the amount of water and chemical pesticides and fertilizers used for maintenance, as well as the destruction of wetlands and other environmentally important areas during construction.

It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Environmental concerns over the use of land for golf courses have grown over the past 30 years. In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. In 2003 Annika Sörenstam was the first woman after fifty years who started at a men's PGA Tour. Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A. Only the last of these is also recognised by the Ladies European Tour. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods. Like the PGA TOUR, the LPGA currently has four majors:.

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. The LPGA's list of majors has changed several times over the years, with the last change in 2001. Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. Women's golf does not have a globally agreed set of majors. The name stuck. These are the four that Bobby Jones won in 1930 to become the only player ever to have earned a Grand Slam. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). Amateur, the Open Championship, and the British Amateur.

This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. Open, the U.S. The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. Prior to the advent of the PGA Championship and The Masters, the four Majors were the U.S. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years. This feat has been frequently called the Tiger Slam. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Open, Open Championship, and PGA Championship; and the 2001 Masters.

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Woods also came closest to winning all four current majors in one season (known as a Grand Slam) when he won them consecutively across two seasons: the 2000 U.S. . Tiger Woods, who may be the only golfer likely to challenge Nicklaus's record, has won ten majors, all before the age of thirty. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs. Amateurs are included. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. Jack Nicklaus is widely regarded as the greatest golfer of all time, largely because he has won a record 18 professional majors, or 20 majors in total if his two U.S.

New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The number of major championships a player accumulates in his career has a very large impact on his stature in the game. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. Open and PGA Championship are played at various courses around the United States, while The Open Championship is played at various courses in the UK. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The U.S. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. The Masters has been played at Augusta National Golf Club in Augusta, Georgia since its inception in 1934.

They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The fields for these events include the top several dozen golfers from all over the world. The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. In current (2005) chronological order they are:. WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]. The major championships are the four most prestigious men's tournaments of the year. Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The most prestigious of these is the U.S-based LPGA Tour.

Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]. There are five principal tours for women, each based in a different country or continent. Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]. There are several senior tours for men 50 and older, the best known of which is the U.S.-based Champions Tour. Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Golf is unique in having lucrative competition for older players. Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The Japan Tour is the 3rd biggest Tour overall, it has the best sponsors besides the PGA Tour.

MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. In 2005, China started a China Tour. Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]. The Sunshine is being played in South Africa, Asian Tour is associating with The European Tour to host European Tour level tournaments in Asia. Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. There are several other men's tours around the world. Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Some top professionals from outside North America play enough tournaments to maintain membership on both the PGA TOUR and European Tour.

Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]. The PGA European Tour, which attracts a substantial number of top golfers from outside North America, ranks only slightly below the PGA TOUR in worldwide prestige. Some alleged backronyms for the name include:. PGA TOUR wins can mean endorsement deals, automatically provide the winner a minimum two-year exemption to play in other tournaments, and supply the prestige earned by beating the best of the best. Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts.". This is due mostly to the fact that most PGA TOUR events have a first prize of at least USD 800,000. Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short.". The most widely known tour is the PGA TOUR (officially rendered in all caps), which attracts the best golfers from all the other men's tours.

The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding). Gaining membership of an elite tour is highly competitive, and most professional golfers never achieve it. Typically a tour has "members" who are entitled to compete in all of its events, and also invites non-members to compete in some of them. There are at least twenty professional golf tours, each run by a PGA or an independent tour organisation, which is responsible for arranging events, finding sponsors, and regulating the tour. A small elite of professional golfers are "tournament pros" who compete full time on international "tours".

The majority of professional golfers work as club or teaching professionals, and only compete in local competitions. Golf is played professionally in many different countries. Read more at [10]. South Korea is notably strong in women's golf.

The number of countries with high-class professionals continues to increase steadily, especially in East Asia. Since around the 1970s, Japan and various Western European countries have produced leading players on a regular basis. Other Commonwealth countries such as Australia and South Africa are also traditional powers in the game. The professional game was initially dominated by British golfers, but since World War I, America has produced the greatest quantity of leading professionals.

For example the first golf course in the People's Republic of China only opened in the mid-1980s, but by 2005 there were 200 courses in that country. Apart from Sweden all of these are countries where English is the main language, but the number of courses in new golfing territories is increasing rapidly. [9] The countries with most golf courses in relation to population, starting with the best endowed were: Scotland, New Zealand, Australia, Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Canada, Wales, United States, Sweden, and England (countries with less than 500,000 people were excluded). In 2005 Golf Digest calculated that there were nearly 32,000 golf courses in the world, approximately half of them in the United States.

Also, green fees at some of the more picturesque and prestigious courses can be quite sizeable. In order to be outfitted with the latest equipment (including rather expensive clothing, shoes and gloves) one can end up spending quite a sum. This being said the social status of better (and usually more expensive) equipment cannot be overlooked. It is also probably fair to say that the snobbish attitude of many golf club patrons (and particularly members) cannot be denied.

Films such as Caddyshack perpetuate this belief. But the perception of golf as a game for the wealthy elite and country clubs as a haven for corrupt businessmen is common among many. In fact, most regions of the United States feature public courses which strive to be affordable for the average golfer. Golf is not inherently an expensive activity; the cost of an average round of golf is USD $36 [8], and the game is regularly enjoyed by over 26 million Americans and many more world-wide.

For this reason, the successful conduct of business golf (which extends beyond merely knowing the game) is considered a useful business skill; various schools, including prestigious universities such as Stanford University, have started both undergraduate and graduate-level courses that teach "business golf." The PGA of America, an organization separate from the PGA Tour, helps to sponsor these programs at universities nationwide. It is often said, in fact, that board meetings merely confirm decisions that are actually made on the golf course. In the United States, golf is the unofficial game of the business world. Chris was born on the 12th of October 1988, in North Wales.

Many believe he will be the next Tiger Woods and is aiming to reach the Ryder Cup team by 2010, which will be held in Celtic Manor. He now holds the longest drive record at Holywell Golf Club with a giant drive of 432 Yards on the 10th Hole. He made his first big impact on the 15th of May 2005 in the Flintshire Boys Championship held at Pennant Park. Since 2004 Chris Cummins has made an impact in the golfing world.

In the 1970s the use of metal to replace wood heads began, and shafts made of graphite composite materials were introduced in the 1980s. Also in the 1930s the wooden golf tee was invented. The major changes in equipment since the 19th century have been better mowers, especially for the greens, better golf ball designs, using rubber and man-made materials since about 1900, and the introduction of the metal shaft beginning in the 1930s. Evidence has shown that golf was played on Musselburgh Links in 1672 although Mary Queen of Scots reputedly played there in 1567.

The oldest playing golf course in the world is The Old Links at Musselburgh. The number was thereby reduced from 11 to nine, so that a complete round of the links comprised 18 holes. In 1764, several of the holes were deemed too short, and were therefore combined. One played the holes out, turned around, and played the holes in, for a total of 22 holes.

The course that emerged featured eleven holes, laid out end to end from the clubhouse to the far end of the property. Andrews established a customary route through the undulating terrain, playing to holes whose locations were dictated by topography. As early as the 15th century, golfers at St. Andrews occupy a narrow strip of land along the sea.

The links at St. According to the USGA however, this is incorrect. It is an urban legend that golf courses contain 18 holes because that was the number of shots it took to polish off a fifth of scotch. It has been hypothesized that golf is actually an acronym for gentlemen only; ladies forbidden, but this is believed to be an urban legend.

The term golf is believed to have originated from a Germanic word for "club". Primatively, the action of using a stick with a boxed attachment to hit stones close to a marked target, similar to that of bocce, originated in Italy. They point out that a game of putting a small ball in a hole in the ground using golf clubs was played in 17th-century Netherlands. Some scholars, however, suggest that this refers to another game which is much akin to shinty or hurling, or to modern field hockey.

Golf was usually regarded as a Scottish invention, as the game was mentioned in two 15th-century laws prohibiting the playing of the game of "gowf". [4] [5] [6] [7]. Hongling suggested golf may have been exported to Europe and then Scotland by Mongolian travellers in the late Middle Ages. There were further descriptions of clubs being inlaid with jade and gold, suggesting golf was for the wealthy.

The archive also includes references to a Nan Tang Dynasty magistrate who asked his daughter to make "holes" for him to play, and describes his "tee" as being jewel-encrusted. It was played with 10 clubs including a cuanbang, pubang, and shaobang, which are comparable to a driver, two-wood, and three-wood. Archives called the Dongzuan Records from the Song Dynasty describe a game called chuiwan and also include drawings. Ling Hongling of Lanzhou University suggests that golf may have originated in China at least 500 years before it was first mentioned in Scotland.

It was reported in January 2006 that recent evidence unearthed by Prof. See also Timeline of golf history 1353-1850, Timeline of golf history 1851-1945, and Timeline of golf history 1945-1999.. Scores are recorded on a score card during the round. To fix it completely, the golfer must execute this proccess several times.

(A ball mark in this case is a depression in the green where the golf ball hit it.) To fix a ball mark, you push the tool under the mark, and lift upwards gently. This allows the golfer to fix a ball mark on the green. Another tool that is commonly used is called the ball mark repair tool. When on the green, the ball may be picked up to be cleaned or if it is in the way of an opponent's putting line; its position must then be marked using a ball marker (usually a flat, round piece of plastic or a coin).

A tee is pushed into the ground to rest a ball on top of for an easier shot; however, this is only allowed for the first stroke (tee shot or drive) of each hole. Tees resemble nails with a flattened head and are usually made of wood or plastic. They also often wear gloves that help grip the club. Golfers wear special shoes with exchangeable spikes (or little, plastic claws termed soft spikes) attached to the soles.

Clubs and other equipment are carried in golf bags. Sometimes transport is by special golf carts. Harder materials, such as Surlyn, usually result in the ball's traveling longer distances, while softer covers, such as Balata, tend to generate higher spin and greater stopping potential. The method of construction and materials used greatly affect the ball's playing characteristics such as distance, trajectory, spin and feel.

The surface usually has a pattern of 300-400 dimples designed to improve the ball's aerodynamics. Modern golf balls have a two, three, or four layer design constructed from various synthetic materials. The minimum allowed width of a golf ball is 42.67mm and its mass may not be greater than 45.93g. Putters are mostly played on the green, but can also be useful when playing from bunkers or for some approach shots.

Wedges are played from difficult ground such as sand or the rough and for approach shots to the green. Hybrids are also used by players who have a difficult time getting the ball airborne with long irons. A "hybrid" is often used for long shots from difficult rough. A new type of wood known as a "hybrid" combines the straight-hitting characteristics of irons with the easy-to-hit-in-the-air characteristics of higher-lofted woods.

Woods are played for long shots from the tee or fairway, and occasionally rough, while irons are for precision shots from fairways as well as from the rough. Wedges are irons used to play shorter shots. There are three major types of clubs, known as woods, irons, and putters. A player usually carries several clubs during the game (but no more than fourteen, the limit defined by the rules).

However, it is difficult to control the amount of sidespin, and many poor shots result from uncontrolled or excessive spin that makes the ball curve sharply. Sidespin makes the ball curve to the left or right, a hook or slice respectively for a right-handed player; this effect can be made use of to steer it around obstacles or towards the safe side of a difficult fairway. Sidespin occurs when the clubface is not aligned perpendicularly to the plane of swing. A ball with little backspin will usually roll out for a considerable distance while a ball with much backspin may not roll at all or in some cases even roll backwards.

The amount of backspin also influences the behavior of a ball when it hits the ground. A spinning ball deforms the flow of air around it [3] and thereby acts similar to an aeroplane wing; a back-spinning ball therefore experiences an upward force which makes it fly higher and longer than a ball without spin would. Backspin is imparted in almost every shot due to the golf club's loft (i.e., angle between the clubface and a vertical plane). A golf ball acquires spin when it is hit.

Even the best professional golfers sometimes succumb to this pressure, such as getting the "yips" and being unable to make short putts, or having collapses of their full swing. Knowledge of this creates a great deal of psychological pressure on the golfer; this pressure exists at all levels of play. This means that there is never anyone to blame but oneself for a bad result, and in most competitive formats there are no teammates to directly help one out. Golfers play against the course, not each other directly, and hit a stationary object, not one put into motion by an opponent.

Besides the physical part, the mental aspect of the golf swing is very difficult. Much has developed around how hard the golf swing is to learn and execute, and how one must be persistent to keep at it. One can also purchase or use a new golf simulator that can cost upwards of $50,000. It is usually considered impossible to acquire a stable and successful swing without professional instruction and even highly skilled golfers may continue to take golf lessons for many years.

It is not uncommon for beginners to spend several months practising the very basics before playing their first ball on a course. The full golf swing is an unnatural, highly complex motion and notoriously difficult to learn. It is difficult to obtain the same consistency and power with this arrangement as is possible with conventional technique. A golfer who plays right-handed, but holds the club left-hand-below-right is said to be "cack-handed".

Today, more manufacturers provide left-handed versions of their club lines, and the clubs are more readily purchased from mail-order and Internet catalogues. In the past, this may have been due to the difficulty of finding left-handed golf clubs. Relatively few golfers play left-handed (i.e., swing back to the left and forward to the right), with even players who are strongly left-handed in their daily life preferring the right-handed golf swing. At the end of the swing, the weight has shifted almost entirely to the left foot, the body is fully turned to the left and the hands are above the left shoulder with the club hanging down over the players' back.

After the ball is hit, the follow-through stage consists of a continued rotation to the left. The downswing is roughly a backswing reversed. At the end of the backswing the hands are above the right shoulder, with the club pointing more or less in the intended direction of ball flight. The backswing is a rotation to the right, consisting of a shifting of the player's body weight to the right side, a turning of the pelvis and shoulders, lifting of the arms and flexing of the elbows and wrists.

The club is held with both hands (right below left), the clubhead resting on the ground behind the ball, hips and knees somewhat flexed, and the arms hanging from the shoulders. At address, the player stands with the left shoulder and hip pointing in the intended direction of ball flight, with the ball before the feet. For a right-handed golfer, it consists of a backswing to the right, a downswing to the left (in which the ball is hit), and a follow through. A full swing is a complex rotation of the body aimed at accelerating the club head to a great speed.

The full golf swing itself is used in tee and fairway shots. Putts and short chips are ideally played without much movement of the body, but most other golf shots are played using variants of the full golf swing. Types of approach shots are:. An approach shot is played into the green from outside the green, usually over an intermediate or short distance.

As a point of safety for other players, and those further down the fairway, or anywhere you might hit the ball, yelling "Fore!" is considered a warning to beware of the ball so as to not be hit when it comes their way. Poor shots include the hook, in which the ball curves to the left (for a right-handed player), and a slice, in which the ball curves to the right (for a right-handed player; the reverse are true for left-handers). Furthermore, the absolute effect of a deviation will increase with a longer shot compared with a short one. Many of these troubles are aggravated with the "longer" clubs and higher speed of swing.

There are several possible causes of poor shots, such as poor alignment of the club, wrong direction of swing, and off-center hits where the clubhead rotates around the ball at impact. Therefore, a skilled golfer must assess the quality of his or her shots in a particular situation in order to judge whether the possible benefits of aggressive play are worth the risks. Obviously, a longer shot may result in a better score if it helps reduce the total number of strokes for a given hole, but the benefit may be more than outweighed by additional strokes or penalties if a ball is lost, out of bounds, or comes to rest on difficult ground. Every shot is a compromise between length and precision, as long shots are generally less precise than short ones.

Many golf shots make the ball travel through the air (carry) and roll out for some more distance (roll). To hit the ball, the club is swung at the motionless ball on the ground (or wherever it has come to rest) from a side stance. In the United States design varies widely, with courses such as the entirely artificial Shadow Creek in Las Vegas, where a course complete with waterfalls was created in the desert, and on the other end of the spectrum, Rustic Canyon outside of Los Angeles, which was created with a minimal amount of earth moving resulting in an affordable daily green fee and a more natural golfing experience. While no two courses are alike, many can be classified into one of the following broad categories:.

Essentially, everybody who has ever taught or played golf for money (or even accepted a trophy of more than a modest monetary value) is not considered an amateur and must not participate in amateur competitions. There are strict regulations regarding the amateur status of golfers [2]. They cover matters such as safety, fairness, easiness and pace of play, and players' obligation to contribute to the care of the course. The etiquette of golf, although not formally equivalent to the rules, are included in the publications on golf rules and are considered binding for every player.

The Decisions on the Rules of Golf are based on formal case decisions by the R&A and USGA and are published regularly. Some rules state that:. As declared on the back cover of the official rule book: "play the ball as it lies", "play the course as you find it", and "if you can't do either, do what is fair". The underlying principle of the rules is fairness.

Because the rules of golf continue to evolve, amended versions of the rule book are usually published and made effective in a four-year cycle. By agreement with the R&A, USGA jurisdiction on the enforcement and interpretation of the rules is limited to the United States and Mexico. The rules of golf [1] are internationally standardised and are jointly governed by the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews (R&A), which was founded 1754 and the United States Golf Association (USGA). Professional golfers typically score several strokes below par for a round.

Handicap systems are not used in professional golf. Handicaps are administrated by golf clubs or national golf associations. It can be used to calculate a so-called "net" score from the number of strokes actually played, thus allowing players of different proficiency to play against each other on equal terms. A handicap is a numerical measure of an amateur golfer's ability.

The play then alternates as in a foursome. The player who did not shoot the best first shot plays the second shot. In a greensome both players tee off, and then pick the best shot as in a scramble. Every player then plays his second shot from that spot, and the procedure is repeated until the hole is finished.

In a scramble, or ambrose, each player in a team tees off on each hole, and the players decide which shot was best. There are also popular unofficial variations on team play. Four-balls can be played as match play or stroke play. A four-ball (Rules 30 and 31) is also played between two teams of two players each, but every player plays his own ball and the lower score on each hole is counted.

Foursomes can be played as match play or stroke play. On the second hole, B will tee off (regardless who played the last putt on the first hole), then A plays the second shot, and so on. For example, if players A and B form a team, A tees off on the first hole, B will play the second shot, A the third, and so on until the hole is finished. A foursome (defined in Rule 29) is played between two teams of two players each, in which each team has only one ball and players alternate playing it.

"Official" forms of play are, among others, foursome and four-ball games. There are many variations of these basic principles, some of which are explicitly described in the "Rules of Golf" and are therefore regarded "official". The two basic forms of playing golf are match play and stroke play. dollars for communal courses in many countries up to that of several hundred dollars for elite private clubs..

The green fee may vary from the equivalent of a few U.S. There are two different fees: the range fee, which is for the driving range; and the green fee, which allows play on the golf course itself. If one wishes to play on a golf course, one has to pay a certain fee. Penalty strokes are not actually strokes but penalty points that are added to the score for violations of rules or for making use of relief procedures in certain situations.

In stroke play (see below), the score consists of the number of strokes played plus any penalty strokes incurred. Each player acts as marker for one other player in the group, that is, he or she records the score on a score card. When all players of a group have completed the hole, the player or team with the best score on that hole has the honor, that is, the right to play first on the next tee. In some team events, a player who is farthest from the hole may ask his or her partner who may be closer to the hole to play first.

In all modes of play, when individual players have all brought a ball into play, the player whose ball is the farthest from the hole is next to play. Each player plays a ball from the tee to the hole, except that in the mode of play called foursomes, two teams of two players compete, and the members of each team alternate shots using only one ball, until the ball is holed out. Players walk (or in some countries, often drive in motorized electric carts) over the course, either singly or in groups of two, three, or four, sometimes accompanied by caddies who carry and manage the players' equipment and give them advice. The aim of holing the ball in as few strokes as possible may be impeded by various obstructions, such as bunkers and water hazards.

Once the ball is on the green (an area of finely cut grass) the ball is usually putted (hit along the ground) into the hole. A hole of golf consists of hitting a ball from a tee on the teeing ground (a marked area designated for the first shot of a hole), and, once the ball comes to rest, striking it again, and repeating this process until the ball at last comes to rest in the cup. On a nine-hole course, a standard round consists of two successive nine-hole rounds. A round typically consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout.

Every game of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. If it is a high rated course and you get two strokes as a bonus, you can even play an 81 and still have played your handicap 7. So, if you have a handicap of 7, you should be able to play a 79 in a tournament. For example if a course is very high rated, you will get, depending on your handicap, one or two strokes as a bonus.

This rating determines how many strokes you get on top because of the difficulties. Each course is measured out and has its own course rating. A golf school is often associated with a course or club. There may even be a practice course (which is often easier to play or shorter than other golf courses).

Often there is a practice range, usually with practice greens, bunkers, and a driving area (where long shots can be practiced). At most golf courses there are additional facilities that are not part of the course itself. The total par of an 18-hole course is usually around 72. Many 18-hole courses have approximately four par-three, ten par-four, and four par-five holes.

The expert golfer is expected to reach the green in two strokes under par (in regulation) and then use two putts to get the ball into the hole. Par is the theoretical number of strokes that an expert golfer should require for playing the ball into any given hole. Typical lengths for par three holes range from 100 to 224 m, for par four holes from 225 to 434 m, and for par five holes 435 m and greater. The par of a hole is primarily but not exclusively determined by the distance from tee to green.

Every hole is classified by its par. Special rules determine how a golfer may proceed when his or her ball is very close to certain man-made objects on the course (obstructions) or resting upon ground in abnormal condition. The borders of a course are marked as such, and beyond them is out of bounds, that is, ground from which a ball must not be played. This flag and pole combination is often called "the pin".

The cup usually has a flag on a pole positioned in it so that it may be seen from some distance, but not necessarily from the tee. Its position on the green is not static and may be changed from day to day. The cup is always found within the green, and must have a diameter of 108 mm and a depth of at least 100 mm. The direction of growth of individual blades of grass often affects the roll of a golf ball and is called the grain.

"To putt" means to play a stroke, usually but not always on the green, wherein the ball does not leave the ground. The grass of the putting green (or more commonly the "green") is cut very short so that a ball can roll easily over distances of several metres or yards. Unlike a water hazard, a sand trap offers no option for removing one's ball other than by playing it out (except in a very few extraordinary circumstances). As in a water hazard, a ball in a sand trap must be played without previously touching the sand with one's club.

Bunkers (or sand traps) are hazards from which the ball is more difficult to play than from grass. Exactly where a ball may be dropped outside a hazard is governed by strict rules. If a ball in a hazard cannot be found, it may be replaced by dropping another ball outside the hazard, again with one stroke penalty. If it cannot be played from the hazard for any reason, it may be removed by hand and dropped outside the hazard with one stroke penalty.

A ball in any type of hazard may be played as it lies without penalty. For example, in a hazard, a player must not touch the ground with his club prior to playing a ball, not even for a practice swing. Special rules apply to playing balls that come to rest in a hazard, which make it undesirable to play a ball into one. Many holes include hazards, which may be of two types: water hazards (lakes, rivers, etc.) and bunkers.

Skilled players require fewer strokes to hit the ball into the cup. When a player strokes the ball and it then comes to rest in the cup, he has completed play on that hole. After a player first hits, or "strokes," the ball, he continues to do so from the fairway (where the grass is cut so low that most balls can be easily played) or from the rough (grass cut much longer than fairway grass, or which may be uncut) until the ball comes to rest in the cup. (The "nineteenth hole" is the colloquial term for the bar at a club house).

Most golf courses consist of 9 or 18 holes. The course consists of a series of "holes." A "hole" means both the hole in the ground into which the ball is played (also called the "cup"), as well as the total distance from the tee (a pre-determined area from where a ball is first hit) to the green (the area surrounding the actual hole in the ground). Golf is played on a tract of land designated as "the course". .

Although often viewed as an elite pastime, golf is increasingly popular and continues to attract ever more players around the world. Golf has been played on Musselburgh Links since 1672. The oldest known course in the world is The Old Links at Musselburgh. Golf originated in Scotland and has been played for several centuries in the British Isles.

It is defined in the Rules of Golf as "playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules.". Golf (gowf in Scots) is a game where individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs, and is one of the few ball games that does not use a fixed standard playing area. Women's British Open. LPGA Championship.

Women's Open. U.S. Kraft Nabisco Championship. PGA Championship.

The Open Championship (referred to in North America as the British Open). Open. U.S. The Masters.

Chips are made with a less lofted club than the "pitch" shot or "lob" shot in order to produce the desired flatter trajectory. Chip: a low approach shot where the ball makes a shallow flight and then rolls out on the green. It is usually played with a sand wedge or a lob wedge. It is used when a player must play over an obstacle to the green.

Flop: an even higher approach shot that stops shortly after it hits the ground. Pitches are usually done with a wedge. Pitch: a high approach shot that makes the ball fly high and roll very little, stopping more or less where it hits the ground. The ball rolls on the ground, never becoming air-borne.

On the green, a putter is used to 'putt' the ball. It resembles a pitch and is played with a "sand wedge." The sand wedge is designed with a wider base allowing the club to skid in the sand. A bunker shot is played when the ball is in a bunker (sand trap). Irons or wedges are also often used when playing from the rough.

If precision is more important than length (typically, when playing on narrow fairways or approaching a green), irons are usually played from the fairway. However, a tee may not be used once the ball has been brought into play; therefore, playing from the fairway may be more difficult depending on how the ball lies. A fairway shot is similar to a drive when done with a fairway wood. Ideally, tee shots on long holes have a rather shallow flight and long roll of the ball, while tee shots on short holes are flighted higher and are expected to stop quickly.

It is often made with a driver (i.e., a 1-wood) off a tee for long holes, or with an iron on shorter holes. A tee shot is the first shot played from a teeing ground. Can be played in Arctic or subarctic regions during winter. Snow courses: another rather recent invention; golf being played on snow, typically with an orange colored or another brightly colored ball.

Sand courses: instead of a heavily irrigated 'green', the players play on sand. Nevertheless, many players enjoy the unique experience of playing golf in the desert. A desert course also violates the widely accepted principle of golf course architecture that an aesthetically pleasing course should require minimal alteration of the existing landscape. Desert courses require heavy irrigation for maintenance of the turf, leading to concerns about the ecological consequences of excessive water consumption.

Desert courses: a rather recent invention, popular in Australia, parts of the USA and in the Middle East. Examples include Woodhall Spa in England and Gleneagles in Scotland. Heathland – a more open, less-manicured inland course often featuring gorse and heather and typically less wooded than “parkland” courses. Parkland courses: typical inland courses, often resembling traditional British parks, with lawn-like fairways and many trees.

Andrews, are built on "land reclaimed from the sea," land that was once underwater. Traditional links courses, such as The Old Course at St. Located in coastal areas, on sandy soil, often amid dunes, with few artificial water hazards and few if any trees. Links courses: the most traditional type of golf course, of which some century-old examples have survived in the British isles.

a ball may only be replaced by another if it is destroyed, lost, or unplayable, and a penalty is incurred in the latter cases. the condition of the ground or other parts of the course may not be altered to gain an advantage, except in some cases defined in the rules. a player must not accept assistance in making a stroke (Rule 14-2). every player is entitled and obliged to play the ball from the position where it has come to rest after a stroke, unless a rule allows or demands otherwise (Rule 13-1).

Another variant of stroke play, the Modified Stableford method, awards points on each hole in relation to par and then adds the points over a round; for more details on this method, see the article on The INTERNATIONAL, a tournament that uses Modified Stableford scoring. A variant of stroke play is Stableford scoring, where a number of points (two for the target score) are given for each hole, and the fewer shots taken, the more points obtained, so the aim is to have as many points as possible. In stroke play, every player (or team) counts the number of shots taken for the whole round or tournament to produce the total score, and the player with the lowest score wins. In some cases, a match may be continued past the predetermined number of holes until one side takes a one-hole lead, and thereupon immediately wins by one hole.

At any given point, if the lead is equal to the number of holes remaining, the match is said to be "dormie", and is continued until the leader increases the lead by one hole, thereby winning the match, or until the match ends in a tie. For example, if one party already has a lead of six holes, and only five holes remain to be played on the course, the match is over. In the case that one team or player has taken a lead that cannot be overcome in the number of holes remaining to be played, the match is deemed to be won by the party in the lead, and the remainder of the holes are not played. The game is won by the party that wins more holes than the other.

The party with the lower score wins that hole, or if the scores of both players or teams are equal the hole is "halved" (drawn). In match play, two players (or two teams) play every hole as a separate contest against each other.

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