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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. [22]. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. One writer has referred to this as a "strategy designed to place him in the best of both worlds". A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. However, Robertson has been accused by some columnists as using the apology as a tactic allowing him to make such statements while sustaining his public image to a degree. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. "I ask your forgiveness and the forgiveness of the people of Israel," he wrote.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. "My concern for the future safety of your nation led me to make remarks which I can now view in retrospect as inappropriate and insensitive in light of a national grief experienced because of your father's illness," said the letter. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. In a letter dated Wednesday and marked for hand delivery to Omri Sharon, Robertson called Ariel Sharon a "kind, gracious and gentle man" who was "carrying an almost insurmountable burden of making decisions for his nation.". The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. According to the Associated Press and the Jerusalem Post on January 12th, 2006, it was reported that Christian broadcaster Pat Robertson has sent a letter to one of Ariel Sharon's sons apologizing for suggesting that the prime minister's massive stroke was divine punishment for his withdrawal from the Gaza Strip last year. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. are welcome to do business with us." [19], [20], [21].

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. Those that publicly support Ariel Sharon's recovery .. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. Those who support the statements cannot do business with us. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Robertson." He added that the decision would not apply to all members of the evangelical community: "We want to see who in the group supports his (Robertson's) statements. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. A spokesman for the Tourism Ministry commented, "We cannot accept these statements, and we will not sign any contracts with Mr.

Some popular rule variations are:. The plan had called for Israel leasing 35 acres of land to a group of evangelicals (including Robertson) for free to create several tourist attractions and pilgrimage sites in exchange for the evangelicals raising 50 million dollars in funding. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. On January 11, Israel responded by announcing that Robertson would be banned from involvement in a project to build a Christian tourist attraction and pilgrimage site near the Sea of Galilee known as the Christian Heritage Center. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. He added, "The arrogance of the statement shocks me almost as much as the insensitivity of it." Ted Haggard, president of the National Association of Evangelicals, said that "any doctor could have predicted (Sharon's) going to have health problems" and that his illness was medical, not divine retribution.[18] The White House called Robertson's statement "wholly inappropriate and offensive." Robertson was also chastized by Israeli officials and members of the Anti-Defamation League. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. For instance, Richard Land, president of the Southern Baptist Convention's Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, said that Robertson "ought to know better" than to say such things.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. The remarks drew criticism from all sides, even from among other evangelicals. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. [17]. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. He also claimed former prime minister Yitzhak Rabin's 1995 assassination may have occurred for the same reason. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. After the story, Robertson said that Sharon's illness was possibly retribution from God for his recent drive to give more land to the Palestinians.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. The lead story on the January 5, 2006 edition of The 700 Club was Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's hospitalization for a severe stroke. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.
. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. Maybe he can help them."[16]. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. If they have future problems in Dover, I recommend they call on Charles Darwin.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. "God is tolerant and loving, but we can't keep sticking our finger in his eye forever. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. In a written statement, Robertson later clarified his comments:. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. And if that's the case, don't ask for His help because he might not be there," he said [15]. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). I'm not saying they will, but if they do, just remember, you just voted God out of your city.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. "And don't wonder why He hasn't helped you when problems begin, if they begin. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. "I'd like to say to the good citizens of Dover: if there is a disaster in your area, don't turn to God, you just rejected Him from your city," Robertson said on his broadcast. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. On his November 10, 2005 broadcast of The 700 Club, Robertson told citizens of Dover, Pennsylvania that they had rejected God by voting out of office all seven members of the school board who support "intelligent design.". Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. When Colmes asked Robertson "Do you want him taken out?", Robertson replied "Not now, but one day, one day, one day.".

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. On February 2nd edition of Hannity and Colmes, Pat Robertson once again called for Chavez's assassination. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. government at the United Nations and the Organization of American States.". The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. government does not take the necessary steps, we will denounce the U.S. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. "If the U.S.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. Justice Department to investigate the matter: "My government is going to take legal action in the United States," he said in a televised speech. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. On Sunday, August 28, Chávez called on the U.S. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. [14]. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. interests.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. is out to kill him." However, he continued to justify his original stance on the potential threat Chávez posed to U.S. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. I spoke in frustration that we should accommodate the man who thinks the U.S. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. [13] Later that day, he issued a written statement in which he said, "Is it right to call for assassination? No, and I apologize for that statement. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. Robertson flatly denied using the word "assassinate" [12] despite video tape evidence that he did.

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. On the August 24 edition of The 700 Club, Robertson asserted that he hadn't actually called for Chávez's assassination, but that there were other ways of "taking him out", such as having special forces carry out a kidnapping. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. policy since an executive order against them was issued in 1976; in response, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said that "our department doesn't do that kind of thing." Bernardo Álvarez, Venezuela's ambassador to the U.S., demanded a stronger condemnation from the White House and that the United States "respect our country and its president.". Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. a dangerous enemy to our south, controlling a huge pool of oil that could hurt us very badly." [11] Assassinations of heads of state have been against U.S. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. It's a whole lot cheaper than starting a war, and I don’t think any oil shipments will stop." Robertson also said that Chávez was "going to make Venezuela a launching pad for communist infiltration and Muslim extremism all over the continent" and called the democratically elected leader an "out-of-control dictator..

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. On the day of August 22, 2005 broadcast of The 700 Club, Robertson said of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, "I don't know about this doctrine of assassination, but if he thinks we're trying to assassinate him, I think that we really ought to go ahead and do it. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. But if there's an erosion at home, you know, Thomas Jefferson warned about a tyranny of an oligarchy and if we surrender our democracy to the tyranny of an oligarchy, we've made a terrible mistake.". Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. We won in Iraq, and we can contain that. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. We won in Afghanistan.

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. I think we're going to get Osama bin Laden. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. Robertson went on to say, "I think we're going to control al Qaeda. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. The statement was made as part of a discussion about the long term future of the United States. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. During an interview on ABC's This Week, on April 30, 2005, Robertson was speaking about judicial activism when he said, "If you look over the course of a hundred years, I think the gradual erosion of the consensus that’s held our country together is probably more serious than a few bearded terrorists who fly into buildings." This statement prompted outcry from several September 11th support and survivor groups.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. [10]. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. His comments drew criticism from both sides of the political spectrum. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. In a 2001 interview with Wolf Blitzer, he said that the Chinese were "doing what they have to do," with regards to China's one child policy, sometimes enforced with forced abortions, though he said that he did not personally agree with the practice. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. Lynn, progressive organizations like Media Matters for America [9] and conservative groups such as Focus on the Family have all contested Robertson's statements.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Robertson has repeatedly claimed that Barry Lynn has stated that fire departments cannot put out fires in churches because it would be a violation of separation of church and state. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. State Department officials said they believed the comments to be in extremely bad taste, and have lodged official complaints against Robertson for his remarks. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. "What we need is for somebody to place a small nuke at Foggy Bottom," [8] Robertson said during his television program, referring to the location of the State Department headquarters. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. In interviews with the author of a book critical of the United States Department of State, Robertson made suggestions that the explosion of a nuclear weapon at State Department Headquarters would be good for the country, and repeated those comments on the air.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. On his The 700 Club television program, Pat Robertson has sharply criticized elements of the United States government and "special interest" groups that don't share his views. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. However, the Virginia Attorney General Mark Earley, a Republican, (whose largest campaign contributor two years earlier was Robertson himself) intervened, accepting that Robertson had made deceptive appeals but overruling the recommendation for his prosecution. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). An investigation by Virginia's Office of Consumer Affairs determined that Robertson "willfully induced contributions from the public through the use of misleading statements and other implications" and called for a criminal prosecution against Robertson in 1999. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. After making emotional pleas in 1994 on The 700 Club for cash donations to Operation Blessing to support airlifts of refugees from Rwanda to Zaire, it was later discovered, by a reporter from The Virginian Pilot, that Operation Blessing's planes were transporting diamond-mining equipment for the Robertson-owned African Development Corporation, a venture Robertson had established in cooperation of Zaire's dictator Mobutu Sese Seko.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language. Robertson has also been accused of using his tax-exempt, nonprofit organization, Operation Blessing, as a front for his own financial gain, and then using his influence in the Republican Party to cover his tracks. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. Regarding this controversy, Richard Land, head of the Southern Baptist Convention's public policy said, "I would say that Pat Robertson is way out on his own, in a leaking life raft, on this one.". Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. According to Robertson, the Liberian gold mine Freedom Gold was intended to help pay for humanitarian and evangelical efforts in Liberia, when in fact the company was allowed to fail leaving many debts both in Liberia and in the international mining service sector. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. embassy bombings.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Taylor had been at the time of Robertson's support indicted by the United Nations for war crimes, and prosecutors also said he had harbored members of Al Qaeda responsible for the 1998 U.S. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. State Department of giving President Bush bad advice in supporting Taylor's ouster as president, and of trying "as hard as they can to destabilize Liberia." Robertson has been criticized for failing to mention in his broadcasts his $8 million investment in a Liberian gold mine. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Robertson accuses the U.S. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. Robertson repeatedly supported former President of Liberia Charles Taylor in various episodes of his 700 Club program during the United States' involvement in the Liberian Civil War in June and July 2003.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. Robertson stated that the acceptance of homosexuality could result in hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, terrorist bombs and "possibly a meteor." The resulting outcry prompted Robertson to return to the topic on June 24, where he quoted Revelation in an attempt to support his claims. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. On the June 8, 1998 edition of his show, Robertson denounced Orlando and Disney World for allowing a privately sponsored "Gay Days" weekend. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. He agreed with Falwell that the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were caused by "pagans, abortionists, feminists, gays, lesbians, the ACLU and the People for the American Way." After public outcry regarding the dialogue, which took place only days after the attacks, Robertson stated that he had not understood what Falwell was saying during the interview, which was conducted via television monitor. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. Among his more controversial statements, Robertson has described feminism as a "socialist, anti-family political movement that encourages women to leave their husbands, kill their children, practice witchcraft, destroy capitalism and become lesbians." Many of Robertson's views mirror those of the evangelical activist Jerry Falwell, who has made frequent appearances on The 700 Club.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. Robertson declared that "God heard those prayers"[7], after the announced resignation of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. In 2005, Robertson launched Operation Supreme Court Freedom, a televised nationwide 21-day prayer campaign asking people to pray for vacancies on the Supreme Court, where "black-robed tyrants have pushed a radical agenda". However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. In 2003, Robertson called on God to prevent Hurricane Isabel from hitting Virginia Beach. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. He made a similar claim about another destructive storm, Hurricane Felix, in 1995.

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. east coast. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. He took credit for steering the course in 1985 of Hurricane Gloria, which caused millions of dollars of destruction in many states along the U.S. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. Robertson claims to have used the power of prayer to steer hurricanes away from his companies' Virginia Beach, Virginia, headquarters. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. I don't have to be nice to the spirit of the Antichrist.".

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. Nonsense. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. On January 14, 1991, on "The 700 Club", Pat Robertson attacked a number of Protestant denominations when he declared: "You say you're supposed to be nice to the Episcopalians and the Presbyterians and the Methodists and this, that, and the other thing. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. Robertson is outspoken in both his faith and his politics and controversies surrounding him have often made headlines:. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. In that year the Coalition for Jewish Concerns also expressed its gratitude to Robertson for "unwavering support for Israel" and "standing up to evil.".

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. In 2002, he received the State of Israel Friendship Award from the Zionist Organization of America for his consistent support for a Greater Israel. Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. While Robertson is primarily popular among Evangelical Christians, his support extends beyond the Christian community. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. It was sued by the Federal Election Commission "for coordinating its activities with Republican candidates for office in 1990, 1992 and 1994 and failing to report its expenditures." [5] In 1994, the Coalition was fined for "improperly [aiding] then Representative Newt Gingrich (R., Ga.) and Iran-contra figure Oliver North, who was then the Republican Senate nominee in Virginia." [6] Robertson left the Coalition in 2001. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. However, the organization's popularity has faded somewhat.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. It became, almost instantly, one of the most influential organizations in American politics. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. After his unsuccessful presidential campaign, Robertson used his campaign organization to start the Christian Coalition, a political organization which campaigned mostly for conservative candidates. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. Through his charitable organization, Operation Blessing International, Robertson has spent $1.2 million on aid to refugees in Rwanda. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. The Secret Kingdom, Answers to 100 of Life's Most Probing Questions, and The New World Order were each in their respective year of publication the number one religious book in America.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. Robertson's books have been very successful and well-selling. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. He also has interests in such diverse assets as a shuttered California refinery. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Probably the most lucrative was the purchase of a number of FM radio stations in the 1960s (when they were viewed by most investors as worthless technology) and selling them in the 1980s for massive gains. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. Robertson has made a number of shrewd business deals.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. The court ordered that Robertson pay a percentage of McCloskey's court costs, but not legal fees. Briefly, the ten modes are:. Robertson ended the lawsuit before trial, asserting that the March 8 trial date, the day of the Super Tuesday primaries, was too inconvenient. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Robertson said that he told Hasbrouck what questions to ask and reviewed the hour-long tape before deciding to sue McCloskey. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Hasbrouck represented himself as a reporter for "Worldwide News Service" for this interview.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". During the trial Robertson said he hired John Hasbrouck to interview McCloskey. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. The trial found letters from Robertson's father on Senate stationery to Marine officials expressing concern with Robertson's preparedness to be a combat officer. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. In the late 1980s, Pat Robertson sued Congressman Pete McCloskey and Representative Andrew Jacobs for libel over their statements that Robertson's father used his influence to keep his son out of combat. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). He then returned to CBN and has remained there as a religious broadcaster, since then, even though he never renewed his ministerial credentials.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. He later spoke at the 1988 Republican National Convention in New Orleans and told his remaining supporters to cast their votes for Bush, who ended up winning the nomination and the election. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. Robertson ended his campaign before the primaries were finished; his best finish was in Washington. This is known as the Economy rate. [3] Robertson did poorly in the subsequent New Hampshire primary, however [4] and was unable to be competitive once the multiple-state primaries began. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. Robertson's campaign got off to a strong second-place finish in the Iowa caucus, ahead of Bush.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. (see Education and military service). The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. Instead of fighting in the war, Robertson's primary responsibility was supplying alcoholic beverages for his officers. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. Other Marines in his battalion contradicted Robertson's version, claiming he had never spent a day in a combat environment. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. In his campaign literature, he stated he was a combat Marine who served in the Korean War.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. During the presidential primary election season started in early 1988, Robertson's campaign was attacked because of a statement he had made about his military service. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). He also supported a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced federal budget. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Among his policies, he wanted to ban pornography, reform the education system, eliminate Conrail and Amtrak, and eliminate departments such as the Department of Education and the Department of Energy. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Robertson ran on a very conservative platform.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". Bush was seen as a longshot. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. W. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. However, his campaign against incumbent Vice President George H. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. He surrendered his ministerial credentials and turned leadership of CBN over to his son, Tim.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. Three million responded, and by the time Robertson announced he'd be running in September 1987, he also had raised millions of dollars for his campaign fund. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Robertson said he would only pursue the nomination if three million people signed up to volunteer for his campaign by September 1987. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. In September 1986, Robertson announced his intention to seek the Republican nomination for President of the United States. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The law firm, headquartered in the same building that houses Regent's law school, focuses on "pro-family, pro-liberty and pro-life" cases nationwide.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. He is also founder and president of the American Center for Law and Justice, a public interest law firm and education group that defends Christians whose First Amendment rights have been violated. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. Robertson serves as its chancellor. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. It was renamed Regent University in 1989. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. Robertson founded CBN University in 1977 on CBN's Virginia Beach campus.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. It is now owned by Disney as ABC Family. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. A condition of the sale was that the station would continue airing Robertson's television program The 700 Club twice a day in perpetuity, regardless of any changes of ownership. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. Robertson sold the Family Channel to the News Corporation in 1997, which renamed it Fox Family. This is known as running between wickets. in 1990 with the Family Channel as its main subsidiary.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. When the Family Channel became too profitable for Robertson to keep it under the CBN umbrella without endangering CBN's nonprofit status, he formed International Family Entertainment, Inc. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. In 1977, he founded the CBN Cable Network, which was renamed the CBN Family Channel in 1988 and later simply the Family Channel. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. It is now seen in 180 countries and broadcast in 71 languages. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. He started it by buying a small UHF station in nearby Portsmouth.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). In 1960, Robertson established the Christian Broadcasting Network in Virginia Beach, Virginia. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. He was ordained as a minister of the Southern Baptist Convention in 1961. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). Soon afterwards, he 'spoke in tongues' for the first time. Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. In all thy ways acknowledge Him, and He shall direct thy paths", which Robertson considers to be the "guiding principle" of his life.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. Vanderbreggen quoted Proverbs (3:5, 6), "Trust in the Lord with all thine heart; and lean not unto thine own understanding. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. In 1956 Robertson was "led to faith in Christ" by Dutch missionary Cornelius Vanderbreggen, who impressed Robertson both by his lifestyle and his message. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. After failing the bar exam[2], he shortly thereafter underwent his religious conversion and decided against pursuing a career in law and went on to earn a Master of Divinity degree from New York Theological Seminary in 1959. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). Robertson then went on to receive a Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree from Yale University Law School in 1955.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. Robertson was promoted to First Lieutenant in 1952 upon his return to the United States. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. Robertson has called these allegations "an attack by liberals to discredit me.". See also: Scoring. Paul Brosman, Jr., another veteran who had served with Robertson claimed in a deposition that Robertson had sexual relations with prostitutes and sexually harassed a cleaning girl. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. His time in the service was not in combat but as the "liquor officer" responsible for keeping the officers' clubs supplied with liquor, and that Robertson's father intervened to keep Robertson out of combat.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. attacked Robertson's record that he served in Korea, but that Robertson spent most of his time in an office in Japan. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. The Division was in combat in the hot and dusty, then bitterly cold portion of North Korea just above the 38th Parallel later identified as the "Punchbowl" and "Heartbreak Ridge." For that service in the Korean War, the Marine Corps awarded me three battle stars for "action against the enemy." Paul "Pete" McCloskey, Jr. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. We did long, grueling marches to toughen the men, plus refresher training in firearms and bayonet combat." In the same year he transferred to Korea, "I ended up at the headquarters command of the First Marine Division. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Robertson served 4 months in Japan, in January 1951, "doing rehabilitation training for Marines wounded in Korea.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. He graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree and was the first person to be commissioned as a Second Lieutenant at a graduation ceremony at the university. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. He opted for the former, which allowed him to finish college under the condition that he attend OCS during the summer at Quantico, Virginia. The game is only played in dry weather. In 1948 the draft was reinstated and Robertson was given the option of joining the Marine Corps or being drafted into the army. There is also a short interval between innings. Robertson has said, "Although I worked hard at my studies, my real major centered around lovely young ladies who attended the nearby girls schools" [1].

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. He graduated with honors and enrolled at Washington and Lee University, where he majored in history and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, one of the most prestigious honor societies in the country, and joined Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. McCallie is a college preparatory school that was at the time, but is no longer, a military school. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. From 1944 until 1946 he attended the McCallie School in Chattanooga, Tennessee. An innings is completed if:. When he was twelve, Robertson was enrolled in the military preparatory McDonogh School outside Baltimore, Maryland.

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. Robertson is also related to Winston Churchill. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. Robertson is proud of his family history and has traced his family to such relatives as governor of Virginia and signer of the Declaration of Independence Benjamin Harrison V, and United States presidents, William Henry Harrison and Benjamin Harrison. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. He insisted upon being called a "religious broadcaster.". No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. His strong awareness for the importance of names in the creation of a public image showed itself again during his presidential run when he threatened to sue NBC news for calling him a "television evangelist", which later became "televangelist", at a time when Jimmy Swaggart and Jim Bakker were objects of scandal.

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. Gordon" to be affected, so he opted for his childhood nickname "Pat". Each innings is subdivided into overs. He considered "Marion" to be effeminate, and "M. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. As he got older, Robertson thought about which first name he would like people to use. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. At a young age, Robertson was given the nickname of Pat by his six-year-old brother, Willis Robertson, Jr., who enjoyed patting him on the cheeks when he was a baby while saying "pat, pat, pat".

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Robertson, and at the time of writing (mid-2005) fourteen grandchildren. Each position on the field has a unique label. His family includes four children, among them Gordon P. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. He married Adelia "Dede" Elmer in 1954. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. His parents were Absalom Willis Robertson, a conservative Democratic United States Senator, and his wife Gladys Willis Robertson.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. Robertson was born in Lexington, Virginia, into a prominent political family. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. . The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. Christian churches do not have a national leader that represents or speaks for them, a contributing factor to Robertson's ability to claim a position as a leading Christian voice. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. However, many U.S.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. As a result of his seeking political office, he no longer serves in an official role for any church. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. He is a Southern Baptist and was active as an ordained minister with that denomination for many years, but holds to a Charismatic theology not traditionally common among Southern Baptists. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. Robertson is a partisan of the Republican Party and campaigned to become the party's candidate in the 1988 presidential election. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. Robertson's strongly conservative views have often provoked controversy, especially his statements recommending the dissolution of the barrier between church and state, the condemnation of groups he believes to be in a state of sin, and his denunciation of perceived communists or radical Islamic followers.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. He is the host of The 700 Club, a TV program which airs on many channels in the United States and on CBN affiliates worldwide. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. He is the founder of numerous organizations and corporations including: the American Center for Law and Justice (ACLJ), Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN), the Christian Coalition, the Flying Hospital, International Family Entertainment, Operation Blessing International Relief and Development Corporation, and Regent University. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22, 1930) is an influential Christian televangelist, entrepreneur, and Christian right political activist from the United States. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. 2002 State of Israel Friendship Award from the Zionist Organization of America.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. 2000 Cross of Nails award for his vision, inspiration, and humanitarian work with The Flying Hospital. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. 1994 John Connor Humanitarian Service Award from Operation Smile International. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. 1994 Defender of Israel Award from the Christians' Israel Public Action Campaign for those who have made major contributions in strengthening U.S.-Israel relations. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. 1994 Omega Fellowship Award by Food for the Hungry for Operation Blessing's fight against worldwide hunger.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. 1992 One of America's 100 Cultural Elite by Newsweek Magazine. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. 1989 Christian Broadcaster of the Year by the National Religious Broadcasters. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). 1988 Man of the Year by Students for America. Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. 1985 National Association of United Methodist Evangelists.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. 1984 Citation from the National Organization for the Advancement of Hispanics. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). 1984 Man of the Year Award from the Women's National Republican Club. The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. 1982 Humanitarian of the Year by Food for the Hungry. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. 1979 National Conference of Christians and Jews - Distinguished Merit Citation.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. 1978 Department of Justice Award from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 25th FBI Vesper Service. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. 1976 Faith and Freedom Award in the field of broadcasting. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. 1975 The Distinguished Merit Citation from The National Conference of Christians and Jews. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. Courting Disaster.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The Ten Offenses. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. Bring It On. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. The New World Order (1991). The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. The End of the Age.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. Shout it from the Housetops an autobiography. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. Turning Tide: The Fall of Liberalism and the Rise of Common Sense. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. Beyond Reason: How Miracles can Change your Life. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. The Plan.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. America's Dates with Destiny. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. The Secret Kingdom (1982). Each team consists of eleven players. Answers to 200 of Life's Most Probing Questions. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries. The New Millennium.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Robertson's claims of overseas graduate study turned out to be a summer introductory course for Americans abroad. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Robertson claimed he was on a board of directors of a bank, when he was only actually on an advisory board. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. In a book Robertson wrote, he described himself as a "Yale-educated tax lawyer," though he had not passed the bar. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team. On different occasions, Robertson has claimed an IQ of 159, 139 and 137.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams.

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. .

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. This scores a run. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. "Six and out". This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. "Can not get out first ball". (Law 31). (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal.

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (Law 37). No player is credited with the dismissal. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball.

(Law 34). No player is credited with the dismissal. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. (Law 33).

No player is credited with the dismissal. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. (Law 35). The bowler is credited with the dismissal.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. (Law 39). This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. (Law 30).

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. (Law 32).

The bowler and catcher are both credited. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).

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