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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. As of January of 2006 Americorps plans to continue to send relief to the affected areas. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. The crews performed a number of relief tasks free of charge for hurricane survivors in need, including but not limited to support on the Fema/Carnival Cruise Lines shelter ship, tarping damaged roofs, and debris removal. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The crews originated from two main organizations, the National Civilian Community Corps (NCCC) and the Washington Conservation Corps (WCC). They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. Americorps sent several crews to Texas, Mississippi, and Louisiana in response to the Gulf Storms of 2005, namely Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. The Red Cross also expanded their Hurricane Katrina internet "Safe List" for use by those affected by Hurricane Rita. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. The American Red Cross continued to provide disaster relief to Hurricane Katrina affected areas, but as a result of Hurricane Rita, had to open additional shelters in other gulf states. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. It is their mission to provide relief support for all of the areas in Texas and Louisiana effected by the two storms and to remove obstructions that might otherwise hinder help to those affected. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. [50] [51] The 1,400 Oregonian soldiers and airmen, including the 1st Batallion of the 186th Infantry which is designated a quick response unit, are joined by engineers and military police from Louisiana, a Stryker brigade from Pennsylvania, and an engineering batallion from Missouri.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. Douglas Pritt of the 41st Brigade Combat Team, Oregon Army National Guard, head of Joint Task Force Rita (formally called JTF Ponchartrain). The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. Gen. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. On September 24, 2005, following the havoc caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, the National Guard named Brig. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Refineries directly impacted by the storm include:.

Some popular rule variations are:. Due to the impending oil shortage and increasing gas prices, Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue declared what he termed "snow days," closing all Georgia public primary and secondary schools on September 26 and 27 to conserve fuel for buses. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some economists argue that the rebuilding effort could buoy the economy in 2006, while others argue that the energy spike could decrease consumer confidence by enough to send the economy into a full-fledged recession when combined with the Federal Reserve's recent increases in interest rates. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. The most pessimistic projections have GDP growth cut by 1% on an annualized basis in the United States in the second half of 2005, with as many as 500,000 people made unemployed. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. With some 200,000 jobless claims attributed to Katrina, Rita could be a further drag on a weakened US economy.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. However the oil industry escaped essentially unscathed from the storm and post-storm predictions estimated only minor price rises. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. With over half of Gulf production still shut down in the wake of Katrina, some economists have stated that a worst case scenario is for gasoline prices to briefly touch $5/US gallon ($1.30/L), which would be easily the highest real price for gasoline paid in the United States during the internal combustion era. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. Rita's path takes it through a dense area of offshore pipelines and oil platforms, and on land to an area with large refineries. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. Currently, there is very little spare crude oil capacity in the United States, and the Gulf of Mexico produces some 2 million barrels per day (300,000 m³) total, as well has having some 30% of the total refining capacity of the United States, which is the world's largest consumer of gasoline and crude oil.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. The heavy concentration of oil infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico makes hurricanes of Rita's intensity very problematic. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. Bolivar Peninsula between Galveston and Sabine Pass had only a small ocean surge, in contrast to the eastern side of Rita's center which sent a 20 foot ocean surge through Louisiana's unprotected towns. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. Rita's ocean surge was easily handled by Port Arthur's extensive levee system. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. This placed most of the coastal community to the left of the eye and in the least damaging hurricane quadrant.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. The "Golden Triangle" area was spared a more devastating ocean surge by the redirection of Rita's path hours before landfall. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Those displaced by Rita were offered up to 60 days of hotel rooms, generators, chainsaws, and monetary assistance by FEMA. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. A mandatory evacuation was issued before Rita's landfall. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). Some areas did not have power for more than six weeks.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. The water treatment plant in Port Neches was heavily damaged. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. An enormous number of houses and businesses suffered extensive damage due to falling trees and directly from Rita's winds. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. In Groves, the home of Texas' Pecan Festival, an equal number of the pecan trees were leveled. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. In Beaumont an estimated 25% of the trees in the heavily wooded neighborhoods were uprooted.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Texas Governor Rick Perry declared a nine county disaster area. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. All communities in the "Golden Triangle" formed by Beaumont, Port Arthur, and Orange sustained enormous damage from Rita's winds. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. [48]. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. [47] After water levels were lowered and an inspection was conducted by national and local experts, the dam was declared stable late on Monday, September 26, 2005.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. Repairs to the dam are expected to take months to complete. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. As reported by the a number of news outlets, on Sunday, September 25, 2005, this discharge put lives at risk downstream and threatened a major bridge as well due to a sizable barge coming adrift. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. North of Houston, the 2.5 mile Lake Livingston dam sustained substantial damage from powerful waves driven by 117 mph winds [46] and had to conduct an emergency release in order to lessen pressure on the dam. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. [45].

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. [44] Thirty one deaths have been reported in Harris County, of which all of them were indirect (mostly related to the evacuation and cleanup). The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. Some windows blew out of some downtown skyscrapers, and some trees and signals were down. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. For the most part, Houston escaped major damage, apart from extensive loss of power. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. [43].

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. Around midnight, a vacant restaurant collapsed nearby, which was reportedly as a result of the fire that weakened the walls. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. No serious injuries were reported in the fire. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. However, the fire department was able to fight the blaze and prevent it from spreading through the city. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. In the late evening, a fire broke out in the Strand District of Galveston, Texas, gutting several homes.

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. [42]. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. [40][41] Many of the passengers were mobility-impaired making escape difficult or impossible. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. The fire started in the brake system, and the passengers' therapeutic oxygen tanks may have caused the bus to explode. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Twenty three people were killed as a result of that incident.

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. On the morning of September 23, a bus carrying 45 nursing home evacuees from Brighton Gardens in Bellaire, Texas erupted into flames and exploded on Interstate 45 southeast of Dallas in Wilmer. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. This poor area was just getting back of their feet after feeling Category 2 winds when Hurricane Katrina moved through the area. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. Also Lauderdale County which is in east central Mississippi reported several confirmed and unconfirmed tornado touch downs in and near the cities of Marion and Meridian. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. There were several non-life threatening injuries.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. There were also numerous mobile homes damaged at the University Hills trailer park just off the campus. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MSU officials do not have specific damage assesments available; however, they do note there was significant damage to some buildings. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. A tornado touched down on Mississippi State University's campus. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. [39].

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Another death was reported in Wilkinson County, although it has not been confirmed if it was storm-related. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Another unconfirmed tornado was reported in Bolivar County. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. At least 40 homes and an industrial plant were damaged from one tornado in Humphreys County in central Mississippi, in which one person was killed. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. Several tornadoes from Rita's outer bands affected the state.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. [38]. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. 250 people were rescued on Saturday, September 24. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). In Vermilion Parish south of Abbeville, rescue efforts were undertaken for up to 1,000 people stranded by local flooding. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. [37].

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco reported that 700,000 homes had lost power in 41 of the state's 64 parishes. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. [36]. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. It has been reported that at least 100 people needed to be rescued from rooftops, and at least 25 more remain stranded. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. [35] Some people were stranded in flooded communities, and boats had to be used for rescues.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. In Terrebonne Parish, virtually every levee was breached. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. Widespread flooding was reported in coastal parishes. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. In Vinton, several fires were burning, the roof was torn off the town's recreation center and many homes were damaged by fallen trees. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. [34] Damage to the city's electrical system was so severe that authorities warned that power would not return for two weeks, if not longer.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. There was also extensive damage to its regional airport. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. At a hotel on the Contraband Bayou, water was reportedly up to the second floor. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. Lake Charles experienced severe flooding, with reports of water rising 6-8 feet in areas around the lake itself. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. A casino boat and several barges were floating loose in Lake Charles and damaged a bridge spanning Interstate 10 across the Calcasieu River.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. In Cameron Parish, the communities of Hackberry [33], Cameron, Creole, Grand Chenier, and Holly Beach were heavily damaged or entirely destroyed. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. Damage in southwestern Louisiana was extensive. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. [32]. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. As of Saturday night, September 24, water from a 150-foot gap in the Industrial Canal levee had some areas of the Ninth Ward under eight feet of water.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Some pumping stations were abandoned. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. CDT, water had begun gushing through another leak in the patched London Avenue Canal into the surrounding Gentilly neighborhood. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. By approximately 5 p.m. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. CDT on Friday.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Water in the Ninth Ward was reported to be waist-deep at 11 a.m. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. CDT on Friday, September 23. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. Water entered the Ninth Ward over two 32-foot (10 m) wide patches in the levee as of about 9 a.m. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. On Friday, September 23, the day prior to landfall, rising water due to Hurricane Rita was pouring through breaches in the patched Industrial Canal levee in New Orleans' already hard-hit Ninth Ward, as reported by the Army Corps of Engineers.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. New Orleans levee system had already sustained heavy damage from Hurricane Katrina before Rita's outer bands of rain fell on the city. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. [31]. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. Both were due to high surf and rip currents caused by Rita's distant waves. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. While the Florida Panhandle escaped most of the land effects from Rita, two deaths were reported on beaches.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. No deaths were reported in either Florida or Cuba from the initial impact. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. [30]. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. More than 2,000 National Guard troops and dozens of law enforcement officers were brought in and are on standby. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. Bush in four counties: Broward, Collier, Miami-Dade and Monroe.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. A state of emergency was declared by Florida Governor Jeb Bush and a federal emergency by President George W. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. [29]. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. EDT on Tuesday, September 20, about 25,000 customers were without electricity in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, plus another 2,100 in the Keys. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. As of 8 p.m.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. The Overseas Highway (US 1) connecting the islands was impassable in some sections as a result of the flooding. Briefly, the ten modes are:. Flooding was reported along the Florida Keys as a result of the storm surge. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. More than 340,000 people were under voluntary or mandatory evacuation orders in Florida and Cuba. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. No deaths were reported in Arkansas due to Rita.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". [28]. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. Most tornadoes move northeast. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. The tornadoes were unusual in that they moved in a northwestern direction due to the direction in which Rita was moving. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). [27].

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. In addition, significant flooding has been reported in several areas. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. While Rita weakened to a tropical depression, the outer bands continued to spawn numerous tornadoes in Arkansas, including one in Lonoke County and another in Conway County, damaging many homes and businesses in several communities. This is known as the Economy rate. poisoning, illnesses, waiting for help). Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. Indirect deaths indicate those caused by hurricane-related accidents (including car accidents, fires or other incidents), as well as clean-up and evacuation incidents and health issues (i.e.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Direct deaths indicate those caused by the direct effects of the winds, flooding, tornadoes, storm surge or oceanic effects of Rita. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. The two Florida deaths were both in rip currents on beaches caused by Rita's distant waves. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. One was caused by a hurricane-related tornado in the outer bands, and three others were caused by fallen trees during the storm. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. Only six of them were direct deaths.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. CDT on October 3 (0300 UTC October 4) stands at 119. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The reported death toll as of 10 p.m. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Also gas prices fell in the U.S instead of rising as feared. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. [9].

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". [8] Total damage is estimated $9.4 billion, which makes Rita the ninth costliest storm in US history. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. In total, it is estimated that well over 2 million customers were without electricity. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. [7] Calcasieu Parish, with the communities of Lake Charles, Sulphur, Westlake and Vinton also suffered heavy damage. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. Cameron Parish was heavily damaged, with the communities of Holly Beach, Hackberry and Cameron being essentially destroyed.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. However, local storm surges of 15 to 20 feet (4.5-6.1 m) in southwestern Louisiana were reported, and in from coastal parishes, damage was extensive. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. The 5 inches (130 mm) of rain expected to fall overnight in New Orleans also did not happen, and the pressure on the levee system was eased. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. The storm surge feared in Galveston did not materialize, as the city was well to the west of the storm's center; the strong winds actually flattened the surge, which was only seven feet (2 m), and the seawall was easily able to handle it. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The effects of Hurricane Rita were not nearly as severe as expected.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Valero Energy Corp, the nation's largest refiner, stated on September 21 that Rita could have caused gasoline prices to rise well above $3 per US gallon ($0.79/L). A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. While no potential storm path would threaten all of the capacity at once, a direct strike on Houston could disable up to 8% of the nation's refining capacity. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. The Texas Gulf Coast is home to 23% of the United States' refining capacity, and numerous offshore production platforms were in Rita's path. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. The storm threatened a large amount of oil infrastructure that was left undamaged by Katrina.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. Concerns had been raised over the state of the oil industry in response to Rita. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. As part of the evacuation, Johnson Space Center in Houston handed off control of the International Space Station to their Russian counterparts. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. Many motorists ran out of gas despite turning off their air conditioners in the 98 degree record temperatures. This is known as running between wickets. Evacuees fought traffic all day and only moved about one hundred to one-hundred and fifty miles.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. The Texas Department of Transportation was unprepared to execute this in an efficient way and in many cases without a release point to the North traffic would only speed up for a short time. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Contraflow lanes were instigated after it was realized that a the state's highway system had become gridlocked. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Distances that usually took 2-3 hours of travel time took some passengers upwards of 24 hours. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. Designated evacuation routes slowed to a pace far worse than with any previous hurricane.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). By the time Jefferson County began their mandatory evacuation up Highway 69, 96 and others, Houstonians had already clogged up these highway arteries to the North. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. During the Rita evacuation these preperations and their execution were overwhelmed by the enormous and unprecedented numbers of people fleeing from the Houston area prior to the residents of the "Golden Triangle". The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). Plans were put in place to open up these intersections. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. After Lili, citizens came back with complaints of long lines of cars caused by stop lights and stop signs along evacuation routes unattended by anyone from law enforcement.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. Highway 73 between Port Arthur and Winnie was also widened to facilitate future evacuations in response to an even earlier hurricane. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Officials in the "Golden Triangle" area had set up evacuation routes and a shelter system of sorts in response to the slow evacuation of residents prior to Hurricane Lili. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. "If you're not in the evacuation zone, follow the news," he said, advising people to use common sense. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). After heavy traffic snarled roads leading out of town and gas shortages left numerous vehicles stranded, he backed off on this.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. On Wednesday, Houston mayor Bill White urged residents to evacuate the city, telling residents, "Don't wait; the time for waiting is over," and reminding residents of the disaster in New Orleans. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. These evacuation-destination cities included Austin, College Station, San Antonio, Dallas, Huntsville, and Lufkin, Texas. See also: Scoring. Also, different zones were to be forced to go to certain cities in Texas and were not allowed to exit their designated routes except for food and gas - another feature of the evacuation plan which hoped to keep traffic and flow orderly throughout this timeframe. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. Officials of Harris County hoped that the designation of zones A, B, and C would be able to prevent bottlenecks leaving the area such as those seen out of New Orleans prior to Katrina and Hurricane Dennis this year.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. Nonetheless, many residents remained in the county because they were either unaware of the danger of the storm or believed that it was more important to protect their belongings, particularly in the wake of looting following Hurricane Katrina. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. Officials in Galveston County (which includes the city of Galveston), which was devastated by the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, ordered mandatory evacuations, effective September 21 at 6 p.m., in a staggered sequence setting different zones in the area which were due to leave at different times over 24 hours, well in advance of the storm's possible landfall later in the week but not enough in advance to ensure that all residents could evacuate safely in advance of the storm. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. Highway 290 northwest to Bryan/College Station. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. [6] On September 22, Governor Perry and the Texas Department of Transportation implemented a contraflow lane reversal on Interstate 45 north towards Dallas, on Interstate 10 west towards San Antonio and U.S.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Texas Governor Rick Perry recalled all emergency personnel, including almost 1,200 Texas National Guard from Katrina recovery efforts, in anticipation of Hurricane Rita's arrival. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. In addition, residents of Cameron Parish, Calcasieu Parish, and parts of Jefferson Davis Parish and Vermillion Parish were told to evacuate ahead of the storm. The game is only played in dry weather. [5]. There is also a short interval between innings. The original breaches had occurred a month earlier as a result of Hurricane Katrina.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. Although Rita remained well to the south and west of New Orleans, a pre-landfall storm surge overwhelmed a levee protecting the lower 9th Ward [3], a part of a fragile and already compromised levee system as repairs continued [4] At landfall, more parts of the levee wall were breached causing major reflooding in New Orleans. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. [2] However, as Rita developed in the Gulf of Mexico, the reopening was cancelled and a re-evacuation of the city was initiated on September 21 as the storm was initially forecast to make landfall much closer to the city. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. Before Rita, the mayor of New Orleans, Ray Nagin, had planned to begin reopening the city after the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina on September 19. An innings is completed if:. Hurricane Rita was the third (now fourth) most intense hurricane on record in the Atlantic basin and the most intense hurricane on record in the Gulf of Mexico, taking over the latter record set by Hurricane Katrina only three weeks earlier.

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. Rita has broken multiple records, being the earliest 17th named storm, the third (now fourth) most intense storm, and quickest drop of pressure in one hour. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The Hydrometeorological Prediction Center ceased monitoring Tropical Depression Rita early on September 26. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. Rita's remnants -- technically an extensive low pressure area -- moved quickly out of the lower Mississippi Valley region and were absorbed by a cold front. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. Rita lost both hurricane and tropical storm status on the same day as its landfall.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. Rita's wind field was so intense that it destroyed or disabled several weather buoys. Each innings is subdivided into overs. "Rita is the strongest storm that I've ever been in," he commented. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. Warren Madden, a Hurricane Hunter and meteorologist for The Weather Channel, recorded a peak wind gust of 235 mph (380 km/h) while in the eye of the storm. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. Col.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Lt. Each position on the field has a unique label. (NASA clip depicting the history of the storm before landfall). Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Hurricane Rita's rapid intensification may in part be attributed to its encounter with the Gulf Loop Current and Eddy Vortex. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. CDT, the advisory said that Rita's maximum sustained winds had increased to 175 mph (280 km/h) with an estimated minimum pressure of 897 mbar (hPa), (26.59 inHg).

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. At 10:00 p.m. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. CDT, a reconnaissance aircraft recorded a pressure reading of 899 mbar (hPa), but it was thought to actually be lower since the reading was not from the center. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. At 6:50 p.m. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. CDT (19:55 UTC), another update was issued, saying Rita had strengthened into a Category 5 storm with maximum wind speeds of 165 mph (265 km/h).

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. Less than two hours later, at 3:55 p.m. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. CDT (1815 UTC) said that Rita's maximum winds had increased to 150 mph (240 km/h) and a minimum pressure of 920 mbar (hPa). The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. An update issued at 2:15 p.m. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. Rita continued to gain strength unabated.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. At that advisory, Rita's maximum sustained winds increased to 140 mph (225 km/h). A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. EDT on September 21. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. EDT on September 20 to 11 a.m. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. The National Hurricane Center's official advisories, issued every three hours, showed strengthening at every single advisory from 5 p.m.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. As Hurricane Rita entered the Gulf of Mexico, it rapidly increased in intensity. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. The warm water in the Gulf of Mexico, which was at the time 1 °F (0.5 °C) above average, was very favorable for hurricane development. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Four hours later, another special update stated that Rita had reached Category 2 strength with 100 mph (160 km/h) maximum sustained winds. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. EDT that morning showed that Rita had closed the eyewall and winds clearly reached hurricane strength.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Aerial reconnaissance data released at 9:45 a.m. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Rita was slow to become a hurricane; discussions early on September 20 showed that wind translations to surface level were indeed at 75 mph (120 km/h), however, the lack of a complete eyewall meant that the National Hurricane Center kept Rita as a tropical storm with 70 mph (110 km/h) winds overnight. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). A mandatory evacuation had been ordered for the entire Florida Keys. Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. It became the 17th tropical storm of the season on September 18, less than a day after forming.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. A surface low formed near it, and the season's 18th tropical depression formed soon thereafter east of the Turks and Caicos Islands. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). The storm formed at the tail end of an old frontal boundary, where convection and low level circulation around an upper level low steadily developed for over two days. The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. Rita was in fact the third seventeenth storm of any season to form since naming of tropical storms began in 1950, but in the 1969 season many tropical storms went unnamed due to the lack of sophisticated forecasting systems; the seventeenth storm of 1969 was Hurricane Martha. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. Rita's name itself is a significant indicator of the activity of the 2005 hurricane season: only once before had a name starting with 'R' been used for an Atlantic storm, in 1995 for Hurricane Roxanne.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. . In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. The storm killed just 6 people but caused 113 indirect deaths; damage estimates are around $9 billion (2005 US dollars). They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. Post-landfall damage was extensive in the coastal areas in southwestern Louisiana and extreme southeastern Texas. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. A day prior to landfall, the resultant storm surge also reopened some of the levee breaches caused by Hurricane Katrina a month earlier, and reflooded parts of New Orleans.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The storm first struck Florida after making an approach near Cuba and went on to strike Texas and Louisiana. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. It was the second-most powerful hurricane of the season (behind Hurricane Wilma) and the fourth most intense hurricane ever in the Atlantic Basin. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. Hurricane Rita was the seventeenth named tropical storm, tenth hurricane, fifth major hurricane, and second Category 5 hurricane of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. Estimated repair time: two weeks to a month.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Damage: two cooling towers and a flare stack. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. Valero, Port Arthur, Texas, 250,000 b/d

    . A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. Estimated repair time: no report. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. Damage: no report.

    A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Total SA, Port Arthur, Texas, 180,000 b/d

      . Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Estimated repair time: did not comment. Each team consists of eleven players. Damage: minor damage, cooling water-tower. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries. Motiva Enterprises (Royal Dutch Shell & Saudi Refining), Port Arthur, Texas, 285,000 b/d
        .

        Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Estimated repair time: did not comment. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Damage: initial assessments do not indicate significant damage. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. ExxonMobil, Beaumont, Texas 348,000 b/d

          . If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team. Estimated repair time: did not comment.

          If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. Damage: wind damage. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. ConocoPhillips, Lake Charles, Louisiana, 250,000 b/d

            . If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. Estimated repair time: did not comment. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. Damage: minor damage, stripped away insulation from cooling towers.

            A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. Citgo Petroleum (Petroleos de Venezuela), Lake Charles, Louisiana, 310,000 b/d

              . The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Estimated repair time: no report. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. Damage: power, phones out, some wind damage; control room, admin building OK. . Calcasieu Refining, Lake Charles, Louisiana, 32,000 barrels per day [49] (b/d)
                .

                It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

                Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries.

                This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed.

                As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out.

                The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. This scores a run. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

                A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

                Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

                If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

                Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

                (Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

                No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

                Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

                Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

                The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

                The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

                The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

                A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

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