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Crips

The blue bandannas worn by most Crip gangs. The purple bandanas worn by grape street Crip gangs. The black bandanas worn by shotgun Crip and other Crip gangs.

The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs.

History of the Crips

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years.

The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). The name stuck.

Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods.

Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A.

Expansion

In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets.

The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries.

To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas.

Gang identification

For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs."

In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos.

Origin of the name "Crips"

There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:

  • The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding).
  • Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short."
  • Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts."
  • Some alleged backronyms for the name include:

Crips, hip-hop, and C-walk

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. County. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof).

It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only.

Entertainers with Crip affiliations

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  • Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]
  • Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]
  • MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]
  • Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]
  • Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]

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On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only. Instead, the agency relies on other methods, including death certificates and urging physicians to send suspicious cases to the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC) at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, which is funded by the CDC. It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. In the U.S., the CDC has refused to impose a national requirement that physicians and hospitals report cases of the disease. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof). In the UK anyone with possible vCJD symptoms must be reported to the UK Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit and so it is unlikely that any cases would be missed. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. As for vCJD in humans, autopsy tests are not always done and so those figures too are likely to be too low, but probably by a lesser fraction.

Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. It is noticeable that there are no cases reported in Australia and New Zealand where cattle are mainly fed outside on grass pasture and, mainly in Australia, non-grass feeding is done only as a final finishing process before the animals are processed for meat. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Even so, currently the only reliable test is examination of tissues during an autopsy. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. Newer tests are faster, more sensitive, and cheaper, so it is possible that future figures may be more comprehensive. County. Tests are also difficult as the altered prion protein has very small levels in blood or urine, and no other signal has been found.

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. At the opposite end of the scale, Japan tests all cattle at the time of slaughter. There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:. For instance, in the EU the cattle tested are older (30 months+), while many cattle are slaughtered earlier than that. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos. The tests used for detecting BSE vary considerably as do the regulations in various jurisdictions for when, and which cattle, must be tested. In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. The figures given above for BSE are certainly too low, and most likely by a considerable amount.

They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs.". BSE is the disease in cattle, whilst vCJD is the disease in people. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). The following table summarizes reported cases of BSE and of vCJD by country. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Indeed, US meat producer Creekstone Farms alleges that the USDA is preventing BSE testing from being conducted [10]. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. Even so, critics call the partial prohibitions insufficient.

One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. [9] Compliance with the regulations was shown to be extremely poor before the discovery of the Washington cow, but industry representatives report that compliance is now 100%. For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. In February 2001, the USGAO reported that the FDA, which is responsible for regulating feed, had not adequately policed the various bans. Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas. [8] A proposal to end the use of cow blood, restaurant scraps, and chicken litter (fecal matter, feathers) in January 2004 was eventually scrapped, despite the efforts of some advocates of such a policy, who cite the fact that cows are herbivores, and that blood and fecal matter could potentially carry BSE. To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". In addition, it is legal for ruminants to be fed byproducts from some of these animals.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries. However, the byproducts of ruminants can still be legally fed to pets or other livestock and poultry such as pigs and chickens. The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. In 1997, regulations prohibited the feeding of mammalian byproducts to ruminants such as cows and goats. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets. regulations only partially prohibit the use of animal byproducts in feed. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. However, U.S.

It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. As a result, the use of animal byproduct feeds was never common, as it was in Europe. In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. Soybean meal is cheap and plentiful in the United States. Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A. [7]. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods. Trace-backs revealed that this cow originated from a herd in Texas, making it the first BSE cow native to the United States.

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. Tests carried out at the USDA laboratory in Ames, Iowa indicated the presence of BSE, and after subsequent confirmation from the Weybridge Veterinary Laboratory in the United Kingdom, the USDA acknowledged the second case of BSE on June 24. Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. On June 10, 2005, the USDA reported a possible case of BSE in the United States. The name stuck. No case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has occurred in North America so far, except among those who have traveled to Europe. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). [6].

This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. Japanese inspectors found material from cattle backbone in three of 41 boxes in a 858-pound shipment of beef from Atlantic Veal & Lamb. The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. Brooklyn-based Atlantic Veal & Lamb inspectors failed to notice there was bone material included in a shipment of veal to Japan. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years. [5] It was, however, quick to reinstate the ban. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Japan lifted its ban on US beef in December 2005.

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. [4]. . Notwithstanding, Japanese beef exports, chiefly the expensive wagyu, have been banned in the United States since Japan experienced its first case of BSE in January 2001. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs. Since Japan and South Korea are the first- and third-largest importers of US beef, respectively, the economic impact of their bans is significant both for American cattle ranchers and for Japanese and Korean beef consumers. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. beef until the authorities can be assured of its safety.

New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. discovery of BSE in 2003, Japan and South Korea instituted temporary bans on the import of U.S. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. Shortly after the U.S. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. surveillance relied on a test that gave results only after two weeks, after which time the meat from an animal usually has all been sold. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. Until the switch, U.S.

They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. authorities called for a switch to the testing procedure that is used in the United Kingdom, which yields its results in one day. The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. U.S. WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]. The meat of the BSE-positive cow went to market, but some of it was successfully recalled before it was sold to consumers. Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Only 200,000 cows slaughtered in 2003 were downers.

Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]. [3] Therefore it is not clear how effective the ban is in reducing the number of infected cattle consumed. Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]. Furthermore, there is some dispute as to whether the cow was a downer or not. Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. While the Washington cow that tested positive for BSE was reportedly unable to stand, veterinarians say the condition was unrelated to BSE. Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The government plans to double the number of cattle tested in 2004, and has banned the use of "downer cows" for human consumption.

MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. authorities have very little idea of how many American beef cattle might have the disease. Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]. As a result, U.S. Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. Therefore, it is possible that even among those cattle that are tested and classified as negative, a proportion nevertheless may be contagious. Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Current tests reveal the presence of misshaped prions when they are abundant, but it is not known how far the disease must progress in an individual to transmit it to others.

Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]. [2] Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman called the discovery "a clear indication that our surveillance and detection program is working." However, the United States tested only 20,526 cows in 2003 out of the roughly 35 million slaughtered. Some alleged backronyms for the name include:. On December 23, 2003, the first case of BSE in the United States was found in a single Holstein cow in Mabton, Washington, although trace-backs later revealed that this cow originated from a Canadian herd. Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts.". The United States also issued a temporary ban on all Canadian beef. Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short.". The animal was destroyed after being declared unfit for consumption.

The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding). It occurred in a single older cow that may have contracted the disease from contaminated feed in earlier years. The second was reported in Canada on May 20, 2003. The first was in 1993, involving an animal born in Britain. As of January 2005, five BSE-infected cattle have been identified in North America.

regarding a possible risk of transmission of the BSE agent in gelatin products.". that there were some licensed surgical sutures derived from French bovine material." Concerns were also raised: ".. expressed concerns about the possible transmission of the BSE/scrapie agent to man through use of certain cosmetic treatments." Sources in France reported to the British Medicines Control Agency: ".. there was no insulin sourced from cattle in the UK or Ireland and that the situation in other countries was being monitored." In 1991 a European Community Commission: "..

no licensing action is required at present in regard to products produced from bovine material or using prepared bovine brain in nutrient media and sourced from outside the United Kingdom, the Channel Isles and the Republic of Ireland provided that the country of origin is known to be free of BSE, has competent veterinary advisers and is known to practise good animal husbandry." In 1990 the British Diabetic Association became concerned regarding the safety of bovine insulin and the government licensing agency assured them that: ".. use of bovine insulin in a small group of mainly elderly patients was noted and it was recognised that alternative products for this group were not considered satisfactory." A medicines licensing committee report that same year recommended that: ".. identify relevant manufacturers and obtain information about the bovine material contained in children’s vaccines, the stocks of these vaccines and how long it would take to switch to other products." It was further reported that the: ".. "..

On May 7, 1999 in his written statement number 476 to the BSE Inquiry, David Osborne Hagger reported on behalf of the Medicines Control Agency that in a previous enquiry the Agency had been asked to:. During the course of the investigation into the BSE epidemic, an enquiry was also made into the activities of the Department of Health and its Medicines Control Agency. [1]. In 2005 a controversial paper in The Lancet suggested that BSE might have originated in British cattle when they ate imported animal feed that included infected human remains from Hindu funeral ceremonies in India.

So far nothing is known about the relative transmissibility of the two disease strains of BSE prion. But cruder measures yield a "biochemical signature" by which the newly discovered cattle strain appears different from the familiar one, but similar to the clumped prions in humans with traditional CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease).The finding of a second strain of BSE prion raises the possibility that transmission of BSE to humans has been underestimated, because some of the individuals diagnosed with spontaneous or "sporadic" CJD may have actually contracted the disease from tainted beef. Very little is known about the shape of disease-causing prions, because their insolubility and tendency to clump thwarts application of the detailed measurement techniques of structural biology. In other words, this implies a second strain of BSE prion.

In 2004 researchers reported evidence of a second contorted shape of prions in a rare minority of diseased cattle. As a result the full extent of the human vCJD outbreak is still not fully known. This is attributed to the long incubation period for prion diseases, which are typically measured in years or decades. Although the BSE epidemic was eventually brought under control by culling all suspect cattle populations, people are still being diagnosed with vCJD each year (though the number of new cases currently seems to be dropping).

It is estimated that 400,000 cattle infected with BSE entered the human food chain in the 1980s. Disease incidence also appears to correlate with slaughtering practices that led to the mixture of nervous system tissue with hamburger and other beef. For many of the vCJD patients, direct evidence exists that they had consumed tainted beef, and this is assumed to be the mechanism by which all affected individuals contracted it. Up to date statistics on all types of CJD are published by the UK CJD Surveillance Centre in Edinburgh.

There is also some concern about those who work with (and therefore inhale) cattle meat and bone meal, such as horticulturists, who use it as fertilizer. Three cases of vCJD occurred in people who had lived in or visited Britain--one each in Ireland, Canada and the United States. Of the 157 cases of vCJD in humans so far, 148 occurred in the United Kingdom, 6 in France, and one in Italy. This is a separate disease from 'classical' Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which is not related to BSE and has been known about since the early 1900s.

Following an epidemic of BSE in Britain, 157 people (as of 2004) acquired and died of a disease with similar neurological symptoms subsequently called vCJD, or (new) variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. While other European countries like Germany required said animal byproducts to undergo a high temperature steam boiling process, this requirement had been eased in Britain as a measure to keep prices competitive. A contributing factor seems to have been a change in British laws that allowed a lower temperature sterilization of the protein meal. A change to the rendering process in the early 1980s may have resulted in a large increase of the infectious agents in the cattle feed.

However, soybeans do not grow well in Europe, so cattle raisers throughout Europe turned to the less expensive animal byproduct feeds as an alternative. Worldwide, Soybean meal is the primary plant-based protein supplement fed to cattle. The use of meat and bone meal as a protein supplement in cattle feed was widespread in Europe prior to about 1987. The tissues that contain most of the pathogenic molecules are those of the brain and the nervous system, although infectious amounts have been shown experimentally to be present elsewhere, such as in blood.

As more animals became ill, more infectious tissue got into the feed, and so the number of cases reached epidemic proportions. This practice allowed the accumulation of prions over many generations. Prior to the BSE epidemic, cattle were fed with meat and bone meal, a high-protein substance obtained from the remnants of butchered animals, including cows and sheep. However, sheep and cattle TSEs are quite different and it is now thought more likely that BSE could have originated with a case of sporadic BSE in a single bovine.

It was first believed to have originated in sheep, in which the related prion disease scrapie is common (such diseases collectively are called "transmissible spongiform encephalopathies" or TSEs). The British BSE epidemic in cattle was recognised in 1986. These aggregate to form dense plaque fibers, which lead to the microscopic appearance of "holes" in the brain, degeneration of physical and mental abilities and ultimately death. In the brain these proteins cause native cellular prion protein to deform into the infectious state which then goes on to deform further prion protein in an exponential cascade.

Transmission can occur when healthy animals consume tainted tissues from others with the disease. Most TSEs, however, occur sporadically in animals that do not have a prion protein mutation. TSEs can arise in animals that carry a rare mutant prion allele, which expresses prions that contort by themselves into the disease-causing shape. BSE is a type of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE).

Misshapen ("misfolded") prion proteins carry the disease between individuals and cause deterioration of the brain. Unlike other kinds of infectious disease which are spread by microbes, the infectious agent in BSE is a specific type of protein. . While never having killed cattle on a scale comparable to other dreaded livestock diseases, such as foot and mouth and rinderpest, BSE has attracted wide attention because people assume humans can contract the disease, but it has never been proven that BSE has any link to variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (vCJD), sometimes called new variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (nvCJD), a human brain-wasting disease.

The disease appears transmissible to humans. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease of cattle, which infects by a mechanism that shocked biologists on its discovery in late 20th century.

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