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Crips

The blue bandannas worn by most Crip gangs. The purple bandanas worn by grape street Crip gangs. The black bandanas worn by shotgun Crip and other Crip gangs.

The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs.

History of the Crips

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years.

The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). The name stuck.

Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods.

Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A.

Expansion

In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets.

The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries.

To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas.

Gang identification

For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs."

In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos.

Origin of the name "Crips"

There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:

  • The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding).
  • Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short."
  • Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts."
  • Some alleged backronyms for the name include:

Crips, hip-hop, and C-walk

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. County. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof).

It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only.

Entertainers with Crip affiliations

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  • Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]
  • Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]
  • MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]
  • Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]
  • Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]
  • Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]
  • WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]

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On WC's song "The Streets" from his Ghetto Heisman album, he and Snoop Dogg rap about the C-walk's popularity in the mainstream, warning suburban teenagers and other non-gang members that it is a dance for Crips only. The best wrist protection is soft enough to allow normal wrist motion, but is able to absorb loads for hyper extension of the wrist. It is said that the popular hip-hop dance, the C-walk (Crip-walk), is meant to spell out one's set as an insult to rival gangs. Shorts and rigid splints could cause severe forearm fractures. Ice Cube has at times claimed to be a member of the Rollin' 100s Nhood Crips, even though he has no proven ties to this gang (aside from the fact that he is from the same area), and Atlanta rapper Young Jeezy has also claimed to be a Crip in some songs (also without any proof). Be aware that wrist guards made for in-line are dangerous and not recomended. However, there are also many rappers who are not members of Crips sets, yet take on traits of the Crip image and behavior because they hope to self-promote and sell records by doing so. Snowboard-related injury accounts for 100,000 of the wrist fractures in the world each season.

Recently signed G-Unit rapper Spider Loc is a member of the 97th Street East Coast Crips. Time not money will make a skilled, safe snowboarder. The late N.W.A member Eazy-E reportedly had ties to the Kelly Park Compton Crips. It is worthy of note that many of the worlds pros began on old equipment, riding on very small hills. Snoop Dogg is a former member of the Rollin' 20 Crips in Long Beach (as are Warren G, Nate Dogg, and Goldie Loc), while WC has an affiliation with the 111 Neighborhood Crips in South Central Los Angeles. A professional lesson, or a day spent with a skilled friend is highly recomended. County. Beginners should start on very gentle slopes with soft snow conditions, even if they're a good alpine skier.

Many popular rappers, in particular West Coast rappers, have close ties to Crips gangs in L.A. It is highly recomended that all riders wear a helmet. There have been many different explanations for the origin of the name of the gang:. Necessary safety measures must be taken. Methods such as the use of college sport team jerseys and hats are sometimes used, but in general, what set a certain gang member claims can be determined solely by their tattoos. Beginners are in great danger during first hours of practice. In more recent years, however, the Crips have begun to cease the use of colors as a means of identification, since it is likely to draw attention from police. Injuries for snowboarders are very common, especially for upperlimb: wrist, elbows and shoulders.

They usually refer derisively to their rival, the Bloods, as "slobs.". This is obviously easier with a less biased stance, such as the "duck" stance. Crips also wear blue bandanas and British Knights sport shoes (using the company moniker BK, which the Crips use as a backronym meaning "Blood Killas"). When a rider changes direction mid-run (for example a "regular" rider leads with their left foot), they are said to be riding "switch". The SGCs are seperated into three sub-sets, the nine;139th street, the Foe;134th street, and the deuce;132nd street in the city of Gardena, California and have been known to wear dark-green, the city color of Gardena, in addition to blue to show that the Shotgun Crips are from Gardena. The question of how much the bindings are angled depends on the rider's purpose and preference. A particular set of Crips, the Grape Street Crips, have been known to wear purple in addition to blue. However, personal preference and comfort are important with regard to this setting, so experimentation is recommended.

One suggested origin of the selected color is traced to the school colors of Washington High School in South L.A. The usual measurement is to position the bindings so that the feet are placed just wider than shoulder width apart. For many years, Crips were characterized by their tendency to wear blue in order to easily identify each other. Obviously, the size of the rider has much to do with proper stance width. Though violence levels have been reduced somewhat after the conclusion of this peace treaty, gangland killings and warfare persist in heavily gang-controlled areas. Stance width is important because it determines how the rider is balanced on the board. To stem violence between the Crips and Bloods, a peace treaty was recently negotiated, most notably in Watts, the treaty being largely based upon the ideals laid forth by original Crip co-founder Stanley Tookie Williams in his "Tookie Protocol For Peace". A good snowboarder should be equally skilled in riding both ways, even if they have a particular preference.

Throughout the 1980s and 1990s the Crips developed intricate networks and a respected reputation with other gangs across America and neighboring countries. Most people have a natural stance determined by experimentation, and the two stances are roughly equally common. The Crips made enormous profits from selling crack and gathered the capital to advance themselves in the illicit markets. "Goofy" is just the opposite - the right foot leads and the left foot is at the back. Now cheap, the Crips could market the highly addictive recreational substance to lower income brackets. A "regular" stance is one in which the rider's left foot is the front foot, while the right foot is the back foot. Previously the only available form was an expensive powder; leading to the traditional use of cocaine as a status symbol for the wealthy hedonist. There are two "stances" used by snowboarders.

It was invented by deriving a cheaper process to extract the stimulant from the coca plant. This is most likely to happen when the rider removes the board at the top or the bottom of a run (or while on a chairlift, which could be dangerous). In the 1980s, Crips moved into crack sales, a cheaper form of the drug cocaine. Nevertheless, most ski areas require the use of a "leash" that connects the snowboard to the rider's leg or boot, in case the snowboard manages to get away from its rider. Contrary to popular misconception, Crip sets do not feud solely with Bloods, but also other Crip sets — for example, the Rollin' 60s and 83rd Street Gangster Crips ("Eight-Trey") have been rivals since 1979, and their rivalry is currently the largest in L.A. Furthermore it reduces the dangerous prospect of a board hurtling downhill riderless, and the rider slipping downhill on his back with no means to maintain grip on a steep slope. In response, some of the besieged smaller gangs formed an alliance that later became the Bloods. Automatic release is not required in snowboarding, as the rider's legs are fixed in a static position and twisting of the knee joint cannot occur to the same extent.

The Crips became popular throughout southern Los Angeles as more and more youth gangs joined it; at one point they outnumbered non-Crip gangs by 3 to 1. With skis, this mechanism is designed to protect from injuries (particularly to the knee) caused by skis torn in different directions. Stanley "Tookie" Williams co-founded the gang in 1971, and started his own gang called the Westside Crips. Snowboard bindings, unlike ski bindings, do not automatically release upon impact or after falling over. The name stuck. Strap-in, step-in, and hybrid bindings are used by most recreational riders and all freestyle riders. The name Crips was first introduced in the Los Angeles Sentinel newspaper in a description by crime victims of young men with canes, as if they were crippled (though there is some discussion that it may have initially been a simple spelling mistake). There are several types of bindings.

This evolved to Avenue Cribs and then Cribs as nicknames for the age of the members. The bindings are fixed to the board, and hold the booted feet in place using a variety of systems. The original name of the gang founded by Raymond Washington in 1969 at the age of 15 was the Baby Avenues, derived from a gang of older boys in the 1960s, named the Avenue Boys with their turf on Central Avenue in East Los Angeles. Though bindings are not strictly part of the snowboard, they are necessary for its use. Law enforcement officials dispute this, pointing to the incredible amount of violent crimes the gang members participated in, even in the early years. Other boots, such as Sorel-style boots, may look like they would work with a snowboard, but are unsuitable for snowboarding. Williams argued that this was after the two became fed up with random violence in their neighborhood. Snowboard boots differ from other types of boots in that they provide internal support to transfer the rider's movements to the board.

The Crips were founded by Raymond Washington and Stanley Williams. Hard boots have become less common and are generally only found in more specialist stores. . Hard boots are very similar to ski boots and provide greater stability, increased control and quicker responsiveness on the snowboard. They are also known to feud with Chicano gangs. Generally, hard boots are used for alpine carving and racing, whereas soft boots are used in freestyle and freeride. The gang has an intense rivalry with the Bloods. Soft boots look similar to winter boots and have a relatively comfortable, flexible feel that provides the forgiveness necessary for landing jumps and balancing on rails.

New York) where "satellite" Crip gangs are present. Snowboard boots come in two main types, soft boots and hard boots. The gang is largely composed of African Americans, but is multiracial in many cities (i.e. Snowboard designs differ primarily in:. What was once a single gang is now a loose network of "franchises" around the United States and Canada. The base of the board may also feature graphics, often designed to make the manufacturer recognisable in photos. The Crips are mostly identified by the blue color worn by their members. Snowboard topsheet graphics can be a highly personal statement and many riders spend many hours customizing the look of their boards.

They are involved in murders, robberies and drug dealing in the Los Angeles area. The top of the board typically sports graphics designed by board makers to attract riders to their boards. The Crips, originating in Los Angeles, California, are one of the oldest and most notorious African American gangs in the United States. The edges of the base are fitted with a steel edge, just a couple millimeters square, which helps the board grab the snow when tipped up on edge. WC (111 Neighborhood Crips) [citation needed]. The base (the side of the board that touches the snow) is covered with a plastic called p-tex, which is typically sintered to help it absorb wax, which helps it slide faster. Warren G (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. The front or "nose" of the board is upturned, to help the board glide over uneven snow; the back or "tail" of the board may be more or less upturned to enable backwards (switch or switchstance) riding.

Tray Deee (Insane Crips) [citation needed]. Most snowboards are constructed of a wood core and laminated with fiberglass. Spider Loc (97th Street East Coast Crips) [citation needed]. Snowboards come in several different styles, depending on the type of riding intended:. Snoop Dogg (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Many professionals still opt not to involve themselves in the Olympic event, citing dissatisfaction with rules and with the concept of Olympic Snowboarding itself. Nate Dogg (Rollin 20 Crips) [citation needed]. Despite this rivalry, it is their establishment which finally convinces the IOC to declare snowboarding a new Olympic discipline in 1995.

MC Eiht (Tragniew Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. Later, the ISF (International Snowboard Federation) originated primarily due to dissatisfaction with the new ISA rules. Jayo Felony (NHC 47 Blocc Crips) [citation needed]. Due to the need for universal contest regulations, the ISA (International Snowboard Association) was founded in 1994. Eazy-E (Kelly Park Compton Crips) [citation needed]. The growing popularity of the sport is reflected by the history of snowboarding as an official sport: In 1985 the first World Cup is held in Zürs, Austria. Daz Dillinger (Rollin' 20 Crips) [citation needed]. This opinion was well expressed in Heckler Magazine's "Declaration of Independents Snowboarding, Skateboarding and Music: An Intersection of Cultures.".

Brotha Lynch Hung (Garden Blocc 24th Street Crips) [citation needed]. Many snowboarders are disappointed with the over-commercialization and of the sport, having viewed it as a very personal expression of themselves, similar to skateboarding, art and music. Some alleged backronyms for the name include:. Snowboarding is now coming to terms with its popularity. Mis-pronounciation of "The Crypts.". Ski companies are now absorbing many snowboard companies, creating their own and, arguably, designing skis which directly borrow technology and design from snowboards (see shaped skis and twin skis). Crip or crib originates from the carrying of a cane or stick — Los Angeles Times 14 April 1992: "Word spread about the tough-looking young men, who some said carried canes and walked with a limp — cripples, or crips, they were called for short.". Many ski companies reacted negatively to snowboarding during the sport's infancy.

The most well-known theories tie the current name with "crib" or "crib street" (alluding to an actual street or the young age of the members at the time of the gang's founding). In reaction, Transworld Snowboarding created a popular t-shirt called "Answers," which included the answers to many questions posed by skiers, including: "Yes I can stop." Many resorts did not initially allow snowboards and insisted on the use of superfluous leashes and were known to insist that riders prove their ability before being allowed on the hill. Snowboarding was seen as a fad. During the early years of the sport, snowboards and snowboarders were not widely respected by the ski industry and culture. Nowadays there are millions of snowboarders around the world and a multi-million dollar industry trying to satisfy their needs.

Since its early years, the snowboard has been improved steadily and has taken the world by storm. One of the most mentionable however is Bob patent from 1972, which he sold in 1990 to Jake Burton Carpenter, founder and owner of Burton Snowboards, today's largest manufacturer of snowboard-specific products. This process included different stages and individual ideas and resulted in several patents for snowboard-like constructions. The history of the snowboard starts in Utah, [1]U.S.A., where pioneers like Sherman Poppen, Dimitrije Milovich, Bob Webber, Jake Burton Carpenter, Tom Sims, Mike Olson, and Chuck Barfoot developed prototypes mainly inspired by surfboards in the 1970s.

. A snowboard is not to be confused with a monoboard. Analogous to a surfboard or skateboard for snow, snowboards are typically about a metre and a half long by about 30 centimetres wide, with metal edges and an upturned lip at each end. Attached to the rider's feet with bindings, it is ridden down snow-covered slopes or dry ski slopes without the use of ski poles.

A snowboard is a board ridden by a rider in the sport of snowboarding. ISBN 0-393-32692-0 michaelbarnett@iinet.net.au. Norton & Company. W.W.

The Snowboard Book: A Guide for All Boarders. Hart, Lowell (1997). Patent 5190311 -- Snowboard binding system. U.S.

Patent 3900204 -- Mono-ski. U.S. Patent 3378274 -- Surf-type snow ski. U.S.

This stance is becoming increasingly popular, and is the most resilient of the three. Duck stance: Useful for tricks by removing the forward bias altogether, the feet are angled equally outwards such as 15° and -15°. Alpine stance: Used primarily for racing, the leading foot may be anything up to 70° and the trailing foot generally 5° less. Forward stance: Suitable for most purposes, the leading foot is angled roughly 21° and the trailing foot at 6°.

Alpine snowboards tend to be longer and thinner with a much stiffer flex for greater edge hold and better carving performance. The stiff bindings and boots give much more control over the board and allow the board to be carved much more easily than with softer bindings. Extreme carvers and some Boarder Cross racers also use plate bindings. Plate - Plate bindings are used with hardboots on Alpine or racing snowboards.

This allows the rider to apply pressure and effect a "heelside" turn. The HyBak was originally designed by inventer Jeff Grell and built by Flite Snowboards. Highback - A stiff moulded support behind the heel and up the calf area. In 2004, K2 released the Cinch series, a similar hybrid binding; riders slip their foot in as they would a Flow binding, however rather than webbing, the foot is held down by straps which can then be micro-adjusted for superior fit and performance.

The rider's boot is held down by a webbing that covers most of the foot. An example is the Flow binding system which is similar to a strap-in binding, except that the foot enters the binding through the back (which then clips into place) rather than the top. Hybrid - There are also proprietary binding systems that seek to combine the convenience of step-in systems with the control levels attainable with strap-ins. Another problem is the formation of ice in the step-in mechanism, which may make it difficult to get in and out of the bindings.

While much more convenient than strap-ins, they are widely considered to be inferior because they do not provide as much of an immediate response from the rider's legs to the board. Popular (and incompatible) step-in systems include Burton, K2 Clicker, Rossignol and Switch. Step-ins use a technology similar to the clipless pedals in cycling, by allowing the binding to snap and engage stiff hardware on the rider's boots. Relative to strap-in bindings, step-in bindings use a stiffer shoe sole and boot to maintain responsiveness in compensation for the lack of over the foot restraining straps and (sometimes) lack of binding highback.

Step-in - In response to the inconvenience of strap-in bindings, step-ins were created to make entry easier for beginners, allow for fast ski-lift to slope transition, and appeal to the rental market. Such companies as Salomon, Rossignol, Bakoda, Tech Nine, Ride, Flux and Burton have created different models of cap straps. Cap Strap bindings are a recent modification that provide a very tight fit to the heel cup which makes excellent edge control. Also, because there are two points of pressure, the strap locations must be adjusted for each individual rider, making it more cumbersome for rental operations.

The downside for this is they take longer to put on, usually requiring the rider to sit in the snow and bend over to adjust the straps. They can be tightly ratcheted closed for a tight fit and good rider control of the board. The foot is held onto the board with two buckle straps - one strapped across the top of the toe area, and one across the ankle area. Strap-in - These are the earliest types of bindings, but perhaps still the most popular and technical. The rider wears a boot which has a thick but flexible sole, and padded uppers.

Boards designed for powder conditions exaggerate the differences even more for more floatation on the powder. Freeride and alpine boards, however, have a directional shape with a wider and longer nose. Tail/nose width - Many freestyle boards have equal nose/tail specs for equal performance either direction. There is no standard way to quantify snowboard stiffness, but novices tend to prefer softer flex, racers stiffer flex, and everyone else something in between.

Usually a softer flex makes turning easier while a harder flex makes the board more stable at high speed. Flex - The flexibility of a snowboard affects its handling and typically varies with the rider's weight. Shorter sidecut radii (tighter turns) are generally used for halfpipe riding while longer sidecut radii (wider turns) are used for freeride/alpine/racing riding. Most boards use a sidecut radius between 8-9 meters.

The curve has a radius that might be a short as 5 meters on a child's board or as large as 17 meters on a racer's board. This curve aids turning and affects the board's handling. Sidecut - The edges of the board are symmetrically curved concavely, so that the width at the tip and tail is greater than the center. This is termed "toe/heel-drag" and can be cured by choosing a wider board or by adjusting the stance angle.

Riders with larger feet may have problems with the toes or heels overhanging the side of the board. Most folks ride boards in the 24-25 cm range. Alpine boards are typically 18-21 cm wide, although they can be as narrow as 15 cm. Freestyle boards are up to 28 cm wide, to assist with balance.

Width - The width is typically measured at the waist of the board, since the nose and tail width varies with the sidecut and taper. Another factor riders consider when selecting a snowboard is the type of riding it will be used for, freestyle boards being shorter than all-mountain boards. The longer the board, the more stable it is at high speed, but also a bit tougher to control. Rather, snowboards correspond to the weight of the rider, and a board length should be selected so the rider falls in the middle of the manufacturer's weight range for that model and size.

It is a myth that the height of the rider dictates the length of the snowboard. Most people ride boards in the 140-165 cm range. Length - Boards for children are as short as 90 centimeters; boards for racers, or "alpine" riders, are as long as 215 cm. Freestyle (pipe): waisted, semi-stiff, medium length, soft boots, either twin-directional or directional, light, deep sidecuts.

Freestyle (rails): waisted, flexible, short, soft boots, twin-directional, light. These boards are made specifically for use in powder. Swallow-Tail: Generally a wider board that as a split running down it's tail, which gives it the general look of a swallow's tail. All-Mountain: waisted, varying flexes and lengths, soft boots, sometimes slightly directional, meant to perform well as a Freeride and Freestyle board.

Freeride: waisted, sometimes flexible, medium to long length, soft boots, directional. Racing/Alpine: long, stiff to very stiff, hard boots, slightly waisted, directional.

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