This page will contain wikis about cricket, as they become available.

Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


This page about cricket includes information from a Wikipedia article.
Additional articles about cricket
News stories about cricket
External links for cricket
Videos for cricket
Wikis about cricket
Discussion Groups about cricket
Blogs about cricket
Images of cricket

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. †Denotes wild-card team (since 1995).. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. Prior to 1924, the pattern generally had been to alternate, or to make other arrangements convenient to both clubs. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. In 1925, Brooklyn owner Charles Ebbets convinced owners to adopt the current 2-3-2 system of scheduling World Series games (one team would host the first two games, the other team would host the next three, and the first team would host the last two if necessary; the leagues alternated which representative would host the first games), already used in the 1924 Series, as a permanent rule. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. The list of post-season rules evolved over time.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. Most importantly, the now-official (and compulsory) World's Series match was to be operated strictly by the National Commission itself, not on the whims of individual teams. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. Receipts for later games were split among the two teams and the National Commission, the governing body for the sport, which was able to cover much of its annual operating expenses from World Series revenue. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. This was to discourage teams from throwing early games in order to prolong the series and make more money. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. One rule was that player shares would come from gate receipts from the first four games only.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. During the winter of 1904/05, however, feeling the sting of press criticism, Brush saw the light and proposed what came to be known as the "Brush Rules", under which the series would be played over subsequent years. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. Brush also cited the lack of rules under which the games would be played and how the money would be split. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Boston won on the last day of the season, but Brush stuck to his original decision. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. At the time of the announcement, their new cross-town rivals, the Highlanders, were leading the AL.

Some popular rule variations are:. Brush, refused to allow his team to play, citing the "inferiority" of the upstart American League. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. The Giants' owner, John T. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. The 1904 Series would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. It had been arranged well in advance by the owners of the respective teams, as both were league leaders by large margins.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. One of these series at the end of 1903 was a meeting between the two pennant winners and is known as the 1903 World Series. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These series were arranged by the individual teams, not by the leagues directly, the same as the 1880s World's Series matches had been. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 regular season. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. National League - American League.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. National League. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. American Association. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. National League vs. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. National League.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. National Association of Professional Baseball Players. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. National Association of Baseball Players (Amateur -> Professional). The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. The following are teams that played an earlier version of the "World's Championship Series" or otherwise claimed the national championship "Pennant". A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). World Series Cricket was a short-lived but influential cricket competition.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. The term World Series has since been appropriated by other championships, such as the College World Series, the Little League World Series, the World Series of Golf, the World Series of Poker, the World Series of Birding and the World Series of Martial Arts. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Commissioner Bud Selig, among others, has high hopes that this tournament could be as big as soccer's World Cup. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Many of the major baseball playing nations have committed to participating (the United States, Dominican Republic, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, etc.). Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Teams will be split into four groups of four and play a round robin schedule, with the top two teams from each group advancing to the next round.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. The tournament will be held in sites around North America, Central America, and Asia. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Many major leaguers have expressed interest in playing in such a competition, including Miguel Tejada of the Baltimore Orioles (Dominican Republic), Dontrelle Willis of the Florida Marlins (United States), Carlos Lee of the Milwaukee Brewers (Panama), and Andruw Jones of the Atlanta Braves (from the Dutch island of Curaçao). The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In light of the International Olympic Committee recently voting baseball out of the Summer Games as a medal sport, this competition hopes to prove to the IOC that baseball is truly an international game. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. It will be the first international baseball competition to feature Major League players.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. Recently, Major League Baseball officially revealed its plans for the World Baseball Classic, to be held in March 2006. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. According to the IBAF chairman, such a move would do more for popularizing baseball around the world than any amount of money spent by the MLB for its current worldwide marketing. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. The International Baseball Federation (IBAF) has lobbied MLB to suspend play during the Summer Olympics, so that MLB players could compete for their respective national teams, and has agreed to shorten the Olympic tournament if MLB agrees to freeing its players. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. At the 2004 Summer Olympics the United States was not represented at all, since its team of minor league players did not survive the qualifying rounds.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. The United States sends a team of minor league players to the Summer Olympics, as it takes place during the regular Major League season. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. Baseball tournaments between international teams do occur, notably at the world championships and at the Olympic Games. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. In deference to any controversy, more and more the term "World Series Championship" is being used, the subtlety being that it is merely a title and not a political statement. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. Pappas' web page on the subject.).

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. (For details, see Mr. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. Furthermore, investigation of the New York World for the relevant years revealed no evidence of the supposed sponsorship. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. Baseball researcher Doug Pappas refutes that claim, demonstrating a linear progression from the phrase "World's Championship Series" (used to describe the 1903 series as well as some of the 19th-century postseason series) to "World's Series" (a term first used in the 1880s and which persisted for decades) to "World Series". The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. A persistent myth is that the "World" in "World Series" came about because the New York World newspaper sponsored it.

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. Attempts to pit the North American champions against champions in the Japanese or Latin American leagues in a truly meaningful way have, so far, not succeeded. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. Sometimes the Japanese have gained the upper hand in those series; but since they are only exhibitions, their results cannot be regarded as conclusive. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. The World Series winners have occasionally played winter exhibition series against the best players of other leagues around the world, such as Japan. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Moreover, virtually all of the best international players — from the Pacific Rim, Latin America, the Caribbean, and elsewhere — play on Major League rosters, with the notable exception of Cuban nationals.

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. While some would contend that there is no reason to believe that the World Series winner is a significantly better team than any club team outside Major League Baseball, no challenges have been made by other leagues. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. At the time the term was first used, baseball at the major league level was only played in the United States. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. The "World" appellation has stuck despite the fact that only teams in the two major leagues, which happen to cover only the United States and Canada, actually participate. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. That rule has been in place from the beginning, to keep the games "honest".

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. The shares for the actual participants are limited to the gate receipts of the minimum number of games necessary to play the series. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. Prior to 1969, teams finishing in the first division, or top half of the leagues' standings, received such shares; today, only the teams finishing in second place in their division but not earning a wild card receive them, because there are more divisions with each having fewer teams. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. A portion of the gate receipts from the World Series — and, from 1969 onward, the other rounds of postseason play preceding it — is used to fund a Players' Pool, from which descending shares are distributed to the World Series winner, the World Series loser, all the other teams qualifying for the playoffs which did not reach the World Series, and certain other teams which did not qualify for the playoffs, the criteria for the latter changing at various times. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The designated hitter was not used at all prior to the 1975 Series, although the DH rule had been adopted by the AL in 1973.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". From 1975 through 1985, the designated hitter was used for all games in even-numbered years, and was not used in any games in odd-numbered years. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. In a National League ballpark, both team's pitchers must hit. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. In an American League ballpark, both teams use a designated hitter to hit for the pitcher. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. Since 1986, the designated hitter rule has been applied based on the rules normally in effect at the home ballpark.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. Starting with the 2003 World Series, the league that wins the mid-season All-Star Game has been awarded home-field advantage. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. Until 2003, the team given the home-field advantage was switched every year between the American League and the National League. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). That has been the pattern since 1924, with the exception of World War II, when travel restrictions were in place. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The first two games of the series are played in the home ballpark of the team awarded home-field advantage; the next three are in the other team's ballpark, and the final two, if necessary, are back in the first team's ballpark.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. . In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Chicago Cubs have gone the longest between titles, having last won the World Series in 1908. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. Of those eight teams, only three have appeared in the Series: Milwaukee, San Diego, and Houston. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Eight teams, all established since 1961, have never won a World Series title: the Texas Rangers, Houston Astros, San Diego Padres, Washington Nationals, Milwaukee Brewers, Seattle Mariners, Colorado Rockies, and Tampa Bay Devil Rays.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The New York Yankees have the most World Series titles, with 26 championships through the 2005 season. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. The modern World Series has been an annual event since 1903, with the exceptions of 1904 and 1994. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Baseball has employed various championship formulas since the 1850s. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. The Series winner is determined through a best-of-seven playoff (except in 1903, 1919, 1920 and 1921 when the winner was determined through a best-of-nine playoff) and is awarded the World Series Trophy, as well as World Series rings.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. It is played between the pennant winner of the American League and the pennant winner of the National League. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. The World Series is the championship series of Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada, the culmination of the sport's postseason each October. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. Glory Fades Away: The Nineteenth Century World Series Rediscovered, Jerry Lansch, 1991. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. Baseball Almanac: World Series.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. Sporting News: History of the World Series. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. World Series.com - official website. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. Darold Knowles is the only pitcher to appear in every game of a seven-game World Series (1973). Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. Bobby Richardson is the only player from a losing team to win a Series MVP award (1960).

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Reggie Jackson is the only other player to accomplish the feat (1977). The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. Babe Ruth twice hit three home runs in one Series game (1926 and 1928). The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The 1976 World Series was the first Series to use the designated hitter rule. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. The 1971 World Series featured the first Series game scheduled under lights.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The 1970 World Series featured the first Series game on artificial turf. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. The 1949 World Series featured the first Series game finished under lights. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. The 1908 World Series holds the record for poorest attendance including the record-low 6,210 in the finale. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. Amazingly, that has not happened since.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. The 1906 World Series featured two franchises that had never appeared in the World Series. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. At 82-79 (.503), the 1973 New York Mets had the lowest winning percentage of any World Series team. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. From 1978 to 1987, no franchise won the World Series twice, the longest such streak. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. From 1949 to 1966, every Series involved the Yankees, Dodgers and/or Giants.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. From 1949 to 1956, every Series game was won by a team from New York City. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. The 1921-1922 Giants and 1975-1976 Reds are the only National League teams to win two straight World Series. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The Oakland Athletics' three consecutive World Series victories from 1972 to 1974 are the most for any non-Yankees franchise. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. The New York Giants' four consecutive World Series appearances from 1921 to 1924 are the most for any non-Yankees franchise.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. The New York Yankees have won two or more championships in seven different decades - 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1990s. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. 2005 - Chicago White Sox broke their curse winning for the first time since 1917. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. 2004 - Boston Red Sox broke their curse winning for the first time since 1918. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. 1994 - World Series cancelled due to strike.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. 1993 - Toronto Blue Jays won on a Game 6 walk-off home run by Joe Carter. Briefly, the ten modes are:. 1989 - Series interrupted by the Loma Prieta earthquake. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. 1988 - Los Angeles Dodgers propelled to victory by Kirk Gibson's shocking Game 1 walk-off home run. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. 1986 - New York Mets' elimination averted in Game 6 with the assistance of Bill Buckner's infamous error.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". 1985 - Kansas City Royals' elimination averted in Game 6 with the assistance of an umpire's blown call. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. 1980 - Philadelphia Phillies won their first championship after nearly a century in existence. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. 1977 - New York Yankees won on Reggie Jackson's Game 6 heroics. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). 1976 - Cincinnati Reds swept entire postseason.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. 1975 - Boston Red Sox' Carlton Fisk's riveting Game 6 walk-off home run was not enough to break their curse. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. 1962 - New York Yankees won a Series decided by Willie McCovey's line drive. This is known as the Economy rate. 1960 - Pittsburgh Pirates won on Bill Mazeroski's Game 7 walk-off home run (the only Game 7 walk-off home run). Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. 1956 - New York Yankees' championship included Don Larsen pitching the only postseason perfect game.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. 1954 - New York Giants won championship after Willie Mays made The Catch. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. Louis Cardinals won on Enos Slaughter's mad dash in Game 7. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. 1946 - St. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. 1932 - New York Yankees dominated behind Babe Ruth's Called Shot.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. 1923 - New York Yankees won their first championship. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). 1920 - Cleveland Indians' victory was punctuated by Bill Wambsganss who turned the only postseason unassisted triple play. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. 1919 - Cincinnati Reds' championship was tainted by the Black Sox scandal. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. 1908 - Chicago Cubs won their last championship to date.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". 1905 - New York Giants' Christy Mathewson became the first World Series hero after pitching three complete game shutouts. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. 1902 Pittsburgh Pirates NL, Philadelphia Athletics AL - no Series. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. 1901 Pittsburgh Pirates NL, Chicago White Sox AL - no Series. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. 1900 Brooklyn Superbas win 4, Pittsburgh Pirates win 1 - Chronicle-Telegraph Cup Series.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. 1899 Brooklyn Superbas - no Series. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. 1898 Boston Beaneaters - no Series. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. 1897 Baltimore Orioles win 4, Boston Beaneaters win 1 - Temple Cup Series. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. 1896 Baltimore Orioles win 4, Cleveland Spiders win 0 - Temple Cup Series.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. 1895 Cleveland Spiders win 4, Baltimore Orioles win 1 - Temple Cup Series. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. 1894 New York Giants win 4, Baltimore Orioles win 0 - Temple Cup Series. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. 1893 Boston Beaneaters - no Series. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. 1892 Boston Beaneaters win 5, Cleveland Spiders win 0 - split-season championship.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. 1891 Boston Beaneaters NL, Boston Reds AA - NL instructs Beaneaters not to play Series as leagues discuss restructuring. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. 1890 Brooklyn Bridegrooms NL, Louisville Colonels AA - each win 3, no resolution. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. 1889 New York Giants NL win 6, Brooklyn Bridegrooms AA win 3. This is known as running between wickets. Louis Browns AA win 2.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. 1888 New York Giants NL win 6, St. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Louis Browns AA win 5. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. 1887 Detroit Wolverines NL win 10, St. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. Louis Browns AA win 4, Chicago White Stockings NL win 2.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). 1886 St. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. Louis Browns AA - 6 game Series, ends in dispute. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). 1885 Chicago White Stockings NL, St. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. 1884 Providence Grays NL, Metropolitan [New York] AA - 3 game series, Providence wins all 3, 60-game winner Old Hoss Radbourn pitches every inning.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. 1883 Boston Beaneaters NL, Philadelphia AA - Philadelphia cancels scheduled Series after losing "City Series" to Phillies. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. 1882 Chicago White Stockings NL, Cincinnati Reds AA - 2 game Series, each club wins 1. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. 1881 Chicago White Stockings. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). 1880 Chicago White Stockings.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. 1879 Providence Grays. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. 1878 Boston Red Caps. See also: Scoring. 1877 Boston Red Caps. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. 1876 Chicago White Stockings.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. 1875 Boston Red Stockings. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. 1874 Boston Red Stockings. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. 1873 Boston Red Stockings. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. 1872 Boston Red Stockings.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. 1871 Philadelphia Athletics. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. 1870 Chicago White Stockings. The game is only played in dry weather. 1869 Brooklyn Atlantics. There is also a short interval between innings. 1868 New York Mutuals.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. 1867 Morrisania Unions. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. 1866 Brooklyn Atlantics. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. 1865 Brooklyn Atlantics. An innings is completed if:. 1864 Brooklyn Atlantics.

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. 1863 Brooklyn Eckfords. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. 1862 Brooklyn Eckfords. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. 1861 Brooklyn Atlantics. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. 1860 Brooklyn Atlantics.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. 1859 Brooklyn Atlantics. Each innings is subdivided into overs. 1858 New York Mutuals. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. 1857 Brooklyn Atlantics. The two opposing captains then toss a coin.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Each position on the field has a unique label. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Each team consists of eleven players. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. .

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. This scores a run. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

(Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

08-29-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.