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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. The popular Mexican resort towns of Playa del Carmen, Cozumel, and Cancún all suffered significant damage from Wilma, causing major loss of tourism income. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. The economic impact isn't limited to the United States, however. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. Furthermore, a long anticipated concert by the industrial rock band, Nine Inch Nails, expected to have taken place Monday, October 24th, was postponed to another date, yet to be announced. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. Due to roof damage caused by Wilma and the loss of power at the BankAtlantic Center, the Panthers also had to postpone their October 29 matchup against the Washington Capitals.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. The NHL rescheduled its Saturday, October 22 regular-season game between the Ottawa Senators and Florida Panthers to Monday, December 5. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. West Virginia vs South Florida has been rescheduled for Saturday, December 3. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. University of Miami has been rescheduled for Saturday, November 19. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. Georgia Tech vs.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. The NCAA postponed two college football games scheduled in south Florida on Saturday, October 22. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. The NFL moved up its regular-season game between Kansas City Chiefs and Miami Dolphins to 7pm on Friday, October 21 in preparation of the hurricane. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Damage to sugarcane crops is critical and widespread. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Also, Florida's sugar Industry was hard hit, the cropping season had already started and had to be halted indefinitely.

Some popular rule variations are:. As dynamic models have moved the storm's track east over Florida, oil futures eased as worries of another direct hit on the oil producing regions of the Gulf of Mexico subsided. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. [32]. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is compounded by problems caused last year by Hurricanes Charley, Frances and Jeanne, which devastated Florida's orange crop, destroying many groves entirely. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Wilma's potential for damage to orange trees in Florida could have an impact on several upcoming growing cycles.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. Orange juice futures reached the highest level in six years on Wednesday, October 19, 2005, closing up 2.9 cents at $1.118 per pound. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. Many people later admitted they underestimated Wilma's power (Category 3) as she approached South Florida (Wilma was expected to weaken to a Category 1 as she reached the east coast), and failed to take the precautions that they would have taken with a stronger storm. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. Communication was also difficult -- land lines were damaged, while cellular towers were either damaged, without power, or overloaded in capacity. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. Much of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties were told to boil water.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. Gasoline was in high demand for cars and generators; six-hour waits were not uncommon, due to lack of power to pump the fuel. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. Any traffic lights still standing were not working, causing an increase in traffic problems. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. Power outages in southeastern Florida, notably in Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and Palm Beach County, compounded the difficulties South Floridians faced following Wilma. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. In addition, a tornado may have touched down in Miami-Dade County, causing damage to the South Beach Community Hospital.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. Broward and Palm Beach counties were hit particularly hard by the many tornadoes in the western portion of the hurricane. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Damage was widespread throughout South Florida. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. This prompted many residents to switch service providers [31]. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). Cable television and internet services as well as cell phone services were unavailable for up to 2 months in some areas.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. More than 20 days later, some residents and business owners remained without electric service. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Florida Power and Light, the largest electricity utility in the state, reported more than 3,241,000 customers had lost power, equivalent to approximately 6,000,000 people. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Hurricane Wilma caused widespread destruction of critical infrastructure, including power, water and sewer systems. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. The airport has reported $12 million in damages, according to the South Florida Sun-Sentinel.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. In Boca Raton, a city in southeastern Palm Beach County, the local Boca Raton Airport suffered extensive damage, including the collapse of two hangars, planes flipped over, and hangar doors blown in. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. At least three deaths are blamed on Hurricane Wilma in Collier County and widespread wind and water damage is commonplace across the county. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. Widespread roof damage is evident across the county outside of the City of Naples itself. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. 90% of all mobile homes in East Naples have been destroyed, while 30% of the mobile homes in all of Collier County suffered the same fate.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. There has been damage to the 90 high-rise condominiums in Coastal Naples, where some levels have been blown out completely by the high winds brough by the storm (much like the damage in downtown Miami and Fort Lauderdale). One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. Out of the 170 signaled intersections in Collier County, 130 have been destroyed. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. The Naples Airport was severely damaged by the hurricane, while areas like Immokalee and East Naples extreme and widespread roof damage to numerous homes and communities. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. The point of landfall, between Marco Island and Everglades City, is largely uninhabited but the communities around landfall suffered extreme damage.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Hundreds in the county, if not thousands, have been left homeless by the category three hurricane. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. The Naples Metropolitan Area received the brunt of Hurricane Wilma. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. Even while the center of Wilma was still a long way away from Florida, its effects were already being felt with its expansive outer bands. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. Some Miami high-rises also suffered severe damage during the storm.

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. In the city of Fort Lauderdale, in Broward County, several highrise buildings suffered extensive damage, including the 14-floor Broward County School Board building and the Broward County Courthouse, which was forced to remain closed for two weeks as a result of the storm, along with Broward County Public Schools, which remained closed for two weeks. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. Key West was under 3 to 6 feet (1 to 2 metres) of water from the storm surge, and major flooding was reported throughout the Keys. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. Early reports suggested the damage from Wilma was extensive and widespread over South Florida due to winds and flooding. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. [30].

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. [29] The city of Havana was also without power and wind damage was reported as a result of winds up to 85 mph (140 km/h). Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. Over 250 homes were heavily flooded and rescuers required scuba gear, inflatable rafts and amphibious vehicles to reach the most severely flooded areas. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. Coastal flooding was reported in many areas due to Wilma's storm surge and flooding from the outer bands, particularly around Havana. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. [28].

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. [27] It was the costliest natural disaster in Mexican history, according to local insurers. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. Insured damage in Mexico is estimated at between $1-3 billion, which would likely translate to $2-6 billion (USD) in total damage. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. The destruction left behind by Wilma in the Yucatán has also severely damaged the tourist industry there, as the storm affected some of the tourist hot spots of Mexico. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. [26].

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. The road trip to Mérida was very dangerous and impassable for Taxi yet people still payed upwards of $200 for a ride. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. US embasy told tourist to go to Mérida, the next day they changed their game plan because Mérida had become so packed with people. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. Buses have begun to come into Cancún from Mérida, where tourists are hoping to find flights home. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. Thousands of tourists remain stranded in shelters, and the priority is sending them home now, according to President Vicente Fox.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". After Wilma passed, there was a sense of desperation that developed in the region, due to the fact that people were being held in shelters due to the extensive damage. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. [25]. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. There have also been extensive reports of looting of many businesses in the Yucatán, particularly in Cancún. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. Communication is limited at this point as telephone and electric services are completely out in the affected areas.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. It is comparable to the scene after Hurricane Emily back in July 2005, a storm of similar intensity but faster moving. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. On Cozumel, the damage is extensive, but not as catastrophic as originally feared according to a witness, with many broken windows, fallen trees and power lines but less in the way of structural damage. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). The Governor of Quintana Roo, Félix González Canto, said in an interview: "Never in the history of Quintana Roo have we seen a storm like this." [24]. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. [23].

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. [22] One gymnasium used as a shelter lost its roof, which forced the evacuation of more than 1,000 people staying there. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. Rainfall amounts in excess of 23 inches (590 mm) were reported in several areas, with Isla Mujeres reporting 64 inches (1,637mm) — three times what Hurricane Gilbert dropped. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. Several homes had also collapsed. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. However, according to pictures and television reports, there is extensive structural damage throughout the Cancún area, as well as significant flooding and many downed trees and power lines and scattered debris.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Information on damage remains unclear. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.
. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Heavy damage to coastal areas was reported, and parts of the northwestern area of the island were washed out from the surge. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. The northwestern Bahamas, particularly Grand Bahama Island, received a storm surge that was reported as high as 15 feet in some areas.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. poisoning, illnesses, waiting for help). In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. Indirect deaths indicate those caused by hurricane-related accidents (including car accidents, fires or other incidents), as well as clean-up and evacuation incidents and health issues (e.g. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. Direct deaths indicate those caused by the direct effects of the winds, flooding, tornadoes, storm surge or oceanic effects of Wilma. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21].

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. Wilma was also blamed for at least 26 indirect deaths. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. In addition, a drowning was reported on Maule Lake in northern Miami-Dade County from a capsized boat. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. [16] Three more direct deaths were reported in Florida, one in rural Collier County and two in Palm Beach County, all due to wind-blown debris. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. CNN reports that a Coral Springs man who was inspecting damage during the eye of the hurricane was killed by a falling tree, according to a Broward County official.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. At least 35 Hurricane Wilma-related deaths were reported in the United States, all in Florida. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. [15]. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. In Cuba, a bus carrying evacuees crashed, killing four people, including three foreign tourists. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. [14].

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Another death was reported in the state of Yucatán due to a falling tree, but no other details were available. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Four deaths have also been reported on Cozumel and another in Cancún due to wind blowing a window out. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. Two were in the Playa del Carmen area due to a gas explosion caused by the strong winds. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. At least eight deaths were reported in Mexico.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. [13]. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. Almost 250 people were in emergency shelters on the island. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. It pounded the island for a third day on October 18, 2005, flooding several low-lying communities and triggering mudslides that blocked roads and damaged several homes. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Wilma claimed one death in Jamaica as a tropical depression on Sunday, October 16.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. [12]. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Mudslides were triggered from the outer bands in Haiti, killing at least 12 people. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The last places to issue this warning sat within the gap between bands as tornadoes were observed as far north as Sumter, Marion, Pasco, and Polk Counties. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. Anticipating high winds all public school districts south of Marion closed their schools on Monday, October 24 in order to prevent possible harm to county employees and students.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. [11]. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Curfews were put in place for several cities in Lee and Collier counties. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Hurricane shelters in the area were opened. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. Other areas that were included in the mandatory evacuation were Seagate, Parkshore, The Moorings, Coquina Sands, Olde Naples, Aqualane Shores, Port Royal and Royal Harbour.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. Mandatory evacuations were in effect for all Collier County residents living West or South of US 41. Briefly, the ten modes are:. All campuses of the University of South Florida, the University of Tampa and the University of Central Florida were closed on Monday, October 24. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Petersburg, Florida also evacuated by 5 pm EDT on October 20. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Eckerd College in St.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". Florida Gulf Coast University in Fort Myers completed an evacuation; classes were canceled until further notice. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. [10]. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. The schools were closed to "allow parents and staff to prepare for the storm and potential evacuation", and also allowed "for needed preparation of schools to be used as hurricane shelters." The schools remained closed on Monday, October 24 as the hurricane made landfall. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). Also in Florida, all Collier County public schools were declared closed for Friday, October 21.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. At least 300 Keys evacuees were housed at the Monroe County shelter at Florida International University in Miami-Dade County [9]. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. County offices, schools and courts were closed Monday, October 24. This is known as the Economy rate. However, reports suggest that as many as 80% of residents may have ignored the evacuation order. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. A mandatory evacuation of residents was ordered for the Florida Keys in Monroe County.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. [8]. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. In all, over 368,000 people were ordered to evacuate. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. In Cuba, preparations were made to evacuate four western provinces, including the Isle of Youth [7]. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. In El Salvador, the National Emergency Committee was activated.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. In Nicaragua, civil organizations were ordered to make hurricane preparations. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). [6]. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. In neighboring Yucatán, classes were also suspended in 18 coastal municipalities. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Classes were suspended in the state's northern municipalities and residents of coastal areas were advised to take refuge further inland; tourists in the resort city of Cancún and its adjacent islands were told to return to their places of origin or head inland.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". Quintana Roo government officials declared a red alert on the evening of Wednesday, October 19. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. On October 25, the storm gradually began weakening and was classified extratropical late in the afternoon, south of Nova Scotia, still at hurricane strength and affecting a large area of land and ocean with stormy conditions. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. Unexpectedly, Wilma strengthened again over the Gulf Stream and again became a Category 3 hurricane north of the Bahamas, having regained all the strength it lost within 12 hours. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. Passing over the Florida peninsula, Wilma weakened slightly to a Category 2 hurricane, its strength when it exited Florida and entered the Atlantic about six hours later.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. At landfall in Florida, Wilma had sustained winds of 120 mph (195 km/h). For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. The reintensification of Hurricane Wilma is attributed to its interaction with the warm Loop Current in the Gulf. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. Despite encountering significant wind shear in the Gulf of Mexico, Hurricane Wilma had regained some strength before making its third landfall just north of Everglades City, Florida, near Cape Romano, at 6:30 am EDT October 24 (10:30 UTC) as a Category 3 hurricane. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. Many houses were flooded with 1 to 2 feet of seawater.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Most streets on Key West and nearby islands were flooded with at least 3' of seawater that destroyed tens of thousands of vehicles. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. After the hurricane had passed, a storm surge of up to 10 feet from the Gulf of Mexico completely inundated a large portion of the lower Keys. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. on Monday, October 24. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. The center of the eye was directly over the metropolitan areas of South Florida at 10:30 a.m.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. Several cities in the South Florida Metropolitan Area, which includes Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale and Miami, suffered severe damage as a result of the intense winds of the rapidly moving system. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. The storm made landfall on the southwest coast of Florida and cut a diagonal swath across the southern portion of the Florida peninsula, with the northern part of the eye wall crossing into south and central Palm Beach County. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. The storm's eye was now approximately 35 miles (56 kilometres) in diameter. This is known as running between wickets. Hurricane Wilma's southeast eyewall passed the near the island of Key West in the lower Florida Keys early on the morning of October 24, 2005.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. The hurricane began accelerating in the early morning of October 23, exiting the northeast tip of the Yucatán Peninsula and entering the Gulf of Mexico as a Category 2 hurricane. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Some portions of the Yucatán Peninsula experienced hurricane-force winds for well over 24 hours. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. The eye slowly drifted northward, with the center passing just to the west of Cancún, Quintana Roo. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. Portions of the island of Cozumel experienced the calm eye of Wilma for several hours, with some blue skies and sunshine visible at times.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). The hurricane's eye first passed over the island of Cozumel, and then made official landfall near Playa del Carmen in the state of Quintana Roo around midnight on October 22 EDT, with winds near 140 mph. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. On October 21, Hurricane Wilma made landfall on Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula as a powerful Category four hurricane, with winds over 150 mph. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). These wind speeds indicate that the low ambient pressure surrounding Wilma caused the 882 mb (26.05 inches) pressure to be less significant, involving a lesser pressure gradient, than under normal circumstances. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. Before Wilma, no storm had recorded pressure less than 900 mb (26.58 inches) without being at Category 5.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. (In comparison, Hurricane Gilbert, the previous Atlantic record holder, had a pressure of 888 mb (26.22 inches) and also had winds of 185 mph.) In fact, at one point after Wilma’s period of peak intensity, it had a pressure of 894 mb (26.40 inches) but was actually below Category 5, with winds of just 155 mph. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. 185 mph may seem incredibly fast, but for an 882 mb (26.05 inches) hurricane it is actually quite slow. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. However, Wilma's winds were somewhat slower than the 196 mph implied by an 8 on the Dvorak scale. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). Such a conversion would suggest that Wilma was more intense than Tip, were normal considerations in play.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. Indeed, under normal circumstances the Dvorak matrix would equate an 890 mb storm in the Atlantic basin -- a CI number of 8 -- with an 858 mb storm in the Pacific. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. These are closer to ambient pressures in the northwest Pacific basin. See also: Scoring. Hurricane Wilma existed within an area of ambient pressure that was unusually low for the Atlantic basin, with ambient pressures below 1010 mb. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. The cyclone must be more intense to get its pressure commensurately lower, and its larger pressure gradient would make its winds faster.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. If two cyclones have the same minimum pressure, but one is in an area of higher ambient pressure than the other, it is in fact stronger. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. The greater the gradient, the faster the winds generated. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. The change in pressure over a distance, the pressure gradient, causes hurricane winds. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. The minimum central pressure in a tropical cyclone is the best indicator of intensity, because pressure can be precisely measured while wind speeds have to be estimated, but more importantly, because the difference between a hurricane's low central pressure and the pressure of the surrounding environment is what drives the hurricane's strength.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Super Typhoon Tip is the most intense tropical cyclone on record with a central pressure of 870 mbar (25.69 inHg). Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. While Wilma was the most intense hurricane (a tropical cyclone in the Atlantic, Central Pacific or Eastern Pacific basins) ever recorded, there have been many more-intense typhoons in the Pacific (see link in the next section). The game is only played in dry weather. Wilma was the first hurricane ever in the Atlantic Basin (and possibly the first tropical cyclone in any basin), to have a central pressure below 900 mbar (26.58 inHg) while at Category 4 intensity (in fact, only two other Atlantic hurricanes had lower recorded central pressures than Wilma's at this point: the previous record holder, Hurricane Gilbert of 1988, and the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935). There is also a short interval between innings. By 11 pm EDT (03:00 UTC October 20), Wilma's pressure had risen to 894 mbar (26.40 inHg) as the hurricane weakened to Category 4, with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h).

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. The pressure dropped further to 882 mbar (26.045 InHg) three hours later before rising slowly in the afternoon (while the storm remained a Category 5 hurricane). One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. Shortly thereafter, Wilma set the record for the lowest central pressure recorded in an Atlantic hurricane when the pressure dropped to 884 mbar (26.10 inHg) at 8 am EDT (12:00 UTC) on October 19. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. [5]. An innings is completed if:. During its intensification on October 19, the hurricane's eye shrank to as small as 1.5 to 2.0 nautical miles in diameter, becoming one of the smallest eyes ever seen in a tropical cyclone.

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. With Hurricanes Wilma, Katrina and Rita, 2005 became the first year on record in which three Category 5 hurricanes developed in the Atlantic basin. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. [4]. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. The global record deepening is 100 mbar (hPa) by Super Typhoon Forrest in 1983. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. Wilma's rapid deepending set a new record for the Atlantic basin, and is one of the most rapid deepening phases ever undergone by a tropical cyclone anywhere on Earth.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. (In comparison, Hurricane Gilbert of 1988 – the previous recordholder for lowest Atlantic pressure – recorded a 78 mbar (2.30 inHg) pressure drop in a 24 hour period for a 3 mbar/h pressure drop.). Each innings is subdivided into overs. In the 24-hour period from 8 am EDT October 18 (12:00 UTC) to the following morning, the pressure fell 90 mbar (2.65 inHg) and Wilma strengthened from a strong tropical storm with 70 mph (110 km/h) winds to a powerful Category 5 hurricane with maximum sustained winds of 185 mph (295 km/h)[3]. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. Over a 10-hour period Hurricane Hunter aircraft measured a pressure drop of 78 mbar (2.30 inHg). The two opposing captains then toss a coin. Hurricane Wilma began to intensify explosively at an incredible rate during late afternoon on October 18 around 4 pm EDT.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The 12th hurricane of the season, Wilma tied the record set in 1969 for most storms of hurricane strength in one season. Each position on the field has a unique label. Moving slowly over warm water with little wind shear, Wilma strengthened steadily and became a hurricane on October 18. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. With Wilma, the 2005 hurricane season tied the record for most storms in a season with the 1933 season. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. The storm was named "Wilma," the first time the 'W' name was used since alphabetical naming began in 1950.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. 24 reached tropical storm strength at 5 am EDT October 17 (09:00 UTC). The player designated as bowler must change after every over. T.D. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The area of disturbed weather southwest of Jamaica slowly organized into Tropical Depression 24 on October 15. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. In the second week of October 2005, a large area of low pressure with several centers of thunderstorm activity developed over the western Atlantic and eastern Caribbean.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. . The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. Wilma also affected eleven countries with winds or rainfall, more than any other hurricane in recent history. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. history. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. At least 62 deaths have been reported, and damage is estimated at $16-20 billion ($12.2 billion in the US) (2005 US dollars) [2], ranking Wilma among the top 10 costliest hurricanes ever recorded in the Atlantic and the sixth costliest storm in U.S.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. state of Florida. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. Wilma made several landfalls, with the most destructive effects felt in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, Cuba, and the U.S. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. Wilma was the second 21st storm in any season, and the earliest-forming 21st storm by nearly a month. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. It was the only time three Category 5 hurricanes formed in the Atlantic in one year, and Wilma was only the third Category 5 to develop in the month of October.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. At its peak, it was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic basin. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. Wilma set numerous records for both strength and seasonal activity. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Hurricane Wilma was the twenty-first named storm, thirteenth hurricane, and sixth major hurricane, and third Category 5 of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. The NHC's archive on Hurricane Wilma.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Each team consists of eleven players. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. .

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. This scores a run. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

(Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

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