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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. Many followed, and as of 2005, the related titles are:. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. After that, he was given his own series. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. Spider-Man first appeared in Amazing Fantasy #15. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. James, who is best known for his stint in the WWF as "Road Dogg".

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. He was played by a wrestler known as Brad Armstrong (who had previously been known as "The Candyman"), the son of the legendary wrestler, "Bullet" Bob Armstrong, and brother of Total Nonstop Action Wrestling wrestler, B.G. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. Marvel got the character squashed. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. He used a web gun to shoot something like silly string during his entrances. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. In the early to mid-1990s, the wrestling organization then owned by Ted Turner, World Championship Wrestling featured a wrestler known as "Arachnaman" who wore a costume like Spider-Man's except rather than being blue and red, it was yellow and purple.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. See [3]. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. In the political sphere, David Chick used a Spider-Man outfit to obtain publicity for fathers' rights. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. children dressed up as Spider-Man, making it the year's most popular costume. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. On Halloween 2004, an estimated 2.15 million U.S.

Some popular rule variations are:. It is a parody of the Billy Joel song "Piano Man", and recounts the events of the film. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. The 2003 "Weird Al" Yankovic album Poodle Hat has a track entitled "Ode to a Superhero". Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. For other versions, see: Spider-Man (1960s animation). Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. The 2002 movie features Jayce Bartok as a subway performer singing the classic song.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. The catchy original 1960s Spider-Man cartoon theme song has been covered and reinterpreted by numerous musical acts, including The Ramones, Moxy Fruvous (often miscredited as They Might Be Giants), and Tenacious D. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. Spider-Man imitators in real life include:. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. Spider-Man also appears as a boss in the video game Revenge of Shinobi. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. As a popular franchise character, many games starring Spider-Man, based on both the comics and the movies, have been released for different platforms.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. Main article: Spider-Man (games). A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. In 2002, the company 2MA produced the first live-action Spider-Man stunt show, staged in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class.
. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. There were also the "Spidey Super Stories" segments on the PBS educational series The Electric Company, which featured a Spider-Man that did not speak out loud but instead used thought balloons.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. Spider-Man has been adapted to television numerous times, through a short-lived live-action television series and several animated cartoon series. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. These include:. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. Other characters are spin-offs and exist in alternate versions of the Marvel Universe. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). Four of these actually exist in the Marvel Universe:.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. In the comics, others have used the Spider-Man identity. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Like Spider-Man himself, a large percentage of these villains have their origins based in storylines featuring scientific accidents or the misuse of scientific technology. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. His most famous enemies include the Green Goblin, Doctor Octopus, and Venom. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Spider-Man has one of the best-known rogues galleries (list of enemies) in comics.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Unfortunately, Spider-Man had never learned to drive a car, and crashed the car into the Hudson River soon after receiving it. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. In addition, the Human Torch once helped Spider-Man build a car called the Spider-Mobile which had a paint job and modifications that followed his spider motif. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. He typically uses it not only for a light source, but as a way of unnerving opponents and to call attention. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. Finally, the belt contains a strong light called a Spider Signal that creates an image of his mask when activated.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The camera also has an automatic shutter mechanism linked to an internal motion detector so it will take a picture whenever Spider-Man moves in front of the camera lens. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. It also carries his camera, which has an extended rear metal plate that allows him to use his web to position it without interfering with its functions. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. Spider-Man keeps his regular field equipment in a specially designed utility belt that contains his web fluid cartridges and his tracers. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. However, he eventually learned that he could tune the tracer signal frequency to his own spider-sense for more convenient use, but the receiver is still used as a back-up and long-range measure.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Spider-Man originally used a small receiver device to follow the tracers. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. While he originally threw his tracers at a target in the hopes that at least one hits, he later developed a wrist launcher which ejects tracers above the wrist while the web is fired from below to allow for more precise and reliable applications of the tracers. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. The outer casing is shaped like a spider and is designed to cling to a target without attracting attention. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. Spider-Man has also developed small electronic "spider-tracers" which allow him to track objects or individuals.

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. Spider-Man is now able to produce webbing without the aid of his web-shooters. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. The transformation, however, seemed to give Spider-Man organic web glands in his wrists. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. The end of the situation saw the Queen presumably dead and Spider-Man reverting back to human form. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. During this encounter, the Queen transformed Spider-Man into a human-sized spider.

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. Recently, Spider-Man and Captain America crossed paths with a villain called the Queen. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. In some versions of the character (such as in the popular movie series), the character generates webs organically from his own altered spider-like biology, instead of mechanical web shooters. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. The web-shooters can also be used to expel other liquids, using interchangeable cartridges, but are seldom used to do this. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. In addition, Parker can modify the fluid formulation to suit particular specialized needs when called for (this explains why the webbing sometimes conducts electricity, but can also be used as an insulator).

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. The substance is formulated to dissolve after one hour which is generally sufficient time for Spider-Man's needs while ensuring the webs he makes do not cause undue litter. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. However, the default meshed spray generally allows for sufficient strength while being more versatile in its use and easier to remove when desired. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. In addition, when Spider-Man desires it, he can fire the web fluid as a straight liquid when he needs to use the substance's maximum adhesive strength. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. He can also form crude objects with a heavy application.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. He can change the setting to a wide spray to ensnare criminals, and to form protective shields or nets. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. Typical uses of his webs include creating long swing lines which he uses to travel through the chasms between the Manhattan high-rises. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. The substance dries almost immediately into a strong material that can support very heavy loads: into the one-ton range. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The default setting has the adhesive threaded through a special mesh to take on a spider web like design.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". The placement of the trigger and the finger pressure needed to activate it yield Spider-Man's distinctive hand gesture, with the two outer fingers extended, and the two inner fingers on the palm. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. The trigger rests high in the palm and requires a double tapping from the middle and ring fingers to activate, so Peter can't accidentally fire the shooter if he makes a fist or his hand hits the trigger. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. They are wrist mounted devices that fire a fibrous adhesive very similar to the material spiders use to construct webs. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. Spider-Man's web-shooters are one of the character's most distinguishing traits.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. For example, he donned a padded suit to battle Electro, and used a very short-lived armored suit in Web of Spider-Man #100. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. Every so often he will concoct a special armor or web fluid for a specific threat. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). Although he is usually of limited financial means, Spider-Man has developed personal equipment that plays an important role in his superhero career. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. In comics, the activation of the spider-sense is often shown by wavy lines emanating from Peter's head, with his mask occasionally being half-drawn when he is out of costume as an additional cue.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. This ability is like a spider's, as spiders can see all around them. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. Spider-Man has honed this sense to allow him to have 360 vision which ties in with the mystical totemistic side of his powers. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. The phrase "My spider-sense is tingling" has since become an often parodied catchphrase in American pop culture. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Spider-Man approached the mannequin, believing his spider-sense to be warning him about a long-known enemy, learning only too late that it was actually warning him of the explosives as they went off almost in his face.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Octopus. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. In one issue of "What if...?", the Punisher successfully kills Spider-Man by hiding bombs in a mannequin made to look like Dr. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. The fact that it is nonspecific has also been used directly against Spider-Man at times. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. The ability to avoid Parker's spider-sense gives some supervillains an edge that Spider-Man often has trouble countering.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. Ben Reilly did not suffer from this problem as he never bonded with the symbiote. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. For instance if Peter were to slap or punch himself his spider-sense would not perceive the act as a threat and would not activate. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. The spider-sense recognizes both as a part of Parker's physical body. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. This is believed to have been caused by the Venom symbiote's bonding with Peter Parker.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. Additionally, the alien symbiote Venom and its offspring Carnage are not recognized by the spider-sense. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. For instance, the Green Goblin once secretly attacked him with a gas that temporarily suppressed this perceptive ability, allowing the supervillain to shadow him and learn his secret identity. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. Although his spider-sense has saved his life innumerable times, Spider-Man has learned the hard way that it can be beaten. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. When combined with his superhuman reflexes and agility, this makes him an extremely difficult target to shoot in combat and formidable in close quarters.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Spider-Man also uses the spider-sense as a means to time his evasive maneuvers to the point where he can avoid multiple gunshots or machine gun fire. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The spider-sense not only alerts Spider-Man to threats to his physical safety, but also warns him to threats to his privacy such as being observed while changing identities. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. While it cannot tell him of the exact nature of the threat, it is vaguely directional and Spider-Man can judge the severity of the threat by the intensity of the tingling. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. A form of clairvoyance or sixth sense, it unconsciously activates and alerts him to any threat to himself, manifesting as a tingling at the back of his skull.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Spider-Man's most subtle power is his spider-sense. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. In the recent films, he maintains his superb intellect with a mastery of physics and a degree from Columbia University. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. In the comics, he has a facility for chemistry and physics, and later pursues a graduate degree in biochemistry from Empire State University. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. Apart from his physical abilities, Peter has prodigious aptitude in the physical sciences.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. The full extent of the change has not yet been revealed - it may turn out to be even more profound. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. He is also much faster. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. His spider-sense has improved dramatically - he can now see in the dark (or very low-light) and sense vibrations transmitted over his web lines. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. He now has stingers that can protrude from his wrists in periods of stress.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. He also gained a number of additional abilities. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Unfortunately, this seems to have been a one-time occurrence - he does not have the power to heal himself (as, for example, Wolverine does). Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. Most dramatically, his body had regenerated all damaged tissue, including an eye he had lost in a battle with Morlun. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. When he finally experienced this period of dormancy, in the Spider-Man: The Other storyline, Spider-Man emerged with substantial changes.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. The symptoms manifested themselves because Parker was simply too stubborn to allow himself to hibernate; he finally did so as a result of a near-death experience. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. Spider-Man's recent intermittent black outs and loss of superpowers were the result of the involuntary attempt of his body to enter this dormant state. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. It was revealed in the story arc "Evolve or Die" that Spider-Man enters a state of dormancy and sheds his skin and outer tissues, just like an actual Spider, at least once in his life time. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. His myopia was corrected as a result of the spider bite.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. He can also recover from poisons, but he is not immune to natural diseases - he has once nearly lost a confrontation with Rhino because of a bad cold. Briefly, the ten modes are:. His recovery time from injury is somewhat faster than that of an ordinary human, although not nearly as fast as those with true healing factors. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. His bodily tissues are substantially more durable and resistant to impact or trauma than an ordinary human, making it more difficult to injure him, although he is certainly not invulnerable. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. This allows him to outmaneuver foes and to dodge automatic gunfire.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". Another aspect of his physical prowess is his superhuman agility and amplified reflexes. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. Now, according to the 2005 Spider-Man handbook, he can lift 15 tons (this is in part due to the transformation to a spider by the Queen in the Avengers Dissembled event) but has been known to lift more under duress, before he found the alien symbiote), and the muscles in his legs have developed to the point where he can jump the distance of several city blocks in a single bound, or multiple stories straight up. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. He is super-strong, allowing him to lift objects many times his own body weight (Spider-Man says that he could barely lift a VW Beetle, which is about 800 kg. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). This posited explanation became crucial in his fight against the villain Electro, who used his powers of electricity to nullify Spider-Man's "sticking power." However, at another time, it was implied that his "sticking power" was somehow based on his pores actually being the important element, and Spider-Man had been momentarily subdued using a gaseous fog that supposedly "plugged" his pores.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. At one point in the comic series, it was suggested that his ability to adhere to surfaces was due to the fact that he could create a field of static electricity around his body. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. While the exact nature of this has never been pinned down in comics (and various attempts to explain it have contradicted one another), in the live-action movies Peter is shown to have barbed hairs or bristles similar to those of real spiders which extend or retract through his skin. This is known as the Economy rate. It follows that he can grip an object with any part of his body with this talent. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. With this, he is able to support something many times his own weight while clinging to a hard vertical surface such as the side of a building.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Spider-Man gained the ability to adhere to any smooth surface using any part of his body. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. Peter Parker became Spider-Man when he was bitten by an irradiated spider, causing a variety of changes in his body which gave him his superpowers. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. The suit is rumored to have a variety of optional extras as well. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. Recently, it has been revealed by Marvel Comics that, after the events of The Other, Iron Man is giving Spidey a new costume with a red and gold color scheme.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. His costume was altered as well, incorporating aspects of the black costume (large spider chest symbol, and square patches on the gloves) with his classic red-and-blue costume. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The House of M saga had Spider-Man become a famous celebrity (as Scarlet Witch used her reality warping powers to give Spider-Man the life he always wanted). Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. He did however wear a non-living version of the black costume until the new occupant of the living costume, Venom, frightened Mary Jane so badly that she could no longer stand to see Peter in the non-living black costume. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Spider-Man rejected the symbiote after finding out it was alive and trying to merge with him.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". The costume turned out to be a living symbiotic creature, capable of generating its own webbing and improving most of Spider-Man's abilities. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. He appeared in an almost all-black costume, with a large white spider emblem on the chest and back, and with built-in webshooters on the back of his hands. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. The most significant alteration to Spider-Man's costume came about in the mid-1980s, after his return from the Secret Wars. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. The gloves had web-shooters on the outside, and the web design on the boots and gloves was partially replaced with dark blue.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. Instead of a large red spider on his back, the web pattern and spider emblem were repeated there. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. He placed more emphasis on the spider on the chest, making it large enough to cover the entire torso. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. Several alterations occurred when Ben Reilly replaced Peter Parker in the role. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. He is sometimes depicted with "under-arm webbing" connecting his arms to his torso.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. The mask has large white eyes rimmed with black that allow him to see but hide his eyes. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. There is a large red spider outline on his back, and a smaller black spider emblem on his chest. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. From the waist up, the fabric is the red-and-black web pattern, except for his back, sides, and insides of his upper arms, which are dark blue. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. From the waist down, it is dark blue (or sometimes even black, depending on the colorist), except for mid-calf boots with a black web pattern on a red background.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. The standard costume is a form-fitting fabric covering his entire body. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. Although the details and proportions have changed somewhat over the years, with a few notable exceptions, Spider-Man's costume has remained fairly consistent. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. The last issue of "The Other" series revealed two of Spider-Man's new abilities including the ability to see in the dark and an ability to "feel" his environment as he can detect vibrations from his immediate surroundings due to his web and hairs on his arms. This is known as running between wickets. In a 2005 story arc spanning 12 parts, across several titles, Spider-Man finds himself cursed, killed, and eventually reborn in a metamorphic experience which "evolves" his powers, including the addition of new "stingers," as well as upgraded speed and spider-sense.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. Thanks to Spider-Man's membership in the latest incarnation of the Marvel Universe superhero team the Avengers, Peter, Mary Jane and Aunt May were able to move into Tony Stark's Stark Tower. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. In 2004, an altercation with a former classmate turned superhuman, Charlie Weiderman, led to the destruction of both Peter's apartment and Aunt May's house. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Currently, Parker works as a science teacher for his old high school while still moonlighting as a freelance photographer for the Daily Bugle. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. The plan was a success, and Peter battled Morlun again, and aided by the impurity in his blood, defeated the villain, which led to Morlun's apparent death at the hands of his own lackey.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). After a fight between Peter and Morlun that spanned New York, wherein Morlun severely beat Peter—whose attacks had no effect on Morlun—Peter fell back onto his last plan: Morlun wanted only pure spider-blood, so Peter injected another dose of radiation into his bloodstream, attempting to 'poison' his powers. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. Morlun had come to New York for that reason: He feeds off the powers possessed by those connected to animal totems. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). Ezekiel suggested that the accident that gave Peter his abilities might not have been a fluke, and that he might have a deeper connection to a totemic spider spirit (not unlike DC's Animal Man, and his connection to "The Red"). Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. Peter's life had begun to calm down in recent years, until a villain named Morlun, and an ally named Ezekiel (possessing the same powers as Peter) appeared.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. This was called "clone deterioration", and was the final proof that Ben Reilly was the clone, and Peter was the original. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Reilly was killed saving Peter's life, and shortly thereafter, his body crumbled into ashes. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Norman Osborn (the original green goblin) was resurrected (in a controversial storyline itself) and revealed that he had manipulated the tests which indicated Reilly as the real Parker. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). For a brief stint, Ben Reilly was Spider-Man, and even defeated Venom singlehandedly.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. When Ben Reilly came to New York to see Aunt May, it was revealed that he was the true Peter Parker. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. Miles Warren (aka the Jackal). See also: Scoring. It was revealed that the clone had survived the first "clone saga", involving Dr. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. In one of the most controversial stories of the 1990s, Marvel reintroduced a short-lived clone of Spider-Man, now calling himself Ben Reilly.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. Ultimate Spider-Man. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. Television. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. Comics. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Peter Parker/Spider-Man has many love interests in his life:.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Eventually, the two married, but the stresses of Parker's dual identity, combined with Mary Jane's tempestuous career, led to a separation, though the couple later reconciled. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. After years of single living, interspersed with several romantic relationships, including the cat burglar and sometime crimefighter Black Cat, Parker became serious with longtime girlfriend, Mary Jane Watson, a fashion model and actress when she returned after a lengthy absence with a newly found maturity and revealing her knowledge of Peter's secret identity since the beginning of his career. The game is only played in dry weather. He then enrolled in the fictional Empire State University where he befriended Harry Osborn—the son of his archenemy the Green Goblin—and Gwen Stacy, with whom he would have a lengthy romance before the Goblin killed her. There is also a short interval between innings. He continued working as a freelance photographer for the Daily Bugle and living with his elderly and somewhat fragile Aunt May until he graduated from high school.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. However, as with many characters published for many years and handled by multiple creators, Spider-Man's history is convoluted. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. As originally conceived by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko, Peter Parker was something of an Everyman character. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. Shortly after the second film, the Spider-Man of the comics was captured by a supervillain named Queen and during this incident gained some "upgrades" to his powers, including not only new, organic webbing, but a spider-sense made more sensitive in ways yet to be disclosed. An innings is completed if:. The first exception to this was the movie version of the story, in which his famous webbing emanates naturally from his wrists (a concept first used for the title character of Marvel's futuristic semi-spinoff Spider-Man 2099).

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. The instincts he learned from the spider that bit him combined with his bent for chemistry, enabled him to concoct a webslinging device that he wore on his wrists. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. Oddly enough, his most notable ability, that of generating webs, was not originally a superpower. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. His amazing abilities, combined with his natural intelligence and inclination towards science, have allowed him to emerge victorious against these odds on a great number of occasions. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. Spider-Man has amassed a slew of major enemies over the years, most taking a particular interest in harming the hero, and some even targeting Peter Parker himself.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. This moral continues to serve as the major theme of Spider-Man's story. Each innings is subdivided into overs. Although these problems have pushed him to the edge numerous times, he has always continued on as Spider-Man because of his strong belief that "with great power comes great responsibility", the immortal words which his Uncle Ben instilled in him when he was a youth. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. His relationships with his aunt, his co-workers, his best friends, and most importantly, his love interests, have always been hampered by his secret life as a masked super-hero. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. Frequently, his powers complicate his relationships (especially when he unknowingly gained the Captain Universe powers which made him irritable due to his advanced Spider-Sense, the mistakes he had made during his time as Captain Universe caused the world to hate him thus adding more pressure than he could handle), his responsibilities as a student (in the earlier stories) and his varied careers as a photographer for the Daily Bugle and as a teacher at his old high school.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Despite having amazing spider-like abilities, Spider-Man cannot solve his emotional and personal problems with his super powers. Each position on the field has a unique label. Ironically, Parker has spent much of his life working, off-and-on, as a freelance photographer for Jameson, selling photographs of himself as Spider-Man. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Jonah Jameson, publisher of the Daily Bugle. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. He is often considered little more than a costumed menace himself, largely thanks to a smear campaign by J.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. Spider-Man consistently tries to do the right thing, but is viewed with suspicion by many authority figures. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. Realizing that stopping the thief when he had the chance would have prevented his uncle's murder, Spider-Man devoted himself to fighting injustice, driven by the realization that "with great power there must also come great responsibility.". The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. His legal guardian and beloved Uncle Ben was later killed by a thug that Peter had allowed to escape. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. In current Spider-Man continuity, he produces his webs from organic spinnerets in his wrists and no longer requires the mechanical web shooters, most likely to bring character recognition inline with fans who mainly know him from his movie incarnation.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. In addition to his physical powers, Peter Parker successfully designed and utilized mechanical "web-shooters" of his own design to spin webs in a variety of ways. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. These powers included the ability to cling to walls and ceilings, super-human strength, and an extra-sensory "Spider Sense". The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. The spider bite gave Parker an array of spider-like powers. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. When he was 15 years old, Parker attended a science exhibition where he was bitten by a spider which had been irradiated.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. (Note: In virtually all retellings of his origin, Peter's eyesight really was poor and somehow got fixed by the spider bite, but this is not the case in the original comic book series.). A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. When these glasses were broken in a schoolyard fight with Flash Thompson, he didn't bother to get new ones, since they were never really needed in the first place and only made him look awkward. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. In addition, Aunt May made him wear non-prescription glasses to protect his eyes, since she was worried that his constant reading would have a negative effect on his eyesight. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. He was often the target of jokes by more popular fellow students like Flash Thompson, the high school's star athlete, who ironically would later become Spider-Man's biggest fan and one of Peter's best friends.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. The exceptionally bright Peter showed more interest in his studies, especially science, than in any kind of social life. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. Over time he grew to be a lonely, timid teenager. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Though Peter was always loved by the aging couple, he was unpopular among those of his own age. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. The infant Peter Parker was left in the care of his Uncle Ben and Aunt May (Richard's older brother Benjamin Parker and his wife May Reilly Parker), who lived in the Forest Hills neighborhood of Queens, New York.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Malik found out about their plans and arranged a plane-crash that resulted in their deaths, although this retconned backstory was not known at the time of the creation of Spider Man's character. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Their last assignment was the infiltration of the criminal organization of Albert Malik, the third Red Skull. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). (a fictional secret agency). Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. Peter Benjamin Parker was born to Richard Parker and his wife Mary Fitzpatrick-Parker, both of whom were agents of the CIA and later of S.H.I.E.L.D.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. The three comics were sold without the Comics Code approval, but met with such critical acclaim that the industry's self-censorship was undercut. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). Norman Osborn), Spider-Man vanquished Norman by simply showing him his sick son. The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. Most notably, Harry Osborn started taking pills and became so ill that, when Spider-Man fought the Green Goblin (a.k.a. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. However, The Amazing Spider-Man #96–98 (May–July 1971) featured a story arc that showed the negative effects of drug abuse (a storyline conceived at the request of government drug-prevention authorities).

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. Previously, it was forbidden to depict illegal drugs, even negatively. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In 1971, Spider-Man was the first comic to challenge the rigid Comics Code. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. Although another issue of Amazing Fantasy was in production, he says, the title was cancelled to clear a space in the limited distribution schedule for another series. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. He speculated that Goodman's skepticism about the feature, and a possible attempt to revitalize Amazing Fantasy, led to Spider-Man appearing there.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. Murray based this on the launch pattern of several Marvel characters at the time, including Thor (in Journey into Mystery), Ant-Man (in Tales to Astonish) and a solo Human Torch feature (in Strange Tales), as well as on the production numbers for individual stories. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. Will Murray in Comic Book Marketplace #44, suggested that Lee originally might have been considering Spider-Man's debut for the anthology Tales of Suspense rather than Amazing Fantasy. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. Goodman called for a regular series for the character. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. The story was published in issue #15, and months later, sales figures indicated that the cover story was unexpectedly popular.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. When publisher Goodman was eventually presented with the concept, he was resistant to the unorthodox ideas of a teenage hero with a troubled personal life, but allowed the character to be used as a cover story for an anthology title, Amazing Fantasy, that was already scheduled to be canceled, so there was nothing to lose. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. I did costume, web gimmick on wrist & spider signal. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. GARY - Who originated Spider-Man?
STEVE - Stan Lee thought the name up. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. Much earlier, in a rare contemporaneous account, Ditko specified his and Lee's contributions, in a mail interview with Gary Martin published in Comic Fan #2 (Summer 1965), and reprinted at the defunct but cached site Excerpt:.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Ditko's recollections in Comic Book Artist #3 (Winter 1999) were similar. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. [1]. Each team consists of eleven players. Ditko, on first seeing those pages, commented, 'This is Joe Simon's Fly.' Steve Ditko worked up his own version of the character's costume. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries. [Later,] Stan handed the pages over to Steve Ditko.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Jack held onto the sketches and when Stan Lee asked Jack for new ideas, Jack brought the original Spider-Man pages to Marvel Comics. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. I gave the Silver Spider sketches to Jack Kirby and I changed the name again, this time to The Fly. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. In the late 1950s, Archie Comics asked me to create a new line of superheroes. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team. Elsewhere, Simon gave additional details:.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. 2. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. Lastly, the Spider-Man logo was redone and a dashing hyphen added. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. .. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. In this life, he became high-school student Peter Parker, who gets his spider powers after being bitten by a radioactive spider.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. and completely redesigned Spider-Man's costume and equipment. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. ignored Kirby's pages, tossed the character's magic ring, web-pistol and goggles .. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. He turned Spider-Man over to Steve Ditko, who .. . ..

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. Kirby had had him turn into...Captain America with cobwebs. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. But when Kirby showed Lee the sample pages, it was Lee's turn to gripe, He had been expecting a skinny young kid who is transformed into a skinny young kid with spider powers. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. Kirby...using parts of an old rejected superhero named Night Fighter...revamped the old Silver Spider script, including revisions suggested by Lee. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council). Stan Lee said, 'Perfect, just what I want.' [After obtaining permission from publisher Martin Goodman,] Lee told Kirby to pencil-up an origin story.

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. Kirby laid out the story to Lee about the kid who finds a ring in a spiderweb, gets his powers from the ring, and goes forth to fight crime armed with The Silver Spider's old web-spinning pistol. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Jack brought in the Spider-Man logo that I had loaned to him before we changed the name to The Silver Spider. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. .. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. For instance, there was no Black Magic involved at all.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. [T]here were a few holes in Jack's never-dependable memory. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. Simon, in his 1990 autobiography, disputes this account:. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. So the idea was already there when I talked to Stan".1. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. But Joe had already moved on.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. and I said Spider-Man would be a fine character to start with. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. I had a lot of faith in the superhero character that they could be brought back .. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. I believe I said this could become a thing called Spider-Man, see, a superhero character. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Black Magic folded with Crestwood [Simon & Kirby's 1950s comics company] and we were left with the script.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. The Silver Spider was going into a magazine called Black Magic. This scores a run. We had a strip called the 'The Silver Spider'. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. It was the last thing Joe and I had discussed. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket. "Spider-Man was discussed between Joe [Simon] and myself.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Kirby stated in a 1982 interview in Will Eisner's Spirit Magazine that Lee had minimal involvement in the creation of the character:. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. Lee turned to artist Steve Ditko, who found the concept particularly appealing and developed a visual motif Lee found satisfactory. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). When discussing this in documentaries, he often comments, "I've told this story so many times, it may actually be true." Originally, Lee assigned Jack Kirby to illustrate the story, but after seeing sample pages, decided Kirby's style was "too 'larger than life'" for what he wanted. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch. In the Spider-Man movie DVD extras, Stan Lee's Mutants, Monsters and Marvels and elsewhere, Lee said he was inspired by seeing a fly climb up a wall.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. One influence Lee has described for the character's name is the non-superpowered pulp magazine crimefighter The Spider. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. Speaking in the 1980s, Stan Lee said the idea for the series sprang out of the apparent increased teenage interest in the new Marvel comic books, and that he wanted to create a character that could cater to them. "Six and out". Various accounts of the character's creation have been given. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting. .

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. Since his debut in the 1960s Silver Age of comic books, Peter Parker has grown from a shy high school student to a troubled college undergrad and graduate student, to a married man and a professional, but the core of the character has remained the same. "Can not get out first ball". Marvel has published multiple ongoing comic book series featuring the character, the flagship being The Amazing Spider-Man. (Law 31). Through the years, he has appeared in many media, including several animated series, a daily and Sunday comic strip, and two very successful films, with a third one debuting in 2007. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. Spider-Man is one of the most recognizable of all superheroes.

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. Since his creation, his popularity has led to many of the superheroes who predated him being reworked with more complex personas. (Law 37). Spider-Man expanded the dramatic potential of the fantasy and superhero subgenres by having a strong focus on a younger, more troubled character and his personal struggles. No player is credited with the dismissal. He has since become one of the world's most popular characters. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. He first appeared in the comic book Amazing Fantasy #15 (August 1962), with a cover drawn by Jack Kirby and Ditko.

(Law 34). Spider-Man is a fictional character, the alter ego of Peter Parker and a Marvel Comics superhero created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko. No player is credited with the dismissal. Set outside the regular Marvel continuity. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. Spider-Man Loves Mary Jane #1— (Marvel Comics, December 2005—, sequel to Mary Jane and Mary Jane: Homecoming miniseries), written by Sean McKeever and illustrated by Takeshi Miyazawa. (Law 33). Marvel Adventures Spider-Man #1- (Marvel Comics/Marvel Adventures; May 2005—; continuation of Marvel Age Spider-Man), written by Sean McKeever, set during Spider-Man's high school years but not within regular Marvel continuity.

No player is credited with the dismissal. Ultimate Spider-Man #1— (Marvel Comics/Ultimate Marvel; October 2000—), written by Bendis and penciled by Mark Bagley, set in the Ultimate Marvel Universe. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. Part of Marvel UK's "Collector Edition" line, reprinting US stories from 2–3 years earlier. (Law 35). Astonishing Spider-Man #1— (Panini Comics/Marvel UK; Unknown month 1994—). The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This book is not one of the official Spider-Man titles but includes him as part of the current team line-up.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. 3), written by Brian Michael Bendis and penciled by David Finch. (Law 39). New Avengers #1— (Marvel Comics; January 2005—, continuation of Avengers Vol. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. 3 #1— (Marvel Comics; March 2004—), showcasing Spider-Man in stories by new writing talent. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. Spider-Man Unlimited Vol.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Currently written by Reginald Hudlin and penciled by Pat Lee. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. Marvel Knights Spider-Man #1— (Marvel Comics/Marvel Knights; June 2004—). The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #1— (Marvel Comics; December 2005—), written by Peter David and penciled by Mike Wieringo. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. Michael Straczynski, and penciled by Michael Deodato.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. Currently written by J. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. 2 #1–58, #500— (Marvel Comics; March 1963–November 1998, January 1999–December 2003, January 2004—). Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The Amazing Spider-Man #1–441, Vol. (Law 30). Peter's father is named Richard Parker for the same reason.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. Parker. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The surname Parker was chosen to honor Richard Parker, a childhood friend of Stan Lee and father to famed personal injury attorney Larry H. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. In May 2003, he was paid approximately $18,000 to climb the 312-foot Lloyd's of London building to promote the premiere of the movie Spider-Man on the British television channel Sky Movies. (Law 32). He sometimes wears a Spider-Man suit during his climbs.

The bowler and catcher are both credited. Alain Robert nicknamed Spiderman, rock and urban climber who has scaled more than 70 tall buildings using his hands and feet, without using additional devices. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. "Spider Dan" Goodwin, who in 1981 climbed the glass of the Chicago skyscrapers the Sears Tower and the John Hancock Center using suction cups. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). [2]. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs). The studio has announced a theatrical release date of May 4, 2007.

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Spider-Man 3 began production in 2005 under director Raimi. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed). Spider-Man 2 was also the first motion picture released in the Sony Universal Media Disc format for the PlayStation Portable, being included for free with the first one million PSP systems released in the United States. The only higher single-day movie grosses were Shrek 2's $44.8 million in the first weekend of its May 2004 release and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith's $50 million on the first day of its May 2005 release. Its first-day gross ($40.5 million) surpassed its predecessor's $39.4 million record.

It premiered in more North American movie theaters (4,152) than any previous movie. Spider-Man 2 was 2004's second-most financially successful movie and 15th-most financially successful movie of all time. Spider-Man went on to become the sixth highest-grossing film in North American history and is ranked 11th worldwide with a total take of more than $821 million internationally. box offices, it was the highest-grossing movie of the year while also opening up at a record $114.8 million.

Earning more than $403 million at U.S. Although the film adaptation took a number of liberties with the character's history and powers, most notably giving him organic web-shooters rather than mechanical ones, it was essentially true to the character and was widely embraced by the viewing public. The film featured a number of impressive CGI effects used to bring Spider-Man to life. It was directed by Sam Raimi and stars actor Tobey Maguire as Peter Parker.

Spider-Man: On May 3, 2002, the feature film Spider-Man was released. Spider-Boy of the Amalgam Universe is a merged character of the Ben Reilly Spider-Man and Superboy after all characters from Marvel Comics and DC Comics were merged due to the war between the two universes. Spider-Woman in an alternate reality, "Exiles: Legacy", issues #20–22. Mary-Jane Watson a.k.a.

Pavitr Prabhakar in the Indian adaptation of Spider-Man, Spider-Man: India. Spider-Ham, a pig in a funny animal version of the Marvel Universe. Peter Porker a.k.a. Peter Parquagh in the 1602 miniseries.

Takuya Yamashiro (山城拓也), the Spider-Man of Spider-Man (tokusatsu). Yu Komori (小森ユウ Komori Yū) in Spider-Man: The Manga. Miguel O'Hara, the Spider-Man of Marvel 2099. Spider-Girl, the daughter of Peter Parker, set in an alternate reality.

May "Mayday" Parker a.k.a. Blood Spider was an evil version of Spider-Man created by the Taskmaster and the Red Skull. She later became Spider-Woman for a time. Jonah Jameson, who assumed the role with a padded costume when Parker temporarily quit.

Mattie Franklin, the niece of J. Kraven the Hunter donned Spider-Man's costume for a short time in Kraven's Last Hunt. Ben Reilly, a clone of Parker, who also fought crime as the Scarlet Spider. This effectively makes Kitty his crimefighting partner.

This issue reveals that they spend much of their time hunting criminals to fight. Issue 66 of Ultimate X-Men showed Kitty and Spidey on a date. [3]. Brian Michael Bendis, writer of Ultimate Spider-Man, plans to continue with Kitty as a supporting character in USM.

In Ultimate Spider-Man #87, Kitty and Peter are dating for the first time in the "real" comic. In the Ultimate Marvel continuity, Spider-Man's love interest is Kitty Pryde/Shadowcat of the X-Men after breaking up with MJ. This made MJ jealous. Later in the series, he fell in love with Indy, a girl who works for Empire 1, a news channel.

In the MTV's Spider-Man: The New Animated Series, Peter's love interest was still MJ. Lady Vermin, one of the Knights of Wundagore, has feelings for Spider-Man but he does not reciprocate. Naoko Yamada Jones who reminds Peter a lot of MJ. In the Spider-Man Unlimited animated series, Peter's Counter-Earth love interest was Dr.

Spider-Man also has feelings for the Black Cat and most fans think that she was a better love-interest for Spidey than MJ. Later in the series, Peter married MJ and found out she was a clone made by Miles Warren for Morris Bench/Hydro-Man. She then returned in the series without explanation. MJ was thrown into a portal created by the Green Goblin.

In Spider-Man: The Animated Series, Peter's love interest was Mary Jane Watson. The relationship between Spider-Man and Black Cat was short lived after Spider-Man learned that Felicia Hardy was only interested in him as Spider-Man and not Peter Parker. Black Cat. Another love interest of Spider-Man was Felicia Hardy a.k.a.

Later Peter and MJ gave birth to another child, a boy named Ben who is most likely named after Peter's Uncle Ben or Ben Reilly, Peter's clone. In the MC2 continuity, Peter and Mary Jane gave birth to their daughter, May Parker (Spider-Girl) who is named after Peter's Aunt May. After many years of dating, Peter and MJ finally got married. Like Peter, MJ lives with her aunt.

She works as an actress and a model. Before Peter, Mary Jane has also dated Flash Thompson and Harry Osborn. After Gwen Stacy, Peter's next and most well known girlfriend was Mary Jane Watson, who is also currently Peter's wife. In the House of M storyline, Gwen is still alive and married to Peter with a baby son.

Many years later, Gabriel and Sarah decided to kill Spider-Man in an attempt to seek revenge. When the twins were older, Norman told them that Spider-Man killed their mother. Gwen told Norman that she wanted Peter to be the father of the twins which was another reason why Green Goblin killed her so that he can have the twins for himself. She later gave birth to twins, Gabriel and Sarah.

The consensual encounter resulted in a pregnancy that she then hid from Peter with a trip to Europe. In the Sins Past saga, it was explained that Norman Osborn and Gwen Stacy—in a moment of weakness for both—had a romantic tryst. Many years later, the Green Goblin killed Gwen by throwing her off a bridge. Peter's first real girlfriend was Gwen Stacy.

Later, Betty Brant married Daily Bugle reporter, Ned Leeds. They dated for sometime but in the end broke up. Peter's next love interest was Daily Bugle's secretary, Betty Brant. Instead Liz married Peter's friend, Harry Osborn.

The first love-interest of Peter was Liz Allen though they never got together.

08-01-15 FTPPro Support FTPPro looks and feels just like Windows Explorer Contact FTPPro FTPPro Help Topics FTPPro Terms Of Use ftppro.com/browse2000.php Business Search Directory Real Estate Database WebExposure.us Google+ Directory Dan Schmidt is a keyboardist, composer, songwriter, and producer.