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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.
. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. Wrestlers and wrestling personalities from all around the world of wrestling were in attendance, including:. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. and Valerie Coleman Graham all spoke at the funeral. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. Chris Benoit, Dean Malenko, Chris Jericho, John "Bradshaw" Layfield, Vince McMahon, Tom Prichard, all of Guerrero's brothers, one of his sisters, Chavo Guerrero, Jr.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. The private service was performed by retired wrestler "Superstar" Billy Graham. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. Eddie Guerrero's funeral took place on Thursday, November 17 in Phoenix, Arizona at Green Acres Cemetery. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. In addition to the RAW and SmackDown! tribute shows, Total Nonstop Action Wrestling dedicated the pay-per-view TNA Genesis (which aired the evening of his passing) to Guerrero. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. These shows were similar in format to the RAW is Owen special edition of RAW, which paid tribute to the late Owen Hart, and the SmackDown! special in Houston, Texas two days after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. A similar video was shown on Friday Night Smackdown to "Here Without You" by 3 Doors Down. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. A video was then shown featuring many clips of Guerrero in and out of the ring to "Hurt" by Johnny Cash. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. RAW started off with all the superstars and several personnel on stage, as Vince McMahon addressed the live crowd. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. No WWE employees were compelled to perform, although several matches took place, including one featuring Chavo.

Some popular rule variations are:. The episodes of RAW on November 14, 2005, and Friday Night SmackDown! on November 18, 2005, each aired as a tribute to Eddie Guerrero. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Stephanie McMahon hinted, and other sources confirmed, that Guerrero had been scheduled to defeat Batista for the World Heavyweight Championship, which would have begun Guerrero's first reign as World Heavyweight Champion. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. On the day of his death, Guerrero was set to face Batista and Randy Orton in a triple threat match for the World Heavyweight Championship on the November 13 taping of Friday Night SmackDown! (which would have aired on November 18). Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. noted that, while many people abuse drugs for over ten years with no ill effects, Guerrero, despite having ceased to abuse drugs four years earlier, had suffered heart complications that were not detected in time to prevent his death.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. Guerrero, Jr. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. There had been no symptoms or cause for concern. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. said that Guerrero had been working very hard and was at peak physical fitness as a result, doing cardiovascular and weight training exercises every day. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. On the November 30, 2005 edition of WWE Byte This!, Chavo Guerrero, Jr.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. She added that the doctors had told her that Guerrero's blood vessels had shriveled and weakened owing to undiagnosed heart disease, and that he had simply dropped into a deep sleep. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. Guerrero's wife Vicky said that he had been lethargic and unwell in the week preceding his death, but that this had been attributed to the stress of continuously traveling and performing. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. At the time of his death, he had recently used narcotic painkillers. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Although Guerrero had not taken alcohol or illicit drugs for over four years, his past excesses contributed to his heart failure.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. An autopsy revealed that Guerrero died as a result of acute heart failure, caused by undiagnosed arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease and enlargement of the heart as a result of prior anabolic steroid abuse. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Chavo adamantly defended his uncle, saying he had defeated his "personal demons." WWE Chairman Vince McMahon declined to speculate on the causes of Guerrero's death, and both men said that Guerrero would have "wanted the show to go on.". The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. The same day, WWE held a press conference with a speech from his nephew Chavo, who spoke of Guerrero's four years of sobriety that would have come on November 15 of that year. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). Several hours later, WWE.com released the following announcement:.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. On November 13, 2005, Guerrero was found dead in his hotel room in Minneapolis, Minnesota, at the Marriott City Center Hotel by his nephew, Chavo. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Kayfabe-wise, this was a Survivor Series qualification match which was to have Guerrero put in the Smackdown side of a brand-war Survivor Series match. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Kennedy. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. On the November 11 edition of Friday Night SmackDown!, Eddie Guerrero wrestled what turned out to be the final match of his career, a victory by disqualification using his trademark cheating tactics over Mr.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Guerrero told him that Batista shaking his hand at No Mercy had returned his respect to him. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Guerrero would tell Batista that he realized how low he had sunk since being WWE Champion in 2004, having attacked his best friend Rey Mysterio. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. Eventually, Batista and Guerrero would become allies against Randy Orton, Bob Orton and Ken Kennedy. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. Though the two demonstrated mutual respect after the match, Guerrero seemed displeased by the loss.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. During the match, Guerrero struggled with a decision about whether or not to use a steel chair to secure the victory, eventually opting not to use it and losing as a result. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. Batista defeated Guerrero at No Mercy to retain his World title. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. In response to Batista's suspicions, Guerrero helped Batista win a match against his tag team partners, John "Bradshaw" Layfield and Christian. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. However, Batista was wary of Guerrero and a series of matches with MNM only supported his suspicions, as Guerrero appeared to have reverted to his cheating ways.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Despite this, Guerrero quickly proclaimed himself to be Batista's friend. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. Following his feud with Rey Mysterio, Guerrero was named number one contender to the World Heavyweight Championship and given a title match with Batista at No Mercy 2005. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. Their emotional feud ended at the premiere of Friday Night SmackDown!, where Guerrero finally gained a victory over Mysterio in a steel cage match. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. At SummerSlam 2005, Guerrero lost a ladder match over Dominik's custody to Mysterio.

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. He claimed he then allowed Mysterio and his wife, who were "having trouble conceiving", to adopt the child as their own. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. He claimed that he had a child out of wedlock (Dominik) while his marriage was going through hard times. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. The following weeks had Guerrero revealing the details of the secret in a series of what he called "Eddie's Bedtime Stories". The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Yet Guerrero revealed the secret any way on the following episode of SmackDown! - telling Dominik and the audience that Guerrero was his real father.

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. Rey defeated Guerrero at the Great American Bash, a match with a stipulation that if Guerrero lost, he would not tell the secret. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. The storyline (which involved equal parts of work and truth, and had Rey's full approval) grew to involve the families of both men, with both sides pleading for Guerrero not to reveal the secret. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. Several weeks after the match at Judgment Day, Guerrero threatened to reveal a secret about Rey and Rey's son Dominik. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. At Judgment Day 2005 on May 22, Guerrero lost to Mysterio by disqualification.

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. At the end of one edition of SmackDown!, he viciously and emotionlessly beat up his former tag team partner, leaving him bruised and bloody after suplexing him onto a set of steel steps. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. During this time, he also stopped driving his low-riders down the ring and walked to the ring with a frown on his face, and reverted to using the Lasso from El Paso as his finishing move. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. Guerrero then adopted a new, somewhat sociopathic gimmick. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. After several mishaps in the weeks following WrestleMania, the growing tension between Guerrero and Mysterio finally erupted when they lost their tag titles to new team MNM on the April 21 episode of SmackDown! Although they received a match to regain the titles, Guerrero turned heel once again by abandoning his partner, who he had dubbed "his family" earlier in the show.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. Although visibly frustrated, Guerrero congratulated his partner. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. Many expected the new champions to defend their titles at WrestleMania 21, but after encouragement from Chavo, instead Guerrero challenged Rey to a one-on-one match so they could "bring the house down." The two wrestled a match at WrestleMania with Mysterio getting the win. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. On February 20, 2005, Guerrero once again became a tag team champion, this time with long time friend and sometimes rival Rey Mysterio when they defeated Doug and Danny Basham at No Way Out 2005. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. Afterwards, Guerrero and Booker briefly and unsuccessfully attempted to win the WWE Tag Team Championships.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Guerrero would then be taken out by The Undertaker while Bradshaw pinned Booker following the Clothesline From Hell. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. However, during the match, the two broke away from the team and made it clear that it was every man for themselves. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. At Armageddon, Guerrero and Booker worked as a unit, taking down both Bradshaw and Undertaker. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. Despite losing two matches in a row as a tag team, Guerrero and Booker managed to get along.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. Along the way, Guerrero found a partner in Booker T. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. Guerrero, along with Booker T and The Undertaker, then challenged John "Bradshaw" Layfield for a WWE Championship rematch. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). At Survivor Series, Guerrero landed the Frog Splash on Kurt Angle for the victory. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. Guerrero selected John Cena, who was feuding with Carlito, a member of Angle's Survivor Series team.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. The following week, Guerrero was forced to find another member for his team because Rey Mysterio had just been given an opportunity to regain the WWE Cruiserweight Championship. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. Guerrero's team consisted of himself, Big Show, Rey Mysterio and Rob Van Dam. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. General Manager Theodore Long booked a Survivor Series Elimination Match between a team led by Guerrero and a team led by Kurt Angle. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Each week Angle and his new allies Luther Reigns and Mark Jindrak began targeting Guerrero and the Big Show.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Guerrero then allied himself with the Big Show, who also despised Kurt Angle for firing him while Angle was still SmackDown! general manager. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. At SummerSlam, Angle made Guerrero submit to the ankle lock. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. He would later lose the title to John "Bradshaw" Layfield, due to Angle's interference. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. He would enjoy many months of success as champion, which included a win against Kurt Angle at WrestleMania XX as well as victories over the Big Show and Rey Mysterio.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. On February 15, 2004 Guerrero won the WWE Championship at No Way Out 2004, defeating Brock Lesnar following interference from Goldberg. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. Despite (or possibly because of) his immoral tactics, Guerrero continued to increase in popularity. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. He was well known for hitting someone with a steel chair (or handing the opponent the steel chair and then pretending to be knocked out himself, just as the referee turned around), or using illegal weapons during the match. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. Guerrero would also capitalize on his "Lie, Cheat, and Steal" anti-hero image by brazenly using illegal tactics behind the referee's back to win matches on occasion.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. During the summer of 2003, Guerrero had begun driving a customized lowrider to ringside as part of his ring entrance. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. In a storyline, Guerrero's singles success made Chavo jealous and Chavo broke from the team. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. As Guerrero's popularity grew, he began seeking the WWE Championship. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. As Los Guerreros attempted to regain the tag team titles, things began to go downhill between Chavo and Guerrero, and the two fought one another at the 2004 Royal Rumble in a match that was won by Eddie Guerrero.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Four days later, Los Guerreros would lose the WWE Tag Team Championship to the Basham Brothers. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. Guerrero lost the United States Championship to The Big Show at No Mercy 2003 in October after a feud which involved Guerrero poisoning the Big Show with some laxative laced burritos and then later spraying the Big Show with a sewage truck. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. Eddie Guerrero thus held the United States Championship and one-half of the Tag Team Championships concurrently. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. On September 16, 2003, Los Guerreros defeated The World's Greatest Tag Team to regain the WWE Tag Team Championships.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Chavo made his return in this match, assisting Guerrero in executing his Frog Splash on Cena. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Guerrero challenged Cena to a "Latino Heat" street fight for the United States Championship, which Guerrero won. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. He turned face again by engaging in a rivalry with John Cena. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. At SummerSlam, Guerrero retained his title by defeating Rhyno, Benoit and Tajiri in a four way match.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. Guerrero pinned Benoit and won the United States Championship. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. Guerrero himself said that this was a major point in the character of Latino Heat, since he himself realized that the fans wanted to see him lie, cheat and steal. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. The match ended with interference by and a Gore from Rhyno, Benoit's own partner, who was furious at the team's failure. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. It did not work, however, since he knocked out the ref earlier with a belt shot to the kidneys.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. Guerrero tried to get Benoit in trouble by placing the title belt on top of the unconscious Benoit. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. In this match, Guerrero turned to his cheating tactics, hitting Benoit with the belt at one point in the match. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. He managed to advance to the final round, defeating Ultimo Dragon in the process, where he would meet Chris Benoit. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. In mid-2003, Guerrero competed in a tournament for the WWE United States Championship.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. After Guerrero and Tajiri lost the titles to Team Angle on July 1, Guerrero turned on Tajiri, slamming his partner through the windshield of his low-rider truck. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. In addition, they also defeated the legendary Roddy Piper and his protegè Sean O'Haire. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. The following week, Guerrero and Tajiri managed to retain their titles by cheating. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. They won the Tag Titles at Judgment Day in a ladder match.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. He chose Tajiri. Briefly, the ten modes are:. This forced Guerrero to look for another partner. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Prior to Judgment Day, Chavo tore his bicep. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Los Guerreros participated at WrestleMania XIX as contenders for the Tag Titles, along with the team of Chris Benoit and Rhyno.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". With this victory, Los Guerreros began their reign as the WWE Tag Team Champions, a reign that lasted until they were defeated by Team Angle. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. At Survivor Series 2002, Guerrero made Mysterio submit to The Lasso From El Paso. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. Los Guerreros would then be given another shot at the WWE Tag Team titles and the new champions, Edge and Rey Mysterio. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). Much to Benoit's surprise, Los Guerreros helped him win the match.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. Benoit and Angle then fought for a trophy for being the first WWE Tag Team Champion. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. Later on, Benoit and Angle won the WWE Tag Team Championships. This is known as the Economy rate. Benoit and Angle managed to overcome their differences and eventually defeated Los Guerreros in the tournament semi-finals. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. Guerrero then materialised in the room and assaulted Benoit with a steel chair.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Benoit ran to make the save, only to have himself locked inside a room. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. In one of the team's definitive moments, Chavo told Benoit that his former friend Guerrero was assaulted by his tag team partner Kurt Angle. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. The duo entered the eight-team tournament for the new WWE Tag Team Championships and began a feud with the newly formed tag team of Kurt Angle and Chris Benoit. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. In contrast to a previous WCW storyline with his nephew, Chavo fully adopted his uncle's policy of "Lie, Cheat and Steal" to win matches, and to push the new tag team vignettes were produced, which included things such as the two finagling their way into a rich lady's house and throwing a pool party.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. With Benoit starting to focus on Kurt Angle, Guerrero aligned himself with his nephew Chavo, forming the tag team Los Guerreros. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). On August 1, Guerrero and Benoit began to wrestle exclusively for WWE's SmackDown! brand. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Guerrero then went on to feud briefly with The Rock. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Guerrero then started a feud with Stone Cold Steve Austin, but Austin left WWE before a match could take place.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". He lost the belt to RVD a month later in a ladder match which was plagued with problems, including the ladder breaking to a fan interfering in the match. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. On April 21 at Backlash 2002 he defeated Van Dam for the Intercontinental Championship. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. Guerrero returned to RAW on April 1, 2002, attacking Rob Van Dam and reuniting with Chris Benoit. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. During this time, he won the IWA mid-south heavyweight title from CM punk, in a triple threat with rey mysterio, just days after winnning the cruiserweight title again in the WWE.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. at A Night of Appreciation, an ROH show dedicated to him. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. A little over a week later on April 27, he teamed with The Amazing Red to defeat The S.A.T. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. WWE permitted him to fulfill the obligations, and on April 19, he wrestled CM Punk and Colt Cabana in Dayton, Ohio. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. When he signed, he was committed to one more ROH and IWA Mid-South show.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Following a number of highly acclaimed matches, such as his bout with Doug Williams at FWA British Uprising, as well as his series of matches with CM Punk, he was rehired by the renamed WWE in March 2002. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. He was also one of the original wrestlers in the Ring of Honor promotion. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. Guerrero appeared with numerous independent promotions, including World Wrestling All-Stars and IWA Mid-South. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. On November 9, 2001 he was arrested for drunk driving and was subsequently released by the WWF three days later.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. At this point, Guerrero developed an addiction to pain medication stemming from his 1999 car accident and in May 2001 was sent to rehabilitation. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. Guerrero eventually left the Radicalz, siding with The Hardy Boyz and Lita. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. In early 2001, Guerrero feuded with Test, winning the European Championship for a second time at WrestleMania X-Seven with help from Saturn and Malenko. This is known as running between wickets. The Radicalz reunited in late 2000, assisting Triple H in his match with Stone Cold Steve Austin at Survivor Series.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. The engagement was called off when Guerrero was caught showering with two of The Godfather's hos claiming that "Two Mamacitas are better than one!" Guerrero turned heel once again as a result of the incident and was later defeated for the Intercontinental Championship by Chyna's friend Billy Gunn. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Just when it appeared that Chyna would leave Guerrero, he proposed to her and she accepted. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Chyna became visibly uncomfortable as Guerrero began to cheat in order to retain his title, while Guerrero was upset that Chyna was posing for Playboy magazine, even trying to invade the Playboy Mansion to stop the photoshoot. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. After Angle knocked Chyna down with the title belt, Guerrero "accidentally" pinned her while trying to revive her.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). Guerrero claimed to not mind and then begged Commissioner Mick Foley to let him take part in a title defense between Chyna and Kurt Angle, claiming he was afraid that Angle would injure Chyna. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. On August 27, Chyna won the WWF Intercontinental Championship. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). Chyna was upset when Guerrero pinned her to advance in the King of the Ring tournament. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. Over the next few months, friction began to build between Guerrero and Chyna.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. Guerrero successfully retained the title in matches against Saturn and Malenko before finally losing the title to Saturn on July 23. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Guerrero defeated Rios after arriving at ringside in a 1957 Chevrolet, even wrestling in his tuxedo pants and a bow tie. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. He and Chyna began a feud with Essa Rios and Lita, which culminated in a European title defence at Backlash 2000, which was also billed as the night of Guerrero's prom (he was said to have just earned a GED). If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). Guerrero won his first WWF title by defeating another former WCW wrestler, Chris Jericho for the WWF European Championship with help from Chyna.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. In March 2000, Guerrero began pursuing the affections of Chyna, who he referred to as his "Mamacita." Chyna initially rejected his advances, but allied with him following WrestleMania 2000, declaring that she "couldn't resist his 'Latino Heat'". Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. Guerrero and the other WCW wrestlers debuted in the WWF on January 31, 2000 as The Radicalz, appearing on RAW and interfering in a match including the New Age Outlaws. See also: Scoring. After his return, he continued to be displeased with WCW management and signed with the WWF in 2000 along with top WCW stars Chris Benoit, Dean Malenko, and Perry Saturn. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. Guerrero survived the accident and returned to wrestling in a matter of months.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. However, Guerrero was involved in a serious car accident in 1999 that cut short the lWo storyline. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. The group eventually grew to encompass almost all the Mexican wrestlers working for WCW at the time. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. The group was an answer to Bischoff's refusal to push Latino wrestlers in ways they deserved. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Guerrero responded to Bischoff's actions by forming the Latino World Order (or lWo), which was understood by the fans to be a mockery of Bischoff's New World Order.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Guerrero would later rebut this on WWE's DVD Monday Night War claiming that he tried to put personal differences aside for the good of the company, yet found himself angry and outraged once more because of Bischoff's continued refusal to elevate Guerrero and other similar wrestlers. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. However, Guerrero later returned to WCW, leading to the belief that maybe Guerrero's angry speeches against Bischoff were actually a work (Guerrero later confirmed it to be a worked shoot). The game is only played in dry weather. Guerrero then left the company for a period of months, angry at Bischoff for what he had done. There is also a short interval between innings. The wrestler, furious, demanded Bischoff release him from his WCW contract on a live episode of WCW Monday Nitro.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. Bischoff responded by throwing coffee at Guerrero. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. These frustrations came to a head when Guerrero requested that WCW President Eric Bischoff either push his character or give him a raise for family reasons. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. Despite Guerrero's success and popularity, he was one of many wrestlers who were frustrated at never being given a chance to be main event stars in WCW. An innings is completed if:. He lost the match, but called it his favorite match in the February 2004 SmackDown! magazine and his autobiography (published posthumously).

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. One such title match was against Rey Mysterio at Halloween Havoc. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. In WCW, Guerrero found considerable singles success, winning the WCW United States Heavyweight Championship in late 1996 and the WCW World Cruiserweight Championship twice in 1997. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. After their last match at the ECW arena, the locker room emptied and the two were carried around the ring by their fellow wrestlers while the crowd chanted "Please don't go.". No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. Guerrero won the ECW World Television Championship on his debut and went on to have a series of acclaimed matches with Dean Malenko before they both signed with World Championship Wrestling later that year.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. As an homage to his fallen friend, Guerrero adopted his friend's finishing move, the Frog Splash. Each innings is subdivided into overs. However, Barr died before he could join ECW with Guerrero. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. Guerrero and Barr's first break would come when they were noticed in late 1994 by the owner of Extreme Championship Wrestling, Paul Heyman, and were approached about wrestling for him in 1995. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. Along with Barr, Konnan and Madonna’s Boyfriend, Guerrero formed Los Gringos Locos (The Crazy Americans), a heel stable.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. After Guerrero turned on Santo and allied with Art Barr as La Pareja del Terror (The Pair of Terror), the duo became arguably the most hated tag team in lucha libre history. Each position on the field has a unique label. In Mexico, he wrestled mainly for Asistencia Asesoria y Administracion, teaming with El Hijo del Santo as the new version of La Pareja Atómica (The Atomic Pair), the legendary tag team of Gory Guerrero and El Santo. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. In 1993, Guerrero began wrestling in Japan for New Japan Pro Wrestling, where he was known as Black Tiger II. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. He became a star in Mexico long before he main evented in the United States.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. He debuted in 1987 in the Mexican Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre promotion. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. Guerrero was raised in El Paso, Texas and attended the University of New Mexico as well as New Mexico Highlands University on an athletic scholarship, where he wrestled collegiately, before returning to El Paso to train as a professional wrestler. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. Guerrero's uncle Enrique Llanes and cousin Javier Llanes are popular wrestlers in Mexico. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. also became a wrestler.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. Guerrero's nephew, Chavo Guerrero, Jr. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. His three brothers Chavo Guerrero, Hector Guerrero and Mando Guerrero all followed in their father's footsteps and became professional wrestlers. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. His father, Gory Guerrero, was a founding father of Lucha Libre, a prominent wrestling trainer and an influential figure in Mexican professional wrestling. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. Guerrero came from a legendary wrestling family.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. . A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. Guerrero became a born again Christian in 2002. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. Despite all these issues, Guerrero managed to be extremely popular, winning numerous titles during his career, including the WWE Championship. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. His problems outside of the ring were sometimes integrated into his professional wrestling storylines.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Throughout his career, Guerrero encountered various substance abuse problems outside of wrestling, including alcoholism and an addiction to pain killers. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. His famous mantra became "Cheat to Win." Despite being a heel for much of his career, he became extremely popular because of his charisma and the fact that his character seemed to largely be a reflection of himself. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. Guerrero's in-ring character was that of a crafty, resourceful wrestler who would do anything to win a match. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. Through the 1990s, he had a distinguished career, working for every major professional wrestling promotion in the United States during that period: Extreme Championship Wrestling, World Championship Wrestling and World Wrestling Entertainment.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Born into a legendary Mexican wrestling family, Guerrero managed to maintain the storied Guerrero family legacy. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Eduardo Gory Guerrero Llanes (October 9, 1967 – November 13, 2005), better known by his ring name, Eddie Guerrero, was an American professional wrestler of Hispanic descent. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). Medical examiner's report says wrestling star died natural death. Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. Other.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. Wrestling Observer Newsletter. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). World Wrestling Entertainment. The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. World Wrestling Association. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. World Wrestling All-Stars.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. World Championship Wrestling. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. Pro Wrestling Illustrated. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. Pro Wrestling Federation. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. New Japan Pro Wrestling.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. Latin American Wrestling Association. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. Independent Wrestling Association: Mid-South. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. Extreme Championship Wrestling. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. Asistencia Asesoria y Administracion.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Black Tiger Bomb (Sitout crucifix powerbomb). Two on-field umpires preside over a match. Super Black Tiger Bomb (Second rope crucifix powerbomb). A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. Splash Mountain (Sitout crucifix powerbomb). One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. Hilo (Slingshot senton).

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Tilt-a-whirl backbreaker. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Gory Special. Each team consists of eleven players. Brainbuster. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries. Three Amigos (Combination three vertical suplexes).

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Lasso From El Paso (Elevated Texas cloverleaf hold). Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Frog Splash. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Torrie Wilson. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team. Mike Tenay.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. Sting. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. Raven. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. Tom Prichard. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. Kimster.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. Bruce Prichard. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Jamie Noble. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. Rey Mysterio. . Vince McMahon.

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. Dave Meltzer. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. Stephanie McMahon. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. Shane McMahon. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council). Linda McMahon.

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. Dean Malenko. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Lita. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. John "Bradshaw" Layfield. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. John Laurinaitis.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. Gail Kim. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. Billy Kidman. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Konnan. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. Mark Jindrak.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Chris Jericho. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Gregory Helms. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. Michael Hayes. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Charlie Haas.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. Jackie Gayda. This scores a run. Edge. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Kevin Dunn. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket. Tommy Drake.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. CM Punk. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. Christian Cage. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). Chris Benoit. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch. Doug Basham.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. Stone Cold Steve Austin. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. Billy Anderson. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

(Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

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