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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. Before that, the most costly (in money, not human terms) storm had been 1992's Hurricane Andrew, which caused an estimated $25 billion in damage in Florida. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. It is also estimated to have caused an estimated $40 to $120 billion in damages. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. Its death toll is above 1300, mainly from flooding and the aftermath. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. history.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. National Hurricane Center, in its August review of the tropical storm season stated that Katrina is probably the worst natural disaster in U.S. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. The U.S. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana and Mississippi. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. Hurricane Jeanne in 2004 was only a tropical storm when it made a glancing blow on Haiti, but the flooding and mudslides it caused killed over 3,000 people.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. A tropical cyclone need not be particularly strong to cause memorable damage; Tropical Storm Allison in June 2001 had its name retired for killing 41 people and causing over $5 billion damage in East Texas, even though it never became a hurricane; the damage from Allison was mostly due to flooding, not winds or storm surge. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. Hurricanes may have formed there prior to 1960 but were not observed until weather satellites began monitoring the Earth's oceans in that year. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Previous South Atlantic cyclones in 1991 and 2004 reached only tropical storm strength. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. On March 26, 2004, Cyclone Catarina became the first recorded South Atlantic hurricane.

Some popular rule variations are:. Hurricane Iniki in 1992 was the most powerful storm to strike Hawaii in recorded history, hitting Kauai as a Category 4 hurricane, killing six and causing $3 billion in damage. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. [18]. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. The smallest storm on record, 1974's Cyclone Tracy, which devastated Darwin, Australia, was roughly 30 miles (50 km) wide. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. The average tropical cyclone is only 300 miles (480 km) wide.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. Tip was also the largest cyclone on record, with a circulation 1,350 miles (2,170 km) wide. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. (The current record is held by a non-hurricane wind registering 231 mph (372 km/h) at Mount Washington in New Hampshire.) [17]. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. Had it been confirmed, this would be the strongest non-tornadic wind ever recorded at the Earth's surface. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. [16] Similarly, a gust caused by Typhoon Paka over Guam was recorded at 236 mph (380 km/h); however, this reading had to be discarded, since the anemometer was damaged by the storm.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. Typhoon Nancy in 1961 had recorded wind speeds of 213 mph (343 km/h), but recent research indicates that wind speeds from the 1940s to the 1960s were gauged too high, and this is no longer considered the fastest storm on record. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. For comparison, these speeds are encountered at the center of a strong tornado, but Camille was much larger and long-lived than any tornado. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. Camille was the only storm to actually strike land while at that intensity, making it, with 190 mph (305 km/h) sustained winds and 210 mph (335 km/h) gusts, the strongest tropical cyclone of record to ever hit land. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Tip does not hold the record for fastest sustained winds in a cyclone alone; Typhoon Keith in the Pacific, and Hurricane Camille and Hurricane Allen in the North Atlantic currently share this record as well [15], although recorded wind speeds that fast are suspect, since most monitoring equipment is likely to be destroyed by such conditions.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. It weakened before striking Japan. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. The most intense storm on record was Typhoon Tip in the northwestern Pacific Ocean in 1979, which had a minimum pressure of only 870 mbar and maximum sustained wind speeds of 190 mph (305 km/h). The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. The deadliest Atlantic storm on record was the Great Hurricane of 1780, which killed about 22,000 people in the Antilles. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which made landfall at Galveston, Texas as an estimated Category 4 storm, killed 8,000 to 12,000 people, and remains the deadliest natural disaster in the history of the United States.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. Hurricane Mitch during the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season caused severe flooding and mudslides in Honduras, killing about 18,000 people and changing the landscape enough that entirely new maps of the country were needed. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. In the Atlantic basin, at least two storms have killed more than 10,000 people. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. [14]. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. The North Indian basin has historically been the deadliest, with three storms since 1900 killing over 100,000 people, each in Bangladesh.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. It killed an estimated 500,000 people. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. The deadliest tropical cyclone on record hit the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) on November 13, 1970, likely as a Category 3 tropical cyclone. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. Tropical cyclones that cause massive destruction are fortunately rare, but when they happen, they can cause damage in the thousands of lives and the billions of dollars. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. This statistic needs refining because the variables being tested are not normally distributed with equal variances, but it may provide the best evidence yet that the impact of global warming on hurricane intensity has been detected.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. Under the assumption that the six basins are statistically independent except for the effect of global warming, Stoft has carried out the obvious paired t-test and found that the null-hypothesis of no impact of global warming on the percentage of category 4 & 5 hurricanes can be rejected at the 0.1% level—there is only a 1 in 1000 chance of simultaneously finding the observed six increases in the cat-4&5 percentages. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. do not undertake any such test. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. Unfortunately Webster et al. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. But if the local oscillations are not synchronized by some as-yet-unidentified global oscillation, the independence of the basins allows joint statistical tests that are more powerful than any set of individual basin tests.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Because each individual basin may be subject to intra-basin oscillations similar to the AMO, any single-basin statistic remains open to question. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. analyze the slightly less relevant percentage of hurricanes in the combined categories 4 and 5, and find that this percentage has increased in each of six distinct hurricane basins: North Atlantic, North East and North West Pacific, South Pacific, and North and South Indian. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. While Emanuel analyzes total annual energy dissipation, Webster et al. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. [13].

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. So, both a natural variation (such as the AMO) and global warming could have made contributions to the warming of the tropical Atlantic over the past decades, but an exact attribution is so far impossible to make. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. Emanuel, however, found the recent temperature increase was outside the range of previous oscillations. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. K. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. The question then becomes: what caused the observed increase in sea surface temperatures? In the Atlantic, it could be due to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), a 50–70 year pattern of temperature variability.

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. Both Emanuel and Webster et al., consider the sea surface temperature as of key importance in the development of cyclones. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. I.e., while the number of cyclones decreased overall, the number of very strong cyclones increased. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. The main finding is that while the number of cyclones "decreased in all basins except the North Atlantic during the past decade" there is a "large increase in the number and proportion of hurricanes reaching categories 4 and 5". Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. published an article in Science 309, 1844-1846 examining "changes in tropical cyclone number, duration, and intensity" over the last 35 years, a period where satellite data is available.

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. Webster et al. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. Along similar lines, P.J. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. Emanuel further predicts "a substantial increase in hurricane-related losses in the twenty-first century". The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Emanuel states that the potential hurricane destructiveness, a measure which combines strength, duration, and frequency of hurricanes, "is highly correlated with tropical sea surface temperature, reflecting well-documented climate signals, including multidecadal oscillations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and global warming." K.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. In this article, K. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. Emanuel (2005) (Nature 436, 686–688, preprint). The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. This consensus is now questioned by K. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. Regarding strength, a similar conclusion was consensus until recently.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says in their Hurricane FAQ that "it is highly unlikely that global warming has (or will) contribute to a drastic change in the number or intensity of hurricanes." [12]. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. The U.S. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. The question is thus whether a statistical trend in frequency or strength of cyclones exists. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. So far, virtually all climatologists seem to agree that a single storm, or even a single season, cannot clearly be attributed to a single cause such as global warming or natural variation [11].

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. A common question is whether global warming can or will cause more frequent or more fierce tropical cyclones. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. The official record, therefore, probably misses many storms in which no ship experienced gale-force winds, recognized it as a tropical storm (as opposed to a high-latitude extra-tropical cyclone, a tropical wave, or a brief squall), returned to port, and reported the experience. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). Before the satellite era began in 1961, tropical storms or hurricanes went undetected unless a ship reported a voyage through the storm. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. These unusually active hurricane seasons predated satellite coverage of the Atlantic basin that now enables forecasters to see all tropical cyclones.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. Few hurricanes occurred in the 1840s to 1860s; however, many struck in the early 1800s, including an 1821 storm that made a direct hit on New York City which some historical weather experts say may have been as high as Category 4 in strength. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. During the 1887 season, 19 tropical storms formed, of which a record 4 occurred after 1 November and 11 strengthened into hurricanes. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. Tropical hurricanes occurred infrequently during the seasons of 1900-1925; however, many intense storms formed 1870-1899. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. A record 21 Atlantic tropical storms formed in 1933, only recently exceeded in 2005.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Destructive hurricanes struck frequently from 1926-60, including many major New England hurricanes. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. Although more common since 1995, few above-normal hurricane seasons occurred during 1970-1994. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. The number and strength of Atlantic hurricanes may undergo a 50-70-year cycle. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. Although the record shows a distinct increase in the number and strength of intense hurricanes, therefore, experts regard the early data as suspect.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. The combined effects of ship destruction and remote landfall severely limit the number of intense hurricanes in the official record before the era of hurricane reconnaissance aircraft and satellite meteorology. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. Often in part because of the threat of hurricanes, many coastal regions had sparse population between major ports until the advent of automobile tourism; therefore, the most severe portions of hurricanes striking the coast often went unmeasured. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. This can to a large extent be attributed to the number of people living in susceptible coastal area, and massive development in the region since the last surge in Atlantic hurricane activity in the 1960s. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. Atlantic storms are certainly becoming more destructive financially, since five of the ten most expensive storms in United States history have occurred since 1990.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. [10]. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. While the number of storms in the Atlantic has increased since 1995, there seems to be no signs of a global trend; the annual global number of tropical cyclones remains about 90 ± 10. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. James Lovelock has also hypothesised that by raising nutrients from the sea floor to surface layers of the ocean, hurricanes also increase biological activity in areas where life would be difficult through nutrient loss in the deeper reaches of the ocean. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. Hurricanes also help to maintain global heat balance by moving warm, moist tropical air to the mid-latitudes and polar regions.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Of course, many former residents and businesses do relocate to inland areas away from the threat of future hurricanes as well. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. On the other hand, disaster response officials point out that redevelopment encourages more people to live in clearly dangerous areas subject to future deadly storms (as shown by the effects of Hurricane Katrina). The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The destruction caused by Camille on the Gulf coast spurred redevelopment as well, greatly increasing local property values. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. Hurricane Floyd did the same thing in New Jersey in 1999.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Hurricane Camille averted drought conditions and ended water deficits along much of its path. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Hurricane Allen ended the Texas drought of 1980. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. Although cyclones take an enormous toll in lives and personal property, they may bring much-needed precipitation to otherwise dry regions. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. They include:.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. Often, the secondary effects of a tropical cyclone are equally damaging. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. A tropical cyclone moving over land can do direct damage in four ways. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. However, the most devastating effects of a tropical cyclone occur when they cross coastlines, making landfall. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Tropical cyclones on the open sea cause large waves, heavy rain, and high winds, disrupting international shipping and sometimes sinking ships.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. A mature tropical cyclone can release heat at a rate upwards of 6x1014 watts [9]. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Example: Ken-Lola (1989). Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. Sometimes, there may be human faults leading to the renaming of a tropical cyclone. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. Human faults.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. 4. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Example: TD 10-TD 12 (2005). The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. When the remnants of a tropical cyclone redevelop, the redeveloping system will be treated as a new tropical cyclone if there are uncertainties of the continuation, even though the original system may contribute to the forming of the new system. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. Uncertainties of the continuation.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. 3. Briefly, the ten modes are:. Up to now, there has been no tropical cyclone retaining its name during the passage from Atlantic to Pacific, or vice versa. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. In 2003, when Larry was about to move across Mexico, NHC attempted to provide greater clarity:. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. NHC explained that Iris had dissipated as a tropical cyclone prior to entering the eastern North Pacific basin; the new depression was properly named Fifteen-E, rather than Iris.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The depression later became tropical storm Manuel. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. However, the Pacific tropical depression developed from the remnants of Iris was called Fifteen-E instead. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. In 2001, when Iris moved across Central America, NHC mentioned that Iris would retain its name if it regenerated in the Pacific. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). Examples: Cesar-Douglas (1996), Joan-Miriam (1988).

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. It was the policy of National Hurricane Center (NHC) to rename a tropical storm which crossed from Atlantic into Pacific, or vice versa. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. A tropical storm crosses from the Atlantic into the Pacific, or vice versa, before 2001. This is known as the Economy rate. 2. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. Examples: Bertie-Alvin (2005).

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. In this case, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) will put two names together with a hyphen. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. In the south Indian Ocean, RSMC la Reunion names a tropical storm once it crosses 90°E from the east, even though it has been named. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. A tropical storm enters the southwestern Indian Ocean from the east. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. 1.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. However, a tropical cyclone may be renamed in several occasions. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). In most cases, a tropical cyclone retains its name throughout its life. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. The names are usually of English, French or Spanish origin in the Atlantic basin, since these are the three predominant languages of the region where the storms typically form. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. It was also in 1979 that the practice of preparing a list of names before the season began.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". The National Weather Service responded to these concerns in 1979 with the introduction of masculine names to the nomenclature. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. However, since tropical storms and hurricanes are primarily destructive, some considered this practice sexist. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. The first storm of the year was assigned a name beginning with the letter "A", the second with the letter "B", etc. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. In keeping with the common English language practice of referring to inanimate objects such as boats, trains, etc., using the female pronoun "she," names used were exclusively feminine.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. To help in their identification, beginning in 1953 the practice of systematically naming tropical storms and hurricanes was initiated by the United States National Hurricane Center, and is now maintained by the WMO. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. As transportation traffic increased and meteorological observations improved in number and quality, several typhoons, hurricanes or cyclones might have to be tracked at any given time. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. The modern naming convention came about in response to the need for unambiguous radio communications with ships and aircraft. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. For a few years afterwards, names from the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet were used.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. During World War II, tropical cyclones were given feminine names, mainly for the convenience of the forecasters and in a somewhat ad hoc manner. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. He used feminine names, the names of politicians who had offended him, and names from history and mythology. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. The practice of giving storms people's names was introduced by Clement Lindley Wragge, an Anglo-Australian meteorologist at the end of the 19th century. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. For several hundred years after Europeans arrived in the West Indies, hurricanes there were named after the saint's day on which the storm struck.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. The Seychelles Meteorological Service maintains a list for the Southwest Indian Ocean. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. There are also Fiji region and Papua New Guinea region names. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology maintains three lists of names, one for each of the Western, Northern and Eastern Australian regions. This is known as running between wickets. The Typhoon Songda in September 2004 is internally called the typhoon number 18 and is recorded as the typhoon 0418 with 04 taken from the year.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. Japan Meteorological Agency uses a secondary naming system in Western North Pacific that numbers a typhoon on the order it formed, resetting on December 31 of every year. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Names are used in the order of the countries' English names, sequentially without regard to year. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Five lists of names are used, with each of the 14 nations on the Typhoon Committee submitting two names to each list. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. In the Western North Pacific, name lists are maintained by the WMO Typhoon Committee.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). Four lists of Hawaiian names are selected and used in sequential order without regard to year. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. In the Central North Pacific region, the name lists are maintained by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). There is no precedent for a storm named with a Greek Letter causing enough damage to justify retirement; how this situation would be handled is unknown. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. This was first necessary during the 2005 season when the names Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, and Zeta were all used.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. If there are more than 21 named storms in an Atlantic season or 24 named storms in an Eastern Pacific season, the rest are named as letters from the Greek alphabet: the 22nd storm is called "Alpha," the 23rd "Beta," and so on. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. The affected countries then decide on a replacement name of the same gender (and if possible, the same ethnicity) as the name being retired. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Names of storms may be retired by request of affected countries if they have caused extensive damage. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). Five letters — "Q," "U," "X," "Y" and "Z" — are omitted in the Atlantic; only "Q" and "U" are omitted in the Eastern Pacific, so the format accommodates 21 or 24 named storms in a hurricane season.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. Six lists of names are prepared in advance, and each list is used once every six years. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The "gender" of the season's first storm also alternates year to year: the first storm of an odd-numbered year gets feminine name, while the first storm of an even-numbered year gets a masculine name. See also: Scoring. In the Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific regions, feminine and masculine names are assigned alternately in alphabetic order during a given season. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. The WMO's Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee selects the names for Atlantic Basin and central and eastern Pacific storms.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. Each year, the names of particularly destructive storms (if there were any) are "retired" and new names are chosen to take their place. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. The lists are decided upon, depending on the regions, either by committees of the World Meteorological Organization (called primarily to discuss many other issues), or by national weather services involved in the forecasting of the storms. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These names are taken from lists which vary from region to region and are drafted a few years ahead of time. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Storms reaching tropical storm strength (winds exceeding 17 metres per second, 38 mph, or 62 km/h) are given names, to assist in recording insurance claims, to assist in warning people of the coming storm, and to further indicate that these are important storms that should not be ignored.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. The National Hurricane Center uses the data to evaluate conditions at landfall and to verify forecasts. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. During landfall, the NOAA Hurricane Research Division compares and verifies data from reconnaissance aircraft (which includes wind speed data taken at flight level and from GPS dropwindsondes and stepped-frequency microwave radiometers) to wind speed data transmitted in real time from weather stations erected near or at the coast. The game is only played in dry weather. The two largest programs are the Florida Coastal Monitoring Program [7] and the Wind Engineering Mobile Instrumented Tower Experiment [8]. There is also a short interval between innings. Recently, academic researchers have begun to deploy mobile weather stations fortified to withstand hurricane-force winds.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. Radar plays a crucial role around landfall because it shows a storm's location and intensity minute by minute. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. As a storm approaches land, it can be observed by land-based Doppler radar. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. Tropical cyclones far from land are tracked by weather satellites capturing visible and infrared images from space, usually at half-hour to quarter-hour intervals. An innings is completed if:. This demonstrated a new way to probe the storms at low altitudes that human pilots seldom dare[6].

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. A new era in hurricane observation began when a remotely piloted Aerosonde, a small drone aircraft, was flown through Tropical Storm Ophelia as it passed Virginia's Eastern Shore during the 2005 hurricane season. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. These sondes measure temperature, humidity, pressure, and especially winds between flight level and the ocean's surface. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. The aircraft also launch GPS dropsondes inside the cyclone. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. These aircraft fly directly into the cyclone and take direct and remote-sensing measurements.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. The aircraft used are WC-130 Hercules and WP-3D Orions, both four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft. Each innings is subdivided into overs. In the Atlantic basin, these flights are regularly flown by US government hurricane hunters [5]. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. It is however possible to take in-situ measurements, in real-time, by sending specially equipped reconnaissance flights into the cyclone. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. Even in these cases, real-time measurement taking is generally possible only in the periphery of the cyclone, where conditions are less catastrophic.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Surface level observations are generally available only if the storm is passing over an island or a coastal area, or it has overtaken an unfortunate ship. Each position on the field has a unique label. As they are a dangerous oceanic phenomenon, weather stations are rarely available on the site of the storm itself. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Intense tropical cyclones pose a particular observation challenge. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. However, it has been suggested by some that we can change the course of a storm during its early stages of formation, (detailed by an article, Controlling Hurricanes, Scientific American, 2005), such as using satellite to alter the environmental conditions or, more realistically, spreading degradable film of oil over the ocean, which prevent water vapor from fueling the storm.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. These approaches all suffer from the same flaw: tropical cyclones are simply too large for any of them to be practical [4]. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. Other approaches have been suggested over time, including cooling the water under a tropical cyclone by towing icebergs into the tropical oceans; dropping large quantities of ice into the eye at very early stages so that latent heat is absorbed by ice at the entrance (storm cell perimeter bottom) instead of heat energy being converted to kinetic energy at high altitudes vertically above; covering the ocean in a substance that inhibits evaporation; or blasting the cyclone apart with nuclear weapons. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. Today it is known that silver iodide seeding is not likely to have an effect because the amount of supercooled water in the rainbands of a tropical cyclone is too low.[3]. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. The project was dropped after it was discovered that eyewall replacement cycles occur naturally in strong hurricanes, casting doubt on the result of the earlier attempts.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. Because there was so much uncertainty about the behavior of these storms, the federal government would not approve seeding operations unless the hurricane had a less than 10 percent chance of making landfall within 48 hours. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. In an earlier episode, disaster struck when a hurricane east of Jacksonville, Florida, was seeded, promptly changed its course, and smashed into Savannah, Georgia[citation needed]. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. The winds of Hurricane Debbie dropped as much as 30 percent, but then regained their strength after each of two seeding forays. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. It was thought that the seeding would cause supercooled water in the outer rainbands to freeze, causing the inner eyewall to collapse and thus reducing the winds.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. In the 1960s and 1970s, the United States government attempted to weaken hurricanes in its Project Stormfury by seeding selected storms with silver iodide. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. In the Atlantic ocean, such tropical-derived cyclones of higher latitudes can be violent and may occasionally remain at hurricane-force wind speeds when they reach Europe as a European windstorm. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. When a tropical cyclone reaches higher latitudes or passes over land, it may merge with weather fronts or develop into a frontal cyclone, also called extratropical cyclone. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. Even after a tropical cyclone is said to be extratropical or dissipated, it can still have tropical storm force (or occasionally hurricane force) winds and drop several inches of rainfall.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. A tropical cyclone can cease to have tropical characteristics in several ways:. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. For a list of notable and unusual landfalling hurricanes, see list of notable tropical cyclones. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. For emergency preparedness, actions should be timed from when a certain wind speed will reach land, not from when landfall will occur. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. In fact, for a storm moving inland, the landfall area experiences half the storm before the actual landfall.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Naturally, storm conditions may be experienced on the coast and inland well before landfall. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Officially, "landfall" is when a storm's center (the center of the eye, not its edge) reaches land. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). They attribute the lack of improvement in intensity forecasting to the complexity of tropical systems and an incomplete understanding of factors that affect their development. Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. But while track forecasts have become more accurate than 20 years ago, scientists say they are less skillful at predicting the intensity of tropical cyclones.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. High-speed computers and sophisticated simulation software allow forecasters to produce computer models that forecast tropical cyclone tracks based on the future position and strength of high- and low-pressure systems. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). With their understanding of the forces that act on tropical cyclones, and a wealth of data from earth-orbiting satellites and other sensors, scientists have increased the accuracy of track forecasts over recent decades. The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. Because of the forces that affect tropical cyclone tracks, accurate track predictions depend on determining the position and strength of high- and low-pressure areas, and predicting how those areas will change during the life of a tropical system. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. East Coast and in the Gulf of Mexico are eventually forced toward the northeast by high-pressure areas which move from west to east over North Africa.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. Many tropical cyclones along the coast. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. Such a track direction change is termed recurve. A hurricane moving from the Atlantic toward the Gulf of Mexico, for example, will recurve to the north and then northeast if it encounters winds blowing northwestward toward a high-pressure system passing over North Africa. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. Finally, when a tropical cyclone moves into higher latitude, its general track around a high-pressure area can be deflected significantly by winds moving toward a low-pressure area. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. (Much of that is due to the conservation of angular momentum - air is drawn in from an area much larger than the cyclone such that the tiny angular velocity of that air will be magnified greatly when the distance to the storm center shrinks.).

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The Coriolis acceleration also initiates cyclonic rotation, but it is not the driving force that brings this rotation to high speeds. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. Thus, tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere, which commonly move west in the beginning, normally turn north (and are then usually blown east), and cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected south, if no strong pressure systems are counteracting the Coriolis Acceleration. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. The southern part is pulled south, but since it is closer to the equator, the Coriolis force is a bit weaker there). The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. in the north, the northern part of the cyclone has winds to the west, and the Coriolis force pulls them slightly north.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. This acceleration causes cyclonic systems to turn towards the poles in the absence of strong steering currents (i.e. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. The earth's rotation also imparts an acceleration (termed the Coriolis Acceleration or Coriolis Effect). A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. Also, in the area of the North Atlantic where hurricanes form, trade winds, which are prevailing westward-moving wind currents, steer tropical waves (precursors to tropical depressions and cyclones) westward from off the African coast toward the Caribbean and North America. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. Over the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical systems are steered generally westward by the east-to-west winds on the south side of the Bermuda High, a persistent high-pressure area over the North Atlantic.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. The major force affecting the track of tropical systems in all areas are winds circulating around high-pressure areas. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. The path of motion is referred to as a tropical cyclone's track.. Each team consists of eleven players. That is, large-scale winds—the streams in the earth's atmosphere—are responsible for moving and steering tropical cyclones. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries. Although tropical cyclones are large systems generating enormous energy, their movements over the earth's surface are often compared to that of leaves carried along by a stream.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In British Shipping Forecasts, winds of force 12 on the Beaufort scale are described as "hurricane force.". Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. However, two powerful extratropical cyclones that ravaged France, Germany, and the United Kingdom in December 1999, "Lothar" and "Martin", were named due to their unexpected power (equivalent to a category 1 or 2 hurricane). The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. These European windstorms can generate hurricane-force winds but are not given individual names. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team. In the United Kingdom and Europe, some severe northeast Atlantic cyclonic depressions are referred to as "hurricanes," even though they rarely originate in the tropics.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. Although subtropical storms rarely attain hurricane-force winds, they may become tropical in nature as their core warms. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. They can form in a wide band of latitude, from the equator to 50°. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an extratropical cyclone. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. Extratropical cyclones can also be dangerous because their low-pressure centers cause powerful winds.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. From space, extratropical storms have a characteristic "comma-shaped" cloud pattern. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A tropical cyclone can become extratropical as it moves toward higher latitudes if its energy source changes from heat released by condensation to differences in temperature between air masses; more rarely, an extratropical cyclone can transform into a subtropical storm, and from there into a tropical cyclone. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. An extratropical cyclone is a storm that derives energy from horizontal temperature differences, which are typical in higher latitudes. . Several of these relate to the formation or dissipation of tropical cyclones.

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. Many other forms of cyclone can form in nature. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. weather service defines sustained winds based on 1-minute average speed measured about 10 meters (33 ft) above the surface. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. The U.S. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council). The definition of sustained winds recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and used by most weather agencies is that of a 10-minute average.

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center classifies typhoons with wind speeds of at least 150 mi/h (67 m/s or 241 km/h, equivalent to a strong Category 4 storm) as Super Typhoons. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. The National Hurricane Center classifies hurricanes of Category 3 and above as Major Hurricanes. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In fact, tropical systems of less than hurricane strength can produce significant damage and human casualties, especially from flooding and landslides. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. For instance, a Category 2 hurricane that strikes a major urban area will likely do more damage than a large Category 5 hurricane that strikes a mostly rural region.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. Lower-category storms can inflict greater damage than higher-category storms, depending on factors such as local terrain and total rainfall. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. The rankings are not absolute in terms of effects. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. A Category 1 storm has the lowest maximum winds, a Category 5 hurricane has the highest. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. Hurricanes are ranked according to their maximum winds using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely and the storm can be the same intensity as it was previously or, in some cases, even stronger. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. the maximum winds die off a bit and the central pressure goes up). Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. During this phase, the tropical cyclone is weakening (i.e. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. At this point, some of the outer rainbands may organize into an outer ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward and robs the inner eyewall of its needed moisture and momentum.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. When cyclones reach peak intensity they usually - but not always - have an eyewall and radius of maximum winds that contract to a very small size, around 5 to 15 miles. This scores a run. Eyewall replacement cycles naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Intense, mature hurricanes can sometimes exhibit an inward curving of the eyewall top that resembles a football stadium: this phenomenon is thus sometimes referred to as stadium effect. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket. Maximum sustained winds in the strongest tropical cyclones have been measured at more than 85 m/s (165 knots, 190 mph, 305 km/h).

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. The direction of the cyclonic circulation depends on the hemisphere; it is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. Bands or arms may extend over great distances as clouds are drawn toward the cyclone. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). The circulation of clouds around a cyclone's center imparts a distinct spiral shape to the system. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch. Surrounding the eye is the eyewall, an area about 10 to 50 miles (16 to 80 kilometers) wide in which the strongest thunderstorms and winds circulate around the storm's center.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. The eye is often visible in satellite images as a small, circular, cloud-free spot. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. At hurricane and typhoon intensity, a tropical cyclone tends to develop an eye, an area of relative calm (and lowest atmospheric pressure) at the center of the circulation. "Six and out". Government weather services assign first names to systems that reach this intensity (thus the term named storm). This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting. At this point, the distinctive cyclonic shape starts to develop, though an eye is usually not present.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. A tropical storm is an organized system of strong thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds between 17 and 33 meters per second (34–63 knots, 39–73 mph, or 62–117 km/h). "Can not get out first ball". It is already becoming a low-pressure system, however, hence the name "depression". (Law 31). It has no eye, and does not typically have the spiral shape of more powerful storms. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. A tropical depression is an organized system of clouds and thunderstorms with a defined surface circulation and maximum sustained winds of less than 17 metres per second (33 knots, 38 mph, or 62 km/h).

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. Tropical cyclones are classified into three main groups: tropical depressions, tropical storms, and a third group whose name depends on the region. (Law 37). A strong tropical cyclone consists of the following components. No player is credited with the dismissal. The following areas spawn tropical cyclones only very rarely. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. There are seven main basins of tropical cyclone formation:.

(Law 34). It is estimated that such conditions occur only once every 400 years. No player is credited with the dismissal. A combination of a pre-existing disturbance, upper level divergence and a monsoon-related cold spell led to Typhoon Vamei at only 1.5 degrees north of the equator in 2001. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. Hurricane Ivan of 2004 developed within 10 degrees of the equator. (Law 33). These conditions are extremely rare, and such storms are believed to form at most once per century.

No player is credited with the dismissal. However, it is possible for tropical cyclones to form within this boundary if there is another source of initial rotation. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. Because the Coriolis effect initiates and maintains tropical cyclone rotation, such cyclones almost never form or move within about 10 degrees of the equator [2], where the Coriolis effect is weakest. (Law 35). Nearly all of them form between 10 and 30 degrees of the equator and 87% form within 20 degrees of it. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. Most tropical cyclones form in a worldwide band of thunderstorm activity called the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ).

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. Worldwide, an average of 80 tropical cyclones form each year. (Law 39). Southern Hemisphere activity peaks in mid-February to early March. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. In the Southern Hemisphere, tropical cyclone activity begins in late October and ends in May. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. In the North Indian basin, storms are most common from April to December, with peaks in May and November.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The Northwest Pacific sees tropical cyclones year-round, with a minimum in February and a peak in early September. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The Northeast Pacific has a broader period of activity, but in a similar timeframe to the Atlantic. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. The statistical peak of the North Atlantic hurricane season is September 10. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. In the North Atlantic, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer when water temperatures are warmest. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. These include:. (Law 30). Only specific weather disturbances can result in tropical cyclones.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. Tropical cyclones occasionally form despite not meeting these conditions. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Five factors are necessary to make tropical cyclone formation possible:. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. The formation of tropical cyclones is the topic of extensive ongoing research, and is still not fully understood. (Law 32). The high cirrus clouds may be the first signs of an approaching hurricane.

The bowler and catcher are both credited. This outflow produces high, thin cirrus clouds that spiral away from the center. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. These originate from air that has released its moisture and is expelled at high altitude through the "chimney" of the storm engine. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). While the most obvious motion of clouds is toward the center, tropical cyclones also develop an upper-level (high-altitude) outward flow of clouds. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs). Scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research estimate that a hurricane releases heat energy at the rate of 50 to 200 trillion watts -- about the amount of energy released by exploding a 10-megaton nuclear bomb every 20 minutes [1].

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. As a result, when a tropical cyclone passes over land, its strength diminishes rapidly. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed). The evaporation of this moisture is accelerated by the high winds and reduced atmospheric pressure in the storm, resulting in a positive feedback loop. In order to continue to drive its heat engine, a tropical cyclone must remain over warm water, which provides the atmospheric moisture needed. By contrast, mid-latitude cyclones, for example, draw their energy mostly from pre-existing horizontal temperature gradients in the atmosphere.

Condensation as a driving force is what primarily distinguishes tropical cyclones from other meteorological phenomena, and because this is strongest in a tropical climate, this defines the initial domain of the tropical cyclone. If the right conditions persist and allow it to create a feedback loop by maximizing the energy intake possible, for example, such as high winds to increase the rate of evaporation, they can combine to produce the violent winds, incredible waves, torrential rains, and floods associated with this phenomenon. The factors to form a tropical cyclone include a pre-existing weather disturbance, warm tropical oceans, moisture, and relatively light winds aloft. The orbital revolution of the Earth causes the system to spin, an effect known as the Coriolis force, giving it a cyclone characteristic and affecting the trajectory of the storm.

Factors such as a continued lack of equilibrium in air mass distribution would also give supporting energy to the cyclone. This gives rise to factors that give the system enough energy to be self-sufficient and cause a positive feedback loop where it can draw more energy as long as the source of heat, warm water, remains. Continued condensation leads to higher winds, continued evaporation, and continued condensation, feeding back into itself. Therefore, a tropical cyclone can be thought of as a giant vertical heat engine supported by mechanics driven by physical forces such as the rotation and gravity of the Earth.

Its primary energy source is the release of the heat of condensation from water vapor condensing at high altitudes, the heat ultimately derived from the sun. Structurally, a tropical cyclone is a large, rotating system of clouds, wind and thunderstorms. [citation needed]. The word cyclone is from the Greek "κύκλος", meaning "circle." An Egyptian word Cykline meaning to "to spin" has been cited as a possible origin.

The word hurricane is derived from the name of a native Caribbean Amerindian storm god, Huracan, via Spanish huracán. See tuphōn for more information. Portuguese tufão is also related to typhoon. The word typhoon has two possible origins:.

There are many regional names for tropical cyclones, including Bagyo in the Philippines and Taino in Haiti. Terms used in weather reports for tropical cyclones that have surface winds over 64 knots (73.6 mph) or 32 m/s vary by region:. . While they can be highly destructive, tropical cyclones are an important part of the atmospheric circulation system, which moves heat from the equatorial region toward the higher latitudes.

In meteorology, a tropical cyclone (also referred to as a tropical depression, tropical storm, typhoon, or hurricane depending on strength and geographical context) is a type of low pressure system which generally forms in the tropics. Transportation difficulties - Tropical cyclones often destroy key bridges, overpasses, and roads, complicating efforts to transport food, clean water, and medicine to the areas that need it. Power outages - Tropical cyclones often knock out power to tens or hundreds of thousands of people (or occasionally millions if a large urban area is affected), prohibiting vital communication and hampering rescue efforts. Infections of cuts and bruises can be greatly amplified by wading in sewage-polluted water.

One of the most common post-hurricane injuries is stepping on a nail in storm debris, leading to a risk of tetanus or other infection. Disease - The wet environment in the aftermath of a tropical cyclone, combined with the destruction of sanitation facilities and a warm tropical climate, can induce epidemics of disease which claim lives long after the storm passes. While these tornadoes are normally not as strong as their non-tropical counterparts, they can still cause tremendous damage. Tornado activity - The broad rotation of a hurricane often spawns tornadoes.

Rivers and streams flood, roads become impassable, and landslides can occur. Heavy rain - The thunderstorm activity in a tropical cyclone causes intense rainfall. This is the worst effect, as cyclones claim 80% of their victims when they first strike shore. Storm surge - Tropical cyclones cause an increase in sea level, which can flood coastal communities.

High winds also turn loose debris into flying projectiles, making the outdoor environment even more dangerous. High winds - Hurricane strength winds can damage or destroy vehicles, buildings, bridges, etc. Such weakening is generally temporary unless it meets other conditions above. An outer eye wall forms (typically around 50 miles from the center of the storm), choking off the convection toward the inner eye wall.

These storms are extratropical cyclones. This does not necessarily mean the death of the storm, but the storm will lose its tropical characteristics. It enters colder waters. (Such, however, can strengthen the non-tropical system as a whole.).

It can be weak enough to be consumed by another area of low pressure, disrupting it and joining to become a large area of non-cyclonic thunderstorms. It experiences wind shear, causing the convection to lose direction and the heat engine to break down. Without warm surface water, the storm cannot survive. It remains in the same area of ocean for too long, drawing heat off of the ocean surface until it becomes too cool to support the storm.

However, many storm fatalities occur in mountainous terrain, as the dying storm unleashes torrential rainfall which can lead to deadly floods and mudslides. If a storm is over mountains for even a short time, it can rapidly lose its structure. There is, however, a chance they could regenerate if they manage to get back over open warm water. Most strong storms lose their strength very rapidly after landfall, and become disorganized areas of low pressure within a day or two.

It moves over land, thus depriving it of the warm water it needs to power itself, and quickly loses strength. Tropical cyclones owe this unique characteristic to the warm core at the center of the storm. Winds at the surface are strongly cyclonic, weaken with height, and eventually reverse themselves. Outflow: The upper levels of a tropical cyclone feature winds headed away from the center of the storm with an anticyclonic rotation.

The heaviest wind damage occurs where a hurricane's eyewall passes over land. Eyewall: A band around the eye of greatest wind speed, where clouds reach highest and precipitation is heaviest. In weaker cyclones, the CDO covers the circulation center, resulting in no visible eye. The eye is normally circular in shape, and may range in size from 8 km to 200 km (5 miles to 125 miles) in diameter.

Eyes are home to the coldest temperatures of the storm at the surface, and the warmest temperatures at the upper levels. Weather in the eye is normally calm and free of clouds (however, the sea may be extremely violent). Eye: A strong tropical cyclone will harbor an area of sinking air at the center of circulation. The classic hurricane contains a symmetrical CDO, which means that it is perfectly circular and round on all sides.

This contains the eye wall, and the eye itself. Central Dense Overcast (CDO): The Central Dense Overcast is a dense shield of very intense thunderstorm activity that make up the inner portion of the hurricane. Thus, at any given altitude (except close to the surface where water temperature dictates air temperature) the environment inside the cyclone is warmer than its outer surroundings. This heat is distributed vertically, around the center of the storm.

Warm core: Tropical cyclones are characterized and driven by the release of large amounts of latent heat of condensation as moist air is carried upwards and its water vapor condenses. The pressures recorded at the centers of tropical cyclones are among the lowest that occur on Earth's surface at sea level. Surface low: All tropical cyclones rotate around an area of low atmospheric pressure near the Earth's surface. The Great Lakes A storm system that appeared similar to a tropical cyclone formed in 1996 on Lake Huron it formed an eye and could have breifly been sub-tropical.

It formed from a thunderstorm formation in Borneo that moved into the South China Sea. It caused flooding in southern Malaysia and some damage in Singapore. However, in December 2001, Typhoon Vamei formed in the Southern South China Sea and made landfall in Malaysia. Areas within ten degrees laditude of the equator do not experience a significant coriolis force, a vital ingredient in tropical cyclone formation.

Southern South China Sea Tropical cyclones normally do not develop in the Southern South China Sea due to its close proximity to the equator. Australia: SE Indian Basin includes the eastern part of the Indian ocean and the northern and western part of the Australian basin. Australia: SW Pacific Basin includes the eastern part of Australia and the Fiji area. before being transformed into an extratropical low or absorbed into other systems of low pressure.

Vince's origin was the northernmost in the eastern Atlantic ever recorded, and Vince was the first storm in recorded history to reach the Iberian Peninsula as a tropical cyclone, i.e. Northeastern Atlantic Ocean: In October 2005, Hurricane Vince formed near Madeira, then moved northeastward, passing south of the Portuguese south coast, and made landfall in southwestern Spain as a tropical depression. However, there is debate on whether these storms were tropical in nature. Such cyclones formed in September 1947, September 1969, January 1982, September 1983, and January 1995.

Mediterranean Sea: Storms which appear similar to tropical cyclones in structure sometimes occur in the Mediterranean basin. They affect the islands of Polynesia in exceptional instances. Most of the storms that enter this region formed farther west in the Southwest Pacific. Eastern South Pacific: Tropical cyclone formation is rare in this region; when they do form, it is frequently linked to El Niño episodes.

However, this region is commonly frequented by tropical cyclones that form in the much more favorable Eastern North Pacific Basin. Central North Pacific: Shear in this area of the Pacific Ocean severely limits tropical development. The January storm is thought to have reached tropical storm intensity based on scatterometre winds. However, three tropical cyclones have been observed here — a weak tropical storm in 1991 off the coast of Africa, Hurricane Catarina (sometimes also referred to as Aldonça), which made landfall in Brazil in 2004 as a Category 1 hurricane, and a smaller storm in January 2004, east of Salvador, Brazil.

Southern Atlantic Ocean: A combination of cooler waters, the lack of an ITCZ, and wind shear makes it very difficult for the Southern Atlantic to support tropical activity. Cyclones forming here impact Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, and Kenya, and these nations issue forecasts and warnings for the basin. Southwestern Indian Ocean: This basin is the least understood, due to a lack of historical data. Southeastern Indian Ocean: Tropical activity in this region affects Australia and Indonesia, and is forecast by those nations.

Rarely, a tropical cyclone formed in this basin will affect the Arabian Peninsula. Nations affected by this basin include India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, and Pakistan, and all of these countries issue regional forecasts and warnings. Hurricanes which form in this basin have historically cost the most lives — most notably, the 1970 Bhola cyclone killed 200,000. This basin's season has an interesting double peak; one in April and May before the onset of the monsoon, and another in October and November just after.

Northern Indian Ocean: This basin is divided into two areas, the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, with the Bay of Bengal dominating (5 to 6 times more activity). South Western Pacific Ocean: Tropical activity in this region largely affects Australia and Oceania, and is forecast by Australia and Papua New Guinea. In the U.S., the Central Pacific Hurricane Center is responsible for forecasting the western part of this area while the National Hurricane Center is responsible for the eastern part. Storms that form here can affect western Mexico, Hawaii, northern Central America, and on extremely rare occasions, California.

Eastern North Pacific Ocean: This is the second most active basin in the world, and the most dense (a large number of storms for a small area of ocean). National meteorology organizations and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are responsible for issuing forecasts and warnings in this basin. The eastern coasts of Taiwan and Philippines also have the highest tropical cyclone landfall frequency in the world. This is by far the most active basin, accounting for one-third of all tropical cyclone activity in the world.

Western North Pacific Ocean: Tropical storm activity in this region frequently affects China, Japan, the Philippines, and Taiwan, but also many other countries in South-East Asia, such as Vietnam, South Korea and Indonesia, plus numerous Oceanian islands. Many of the more intense Atlantic storms are Cape Verde-type hurricanes, which form off the west coast of Africa near the Cape Verde islands. The coast of Atlantic Canada receives hurricane landfalls on rare occasion, such as Hurricane Juan in 2003. Gulf Coast and occasionally New Jersey, New York and New England (usually hurricanes weaken to tropical storms before they reach these northern regions).

Additionally, they can hit the coast of the U.S., especially Florida, North Carolina, the U.S. Hurricanes that strike Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean island nations, often do intense damage, as hurricanes are deadlier over warmer water. National Hurricane Center (NHC) based in Miami, Florida, issues forecasts for storms for all nations in the region; the Canadian Hurricane Centre, based in Halifax, Nova Scotia, also issues forecasts and warnings for storms expected to affect Canadian territory and waters. The U.S.

Venezuela, the south-east of Canada and Atlantic "Macaronesian" islands are also occasionally affected. The United States Atlantic coast, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean Islands and Bermuda are frequently affected by storms in this basin. The average is about ten. Tropical cyclone formation here varies widely from year to year, ranging from over twenty to one per year.

North Atlantic Basin: The most-studied of all tropical basins, it includes the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico. If a low level circulation forms under this convection, it may develop into a tropical cyclone. Decaying frontal boundaries may occasionally stall over warm waters and produce lines of active convection. A warm-core tropical cyclone may result when one of these (on occasion) works down to the lower levels and produces deep convection.

Tropical upper tropospheric troughs, which are cold-core upper level lows. A similar phenomenon to tropical waves are West African disturbance lines, which are squally lines of convection that form over Africa and move into the Atlantic. Most tropical cyclones form from these. This often assists in the development of thunderstorms, which can develop into tropical cyclones.

Tropical waves, or easterly waves, which, as mentioned above, are westward moving areas of convergent winds. High wind shear can break apart the vertical structure of a tropical cyclone. Low vertical wind shear (change in wind speed or direction over height). (2004's Hurricane Ivan was the strongest storm to form closer than 10 degrees from the equator; it started forming at 9.7 degrees north.).

A distance of approximately 10 degrees or more from the equator, so that the Coriolis effect is strong enough to initiate the cyclone's rotation. This is most frequently provided by tropical waves—non-rotating areas of thunderstorms that move through tropical oceans. A pre-existing weather disturbance. Temperature in the atmosphere must decrease quickly with height, and the mid-troposphere must be relatively moist.

Upper-atmosphere conditions conducive to thunderstorm formation. The moisture in the air above the warm water is the energy source for tropical cyclones. Sea surface temperatures above 26.5 degrees Celsius (79.7 degrees Fahrenheit) to at least a depth of 50 meters (164 feet). From Urdu, Persian or Arabic ţūfān (طوفان) < Greek tuphōn (Τυφών).

The first record of the character 颱 appeared in 1685's edition of Summary of Taiwan 臺灣記略). (The Chinese term as 颱風 táifēng, and 台風 taifu in Japanese, has an independent origin traceable variously to 風颱, 風篩 or 風癡 hongthai, going back to Song 宋 (960-1278) and Yuan 元(1260-1341) dynasties. From the Chinese 大風 (daaih fūng (Cantonese); dà fēng (Mandarin)) which means "great wind". Cyclone (unofficially): South Atlantic Ocean.

Tropical cyclone: Southwest Indian Ocean and the South Pacific east of 160°E. Severe cyclonic storm: North Indian Ocean. Severe tropical cyclone: Southwest Pacific west of 160°E and the southeast Indian Ocean east of 90°E. Typhoon: Northwest Pacific west of the dateline.

Hurricane: Atlantic basin and North Pacific Ocean east of the dateline.

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