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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. From Argentina to Malaysia to The United States, broadcasters around the world capitalized on the big event (see Live 8 broadcasters). The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. ABC drew criticism when they broadcast The Who's performance of "Who Are You?" when they did not censor the lyric "who the fuck are you?" when they aired a highlights special in the evening of 2 July 2005 after Live 8 had ended. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The following weekend, MTV broadcast six hours of a commercial-free special devoted to Live 8 in response to the heavy criticism. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. In fact, very few of Live 8's songs were played in full by MTV and almost none of them were broadcast live, leading some to conclude that MTV may have covered the event but they did not broadcast it.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. Criticism was also aimed at MTV for focusing too much on ill-informed VJs and not enough on the music. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. Criticism was also drawn from viewers of MTV (and possibly other networks), in which the broadcaster cut to commercials while bands were still performing, specifically Pink Floyd and The Who. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. In the United States, MTV censored swear words from the performances it broadcast, except for the word "bullshit" as part of the lyrics to Pink Floyd's "Money". Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. When Green Day's performance in Berlin was broadcast to the other venues, it was aired uncensored.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. Several artists got their performances cut to one or two songs, including Bon Jovi and Dido. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. Although the concerts in London and Philadelphia had the biggest stars lining up, both concerts are currently not available in their original, full version. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Midge Ure's "I find it amazing, that Bob can do his fantastic thing and then fucking turn this on for me" also remains from the Edinburgh concert. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Robbie Williams' "Hyde Park, you look fucking beautiful tonight" remains.

Some popular rule variations are:. In the official DVD release of the concerts, Madonna's cursing was not included and only half of Snoop Dogg's performance was made available. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Robbie Williams and Razorlight also swore during their performances, but Williams' was after the watershed. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. The BBC apologised [17] for an instance when Madonna asked the audience "are you fucking ready, London?", and for Snoop Dogg's perfomance which contained the use of swear words without censorship. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Despite the show being broadcast before the watershed in many countries, there was no attempt at censorship.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. The Daily Mail commented on the event for running two hours late, with a frontpage headline reading 'Live L8'. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. The "Hey Jude" finale ended up finishing at around midnight after George Michael dueted with Paul McCartney. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The early ending would have meant fans missing out on bands including The Who and Pink Floyd. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. This panic was due to the chance of London being gridlocked if people missed their train.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. She then held a meeting and it was decided that the show would go on. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. Backstage crew had to run into the Golden Circle to find the minister for outdoor events. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. There was a large panic backstage, as revealed on the BBC 1 documentary. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. The show ran much later after Bob Geldof performed and many of the acts decided to give speeches.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. Due to the need to send them a few weeks early, the tickets had the original 8pm finishing time printed on them. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. The show was originaly scheduled to end at around 8:00pm, but due to new artists being added, the planned finishing time was extended to 9:30pm. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. One of Quo's reasons for wanting to appear stemmed from their inability to remember the first gig due to drink and drugs. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). Quo's response was that there wasn't a lot of drugs, there were "fucking shed-loads".

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. There was also the rumour that the reason space on the show wasn't made was partially down to Geldof's anger at Quo's reference to there being "a lot of drugs" at Live Aid in 1985. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Quo had reportedly asked for "four fucking minutes". Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Naming their petition "No Quo, No Show", it became an unsuccessful success. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. The Daily Mirror's petition was backed by thousands though eventually nothing came about.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. This was not granted, sparking a fury amongst Quo fans who had seen the band open Live Aid explosively (with the aptly titled "Rockin' All Over The World") 20 years ago. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Originally offered a 6pm slot, the Quo had long since organized commitments in Ireland, therefore they requested an earlier slot. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In the weeks leading up to the extravaganza, The Daily Mirror began a petition, garnering support for British rock legends Status Quo. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. None of the items appeared to have been fairly-traded, sweatshop-free or environmentally friendly.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. While they received no monetary compensation, some were given gift bags containing lavish gifts and designer goodies - including Gibson guitars and Hugo Boss suits - valued at approximately $3000 (see "Fancy gifts at odds with cause?" The Philadelphia Inquirer). One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. More criticism has been leveled at some of the performers based on what they took home for participating in the Philadelphia concert. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. Indeed, public figures and media have since called on the artists and their record labels to donate the profits of increased sales that followed appearance at the event (see "...Live 8 profits plea" BBC article, for example). Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Live 8, it is important to note, is not a charity event.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Damon Albarn also suggested that the performers' record labels should pay "a tariff" as the accompanying publicity would increase future record sales and hence their profits. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. Counter-critics, however, point out that these celebrities are still not rich enough to be able to cancel the debts of nations. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. Many believed that it was hypocrisy that many of the performing artists had tens (if not hundreds) of millions of dollars of "spare cash" lying in their bank accounts whilst wanting to "Make Poverty History". The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. For example, some fans and music critics feel that some of the lineups, such as that in Barrie, are not only largely ethnically homogeneous but not likely to connect with, or speak to, younger fans ("Live 8 organizer dismisses criticism..." Globe and Mail article).

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. Geldof is criticised for using Africa as "a catwalk" which is more about reviving the careers of ageing rock stars than about helping the poor in Africa. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. [16]. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. Indeed, Geldof appears not to be interested in Africa's strengths, only in an Africa on its knees. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. I am coming, reluctantly, to the conclusion that Live 8 is as much to do with Geldof showing off his ability to push around presidents and prime ministers as with pointing out the potential of Africa.

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. However, some criticisms are directed at Geldof himself and the motives for Live 8:. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. Some of these criticisms are not specific to Live 8 but representative of a particular point of view concerning western attitudes towards Africa. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. As with many charity events before it, Live 8 has come in for some criticism in the media. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. [15].

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. They still believe us to be like children that they must save, as if we don't realize ourselves what the source of our problems is. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. Who here [in Africa] wants a concert against poverty when an African is born, lives and dies without ever being able to vote freely? But the truth is that it was not for us, for Africa, that the musicians at Live 8 were singing; it was to amuse the crowds and to clear their own consciences, and whether they realized it or not, to reinforce dictatorships. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. A Cameroonian op-ed appearing in the New York Times stated:. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. The concert was also been criticized by African intellectuals for not addressing issues such as corruption and governance.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. Incidentally, artist 50 Cent cancelled his appearance due to a clash with his acting commitment for the upcoming film Get Rich Or Die Tryin'. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. [14]. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. Bob Geldof has been accused of compounding the original error by announcing an entirely African line-up ("Africa Calling") at a concert to be held at the Eden Project in Cornwall on the same day as the main Live 8 concerts. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. Bob Geldof originally said that this was because he had aimed for the biggest-selling, most popular artists to ensure a large television audience; but critics noted that even if this was acceptable as the sole criterion for inclusion, some of the minor white artists signed up were substantially less well-known than some major African artists.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". However, Youssou N'Dour and Dave Matthews of Dave Matthews Band, remained the only African-born artists signed to perform at the main concerts. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. A Live 8 spokesman said that a number of black performers had been approached to participate and that the event would feature a "large urban element", and pointed to the number of artists of African descent like Ms Dynamite. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. Live 8 will make a difference – it's already created a debate that we're all involved in. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. In some way that's been addressed and that's really good..

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. I have said certain things in relation to the density of African performers.. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. He told a reporter on 21 June:. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). Albarn is now reportedly happy about Live 8 now that they have addressed his criticism. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. [13] Stevie Wonder, Black Eyed Peas, Alicia Keys, Destiny's Child, Jay-Z and Kanye West also turned up at Philadelphia to perform while Will Smith, Don Cheadle, Black Ice, Kami, and Chris Tucker made appearances as presenters.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. So why is the bill so damn Anglo-Saxon?". In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. "More than ever, black culture is an integral part of society. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. Damon Albarn re-iterated this criticism, saying that "This country [the UK] is incredibly diverse," he said. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. London-based group Black Information Link described the list of performers at the Hyde Park event as "hideously white" [12], noting that Mariah Carey, Ms Dynamite and Snoop Dogg are the only non-white performers scheduled to perform at the event.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. These artists did not sing the same songs but still performed at both events:. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. Songs are listed with their Live Aid performers, with the artists who sang the songs at Live 8 (if different) in brackets:. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. These songs were sang at both Live Aid and Live 8 (although some not by their original artists). This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. Geldof was immediately criticised by Lothian and Borders Police chief constable Ian Dickenson for encouraging such a large crowd to assemble in Edinburgh with such little notice and no consultation with local authorities about how to accommodate so many people.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. On June 1, Bob Geldof called for a million people to descend upon Edinburgh in a "Long Walk to Justice", on July 6, the first day of the G8 summit at Gleneagles, in a separate protest to the one held on the 2nd [11]. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. I also want to pay tribute to the organizers of the march who have achieved their objectives through meticulous planning and cooperation. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. I want to pay tribute to the crowd of 225,000 who came and cooperated with the police to make this a successful and memorable occasion. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. They raised applause from the marchers by stopping to bow before Starbucks and McDonald's while chanting "Two, four, six, eight, we really must accumulate." .

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. A group at the head of the procession through the city were dressed in business suits. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. Marchers were addressed by celebrities, political and religious leaders who supported the reduction of world poverty. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The marchers had been asked to wear white to make a symbolic ring of white through the city, matching the Make Poverty History white wrist band. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. An estimated total of 225,000 people took part, making it the largest ever protest in the Scottish capital.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. This protest had been organised by the Make Poverty History group and local authorities as part of a series of events in Edinburgh commemorating the G8 conference, and had been planned for months before the announcement of Live 8. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. On July 2, the same day as the Live 8 concerts, a rally and protest march was held in central Edinburgh, near the Gleneagles venue for the G8 conference later that week. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. [10]. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. In fact, the 35,000 free tickets for the Canadian show were all distributed in just 20 minutes on 23 June 2005, Ticketmaster reported.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Similar scalper situations arose for the Edinburgh and Canadian shows, and eBay halted sales of those tickets as well. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Others have argued, though, that selling the tickets would not have done any harm to the people Live 8 is supposed to be helping and it would have allowed those who missed the random selection a chance to go to the concert. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. It was later announced that eBay, under pressure from the British government, the public, as well as Geldof himself, would withdraw all auctions of the tickets. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. Many people, angered by others seemingly using Live 8 to make money, placed fake bids for millions of pounds for such auctions in an attempt to force the sellers to take them off sale.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. They also promised to make a donation to Live 8 that would be "at least equal to any fees" they would be making for such sales. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. Initially, eBay defended their decision to allow the auctions to go ahead, stating that there were no laws against their sale. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. This was heavily criticised by the organisers of the event, including Bob Geldof. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Some lucky people who won tickets immediately placed them for sale on the Internet auction site eBay, with the intention of making a profit.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. Funds raised beyond the £1.6m "will go to pay for the costs of Live 8, as it is a free event", according to the Live 8 website. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. The £1.6m donation will act as a quid pro quo. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. This event was cancelled in 2005 to make way for Live 8. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. The Prince's Trust usually host the Party in the Park concert in Hyde Park in July.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. The first £1.6m raised is to be given to the Prince's Trust, who in turn will donate to the Help A London Child charity. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Thus texters had a roughly one-in-28 chance of winning a pair of tickets. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Over two million texts were sent during the competition, raising £3 million. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. Winners were drawn at random from those correctly answering the question.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. Entry involved sending the answer to a multiple choice question via a text message costing £1.50. Briefly, the ten modes are:. Although the concerts were free, 66,500 pairs of tickets for the Hyde Park concert were allocated from the 13 June 2005 to 15 June 2005, to winners of a mobile phone text message competition that began on Monday, 6 June 2005. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Millions of paper petitions and emails have already been submitted. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Named the "Live 8 List", this can be reached via the Live8 List page.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". An enormous petition with (presently) over 38 million names is available to be signed on the Internet. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. The event coincided with the 2005 G8 summit at the Gleneagles Hotel, Perthshire, Scotland, and the idea behind it was to overwhelm the eight politicans attending with the amount of public support for the principles of the Make Poverty History campaign. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. The Live 8 concert was not a fundraising event of any kind; rather, the organisers were hoping that it would spur people's political interest. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). The Live Aid concert, held in 1985, was a massive fundraising effort which accumulated approximately £79 million, which was sent to the world's poorest countries in aid.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. We don't want your money, we want your voice. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. It featured further performances from some of the artists from the other concerts, and was the closest of the eleven to the actual location of the G8 summit. This is known as the Economy rate. The final event was held in Edinburgh on 6 July 2005 and went by the name Edinburgh 50,000 - The Final Push. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. The band's last show was at Earls Court in London on June 17, 1981.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Included in the line-up were Pink Floyd playing for the first time together in over 24 years. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. Guest presenters, ranging from sporting stars to comedians, also introduced acts. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. Special guests appeared throughout the concerts, with Kofi Annan, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and Bill Gates making a speech at the London show and Nelson Mandela appearing in the South African venue. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. Some of these were also shown to other venues.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. Bob Geldof was at the event in Hyde Park, London and made numerous appearances on stage, including a performance of "I Don't Like Mondays". Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). This was to represent the death of a child every three seconds, due to poverty. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. During the opening of the Philadelphia concert, Will Smith led the combined audiences of London, Philadelphia, Berlin, Rome, Paris and Barrie (outside Toronto) in a synchronised finger click. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. The first to begin was held at the Makuhari Messe in Japan, with Rize being the first of all the Live 8 performers.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". There were ten concerts held on 2 July 2005, most of them simultaneously. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. . A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. It was released almost a year to the day after the release of the DVD of Live Aid on November 8, 2004. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. An official Live 8 DVD set was released on 7 November 2005 internationally, 8 November 2005 in the United States.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. However, it is important to note that Live 8, unlike Live Aid, wasn't intended to raise money, but awareness and political pressure. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Indeed, as some of the performers involved had been out of the public eye, some may have perceived the concert as a way of getting back "into the spotlight". The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. Other critics say that millionaire rock stars would make greater contribution by donating parts of their personal fortunes. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. eBay later removed the tickets, after some controversy.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Some ticket holders placed their tickets on the auction site eBay, creating an uproar which included Geldof demanding that the company remove the auctions, even encouraging hackers to attack eBay. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. Names from the list also appeared on the giant televisions at each concert during the broadcast. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. This is a list of names compiled from around the world of people who have voiced support of the Live 8 mission to "Make Poverty History" www.live8list.com. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. Organizers of Live 8 presented the "Live 8 List" to the world leaders at the G8 summit.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. Many of the Live 8 backers were also involved in the largely forgotten NetAid concerts. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. These concerts are the start point for The Long Walk To Justice, the one way we can all make our voices heard in unison." [4]. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. Geldof said "This is not Live Aid 2. This is known as running between wickets. However Geldof and co-organiser Midge Ure have since explicitly said they don't think of the event as the same as Live Aid.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. [2] [3]) referred to the event as Live Aid 2. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Prior to the official announcement of the event many news sources (see e.g. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Many former Live Aid acts offered their services to the cause. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. Live Aid and Band Aid organizer Bob Geldof announced the event on 31 May 2005.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). [1]. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. More than 1,000 musicians performed at the concerts, which were broadcast on 182 television networks and 2,000 radio networks. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). On 7 July the G8 leaders pledged to double 2004 levels of aid to Africa from US$25 to US$50 billion by the year 2010. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. Ten simultaneous concerts were held on 2 July and one on 6 July.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. Running parallel with the UK's Make Poverty History campaign, the shows planned to pressure world leaders to drop the debt of the world's poorest nations, increase and improve aid, and negotiate fairer trade rules in the interest of poorer countries. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. They were timed to precede the G8 Conference and Summit held at the Gleneagles Hotel in Perthshire, Scotland from July 6-8, 2005; they also coincided with the 20th anniversary of Live Aid. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Live 8 was a series of concerts that took place in July 2005, in the G8 nations and South Africa. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). U2.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. Pink Floyd's David Gilmour (played with Bryan Ferry in 1985, and with Pink Floyd in 2005). Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. Paul McCartney. See also: Scoring. Neil Young. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. Madonna.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. George Michael. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. Elton John. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. DMC (performed as part of Run DMC at Live Aid). Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. "Won't Get Fooled Again" - The Who.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. "We Will Rock You" - Queen (Robbie Williams). Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. "Vienna" - Ultravox (Midge Ure). The game is only played in dry weather. "Tears Are Not Enough" - Bryan Adams. There is also a short interval between innings. "Save A Prayer" - Duran Duran.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. "Rat Trap" - Boomtown Rats (Bob Geldof). One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. "I Don't Like Mondays" - Boomtown Rats (Bob Geldof). Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. "Good Vibrations" - The Beach Boys (Brian Wilson). An innings is completed if:. "Every Breath You Take" - Sting and Phil Collins (Sting).

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. "Driven To Tears" - Sting. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. 8 November 2005: Official Live 8 DVD released in North America. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. 7 November 2005: Official Live 8 DVD released internationally. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. 25 October 2005: Official Live 8 Africa Calling at the Eden Project DVD released.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. 8 July 2005: Live 8 organizer Bob Geldof thanks the G8 for meeting the Live 8 goal. Each innings is subdivided into overs. Leaders pledge to increase aid to developing countries by US$50 billion overall by 2010, including an increase of US$25 billion in aid for Africa. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. 8 July 2005: The G8 summit ends. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. 6 July 2005: Edinburgh 50,000 - The Final Push concert in Edinburgh takes place.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. 3 July 2005: Sail 8 flops. Each position on the field has a unique label. Main concerts start. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. 2 July 2005: The march against poverty in Edinburgh starts and continues mostly peacefully, with an estimate of 200,000 people involved with the march. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. 2 July 2005: AOL Music begins broadcasting streams from each city live and on-demand at Aolmusic.com[9].

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. 28 June 2005: ABC say they will broadcast a two-hour highlights event at 8pm ET on 2 July in prime time. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. Acts include Pet Shop Boys, The Red Elvises and Bravo. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. 27 June 2005: Live 8 Russia, in Moscow's Red Square, announced. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. Acts in Japan concert include Björk, Good Charlotte, while acts in Johannesburg concert include African stars such as 4Peace Ensemble and Oumou Sangare.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. 24 June 2005: Live 8 Japan and South Africa announced. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. 23 June 2005: All 35,000 tickets for Canadian show are taken within 20 minutes of being made available online [8]. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. Country Music Television and VH1 Classic will show highlights on July 3 in favor of their viewer's genres. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. 22 June 2005: In the United States, MTV, MTV2, mtvU, and VH1 all confirm that they will broadcast Live 8 starting at Noon ET.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Albarn's band Blur was originally a part of the Live 8 line-up, but withdrew after complaining of the event being too "Anglo-Saxon". A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. Live 8 will make a difference - it's already created a debate that we're all involved in." [7]. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. In some way that's been addressed and that's really good.. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. He told a reporter: "I have said certain things in relation to the density of African performers..

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. 21 June 2005: Damon Albarn, who recently criticised Live 8 for the lack of African artists, is now reportedly happy about Live 8 now that they have addressed his criticism. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. The event will be hosted by comedians Dan Aykroyd and Tom Green. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Acts include Bryan Adams, Barenaked Ladies, and more. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. 21 June 2005: "Live 8 Canada" announced.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. 17 June 2005: The LIVE 8 List, a petition to the G8 leaders, is launched. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. 16 June 2005: Geldof announces three more concerts for 2 July, to be held in Johannesburg, South Africa, Makuhari, Japan, and Toronto/Barrie, Canada. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). [6]. Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. Senegalese musician Youssou N'Dour will host the event, which will also feature performances by African performers Maryam Mursal, Salif Keita and Thomas Mapfumo.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. The event is to be held in Cornwall, southwest England, on 2 July. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). 15 June 2005: It is announced that Peter Gabriel will organize a sixth simultaneous Live 8 concert dubbed "Africa Calling" featuring all African artists, to counter criticisms that most performers announced to date are white. The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. 14 June 2005: eBay announces that they will block the selling-on of tickets after Geldof calls on the public to rally against the internet auction site. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. 11 June 2005: G8 finance ministers agree to cancel the debt owed by 18 of the poorest countries.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. 7 June 2005: Midge Ure announces a concert to be held in Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh, Scotland on 6 July as the climax to the proposed rally. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. 1.5 million text messages are received in the first day. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. 6 June 2005: Text lottery launched in the UK for tickets for the London concert. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. [5] He also supported Geldof's call for a peaceful protest rally in Scotland.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. He estimates that this will save the organisers £500,000. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. 3 June 2005: British Chancellor Gordon Brown announces that VAT will be waived on the cost of the London concert. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. Geldof calls for a coinciding march on Edinburgh to protest poverty, "What's better - two days of work? Two days of geometry? Or participating in something you will remember all your life," he says. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. 31 May 2005: Official announcement of Live 8 concerts by Bob Geldof.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Each team consists of eleven players. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. .

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. This scores a run. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

(Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

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