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Cricket

   
A cricket match in progress. The beige strip is the cricket pitch. The men wearing black trousers on the far right are the umpires.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch.

At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket.

If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. This scores a run. The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder.

Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win.

Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council).

The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia.

A cricket ball used in Test matches. The white stitching is known as the seam.
As One-Day games are often played under floodlights, a white ball is used to aid visibility. A Cricket bat, back and front sides Kids playing Cricket on a make-do Pitch in a park. It is common in many countries for people to play cricket in make do pitches as it is a highly popular sport.

Objective and summary

Cricket is a bat and ball sport. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls.

If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score.

If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team.

Laws of cricket

The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries.

Players and officials

Players

Each team consists of eleven players. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder.

Umpires

Two on-field umpires preside over a match. One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game.

Scorers

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event.

The playing field

The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary.

The pitch

Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).

At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair.

Parts of the field

For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions.

Placements of players

The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker.

The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. Each position on the field has a unique label.

Match structure

The toss

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first.

Overs

Each innings is subdivided into overs. Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling.

After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end.

End of an innings

An innings is completed if:

  1. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed).
  2. A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so.
  3. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs).
  4. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches).
Playing time

Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. There is also a short interval between innings.

The game is only played in dry weather. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers.

Batting and scoring runs

See also: Scoring

Batting
The directions in which a right handed batsman intends to send the ball when playing various cricketing shots.

Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly.

Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons.

Run scoring

To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. This is known as running between wickets. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced.

Extras

Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras.

Bowling and dismissals

Bowling
Darren Gough bowling

A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled.

The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. This is known as the Economy rate. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers.

Dismissal of a batsman

A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Briefly, the ten modes are:

  • Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. The bowler and catcher are both credited. (Law 32)
  • Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 30)
  • Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The bowler is credited with the dismissal.
  • Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard.
  • Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. (Law 39)
  • Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. (Law 35)
  • Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 33)
  • Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 34)
  • Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 37)
  • Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. (Law 31)

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide.

Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare.

Fielding and wicket-keeping

A pair of Wicket Keeping Gloves. The webbing which helps the 'keeper to catch the ball can be seen between the thumb and index fingers.

Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs.

The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped.

Other roles

Captain

The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position.

A runner

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman.

Substitutes

In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005.

In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return.

History

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300.

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.

A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance.

The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket.

The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia.

Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion.

Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity.

Forms of cricket

The first Test cricket match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) situated in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Australia, in 1877.

Test cricket

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs.

The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win.

One-day cricket

One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches.

First-class matches

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class).

The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article.

Other forms of cricket

At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches.

Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Some popular rule variations are:

  • "Can not get out first ball". If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting.
  • "Six and out". If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard.

Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena.

International structure

ICC member nations. Orange are Test playing nations; green are the associate member nations; and purple are the affiliate member nations.

The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations.

Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team.

Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations.

See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches.


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See also: Non-Test teams to have played ODI matches. In Fleming's books, Bond has a penchant for "battleship grey" Bentleys, while Gardner awarded the agent a modified Saab 900 Turbo nicknamed the Silver Beast and later a Bentley Mulsanne Turbo. The lowermost rung consists of the Affiliate Member nations. Bond's most famous car is the silver grey Aston Martin DB5 seen in Goldfinger, Thunderball, GoldenEye, and Tomorrow Never Dies. A rung lower are the Associate Member nations. Since Moonraker subsequent productions struggled with balancing gadget content against the story's capacities, without implying a technology-dependent man, to mixed results. They qualify automatically for the quadrennial World Cup matches. Some films, in the opinion of many critics and fans, have had excessive amounts of gadgets or extremely outlandish gadgets and vehicles, specifically 1979's science fiction-oriented Moonraker and 2002's Die Another Day in which Bond's Aston Martin could become invisible due to a technology Q refers to as adaptive camouflage.

At the highest level are the Test-playing nations. The gadgets, however, assumed a higher, spectacular profile in the 1964 film Goldfinger; its success encouraged further espionage equipment from Q Branch to be supplied to 007. Nations playing cricket are separated into three tiers depending on the level of cricket infrastructure in that country. No, Bond's sole gadgets were a geiger counter and a wristwatch with a luminous (and radioactive!) face. The cricket board also selects the national squad and organises home and away tours for the national team. Fleming's novels and early screen adaptations presented minimal equipment such as From Russia with Love's booby-trapped attaché case; in Dr. Each nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in their country. Exotic espionage equipment and vehicles are very popular elements of James Bond's literary and cinematic missions; these items often prove critically important to Bond removing obstacles to the success of his missions.

It is headquartered in Dubai and includes representatives of each of the ten Test-playing nations, as well as an elected panel representing non-Test-playing nations. Some of the more memorable ones include Bill Tanner, Rene Mathis, Felix Leiter, and Jack Wade. The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body for cricket. Throughout both the novels and the films there have only been a handful of recurring characters. Indoor cricket is a variant of the game that can be played in a netted, indoor arena. Since Brosnan's tenure, however, the character has taken on a (relatively) more progressive outlook on women; he respects the new, female M (played by Judi Dench) and has let a few women, particularly Paris Carver and Elektra King, get under his skin. Kwik cricket is a form of the sport where the bowler does not have to wait for the batsman to be ready before a delivery, leading to a faster, more exhausting game which is often used in school PE lessons. Despite Bond's philandering, most end up, if not in love with him, at least subdued by him.

Some popular rule variations are:. The aggressiveness of Bond's sexual conquests occasionally while his lovers eventually return his advances, he does not take the initial "no" for an answer. This is known as gully cricket in the subcontinent. Bond's women, particularly in the films, often have double entendre names, leading to coy jokes, for example, "Pussy Galore" in Goldfinger (a name invented by Fleming), "Plenty O'Toole" in Diamonds Are Forever, and "Xenia Onatopp" (a villainess sexually excited by strangling men with her thighs) in GoldenEye. Families and teenages may play backyard cricket in suburban yards or driveways, typically with an improvised set of rules. In the films, Leiter appeared regularly during the Connery era, only once during Moore's tenure, and in both Dalton films; however, he was only played by the same actor twice. Other variants of the sport exist and are played in areas as diverse as on sandy beaches or on ice. Occasionally Bond is assigned to work a case with his good friend, Felix Leiter of the CIA.

These matches are not recognised by the ICC as official matches. In the novels (but not in the films), Bond has had two secretaries, Loelia Ponsonby and Mary Goodnight, who in the films typically have their roles and lines transferred to M's secretary Miss Moneypenny. The 'Twenty20' rule can be an example of cricket rule modification, since this particular modification enforces a limit of 20 overs per innings, which makes the game rather shorter in order to maximise the attention of the fans. Bond's superiors and other officers of the British Secret Service are generally known by letters such as M and Q. The game of cricket has also spawned a set of matches with modified rules to attract more fans. The James Bond series of novels and films have a plethora of interesting allies and villains. At lower levels, club cricket is usually played over one to two days, either as a two innings or one innings limited overs match. Several comic book adaptations of the James Bond films have been published through the years, as well as numerous original stories.

The point of origin of first-class cricket is an ongoing controversy that is described in the main article. Titan Books is presently reprinting these comic strips in an ongoing series of graphic novel-style collections; by the end of 2005 it had completed reprinting all Fleming-based adaptations as well as Colonel Sun and had moved on to reprinting original stories. A Test match is also considered to be a first-class match, but one-day internationals are not due to the two innings per side rule. Later, the comic strip produced original stories, continuing until 1983. Thus, a match between two Test nations, between two domestic teams in full members of the ICC, or between a Test nation and another Test nation's domestic team, may be considered first class. Since then many illustrated adventures of James Bond have been published, including every Ian Fleming novel as well as Kingsley Amis' Colonel Sun, and most of Fleming's short stories. As a benchmark, a match can be considered first-class only if both teams have first-class status. After initial reluctance by Fleming who felt the strips would lack the quality of his writing, agreed and the first strip Casino Royale was published in 1958.

Matches of Kenya, one of the foremost non-Test-playing nations, with other first class teams are adjudged first class, but its domestic matches are not. In 1957 the Daily Express, a newspaper owned by Lord Beaverbrook, approached Ian Fleming to adapt his stories into comic strips. All Test-playing nations are allowed to play first-class matches, as are their regional, state, provincial or county teams. Connery himself recorded new voiceovers for the game, the first time the actor has played Bond in 22 years. The status of a match depends on the status of the teams contesting it. This was the second game based on a Connery Bond film (the first was a 1980s text adventure adaptation of Goldfinger) and the first to use the actor's likeness as agent 007. A significant feature of first-class cricket is that games must have two innings per side, in contrast with games where the teams have one innings each (including limited overs matches played by teams that are normally recognised as first-class). In 2005, Electronic Arts released another game in the same vein as Everything or Nothing, this time a video game adaptation of From Russia with Love, which allowed the player to play as Bond with the likeness of Sean Connery.

A first-class match is generally defined as a high-level international or domestic match that takes place over at least three days on natural (as opposed to artificial) turf. It was also the first game to feature well known actors including Willem Dafoe, Heidi Klum and Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, although several previous games have used Brosnan's likeness as Bond. Strategies such as quick scoring, gravity-defying fielding and accurate bowling make this form more invigorating as compared to the Test matches. Electronic Arts has to date released seven games, including the popular Everything or Nothing, which broke away from the first-person shooter element found in GoldenEye and went to a third-person perspective. Innovations such as coloured clothing, frequent tournaments and result oriented-games often resulting in nail-biting finishes have seen ODI cricket gain many supporters. In 2004, Electronic Arts released a game entitled GoldenEye: Rogue Agent that had nothing to do with either the video game GoldenEye or the film of the same name, and Bond himself plays only a minor role in which he is "killed" in the beginning during a virtual mission similar to the climax at Fort Knox in the film Goldfinger. Day and night matches are also played which extend into the night. Subsequently, virtually every Bond video game has attempted to copy GoldenEye 007's accomplishment and features to varying degrees of success.

Despite its name, a one-day match may go into a second day if play is interrupted by rain. Bond video games, however, didn't reach their popular stride until 1997's GoldenEye 007 by Rare for the Nintendo 64. In one-day cricket, each team bats for only one innings, and it is limited to a number of overs, usually 50 in international matches. Since then, there have been numerous video games either based on the films or using original storylines. The abbreviations ODI or sometimes LOI (for Limited Overs International) are used for international matches of this type. In 1983, the first Bond video game, developed and published by Parker Brothers, was released for the Atari 2600, the Atari 5200, the Commodore 64, and the Colecovision. The inaugural World Cup in 1975 did much to hasten this. From Russia with Love also opens with an instrumental version over the title credits (which then segues into the James Bond Theme), but Matt Monro's vocal version also appears twice in the film, including the closing credits; the Monro version is generally considered the film's main theme, even though it doesn't appear during the opening credits.

The idea was taken up in the international arena in 1971, during an England team tour of Australia, when a Test match was rained off, and the one-day game has since swollen to become a crowd-pleaser and TV-audience-generator across the globe. No is the "James Bond Theme", although the opening credits also include an untitled bongo interlude, and concludes with a vocal Calypso-flavoured rendition of "Three Blind Mice" entitled "Kingston Calypso" that sets the scene. One-day matches, also known as limited overs or instant cricket, were introduced in English domestic cricket in the 1960s due to the growing demands for a shorter and more dramatic form of cricket to stem the decline in attendances. The main theme for Dr. Tests that are not finished by five days are considered a draw and neither teams gets credit for a win. On Her Majesty's Secret Service is the only Bond film with a solely instrumental theme, though Louis Armstrong's ballad "We Have All the Time in the World", which serves as Bond and his wife Tracy's love song and whose title is Bond's last line in the film, is considered the unofficial theme. Test matches are two innings games that must be finished within a five day time period. The Bond films are known for their theme songs heard during the title credits, sung by well-known popular singers (which have included Tina Turner, Paul McCartney & Wings, Tom Jones, Madonna, and Duran Duran, among many others.) Shirley Bassey performed three themes in total, and is the only singer to have been associated with more than one film.

Since then, over 1,700 Test matches have been played and the number of Test playing nations has increased to ten with Bangladesh, the most recent nation elevated to Test status, making its debut in 2000. Arnold is the series' current composer of choice, and was recently signed to compose the score for the his fourth consecutive Bond film, Casino Royale. The Test Cricket Series between England and Australia is called The Ashes, with the trophy being a tiny fragile urn, reputed to hold the ashes of a bail or cricket ball used during the second Test series between the two countries, which was presented to the English Cricket Captain, Ivo Bligh, by a group of Melbourne women, following the Test Series win by the England Cricket Team, during the England Cricket Team's Tour of Australia in 1882/83. Barry's legacy was followed by David Arnold, in addition to other well-known composers and record producers such as George Martin, Bill Conti, Michael Kamen, Marvin Hamlisch, and Eric Serra. It ended on 19 March 1877 with Australia winning by 45 runs. Both "The James Bond Theme" and "On Her Majesty's Secret Service" have been remixed a number of times by popular artists, including Art of Noise, Moby, Paul Oakenfold, and the Propellerheads. The first Test match began on 15 March 1877 and had a timeless format with four balls per over. No, and is credited with the creation of "007", which was used as an alternate Bond theme in several films, and the popular orchestrated theme "On Her Majesty's Secret Service".

Test cricket is a form of international cricket started in 1877 during the 1876/77 English cricket team's tour of Australia. Barry went on to compose the scores for eleven Bond films in addition to his uncredited contribution to Dr. As of the early 2000s, however, the longer form of cricket is experiencing a growing resurgence in popularity. No, although the actual authorship of the music has been a matter of controversy for many years. Since then, ODI matches have gained mass spectatorship, at the expense of the longer form of the game and to the consternation of fans who prefer the longer form of the game. "The James Bond Theme" was written by Monty Norman and was first orchestrated by the John Barry Orchestra for 1962's Dr. The governing International Cricket Council quickly adopted the new form and held the first ODI Cricket World Cup in 1975. A reunion television movie, The Return of the Man from U.N.C.L.E. (1983), is notable for featuring a cameo by George Lazenby as James Bond; for legal reasons, his character, a tribute to Ian Fleming, was credited as "JB".

This gained widespread popularity and resulted in the birth of one-day international (ODI) matches in 1971. The latter having had contributions by Fleming towards its creation; the show's lead character, "Napoleon Solo," was named after a character in Fleming's novel Goldfinger and Fleming also suggested the character name April Dancer, which was later used in the spinoff series The Girl from U.N.C.L.E.. Cricket entered an epochal era in 1963, when English counties modified the rules to provide a variant match form that produced an expedited result: games with a restricted number of overs per side. 1960s TV imitations of James Bond such as I Spy, Get Smart, The Wild Wild West, and The Man from U.N.C.L.E. went on to became popular successes in their own right. Olympic cricket lasted only two days and Great Britain is the current Olympic champion. The Austin Powers series by writer and actor Mike Myers and other parodies such as Johnny English (2003), the "Flint" series starring James Coburn as Derek Flint, and Casino Royale (1967) are testaments to Bond's prominence in popular culture. Cricket appeared at one Olympic Games, at Paris in 1900. James Bond has long been a household name and remains a huge influence within the cinematic spy film genre.

In 1859, a team of England players went on the first overseas tour (to North America) and 18 years later another England team took part in the first-ever Test Match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Australia. For more in-depth information, see the controversy over Thunderball. County clubs appeared from 1836 and ultimately formed a County Championship. McClory to this day still claims to own the film rights to Thunderball, though MGM and EON claim those rights have expired. Both developments were accompanied by major controversy. A second attempt by McClory to remake Thunderball in the 1990s with Sony Pictures was halted by legal action which resulted in Sony Pictures abandoning their aspirations for a rival James Bond series. The 19th Century saw underarm replaced by first roundarm and then overarm bowling. Never Say Never Again was not made by Broccoli's production company, EON Productions, and is, therefore, not considered a part of the official film series.

MCC quickly became the sport's premier club and the custodian of the Laws of Cricket. McClory did so in 1983 by producing the film Never Say Never Again, which featured Sean Connery for a seventh time as 007. For the next 30 years until the formation of MCC and the opening of Lord's in 1787, Hambledon was the game's greatest club and its focal point. The deal specifically stated that McClory couldn't reproduce another adaptation until a set period of time had elapsed. The Hambledon Club was founded sometime before 1750 and started playing first-class matches in 1756. Afterwards McClory made a deal with EON Productions to produce a film adaptation starring Sean Connery. Cricket was prominent in London as early as 1707 and large crowds flocked to matches on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury. McClory filed a lawsuit that would eventually award him the film rights to the novel in 1963.

Betting played a major part in that development and rich patrons began forming their own "select XIs". Initially the novel only credited Fleming. The game underwent major development in the 18th Century and had become the national sport of England by the end of the century. When plans for a James Bond film were scrapped in the late 1950s, a story treatment entitled Thunderball, written by Ian Fleming, Kevin McClory and Jack Whittingham, was adapted as Fleming's ninth Bond novel. We know that a great cricket match with eleven players a side was played for high stakes in Sussex in 1697 and this is the earliest reference we have to cricket in terms of such importance. For more information, see the history of Casino Royale. By the end of the century, it had become an organised activity being played for high stakes and it is possible that the first professionals appeared about that time. The instrumental theme music was a hit for Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass.

During the 17th century, numerous references indicate the growth of cricket in the south-east of England. Feldman who turned Fleming's first novel into a spoof featuring actor David Niven as one of six James Bonds. (The latter is problematic, since Old English 'cc' was palatal in pronunciation in the south and the west midlands, roughly ch, which is how crycc leads to crych and thence crutch; the 'k' sound would be possible in the north, however.) Alternatively, the French criquet apparently derives from the Flemish word krickstoel, which is a long low stool on which one kneels in church and which resembles the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. The rights to Casino Royale were subsequently sold to producer Charles K. The name may derive from a term for the cricket bat: old French criquet (meaning a kind of club) or Flemish krick(e) (meaning a stick) or in Old English crycc (meaning a crutch or staff). The episode featured American Barry Nelson in the role of "Jimmy Bond", an agent for the fictional "Combined Intelligence" agency. A number of words are thought to be possible sources for the term cricket. In 1954, CBS paid Ian Fleming $1,000 USD for the rights to adapt Casino Royale into a one hour television adventure as part of their Climax! series.

The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.
. In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called Creckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. There's also lively debate on the best Bond movie, with most major film critics giving the top mark to either From Russia with Love (Connery's favourite, as he re-asserted in a 2002 ABC interview with Sam Donaldson) or its brassy followup, Goldfinger. Despite George Lazenby's short tenure in the tuxedo, some reviewers have also warmed to On Her Majesty's Secret Service (with Leonard Maltin's Movies on TV review book stating it might have been the best Bond film ever had Connery appeared in it). Written evidence exists of a sport known as creag being played by Prince Edward, the son of Edward I (Longshanks), at Newenden, Kent in 1300. Work is also already underway on the script for the follow-up film, currently referred to by its working title, Bond 22. The game seems to have originated among shepherds and farm workers in the Weald between Kent and Sussex. On October 14, 2005, EON Productions announced that Daniel Craig would be the sixth official James Bond and will star in the latest 007 adventure, Casino Royale in 2006.

A basic form of the sport can be traced back to the 13th century, but it may have existed even earlier than that. Every aficionado has a favourite James Bond: Sean Connery—the tough guy, his machismo ready beneath the polished persona, George Lazenby—the controversial ultra-macho man, equally loved and despised, Roger Moore—the sophisticate, a perfect gentleman, rarely mussing his hair whilst saving the world, Timothy Dalton—the hard-edged literary character, and Pierce Brosnan—the polished man of action. Here the substitute is a temporary role and leaves the field once the injured player is fit to return. Thirdly, Octopussy (1983) incorrectly states the title of the next film as From A View To A Kill, the original literary title of A View to a Kill. In all forms of cricket, if a player gets injured or becomes ill during a match, a substitute is allowed to field instead of him; though he cannot bowl, bat, or act as a captain or wicket-keeper. In 1977, The Spy Who Loved Me stated Bond would return in For Your Eyes Only, however, EON Productions had decided to instead take advantage of the Star Wars space craze and release a film adaptation of Fleming's Moonraker, which was changed to a plot involving outer space. This kind of substitute is known as Super Sub, and was introduced in 2005. The first, 1964's Goldfinger, in early prints announced Bond to return in On Her Majesty's Secret Service, however, the producers changed their mind shortly after release and subsequently made the correction in future prints of the film.

A player who is replaced cannot return to the game. Over the years the films have incorrectly named the sequel three times. In one-day international (ODI) cricket and some other limited overs competitions, a single substitution is allowed during the game. Up until Octopussy (1983) the end-credit line would also name the next title in the film series ("James Bond will return in..."). After a batsman hits the ball, the runner's only task is to run between the wickets in place of the injured batsman. ." or "James Bond will be back" during or after the final credits. The runner chosen must, if possible, be a player who has already been given out. No (1962) and "Thunderball" (1965), has the line: "James Bond will return.

In the event of a batsman being fit to bat but too injured to run, he may ask the umpire and the fielding captain for a runner. Every film, except Dr. The burden of the captain's duties can interfere with his quality of play considerably, slightly, or not at all, depending on how well he deals with the stress of his position. Shaken, not stirred," first stated in Goldfinger (although not the first time Bond has a martini) was also honoured as #90 on the same list. However, it is considered an honour to be in such a privileged position and much praise is given to the captain when his team wins. The catch phrase, "a martini. Much blame is placed on a captain when his team loses. On June 21, 2005 the catch phrase was honoured as the 22nd greatest quote in cinema history by the American Film Institute as part of their 100 Years Series [5].

The captain's job on the team is very important but can be rather stressful at times. Since then, the phrase has entered the lexicon of Western popular culture as the epitome of polished, understated machismo. The captain makes a number of important decisions, including setting field positions, alternating the bowlers and taking the toss. No. The captain's acumen in deciding the strategy is crucial to the team's success. James Bond" became a catch phrase after it was first muttered (with a cigarette in the corner of his mouth) by Sean Connery in Dr. The wicket-keeper is also the only person who can get a batsman out stumped. Agent 007's famous introduction, "Bond.

Due to his position directly behind the striker, the wicket-keeper has a good chance of getting a batsman out caught off a fine edge from the bat; thicker edges are typically handled by the "slips" fieldsmen. The Bond films are unusual in retaining full opening and closing credits; since the late 1970s it has become common for most films to save detailed credits for the end, with only principal actors and crew listed at the beginning. To this end, he wears special gloves (he is the only fielder allowed to do so) and pads to cover his lower legs. The credits for GoldenEye depict the fall of the Soviet Union and thus provide a transition from the pre-fall era of the opening sequence to the post-fall setting of the rest of the narrative. His primary job is to gather deliveries that the batsman fails to hit, to prevent them running into the outfield, which would enable batsmen to score byes. Die Another Day was unusual in that the images shown in that film's opening credits advance the storyline. The wicket-keeper is a specialist fielder who stands behind the batsman's wicket throughout the game. For Your Eyes Only begins with Sheena Easton singing the title song on-screen.

They do this in two ways: by taking catches to dismiss a batsman, and by intercepting hit balls and returning them to the pitch to attempt run-outs to restrict the scoring of runs. For the most part, the credits are unrelated to the plot of the film, although the design may reflect an overall theme (for example, You Only Live Twice uses a Japanese motif as well as images of a volcano, both of which are elements of the movie itself). Fielders assist the bowlers to prevent batsmen from scoring too many runs. While the credits run, the main theme of the film is usually sung by a popular artist of the time. Obstructing the field, Handled the ball, Timed Out and Hit the ball twice dismissals are extremely rare. Since Binder's death in 1991, Daniel Kleinman has designed the credits and has introduced CG elements not present during Binder's era. With all other modes of dismissal, only one batsman can be dismissed per ball bowled. The best known of the Bond title designers is Maurice Binder, who created these sequences for fourteen 007 films from 1962 to 1989.

Timed out by its nature is a dismissal without a delivery. This sequence is a trademark and a staple of the James Bond films. The batsman who is not on strike may be run out by the bowler if he leaves his crease before the bowler bowls, and a batsman can be out obstructing the field or retired out at any time. When the teaser sequence is finished, the opening credits begin during which an arty display of scantily clad and even (discreetly) naked females can be seen doing a variety of activities from dancing, jumping on a trampoline, to shooting weapons. Some of these modes of dismissal can take place without the bowler bowling a delivery. The 1999 film The World Is Not Enough currently holds the record as the longest Bond teaser ever, running more than 15 minutes; most teasers run for less than five. He cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', or 'hit the ball twice' off a wide. Since The Spy Who Loved Me in 1977, they have often involved attention-grabbing action sequences, which have tended to become larger and more elaborate with each successive film.

An individual cannot be out — 'bowled', 'caught', 'leg before wicket', 'stumped', or 'hit wicket' off a no ball. Some of the teasers tie in with the plot of the film (as in Live and Let Die). Also, an unimpaired batsman may retire, in which case he is treated as being dismissed retired out; no player is credited with the dismissal. After the gun barrel sequence, every film starting with From Russia with Love (1963), would start with a pre-credits teaser, also popularly known as the "opening gambit." Usually the scene features 007 finishing up a previous case before taking on the case from the film, and does not always relate to his main mission. The batsman is not out; he may return to bat later in the same innings if sufficiently recovered. The gun barrel is seen from the assassin's perspective—looking down at a walking James Bond, who quickly turns and shoots; the scene reddens (signifying the spilling of the would-be assassin's blood), the gun barrel dissolves to a white circle, and the film begins. For instance, if he is ill or injured, this is known as retired hurt or retired ill. No, every official James Bond film begins with what is known as the James Bond gun barrel sequence, which introduces agent 007.

Additionally, a batsman may leave the field undismissed. Since Dr. Briefly, the ten modes are:. The James Bond film series has its own traditions, many of which date back to the very first movie in 1962. Of the following ten modes of dismissal, the first six are common, while the last four are technicalities which rarely occur. Shaw's old office was located in Regent Park, and he was supposed to have been on SMERSH's hit list. The wicket is put down if a bail is dislodged from the top of the stumps or a stump is struck out of the ground either with the ball, or by a fielder with the ball in his hand. Brian Shaw's choice of pistol, a .25 caliber, echoes that of James Bond's preference for the .25 caliber Beretta.

Many modes of dismissal require the wicket to be "put down". In Clive Cussler's novel, "Night Probe", there is a character named Brian Shaw, whom the hero, Dirk Pitt suspects to be James Bond. If the batsman is dismissed, another player from the batting team replaces him until ten batsmen are out and the innings is over. No credit is given to Ian Fleming Publications, suggesting this rare story may have been unauthorised; a photo of Sean Connery as Bond is featured on the cover of the book. There are ten ways of being dismissed, some of which are credited as wickets to the bowler, some of which are not credited to any player. The title story features James Bond, M, and other characters and features an epic bridge game between Bond and the villain, Saladin. A batsman is allowed to bat as long as he does not get out (also known as being dismissed). Bond, a collection of bridge-related short stories by Phillip King and Robert King.

There are two main kinds of bowlers : pace bowlers and spin bowlers. Batsford produced Your Deal, Mr. If a bowler gets a batsman out, he is credited for this achievement. In 1997, the British publisher B.T. This is known as the Economy rate. The text of The Killing Zone is available on the Internet and can be found here. Their next task is to limit the numbers of runs scored per over they bowl. The second story, 1985's The Killing Zone by Jim Hatfield goes so far as to have been privately published as well as claim on the cover that it was published by Glidrose; however it is highly unlikely that Glidrose contacted Hatfield to write a novel since at the time John Gardner was the official author.

If a bowler can dismiss the more accomplished batsmen on the opposing team he reduces the opportunity for them to score, as it exposes the less skilful batsmen. Some sources have suggested that Jenkins novel was to be published under the Markham pseudonym. The bowler's primary goal is to take wickets; that is, to get a batsman out or dismissed. The novel was never published. A wide or no-ball results in a run to the batting team score, and the ball to be rebowled. According to the book The Bond Files by Andy Lane and Paul Simpson, soon after Ian Fleming died, Glidrose Productions commissioned Jenkins to write a James Bond novel. A wide cannot be called if the batsman hits the ball. The first in 1966, was Per Fine Ounce by Geoffrey Jenkins, a friend of Ian Fleming who claimed to have developed with Fleming a diamond-smuggling storyline similar to Diamonds Are Forever as early as the 1950s.

The ball must also be delivered so it is within the batsman's reach, otherwise it is termed a wide. In addition to numerous fan fiction pieces written since the character was created, there have been two stories written by well-known authors claiming to have been contracted by Glidrose. Some part of the bowler's front foot in the delivery stride (that is, the stride when the ball is released) must be behind the popping crease to avoid a no-ball (although the bowler's front foot does not have to be grounded). 07 by Andrei Guliashki, in which a communist hero finally and forcefully defeats 007. Usually, the bowler pitches the ball so that it bounces before reaching the batsman. In 1968, they hit back with a spy novel of their own called Avakoum Zahov vs. This new law came in to prevent injury to bowlers. Russians were often the villains in Fleming's Cold War-era novels in at least some form.

Under new cricketing law, after consultation with health experts, the bowler is allowed to sraighten his arm 15 degrees or less, if the bowler straightens his or her arm more than 15 degrees it is called a "no ball". The series was mildly successful and spawned six novelisations published in 1992 by John Peel writing as John Vincent, a 12 issue comic book series by Marvel Comics published in 1992, as well as a video game developed by Eurocom for the NES and the SNES in 1991. If the elbow straightens, it is an illegal throw and the delivery is called a no-ball. In 1991 an animated television series, James Bond Jr, ran for 65 episodes. A bowler delivers the ball toward the batsmen, using what is known as a bowling action: the elbow may be held at any angle and may bend further, but may not straighten out during the action. This book is for young-adult readers, and chronicles the adventures of 007's nephew (despite the inaccurate title). A team need not be batting in order to receive penalty extras. In 1967, Glidrose authorised publication of 003½: The Adventures of James Bond Junior written by Arthur Calder-Marshall under the pseudonym R D Mascott.

Five penalty runs are also awarded if a fielder uses anything other than his body to field the ball, or if the ball hits a protective helmet left on the field by the fielding team. A second volume has been tentatively scheduled for publication in October 2006.[4]. For serious infractions such as tampering with the ball, deliberate time-wasting, and damaging the pitch, the umpires may award penalty extras to the opposition; in each case five runs. Ian Fleming Publications, who had previously refused to comment as to whether the book was authorised, officially confirmed the book was and always had been a project by them on the day of the book's publication. The former two are runs that can be scored if the batsman misses making contact with bat and ball, and the latter two are types of fouls committed by the bowler. John Murray admitted on August 28, 2005 that the books were a spoof after an investigation by The Sunday Times of London. Extras consist of byes, leg byes, no balls, wides and penalty runs. The novels had originally been touted as the secret journal of a "real" Miss Moneypenny and that James Bond was a possible pseudonym for a genuine intelligence officer, an idea shared by John Pearson's earlier biography, James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007.

These runs are known as extras, apart from in Australia where they are also called sundries. No). A team's total also includes a number of runs which are unaccredited to any batsmen. Weinberg is the first woman to write officially licensed Bond-related literature (although Johanna Harwood had previously co-written the screenplay for Dr. Every run scored by the batsmen contributes to the team's total. The first installment of the trilogy, subtitled Guardian Angel, was released on October 10, 2005. If the ball goes over the boundary, then four runs are scored, or six if the ball has not bounced. A new trilogy of novels "edited" by Samantha Weinberg under the pseudonym Kate Westbrook entitled The Moneypenny Diaries was released by John Murray publishers that centres on the character of Miss Moneypenny, M's personal secretary.

If a fielder knocks the bails off the stumps with the ball while no batsman is grounded behind the nearest popping crease, the nearest batsman is run out. It is currently unknown whether these will be adaptations of Higson's books. If the batsmen score an odd number of runs, then they will have swapped ends and their roles as striker and non-striker will be reversed for the next ball, unless the most recent ball marks the end of an over. The Young Bond series is expected to add graphic novels in 2006. But there is no tip and run rule, so the batsmen are not required to attempt a run when the ball is hit. The series is currently planned out for five novels according to Charlie Higson. This is known as running between wickets. A second novel was released in the UK in January 2006.

If the striker hits the ball well enough, the batsmen may double back to score two or more runs. Regardless, the first novel became a bestseller in the United Kingdom and was released to good reviews. Both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either his bat or his body to register a run. Since the concept was announced the series has taken heavy criticism for being aimed at the "Harry Potter audience" and has been seen by some as a desperate attempt to find a new audience for Bond. To score a run, a striker must hit the ball and run to the opposite end of the pitch, while his non-striking partner runs to his end. Written by Charlie Higson (The Fast Show) the series is intended to align faithfully with the adult Bond's back-story established by Fleming and Fleming only. This order may be changed at any time during the course of the game for strategic reasons. Instead of continuing from where Raymond Benson ended in 2002, the new series featured James Bond as a thirteen-year-old boy attending Eton College.

After them the all-rounders follow and finally the bowlers (who are usually not known for their batting abilities). In April 2004, Ian Fleming Publications (Glidrose) announced a new series of James Bond books. After that, the team typically bats in descending order of batting skill, the first five or six batsmen usually being the best in the team. Although it has been suggested a "big name" author might take on the task, the publishers have yet to approach anyone about this project [3]. The first two positions, known as "openers", are generally a specialised position, as they face the most hostile bowling (the opposing team's fast bowlers are at their freshest and the ball is new). This would feature the adult version of the character as opposed to the "Young Bond" character of the recent Charlie Higson books (see below). Batsmen come in to bat in a batting order, which is decided by the team captain. On August 28, 2005, Ian Fleming Publications confirmed it is planning to publish a one-off adult Bond novel in 2008 to mark what would have been Ian Fleming's 100th birthday.

Depending on the team's strategy, he may be required to bat defensively in an effort to not get out, or to bat aggressively to score runs quickly. The year 2003 marked the first year since 1980 that a new James Bond novel had not been published. Shots are named according to the style of swing and the direction in the field to which the batsman desires to hit the ball. Low sales figures for the books, and plans by Ian Fleming Publications to focus on reissuing Fleming's original novels for the 50th anniversary of the character, were among reasons speculated by fans as to why Benson departed. If the ball brushes the side of the bat it is called an edge or snick. Benson abruptly resigned as Bond novelist at the end of 2002, despite having previously announced plans to write a short story collection. If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, it is called a shot (or stroke). Benson also wrote a fourth short story entitled "The Heart of Erzulie" that was rejected for publication.

The wooden bat that a batsman uses consists of a long handle and a flat surface on one side. Benson's three short stories remain uncollected, unlike previous short stories from Ian Fleming. Batsmen stand waiting for the ball at the batting crease. Benson wrote six James Bond novels, three novelisations, and three short stories. See also: Scoring. Benson also contributed to the creation of several modules in the popular James Bond 007 role-playing game in the 1980s. In these countries the hurricane and cyclone season coincides with their summers. The book was initially released in 1984 and later updated in 1988.

In the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh games are played in the winter. Benson had previously written The James Bond Bedside Companion, a book dedicated to Ian Fleming, the official novels, and the films. These requirements mean that in England, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Zimbabwe the game is usually played in the summer. As a James Bond novelist, Benson was initially controversial for being American, and for ignoring much of the continuity established by Gardner. Professional cricket is usually played outdoors. In 1996, Gardner retired from writing James Bond books due to ill health, and American Raymond Benson quickly replaced him. Some one-day games are now played under floodlights, but, apart from few experimental games in Australia, floodlights are not used in longer games. Generally Gardner's series is considered a success although their canonical status is disputed.

Play is therefore halted during rain (but not usually drizzle) and when there is bad light. The biggest change in Gardner's series was updating 007's world to the 1980s; however, it would keep the characters the same age as they were in Fleming's novels. Additionally, as in professional cricket it is common for balls to be bowled at over 90 mph (144 km/h), the game needs to be played in daylight that is good enough for a batsman to be able to see the ball. In the 1980s, the series was finally revived with new novels by John Gardner; between 1981 and 1996, he wrote fourteen James Bond novels and two screenplay novelisations, surpassing Fleming's original output. The game is only played in dry weather. Both novelisations were written by screenwriter Christopher Wood and were the first official novelisations, although technically, Fleming's Thunderball was a novelisation having been based on scripts by himself, Kevin McClory, and Jack Whittingham (although it predated the movie), and the For Your Eyes Only collection was also, for the most part, based upon unproduced scripts. There is also a short interval between innings. This would happen again with 1979's Moonraker.

There are formal intervals on each day for lunch and tea, and shorter breaks for drinks, where necessary. In 1977, the film The Spy Who Loved Me was released and was subsequently novelised and published by Glidrose due to the radical difference between the script and Fleming's novel of the same name. One innings matches are usually played over one day for six hours or more. Prior to writing this, Pearson had written an early biography of Ian Fleming, The Life of Ian Fleming. Typically, two innings matches are played over three to five days with at least six hours of cricket being played each day. Glidrose reportedly considered a new series of novels written by Pearson, but this did not come to pass. An innings is completed if:. Since the book has many discrepancies with Fleming's Bond (for example his birth year), the canonical status of James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 is debated among fans—some consider it apocryphal, though at least one publisher, Pan Books, issued it as an official novel along with the rest of Fleming's series for its first paperback edition.

The umpires swap so the umpire at the bowler's end moves to square leg, and the umpire at square leg moves to the new bowler's end. The book was well-received by aficionados—readers and viewers, alike. After every over, the batting and bowling ends are swapped, and the field positions are adjusted. Pearson wrote James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007 in the first person as if meeting the secret agent himself. After the completion of an over, the bowler takes up a fielding position, while another player takes over the bowling. In 1973, Fleming biographer John Pearson was commissioned by Glidrose to biograph the fictional character James Bond. No bowler is allowed to bowl consecutive overs. See The controversy over The Man with the Golden Gun.).

Each over consists of six consecutive legal (see "Extras" for details) deliveries bowled by the same bowler. Amis had also been claimed for many years as the ghost writer of The Man with the Golden Gun, although this has been debunked by numerous sources. Each innings is subdivided into overs. William ("Bill") Tanner", a recurring character in the Bond novels. The captain winning the toss may choose either to bat or bowl first. Amis had previously written two books on the world of James Bond, the 1964 essay The James Bond Dossier and the tongue-in-cheek 1965 release The Book of Bond, or Every Man His Own 007 (written under the pseudonym "Lt.-Col. The two opposing captains then toss a coin. Ultimately, only one Markham novel saw print, 1968's Colonel Sun by Kingsley Amis.

On the day of the match, the captains inspect the pitch to determine the type of bowlers whose bowling would be suited for the offered pitch surface and select their eleven players. Following Fleming's death in 1964, Glidrose Productions, publishers of the James Bond novels, planned a new book series, credited to the pseudonym "Robert Markham" and written by a rotating series of authors. Each position on the field has a unique label. The second anthology, Octopussy and The Living Daylights (in many editions titled only Octopussy), originally only contained two short stories, "Octopussy" and "The Living Daylights"; a third story, "The Property of a Lady" was added in the 1967 paperback edition, and a fourth, "007 in New York", was added in 2002. Their placement may vary dramatically depending on strategy. When the project fell through, Fleming turned them into short stories: (i) "From a View to a Kill", (ii) "For Your Eyes Only", (iii) "Risico", plus two additional stories, "The Hildebrand Rarity" and "Quantum of Solace", which were previously published. The captain of the fielding team spreads his remaining nine players — the fielders — around the ground to cover most of the area. His first anthology of short stories, For Your Eyes Only, mostly consisted of converted screenplays for a CBS television series based on the character.

The wicket-keeper, who generally acts in that role for the whole match, stands or crouches behind the wicket at the batting end. To this day, it is still debated whether Fleming himself actually finished 1965's The Man with the Golden Gun, as he died very soon after completing the book. The player designated as bowler must change after every over. Between 1953 and 1966, twelve James Bond novels and two short story collections by Fleming were published, with one novel and one short story collection issued posthumously. The fielding team has all eleven of its players on the ground, and at any particular time, one of these will be the bowler. Every year thereafter until his death in 1964, Fleming would retreat for the first two months of the year to his Jamaican estate, Goldeneye, to write a James Bond novel. His partner stands at the bowling end and is known as the non-striker. Upon accepting the job, Fleming asked that he be allowed two months vacation per year.

One batsman, known as the striker, faces and plays the balls bowled by the bowler. At the time, Fleming was the Foreign Manager for Kemsley Newspapers, an organisation owned by the London Sunday Times. The team batting always has two batsmen on the field. In February 1952, Ian Fleming began work on his first James Bond novel. The infield, outfield, and the close-infield are used to enforce fielding restrictions. Followers of Farmer's speculations have greatly elaborated on Bond's family. Two circles of radius 15 yards (13.7 m), centred on each wicket and often marked by dots, define the close-infield. In his fictional biographies, author Philip Jose Farmer suggests that Bond belongs in the Wold Newton family tree along with Tarzan, Doc Savage, and many other fictional heroes.

This line, commonly known as the circle, divides the field into an infield and outfield. While it is never stated explicitly, dialogue strongly hints that Reston is Bond's son and the grand-nephew of Sherlock Holmes. A painted oval is made by drawing a semicircle of 30 yards (27.4 m) radius from the centre of each wicket with respect to the breadth of the pitch and joining them with lines parallel, 30 yards (27.4 m) to the length of the pitch. Clive Reston, a supporting character in the series, resembles Bond in many respects and is an MI6 agent himself. For a one-innings match played over a set number of fair deliveries, there are two additional field markings. A second (non-canonical) son is suggested in the Marvel Comics series Master of Kung Fu. Creases are used to adjudicate the dismissals of batsmen and to determine whether a delivery is fair. His first name, Campion, is believed to be a reference to fictional detective Albert Campion.

Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases. The second miniseries would continue the Holmes link, as MI6 would be taken over by Mycroft Holmes as the new "M." Although Moore makes no overt connection between Bond and Campion, the saturation of literary reference in the comics has led fans to propose that Campion is meant to be an ancestor of the modern secret agent. The area of the field on the side of the line joining the wickets where the batsman holds his bat (the right-hand side for a right-handed batsman, the left for a left-hander) is known as the off side, the other as the leg side or on side. Later in "League," it is revealed that this "M" is none other than Professor James Moriarty, the archnemisis of Sherlock Holmes. One end of the pitch is designated the batting end where the batsman stands and the other is designated the bowling end where the bowler runs in to bowl. His superior, the overall director of the top-secret team, is code-named M, an obvious reference to the Bond mythos. Each set of three stumps and two bails is collectively known as a wicket. In it, the portly, sinister, and secretive MI6 agent placed in charge of the League is named Campion Bond.

Two wooden crosspieces, known as the bails, sit in grooves atop the stumps, linking each to its neighbour. An interesting, if wholly noncanonical, conjecture about the Bond lineage can be found in Alan Moore's comic book series, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, set in Victorian England. At each end of the pitch three upright wooden poles, called the stumps, are hammered into the ground. Exactly when he learned this is not known; however he is aware of his son, James Suzuki, by the time of Raymond Benson's short story "Blast From the Past.". The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m). Bond had one child, by Kissy Suzuki in You Only Live Twice, although he did not know of the boy's existence until sometime later. Most of the action takes place in the centre of this ground, on a rectangular clay strip usually with short grass called the pitch. In the novels, Bond gets revenge in the following novel, You Only Live Twice, when he by chance comes across Blofeld in Japan, whilst the cinematic Bond takes on Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever with mixed results.

On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. In both the literary and cinematic versions of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, James Bond marries, but his bride, Teresa di Vicenzo (Tracy), is killed on their wedding day by his archenemy, Ernst Stavro Blofeld; the event resonates in both versions of the character for many years thereafter. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) to 500 feet (150 m). In the novels (notably From Russia, With Love), Bond's physical description has generally been consistent: a three-inch, vertical scar on his left cheek (absent from the cinematic version); blue-grey eyes; a "cruel" mouth; short, dark hair, a comma of which falls on his forehead (greying at the temples in Gardner's novels); and (after Casino Royale) the faint scar of the Russian cyrillic letter "Ш" (SH) on the back of one of his hands (carved by a SMERSH agent). The cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground. In the novels, Gardner replaced the PPK (eventually) with an ASP 9mm. The official scorers occasionally make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these can be corrected after the event. In the film Tomorrow Never Dies, Bond updates his gun to the latest model of the Walther P99.

In international and national cricket competitions the media often requires to be notified of records and statistics, so unofficial scorers often keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists. No in both the literary and cinematic versions, Bond has used a Walther PPK in almost every adventure. In practice scorers also keep track of other matters, such as bowlers' analyses, the rate at which the teams bowl their overs, and team statistics such as averages and records. Since Dr. They are to acknowledge signals from the umpire, and to check the accuracy of the score regularly both with each other and, at playing intervals, with the umpires. No, when reluctantly re-equipped with a 7.65 mm Walther PPK pistol replacing his Beretta automatic pistol, agent 007 protests, telling M that he has used the weapon for 10 years, suggesting he has been a secret agent for at least that long. The laws of cricket specify that the official scorers are to record all runs scored, wickets taken and (where appropriate) overs bowled. In Dr.

Two scorers are appointed, and most often one scorer is provided by each team. The cinematic James Bond (introduced in 1962) already had a history with the Secret Service. In international matches an off-field match referee ensures that play is within the laws of cricket and the spirit of the game. He later feels so strongly about his decision that he actually hopes M fires him for it; there are Fleming works in which Bond does not kill anyone. In some professional matches, they may refer a decision to an off-field 'third' umpire, who has the assistance of television replays. Instead Bond intentionally wounds the assassin and still manages to accomplish the mission. The other will stand near the fielding position called square leg, which offers a side view of the batsman, and assist on decisions for which he has a better view. Such is the case in "The Living Daylights" where Bond makes a last second decision to disobey his orders and not kill an assassin.

One umpire will stand behind the wicket at the end from which the ball is bowled, and adjudicate on most decisions. The literary James Bond was reserved in his licenced killing, sometimes disobeying his orders to kill if the mission could be accomplished by other means. Two on-field umpires preside over a match. No, shooting Professor Dent in the back; killing the unarmed Elektra King in The World Is Not Enough). A player who excels in both batting and bowling (or occasionally in batting and keeping wicket) is known as an all-rounder. Nonetheless, James Bond does kill when needed, and on film commits acts that might be considered murder in other circumstances (in Dr. One player of the team that is bowling and fielding takes up the role of a wicket-keeper, which is a highly specialised fielding position. The novel Goldfinger begins with Bond being haunted by memories of a small-time, Mexican gunman he had killed with his bare hands days earlier and on film, specifically in The World Is Not Enough, he admits that cold-blooded killing is a filthy business.

A balanced team usually has five or six specialist batsmen and four or five specialist bowlers. Pearson's biography (disputed canonically) suggests Bond first killed as a teenager. Depending on his primary skills, a player may be classified as a specialist batsman or bowler. Bond dislikes taking life—resorting to flippant jokes and off-hand remarks as after-the-fact relief, often misinterpreted as cold-bloodedness. Each team consists of eleven players. Throughout Fleming's novel, further continuation novels, and even the films, Bond's attitude toward his job is similar. In particular, there are a number of modifications to the playing structure and fielding position rules that apply to one innings games that are restricted to a set number of fair deliveries. According to Bond, obtaining a 00 number is not hard so long as you're prepared to kill.

Other rules supplement the main laws and change them to deal with different circumstances. Bond travels to Stockholm where he kills the man in his sleep with a knife. Teams may agree to alter some of the rules for particular games. The second was the assassination of a Norwegian who became a double agent and betrayed 2 British agents. The game is played in accordance with 42 laws of cricket, which have been developed by the Marylebone Cricket Club in discussion with the main cricketing nations. The first is the assassination of a Japanese cipher expert on the thirty-sixth floor of the RCA Building at Rockefeller Center in New York City. If such a match is abandoned without completion due to an impossibility of continuing the play, because of an extended period of bad weather, unruly crowd, or any such unlikely event or situation, the result is declared as No-Result if fewer than a previously agreed number of overs has been bowled by either team. Bond earns his stripes in the 00 Section by completing two tasks, which Fleming outlines in Casino Royale.

If the match has only a single innings per side, with a set number of deliveries, and the match is temporarily interrupted by bad weather, then a complex mathematical formula known as the Duckworth-Lewis method is often used to recalculate a new target score. It can be assumed that by this time Bond has moved on to another organisation. they are one run short of their target (an extremely rare occurrence) the match is a tie. This action really doesn't make any sense since Bond is supposedly in the Royal Navy. If the team batting last is dismissed with the scores exactly equal, i.e. One supporting reason is that Fleming describes Bond in the Ardennes firing a bazooka in 1944. If, in a two-innings match, the first team to bat is dismissed in their second innings with a combined first- and second-innings score less than the first-innings score of their opponents (a relatively rare occurrence), the match is concluded and they are said to have lost by an innings and n runs, where n is the difference in score between the teams. It is believed that it is during this time that Bond perhaps joined another organisation such as the SOE, the 00 Section of the British Secret Service, or perhaps as a commando in Fleming's own 30 Assault Unit (30 AU).

A match is divided into innings[1] during which one team bats and the other bowls. According to Fleming, after joining the RNVR, Bond is mentioned as to traveling to America, Hong Kong, and Jamaica. The objective of the game is to score more runs than the opposing team. It is never stated when James Bond became a 00 agent. Cricket is a bat and ball sport. Since Benson's Bond was rebooted, Bond became a Commander again. . Bond maintains this rank through further continuation novels and in the films, however, Gardner promoted Bond to Captain in Win, Lose or Die.

It has even occasionally given rise to diplomatic outrage, the most infamous being the Bodyline series played between England and Australia. In 1941, Bond lied about his age in order to enter the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during World War II, from which he emerged with the rank of Commander before joining the British Secret Service. For its fans, the sport and the intense rivalries between top cricketing nations provide passionate entertainment and outstanding sporting achievements. Bond can speak a variety of different languages, most notably Russian and Japanese, although many times the languages Bond claims to know are contradicted between the film series, Fleming's novel series, and even later films and continuation novels. The length of the game — a match can last six or more hours a day for up to five days in one form of the game — the numerous intervals for lunch and tea, and the rich terminology are notable aspects which can often confuse those not familiar with the sport. He also attends (presumably at some point) Oxford to study Danish in Tomorrow Never Dies, although in the film he's not there to study at all. It is also a prominent minor sport in countries as diverse as the Netherlands, Israel, Nepal, and Argentina (see also: International Cricket Council). The film version of James Bond tacks on the additions of Bond being a graduate with a degree in Oriental languages from Cambridge University, as stated in You Only Live Twice.

Cricket is also a major sport in England and Wales, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Zimbabwe and the English-speaking countries of the Caribbean, which are known in cricketing parlance as the West Indies. With the exception of Fettes, Bond's attendance at these schools parallels Fleming's own life, as he attended these same schools. In some countries in South Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, cricket is by far the most popular sport. In "Octopussy", Fleming writes that Bond briefly attended the University of Geneva. It originated in its modern form in England, and is popular mainly in the countries of the Commonwealth. After Eton, Bond attended and continued his education at Fettes College in Edinburgh, Scotland, his father's old school. Cricket has been an established team sport for several centuries. In Fleming's short story "From a View to a Kill," Bond admits to losing his virginity on his first visit to Paris at the age of 16.

This is sometimes surprising to those not familiar with the game, but it does add interest to one-sided games by giving the inferior team the incentive to try and achieve a draw even if they cannot win. Bond briefly attended Eton College starting at the age of "12 or thereabouts", but was expelled after two halves when some "alleged" troubles with one of his maids came to light. However, the game may run out of time before it is finished, in which case it is a draw, even if one team is overwhelmingly winning at that point. Regardless, Bond is unquestionably British. At the end of the match, the winner is the team that has scored the most runs. According to Pearson, Bond was born near Essen, Germany; however, Charlie Higson, in his novel SilverFin claims Bond was born in Switzerland. Depending on the specific rules of the match, one or two innings may be played, possibly with a fixed number of legally-bowled balls defining the end of an innings rather than ten batsmen having been dismissed. It is also debated where James Bond was born.

As there must always be two batsmen on the field, if and when the tenth batsman is out, the team's turn to bat or innings (always with a terminal "s" in cricket usage) is over, and the other team may bat while the first team takes the field. Ian Fleming Publications recognised this issue for their Young Bond series of novels featuring Bond as a teenager in the 1930s and along with its author, Charlie Higson, defined Bond being born in the year 1920. Once out, a batsman is replaced by the next batsman in the team. Since all of the years claimed for when Bond was born would have made him too young to purchase this Bentley, a more likely scenario is that he inherited it. Batsmen can also be out by other means, such as failing to defend the bowled ball from hitting the wicket, or hitting a catch to a fielder. 1933 is the year mentioned in Casino Royale for when Bond 'bought' his first Bentley. If the ball strikes a wicket while the nearest batsman is still running, the batsman is out. For instance, if one computes Bond's age for when he was admitted into the Ministry of Defence to when his parents died (1939 - 17 = 1922 + 11 = 1933) Bond would have been 11 in 1933 from January 1 through November 10 if he was born in 1921.

The batting team attempts to score as many runs as it can, while members of the bowling team gather the ball and return it to either wicket. He contends that a lot of details in Bond's timeline make better sense with the original 1939 date. This scores a run. Griswold notes that Bond's joining of the Ministry of Defence was originally written in Fleming's manuscript as 1939 (the same year Fleming joined). If the batsman hits the ball with his bat, he may run to the other wicket, exchanging places with the non-striker. A more complex date of birth, according to John Griswold and his authorised book Ian Fleming's James Bond: Annotations and Chronologies, is November 11, 1921 (November 11, being Pearson's date). Another batsman (the non-striker) stands in an inactive role near the bowler's wicket. Prior to this, Tiger Tanaka, the head of the Japanese Secret Service, states Bond was born in the year of the rat, which supports 1924.

A player from the opposing team (the batsman) attempts to defend the wicket from the ball with a wooden cricket bat, traditionally made of willow. If Bond was 17 in 1941, then he was born in 1924. A player from one team (the bowler) propels a hard, fist-sized ball(made of cork which is then wrapped in leather.) from one wicket towards the other. M writes that Bond left school when he was 17 years old and joined the Ministry of Defence in 1941. At each end of the pitch stand a set of wooden poles called wickets (traditionally made from the wood of the ash tree). In the novel, M writes an obituary for James Bond after believing him to be dead. It is a bat-and-ball game played on a roughly elliptical grass field, in the centre of which is a hard, flat strip of ground 22 yards (20.12 m) long, called the pitch. According to John Pearson's James Bond: The Authorised Biography of 007, Bond was born on November 11, 1920; no Fleming novel supports this date, in fact, the novel You Only Live Twice makes a couple references to Bond's birth year being 1924.

Cricket is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each. Most researchers or biographers have concluded that Bond was born in either 1920, 1921 or 1924. If a batter hits the ball over the fence (scoring six runs) they are out and required to fetch the ball themselves by climbing into a neighbours yard. Due to Fleming's changes of dates and times in which events occurred, Bond's specific birth year is unknown. "Six and out". This approximate age carries on in continuation novels written by Kingsley Amis, John Gardner, and Raymond Benson. This rule is design to make sure all players spend some time batting. In the same novel Bond notes that he has only 8 years to go, thus in Moonraker, Bond is 37 years old.

If out on the first ball, the batter may continue to bat. Many Ian Fleming biographers agree that Fleming never really intended to write as many James Bond adventures as he did and to keep writing the novels he had to "tinker with Bond's early life" and change dates to ensure Bond was the appropriate age for the service, particularly due to a statement in Moonraker that 007 faced mandatory retirement from the 00 Section at age 45. "Can not get out first ball". He is roughly in his late thirties. (Law 31). With the exception of the Young Bond series of novels by Charlie Higson launched in 2005, Bond for the most part is an ageless character in both films and literature. (If the delay is even more protracted, the umpires may cause the match to be forfeited.) No player is credited with the dismissal. Bond's family motto, which was adopted by James Bond during "Operation Corona" in the novel On Her Majesty's Secret Service is Orbis non sufficit (Latin for "The world is not enough.").

Timed out — When a new batsman takes more than three minutes to take his position in the field to replace a dismissed batsman. He subsequently went to live with his Aunt, Miss Charmian Bond, in Kent. (Law 37). James Bond is the son of a Scottish father, Andrew Bond, and a Swiss mother, Monique Delacroix, both of whom died in a mountain climbing accident in the Aiguilles Rouges, when Bond was 11 years old. No player is credited with the dismissal. The combination saw the success of Bond return to its standard stride it hadn't reached since 1979's Moonraker. Obstructing the field — When a batsman deliberately hinders a fielder from attempting to field the ball. Pierce Brosnan filled Bond's shoes with an elegant mix of Sean Connery cool and Roger Moore wit.

(Law 34). The 1990s saw a revival and renewal of the series beginning with GoldenEye in 1995. No player is credited with the dismissal. Regardless, a new Bond film was scheduled for release in 1991; however, legal wrangling over ownership of the character led to a protracted delay that would keep Bond off movie screens for the next six years during which time, Dalton had moved on. Hit the ball twice — When the batsman deliberately strikes the ball a second time, except for the sole purpose of guarding his wicket. and "15" in the UK. (Law 33). Licence to Kill's relative failure is usually blamed on a poor promotional campaign in the United States, Dalton's darker portrayal of Bond, and its status as the first Bond film to be rated PG-13 in the U.S.

No player is credited with the dismissal. While Dalton's final outing, Licence to Kill (1989), was financially successful, it did not prove as popular as previous Bond films. Handled the ball — When the batsman deliberately handles the ball without the permission of the fielding team. The hard-edge of Timothy Dalton in the Bond films of the late 80s met a mixed response from moviegoers; some welcomed the earthier style reminiscent of Fleming's character, while others missed the light-hearted approach which characterised the Roger Moore era. (Law 35). By the 1980s, some critics had grown tired of the films, commenting that the perennial sexism and glamorous locales had become outdated, and that Bond's smooth, unruffled exterior didn't mesh with competing movies like Die Hard. The bowler is credited with the dismissal. After the release of On Her Majesty's Secret Service, George Lazenby quit the role of Bond for this very reason even though he was offered a seven-film contract.

Hit wicket — When the batsman accidentally knocks the stumps with either the body or the bat, causing one or both of the bails to be dislodged, either in playing a shot or in taking off for the first run. Since Bond's peak of popularity in 1965, with the release of Thunderball, critics have often predicted that Bond's successful run would come to an end, usually believing that Bond was out of touch with the times. (Law 39). In the UK, Bond holds three of the top five top spots of the most-watched television movies. This generally requires the keeper to be standing within arm's length of the wicket, which is done mainly to spin bowling. They continue to earn substantial profits after their theatrical run via videotape, DVD, and television broadcasts. The bowler and wicket-keeper are both credited. Every Bond film has been a box office success to a lesser or greater degree.

Stumped — When the batsman leaves his crease in playing a delivery, voluntarily or involuntarily, but the ball goes to the wicket-keeper who uses it to remove one or both of the bails through hitting the bail(s) or the wicket before the batsman has remade his ground. Their production company, EON Productions, set up a semi-regular schedule of releases; initially annually, then usually once every two years, although there have been a couple times where the gap was larger, usually due to external events. Such a dismissal is not officially credited to any player, although the identities of the fielder or fielders involved is often noted in brackets on the scorecard. No starring Sean Connery. The ball can either hit the stumps directly or the fielder's hand with the ball inside it can be used to dislodge the bails. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman started the official cinematic run of Bond in 1962, with Dr. Run out — When a fielder, bowler or wicket-keeper removes one or both of the bails with the ball by hitting the stumps whilst a batsman is still running between the two ends. Albert R.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. agent named "Jimmy Bond." In 1956, Bob Holness provided the voice of Bond in a South African radio adaptation of Fleming's third novel, Moonraker. The laws of cricket stipulate certain exceptions in favour of the batsman; for instance, a batsman should not be given out LBW if the place where the ball bounced on the pitch is to the leg-side of the area strictly between the two wickets. The first actor to play Bond was American Barry Nelson, in the 1954 CBS television production of Casino Royale in which the character became a U.S. Leg before wicket (LBW) — When a delivered ball misses the bat and strikes the batsman's leg or pad, and the umpire judges that the ball would otherwise have struck the stumps. In many cases, the villain then dies at Bond's hands, although early Bond films often ended with the villain either escaping or being killed by someone else. (Law 30). Inevitably, a villain tries to kill Bond with a deathtrap during which the villain reveals vital information; Bond later escapes and uses the information to thwart the evil plot.

The bowler is credited with the dismissal. The cinematic Bond adventures were initially influenced by earlier spy thrillers such as North by Northwest, Saboteur, and Journey Into Fear, but later entries became formulaic dramas where Bond saves the world from apocalyptic madmen. This happens regardless of whether the batsman has edged the ball onto the stumps or not. The films expanded on Fleming's books, adding gadgets from Q Branch, death-defying stunts, and often abandoning the original plotlines for more outlandish and cinema-friendly adventures. Bowled — When a delivered ball hits the stumps at the batsman's end, and dislodges one or both of the bails. Instead, they established the formula of unique villains, outlandish plots, and voluptuous women who tend to fall in love with Bond at first sight — the feeling often being mutual. (Law 32). The original books by Fleming are usually dark – lacking fantasy or gadgets.

The bowler and catcher are both credited. The James Bond novels and films have ranged from realistic spy drama to science fiction. Caught — When a fielder catches the ball before the ball bounces and after the batsman has struck it with the bat or it has come into contact with the batsman's glove while it is in contact with the bat handle. A new film, Casino Royale, is currently in production with an expected release in 2006. A captain declares his innings closed (this does not apply to one-day limited over matches). The James Bond franchise is currently the second all-time highest grossing film franchise in history, after Star Wars[2], and one of the longest running film series in history, spanning 20 official films, 2 unofficial films, 1 TV episode based on Casino Royale, and a cartoon television series spinoff. The predetermined number of overs are bowled (in a one-day match only, usually 50 overs). Fleming claimed that while there he was cleaned out by a "chief German agent" at a table playing Chemin de Fer, however, Admiral Godfrey tells a different story, that Fleming only played Portuguese businessmen and that afterwards Ian had fantasised about them being German agents and the excitement of cleaning them out.

A team chasing a given target number of runs to win manages to do so. While there they went to the Estoril Casino in Estoril, which, due to the neutral status of Portugal had a number of spies of warring regimes present. Ten out of eleven batsmen are 'out' (dismissed). Most notably, and the basis for Casino Royale, was a trip to Lisbon that Fleming and the Director of Naval Intelligence, Admiral Godfrey, took during World War II en route to the United States. Fleming has, however, admitted to being inspired by true or partially-true events that took place during his career at the Naval Intelligence Division of the Admiralty. In Casino Royale the character Vesper Lynd says of Bond, "He reminds me rather of Hoagy Carmichael, but there is something cold and ruthless." Other characteristics of Bond's look are said to be based on Fleming, such as his height, his hairstyle and his eye colour.

Although the character of Bond is not known to be based on anyone but Fleming himself, the look of James Bond, famed for being "suave and sophisticated," is based on a young Hoagy Carmichael. how they should look and how they should dress), and have similar education and military careers both rising to the rank of Commander. drinking and smoking), share the same view on women (e.g. scrambled eggs), have the same habits (e.g.

Both, for the most part, went to the same schools, like the same foods (e.g. Most researchers agree that James Bond is a highly romanticised version of Fleming himself; the author was known for his jetsetting lifestyle and reputation as a womaniser. Although some names share similarities with Bond, none have ever been confirmed by Fleming, Ian Fleming Publications or any of Ian Fleming's biographers such as Fleming's assistant and friend, John Pearson. Usually these people have a background of some kind in espionage or other covert operations.

Since the fictional James Bond's creation, hundreds of reports by various news outlets have suggested names for Ian Fleming's inspiration of Bond. Plomer liked it enough that he gave the manuscript to Jonathan Cape, who did not like it as much, but published it anyway due to the fact that Ian was the younger brother of Peter Fleming, an established travel writer who also put in a good word for Ian. After completing the manuscript for what would later be titled Casino Royale, Fleming allowed his friend William Plomer, a poet and later Fleming's editor, to read it. Of the name, Fleming once said "I wanted the simplest, dullest, plainest-sounding name I could find, James Bond was much better than something more interesting like 'Peregrine Maltravers.' Exotic things would happen to and around him but he would be a neutral figure - an anonymous blunt instrument wielded by a Government Department." [1].

Fleming, a keen birdwatcher, owned a copy of Bond's field guide at Goldeneye. The hero of Fleming's tale, James Bond, was named after an American ornithologist of the same name who was an expert on Caribbean birds and had written a definitive book on the subject: Birds of the West Indies. James Bond was created in February 1952 by Ian Fleming while on vacation at his Jamaican estate called Goldeneye. Afterwards, it was virtually eliminated.

Bond's "genius" became a running joke during Roger Moore's era. In Goldfinger, he is able to calculate in his head how many trucks it would take to transport all the gold in Fort Knox, and how long the gold would be radioactive after the villain's bomb explodes. James Bond does have a quirk of being a "know-it-all," moreso on film. In real life, martini bars often dub a martini made "shaken, not stirred" as a "Martini James Bond." It is notable to say that the literary Bond incarnation has a strong preference for bourbon and drinks that on more occasions.

No. Throughout the novels, 007 orders his martinis with a slice of lemon peel, although this only occurs on film in Dr. This drink specifically was dubbed "The Vesper" martini, after his lover in the book, Vesper Lynd. James Bond is famous for ordering his vodka martinis "shaken, not stirred." The literary Bond prefers vodka, but also drinks gin martinis, and in his first adventure, Casino Royale, he orders a martini that includes both types of liquor.

The last time Bond smoked a cigarette on film was in 1989. During the films starring Connery, Lazenby and Dalton Bond was a smoker, while during Moore's and Brosnan's tenure he doesn't smoke cigarettes, although he does occasionally smoke cigars. On film, Bond has been off and on. Regardless, the literary incarnation continues to smoke through many continuation novels.

He is also forced to cut back after being sent to a health farm per his superior's order. On average, however, Bond smokes 60 a day, although in certain novels Bond does attempt to cut back so that he can accomplish certain feats such as swimming underwater. Bond is the consummate womaniser, drinker, and heavy cigarette smoker, at one point reaching 70 cigarettes a day. The 'double-O' prefix indicates his discretionary licence to kill in the performance of his duties.

As an agent of the Secret Service, Bond holds code number "007". Under the cover name "Universal Exports" and later "Transworld Consortium", Bond's fictional British Secret Service starting in 1995 takes on the actual name of the UK's Secret Intelligence Service, commonly known as MI6. Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR is an agent of the international arm of the British Secret Service headquartered in London in a tall, grey building overlooking Regent's Park. .

In addition to novels and films, Bond is a prominent character in many computer and video games, comic strips and comic books, and has been the subject of many parodies. Currently, Columbia Pictures and MGM (United Artists' parent) co-distribute the series. Broccoli's family company, Danjaq, LLC, has co-owned the James Bond film series with United Artists Corporation since the mid-1970s, when Saltzman sold UA his share of Danjaq. The 21st official film, Casino Royale, with Daniel Craig as Bond, is in production and is scheduled for a November 17, 2006 release.

In chronological order, they are:. To date, five actors have portrayed Bond in the official series, and a sixth is soon to make his appearance. Wilson, carried on the production duties together beginning in 1995. His daughter, Barbara Broccoli, and his stepson, Michael G.

Broccoli and Harry Saltzman produced most of the official films up until 1975 when Broccoli became the sole producer. Twenty films have been produced by EON featuring this character as well as two independently produced films and one American television adaptation of Fleming's first novel under legal licence; however, it is generally considered that only the EON films are "official." Albert R. Although initially made famous through the novels, James Bond is now probably best known from the EON Productions film series. Fleming wrote numerous novels and short stories based upon the character and, after his death in 1964, further literary adventures were written by Kingsley Amis (pseudonym "Robert Markham"), John Pearson, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, and Charlie Higson; in addition, Christopher Wood wrote two screenplay novelisations and other authors have also written various unofficial permutations of the character.

James Bond, also known as 007 (pronounced "double-oh seven"), is a fictional British spy created by writer Ian Fleming in 1953. Bond franchise Box Office numbers [7], Casino Royale Box Office numbers (1967), Box Office numbers + Inflation. URL accessed on February 23, 2005.. The Charlie Higson CBn Interview.

Charlie Higson interview with CommanderBond.net. ISBN 0719065410.. The James Bond Phenomenon: A Critical Reader, Manchester University Press. Lindner, Christoph (2003).

ISBN 0810932962.. James Bond: The Legacy, Boxtree/Macmillan. Cork, John (2002). ISBN 1860643876..

Tauris. Licence To Thrill: A Cultural History Of The James Bond Films, I.B. Chapman, James (1999). ISBN 1401102840..

The James Bond Bedside Companion, Dodd, Mead. Benson, Raymond (1984). URL accessed on July 13, 2005.. 100 Movie Quotes.

AFI's 100 Years.. James Bond" 22nd greatest line in cinema history. ^  "Bond. URL accessed on June 15, 2005..

Most Lucrative Movie Franchises. ^  James Bond the second highest grossing film franchise of all time. ISBN 0719568153.. James Bond: The Man and His World, John Murray.

^ Chancellor, Henry (2005). As a tribute to this, when casting his third Indiana Jones film, The Last Crusade, Lucas chose Connery for the role of Indiana's father, with his reasoning being "Who else could play Indiana Jones' father, but the guy who inspired all of this in the first place, James Bond himself!" (Sean Connery). George Lucas has said on multiple occasions that Connery's portrayal of the character was one of the primary inspirations for his Indiana Jones character. Sean Connery starred in the Motion Picture version of The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, which has a 'supposed' link to the roots of James Bond's ancestry.

Five Ian Fleming titles have thus far never been used as film titles: The Property of a Lady, Quantum of Solace, Risico, The Hildebrand Rarity, and 007 in New York. In fact Llewelyn had been killed in a car crash shortly after the release of the previous film. In Die Another Day, Cleese becomes the new Q, the old Q having presumably retired. In The World is Not Enough, John Cleese is introduced as Q's assistant, whom Bond teasingly refers to as "R." Despite Cleese receiving a credit as R, there is no hint in the dialogue that this is an official title.

Desmond Llewelyn holds a record, appearing in 17 of the James Bond films as "Q," aka Major Boothroyd, and head of Q-branch. Baker shows up in later James Bond films, portraying Jack Wade, one of James Bond's allies in both Goldeneye and Tomorrow Never Dies. Joe Don Baker played Brad Whitaker, the villain in The Living Daylights. With the release of Casino Royale, Craig will become the first actor with blond hair to have portrayed Bond; although Roger Moore did sport sandy colored hair in his first few Bond films, he is not considered a blond.

Legal wranglings over ownership of the Bond franchise, however, led to the series being put on hiatus until 1994. Although never officially confirmed, numerous sources have suggested the title was to be The Property of a Lady, after the short story from the collection Octopussy and The Living Daylights. Dalton was originally contracted for three films, with the third film planned for release in 1991. Moore was reportedly Fleming's initial first choice for the Bond role, although other sources have suggested that Fleming favored James Mason or Cary Grant.

While initially skeptical about Connery being chosen to play Bond (at one point dismissing him as an "overgrown stuntman"), Fleming liked his portrayal so much that he eventually added background to the character in the novels so that his father was Scottish. "Then we'll use ice packs before the love scenes like we did with Sean," he replied. [6]. "But I've got breasts like a woman," I continued. I objected, "But I'm bald." "So was Sean — we'll get around it." he replied.

Gambon spoke of the situation in an interview: When he told me he was considering me for the part of 007 himself, I was amazed. Michael Gambon, who co-starred with current Bond actor Daniel Craig in Layer Cake and Sylvia, was asked by Cubby Broccoli to audition for the role in 1970 to replace Lazenby. To date, the only American to play the role is Barry Nelson, albeit unofficially in the Americanised version of the character in the 1954 TV adaptation of Casino Royale. Several other American actors, including Patrick McGoohan, and Robert Wagner, have been offered the role only to turn it down.

James Brolin was hired in 1983 to replace Moore, and was preparing to shoot Octopussy when the producers convinced Moore to return. Burt Reynolds was also asked by Cubby Broccoli in the early '70s to replace Connery after Diamonds Are Forever, but turned him down. John Gavin was hired in 1970 to replace Lazenby, but Connery was lured back at the eleventh hour and it was he who appeared in Diamonds Are Forever instead of Gavin. Adam West was offered the chance to appear in On Her Majesty's Secret Service when Connery chose not to return to the role, but turned down the offer.

However, American actors have been hired on two occasions, and approached about playing Bond on several others. Many people assume the Bond producers would never hire an American to portray the character in the official film series. Daniel Craig (announced October 2005 but yet to appear on screen). Pierce Brosnan.

Timothy Dalton. Roger Moore. George Lazenby. Sean Connery.

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