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Crips

The blue bandannas worn by most Crip gangs. The purple bandanas worn by grape street Crip gangs. The black bandanas worn by shotgun Crip and other Crip gangs.

The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs.

History of the Crips

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years.

The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). The name stuck.

Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods.

Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A.

Expansion

In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets.

The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries.

To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas.

Gang identification

For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs."

In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos.

Origin of the name "Crips"

There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:

  • The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding).
  • Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short."
  • Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts."
  • Some alleged backronyms for the name include:

Crips, hip-hop, and C-walk

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. County. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof).

It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only.

Entertainers with Crip affiliations

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  • Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]
  • Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]
  • MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]
  • Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]
  • Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]

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On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only. For more details of naming throughout the world, please refer to the main articles above. It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. Football is the term used by FIFA, the sport's world governing body, and the International Olympic Committee. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof). The term used depends largely on the need to differentiate the sport from other codes of football followed in a community. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Today the sport is known by a number of names throughout the English-speaking world, the most common being football and soccer.

Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. The term soccer first appeared in the 1880s as a slang abbreviation of Association football. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. The rules of football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863, and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time, specifically rugby football. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The major international competitions of the world and the continental confederations, followed by their major club events where appropriate, are:. County. It thus carries international prestige considered comparable to that of the FIFA Women's World Cup.

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. A women's tournament was added in 1996; in contrast to the men's event, the women's Olympic tournament is played by full international sides without age restrictions. There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:. Currently, the Olympic men's tournament is played at Under-23 level with a restricted number of over-age players per team; consequently the competition is not generally considered to carry the same international significance and prestige as the World Cup. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos. Originally this was for amateurs only, however since the 1984 Summer Olympics professionals have been permitted as well, albeit with certain restrictions which effectively prevent countries from fielding their strongest sides. In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. There has been a football tournament at the Summer Olympic Games since 1900, except at the 1932 games in Los Angeles.

They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs.". The next World Cup takes place in Germany 2006[1]. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). The finals tournament, which is held every four years, now involves 32 national teams (increased from 24 in 1998) competing over a four-week period. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Over 190 national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. This competition takes place over a four-year period.

One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. The major international competition in football is the World Cup organised by FIFA. For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. Note that the Laws of the Game are not maintained by FIFA itself; rather they are maintained by the International Football Association Board, as discussed in the history and development section above. Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas. These are affiliated both with FIFA directly and also with their respective continental confederations. To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". The recognised various national associations (see football around the world) oversee football within their jurisdictions.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries. Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are:. The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. The recognised international governing body of football (and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer) is the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA). Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets. The details and application of this law are complex, and often result in controversy: for more information on offside please refer to the main article above. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. It is often assumed that the purpose of this law is to prevent "goal scrounging" or "cherry picking", but in fact the offside law has similar roots to the offside law in rugby.

It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. closer to the opponent's goal-line) of both the ball and the second last defending player. In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. The offside law limits the ability of attacking players to remain forward (i.e. Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A. Even if a foul is not penalised due to application of the advantage rule the offender may still be sanctioned for any associated misconduct at the next stoppage of play. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods. The referee may "call back" play and penalise the original offence if the anticipated advantage does not ensue within a short period of time, typically taken to be four to five seconds.

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. not stop play — when the team against which an offence has been committed will benefit from having play continue. Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The advantage rule states that the referee should allow play to continue — i.e. The name stuck. Misconduct may be punished by a caution (yellow card) or sending-off (red card). The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences.

This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. Whilst the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad. The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. Misconduct may occur at any time, and may be committed by both players and substitutes. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years. Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. "Penal fouls", for example handling the ball, tripping an opponent, pushing an opponent, etc, are punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred.

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law 12. . A foul occurs when a player (not a substitute) commits a specific offence listed in the Laws of the Game when the ball is in play. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs. From the initial kick-off of a period until the end of that period, the ball is "in play" at all times until the end of the playing period, except when the ball leaves the field of play or play is stopped by the referee; in these cases play is re-started by one of the following eight methods:. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. Kick-offs are also used to restart play following a goal.

New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. At kick-off all players are required to be in their half of the field, and all players of the non-kicking team must also remain outside the centre-circle, until the ball is kicked and moved. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. Each playing period in football commences with a kick-off, which is a set kick from the centre-spot by one team. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored (golden goal), or at the end of the first period of extra time if one team was by then leading (silver goal).

They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. In the late 1990s, the IFAB experimented with ways of making matches more likely to end without requiring kicks from the penalty mark, which were often seen as an undesirable way to end a match. The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. Other competitions may require a tied game to be replayed. WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]. where each round involves the two teams playing each other twice) may utilise the so-called away goals rule to attempt to determine which team progresses in the event of the teams being equal on wins; however, should results still be equal following this calculation kicks from the penalty mark are usually required. Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Competitions utilising two-leg stages (i.e.

Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]. Note that goals scored during extra time periods count towards the final score of the game, unlike kicks from the penalty mark which are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament (with goals scored not making up part of the final score). Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]. If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts (known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark") to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament. Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. If tied at the end of regulation time, in some competitions the game may go into extra time, which consists of two further 15-minute periods. Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]. allow the full or agreed time adding thereto all time lost through injury or accident" (Law V), and later FIFA guidelines regarding the annotation of goal scoring times suggested that time is indeed "added-on" to the end of the agreed half period.

MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. Note that there is often semantic debate as to whether the referee is "adding on" time to the end of a half, or rather treating time during stoppages as though it never existed as part of the match time; this distinction has little bearing on the practical conduct of a game, however it may be noted that the pre-1997 wording of the laws stated that the referee "shall .. Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]. In matches where a fourth official is appointed, towards the end of the half the referee will signal how many minutes remain to be played, and the fourth official then signals this to players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. There are no other timekeepers, although assistant referees carry a watch and may provide a second opinion if requested by the referee. Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The amount of time is at the sole discretion of the referee, and the referee alone signals when the match has been completed.

Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]. When making such an allowance for time lost, the referee is often said to be "adding time on"; the added time is commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time. Some alleged backronyms for the name include:. The referee is the official timekeeper for the match, and it is part of his duties to make allowance for time lost through substitutions, injured players requiring attention, cautions and dismissals, sundry time wasting, etc. Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts.". The end of the match is known as full-time. Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short.". There is usually a 15-minute break between halves, known as half time.

The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding). A standard adult football match consists of two periods (known as halves) of 45 minutes each. The field has other field markings and defined areas; these are described in the main article above. This area has a number of important functions, the most prominent being to denote where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a foul by a defender which would usually punished by a direct free kick becomes punishable by a penalty kick. This area consists of the area formed by the goal-line, two lines starting on the goal-line 16.5m (18 yards) from the goalposts and extending 18 yards into the pitch from the goal-line, and a line joining these.

In front of each goal is an area of the field known as the penalty area (colloquially "penalty box", "18 yard box" or simply "the box"). Nets are usually placed behind the goal, though are not required by the Laws. The inner edges of the goal posts must be 7.32m (8 yards) apart, and the lower edge of the crossbar must be 2.44m (8 feet) above the ground. On the goal line at each end of the field is a goal.

The longer boundary lines are touch lines, while the shorter boundaries (on which the goals are placed) are goal lines. The length of the field (pitch) for international adult matches should be in the range 90-120m (100-130 yards) and the width should be in the range 45-90m (50-100 yards).The pitch must be rectangular, with the length of the touch line longer than the width of the goal line. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official, who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise. The referee is assisted by two assistant referees (formerly called linesmen).

A game is presided over by a referee, who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" (Law 5), and whose decisions regarding facts connected with play are final. In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in the match. The usual reasons for a player's replacement include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or to waste a little time at the end of a finely poised game. The maximum substitutions permitted in international games and in national level leagues are three, though substitution numbers may be varied in other leagues.

A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. Players are forbidden to wear or use anything that is dangerous to themselves or another player (including jewellery or watches). The basic equipment players are required to wear includes a shirt (or jersey), shorts, socks (or stockings), footwear and adequate shin guards. The goalkeeper is the only player allowed to handle the ball with his hands or arms, but is restricted to doing so within the penalty area (also known as the "box" or "18 yard box") in front of his own goal.

One player on each team must be designated as that team's goalkeeper. There are a variety of positions in which the outfield players are strategically placed by a manager/coach, though these positions are not defined or required by the Laws. Competition rules may state a minimum of seven players are required to constitute a team. Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players (excluding substitutes), one of whom must be the goalkeeper.

The Laws can be found on the official FIFA website. In addition to the seventeen Laws, numerous IFAB decisions and other directives contribute to the regulation of football. The Laws are often framed in broad terms, which allows flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although the preface to the Laws does grant national associations the ability to authorise certain modifications for juniors, seniors, women, etc.

There are seventeen Laws in the official Laws of the Game. Today the board is made up of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the four British associations. The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the IFAB in 1913. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association FIFA, the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to the rules laid down by the IFAB.

The Board was formed in 1882 after a meeting in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association, the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association. Today the laws of the game are determined by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Despite this, the Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original fourteen rules of the game.

Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, who was the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent in the shins), tripping and holding. The Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse.

These efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association (The FA) in 1863 which first met on the evening of 26 October 1863 at the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules. In 1862, J.C. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club (formed by former pupils from Harrow) in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867.

During the 1850s, many clubs were formed, thoughout the English-speaking world, independent of schools or universities, to play various forms of football. The first set of rules resembling the modern game were produced at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1848, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester and Shrewsbury, but they were far from universally adopted. The Laws of the Game are based on efforts made in the mid-19th century to standardise the rules of the widely varying games of football played at the independent schools of England. The game is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game, which are summarised below.

When play has been stopped, it recommences with a specified restart (see below). Football is generally a free-flowing game with the ball in play at all times except when the ball has left the field of play by wholly crossing over a boundary line (either on the ground or in the air), or play has been stopped by the referee. Opposition players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent who controls the ball. In typical game play, players attempt to move towards a goal through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling (running with the ball close to their feet); by passing the ball from team-mate to team-mate; and by taking shots at the goal.

Although players mainly use their feet to move the ball around, they may use any part of their bodies other than their hands or arms. The primary rule for this objective is that players, other than the goalkeepers, may not intentionally touch the ball with their hands or arms during play (though they do use their hands during a throw-in restart). The team which has scored the most goals at the conclusion of the game is the winner; if both teams have an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Two teams of eleven players each compete to get a round ball (itself known as a football) into the other team's goal, thereby scoring a goal.

. In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations; it is therefore often claimed to be the most popular sport in the world. Its simple rules and minimal equipment requirements have no doubt aided its spread and growth in popularity. According to a survey conducted by Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), football's governing body, published in the spring of 2001, over 240 million people regularly play football in more than 200 countries in every part of the world.

A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. Football is played at a professional level all over the world, and millions of people regularly go to football stadia to follow their favourite team, whilst billions more avidly watch the game on television. These names are often used to distinguish the game from other codes of football, since the word "football" may be used to refer to several quite different games. The sport is also known by other names in some parts of the English-speaking world, usually association football and its contraction, soccer.

The winner is the team which has scored most goals at the end of the match. Other than the goalkeepers, players may not intentionally use their hands or arms to propel the ball in general play. The objective of the game is to score by maneuvering the ball into the opposing goal. It is a ball game played on a rectangular grass field with a goal at each end.


Football is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. Oceania: Oceania Nations Cup; Oceania Club Championship. North/Central America & Caribbean: CONCACAF Gold Cup; CONCACAF Champions Cup. Asia: Asian Cup; AFC Champions League.

Africa: African Nations Cup; CAF Champions League. South America: Copa América; Copa Libertadores. Europe: European Championship; UEFA Champions League. World: FIFA World Cup; FIFA Club World Championship.

South America: Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (South American Football Confederation; CONMEBOL). Oceania: Oceania Football Confederation (OFC). Europe: Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). Central/North America & Caribbean: Confederation of North, Central American and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF; also known as The Football Confederation).

Africa: Confederation of African Football (CAF). Asia: Asian Football Confederation (AFC). (Law 8). a serious injury to a player, interference by an external party, or a ball becoming defective).

Dropped-ball: occurs when the referee has stopped play for any other reason (e.g. (Law 14). Penalty kick: awarded to fouled team following "penal" foul having occurred in their opponent's penalty area. (Law 13).

Direct free kick: awarded to fouled team following certain listed "penal" fouls. (Law 13). Indirect free kick: awarded to the opposing team following "non-penal" fouls, certain technical infringements, or when play is stopped to caution/send-off an opponent without a specific foul having occurred. (Law 17).

Corner kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by a defender; awarded to attacking team. (Law 16). Goal kick: when the ball has wholly crossed the goal line without a goal having been scored and having last been touched by an attacker; awarded to defending team. (Law 15).

Throw-in: when the ball has wholly crossed the touchline; awarded to opposing team to that which last touched the ball. (Law 8). Kick-off: following a goal by the opposing team, or to begin each period of play.

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