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Walter Mondale

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Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. He was the 42nd US Vice President (1977-1981) under President Jimmy Carter. He was also a two-term US Senator from Minnesota and the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1984 against the incumbent, Republican Ronald W. Reagan, who was reelected in a landslide when Mondale carried only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia.

Early life

Mondale was born in Ceylon, Minnesota, the son of a Methodist minister. His half-brother was the Unitarian minister Lester Mondale. He was educated at Macalester College in St. Paul and the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. He then served two years at Fort Knox, in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956 and began to practice law in Minneapolis.

Entry into politics and U.S. Senator

He managed the re-election campaign of Gov. Orville Freeman, who in return in 1960 appointed Mondale the state's attorney general. He spent two terms as attorney general. When Hubert H. Humphrey II was elected vice president in 1964, Mondale was appointed to Humphrey's seat in the Senate. Mondale was elected to the seat in 1966 and re-elected in 1972.

Mondale gained public notice for his role in the Apollo 1 investigation. He attempted to show that NASA was dangerous and a waste of taxpayer money. His ultimate goal was that this money should be directed into social services. Many people came away from the experience with the belief that Mondale was on a witch-hunt.

42nd Vice President

When Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination for president in 1976, he chose Mondale as his running mate. Mondale was inaugurated as vice president on 20 January 1977. He was the first vice president to reside at the official vice presidential residence, Number One Observatory Circle. Carter and Mondale were renominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, but lost to Ronald W. Reagan and George H. W. Bush. (See U.S. presidential election, 1976, U.S. presidential election, 1980.)

Presidential nominee of 1984

After a brief return to the practice of law, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1984 election. He chose U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party. Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits.

Mondale shakes hands with Ronald Reagan before a debate in 1984.

When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won't tell you. I just did." Although he intended this to demonstrate that he was honest while Reagan was hypocritical, it was widely remembered as simply a campaign pledge to raise taxes, and it hurt him in the end. In 1986, Reagan did sign into law a bill that raised taxes for corporations, but at the same time cut taxes further for individual taxpayers.

In the 1984 election, Mondale was defeated in a massive landslide, winning only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota, thus securing only 13 electoral votes to Reagan's 525. Mondale's defeat was the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in history, and the worst for any major-party candidate since Alf Landon's loss to Roosevelt in 1936.

Private citizen and ambassador

Following the election, Mondale returned again to private law practice, with Dorsey & Whitney in Minnesota in 1987. From 1986 to 1993, Mondale was chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.

Under the presidency of Bill Clinton, he was ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, chaired a bipartisan group to study campaign finance reform, and was Clinton's representative in Indonesia in 1998.

2002 election

Mondale talks during a debate with Norm Coleman in 2002.

In 2002, Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, who was running for re-election, died in a plane crash just 11 days before the Nov. 5 election. Mondale, at age 74, replaced Wellstone on the ballot, but narrowly lost the election to the conservative Republican opponent Norm Coleman. Upon conceding the election, Mondale said, "At the end of what will be my last campaign, I want to say to Minnesota, you always treated me well, you always listened to me". Mondale finished with 1,067,246 votes (47.34%) to Coleman's 1,116,697 (49.53%) out of 2,254,639 votes cast. Mondale set a political record of sorts as a result of this loss, becoming the only major party candidate in U.S. history to lose statewide elections in all 50 states (having won only Minnesota in the 1984 election).

Norwegian ancestry

Mondale has always maintained strong ties to his ancestral Norway. Coincidentally, when he entered the Senate in 1964 he took over the seat of vice president Hubert Humphrey, another Norwegian-American. In later years Mondale has served on the executive committee of the Peace Prize Forum, an annual conference co-sponsored by the Norwegian Nobel Institute and five Midwestern colleges of Norwegian heritage. In connection with Norway's Centennial Celebration in 2005, he chairs the committee to promote and develop cultural activities between Norway and Norwegian-American organizations. During the 1984 Presidential election he was even nicknamed "Norwegian wood", a play on the Beatles song, his ancestory and his appearance.

Mondale's 45 year old daughter, Eleanor, is a television personality, who is currently battling brain cancer.


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Mondale's 45 year old daughter, Eleanor, is a television personality, who is currently battling brain cancer. [3]. During the 1984 Presidential election he was even nicknamed "Norwegian wood", a play on the Beatles song, his ancestory and his appearance. Rochester, New York:St Ives Inc Case-Hoyt. In connection with Norway's Centennial Celebration in 2005, he chairs the committee to promote and develop cultural activities between Norway and Norwegian-American organizations. 2003 Annual Report. In later years Mondale has served on the executive committee of the Peace Prize Forum, an annual conference co-sponsored by the Norwegian Nobel Institute and five Midwestern colleges of Norwegian heritage. Ford Motor Company.

Coincidentally, when he entered the Senate in 1964 he took over the seat of vice president Hubert Humphrey, another Norwegian-American. The recall, the fifth-largest by an automaker in US history, involves some of its most popular trucks and SUVs. Mondale has always maintained strong ties to his ancestral Norway. On Wednesday, Ford Motor recalled close to 4 million pickup trucks and sport utility vehicles, saying that a leak-prone cruise control system could ignite fires. history to lose statewide elections in all 50 states (having won only Minnesota in the 1984 election). And the company is ideally suited for private-equity investors, which prefer companies with steady, strong cash flows, upon which they can then pile on significant debt, the Journal said. Mondale set a political record of sorts as a result of this loss, becoming the only major party candidate in U.S. The cash-strapped car maker wants to reduce the debt on its balance sheet, and it would no longer have to consolidate the debt of the fleet operations after a public listing.Ford also faces a renewed need for cash, as sales of profitable sport-utility vehicles have slowed.But selling Hertz outright would bring Ford more money more quickly than a public offering.

Mondale finished with 1,067,246 votes (47.34%) to Coleman's 1,116,697 (49.53%) out of 2,254,639 votes cast. At the last moment, despite Hurricane Katrina potentially harming prospects for the car-rental business, the price tag actually rose, participants in the process told the Journal.The newspaper said Ford had considered taking the company public, and it is possible Ford's board could return to that course at the last moment. Upon conceding the election, Mondale said, "At the end of what will be my last campaign, I want to say to Minnesota, you always treated me well, you always listened to me". Both Ford and Hertz declined to comment.The two groups have been pitted in an intense auction for Hertz. Mondale, at age 74, replaced Wellstone on the ballot, but narrowly lost the election to the conservative Republican opponent Norm Coleman. It totals more than US$10 billion, according to recent regulatory filings, of which around half is long-term debt.The buyout firms will spend as little as US$3 billion of their own funds and borrow as much as US$12 billion to finance the purchase and the assumption of debt, the Journal said.A winning bid by the Clayton Dubilier group would hand a rare defeat to a competing group of private-equity firms - including Bain Capital, Blackstone Group, Texas Pacific Group and Thomas H Lee & Partners - people familiar with the matter told the paper. 5 election. It said the private-equity firms, including Clayton Dubilier & Rice, Carlyle Group and Merrill Lynch Global Private Equity, would also assume Hertz's debt.

In 2002, Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, who was running for re-election, died in a plane crash just 11 days before the Nov. Changing hands: Hertz is ideally suited for private-equity investors, which prefer firms with steady, strong cash flows, upon which they can then pile on significant debt Citing people familiar with the matter, the newspaper said Hertz's fate could be determined as soon as today. Under the presidency of Bill Clinton, he was ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, chaired a bipartisan group to study campaign finance reform, and was Clinton's representative in Indonesia in 1998. On September 9, 2005,Ford to sell Hertz for US$5.5-$6b: reportCorporate-buyout group also to assume car-rental firm's US$10b debt Ford Motor Co will sell its car-rental firm Hertz to a group of corporate-buyout firms for US$5.5 billion to US$6 billion, the Wall Street Journal reported yesterday. From 1986 to 1993, Mondale was chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. In additon, Ford was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 by Working Mothers magazine. Following the election, Mondale returned again to private law practice, with Dorsey & Whitney in Minnesota in 1987. Ford received a 100% rating on the Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign starting in 2004, the third year of the report.

Mondale's defeat was the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in history, and the worst for any major-party candidate since Alf Landon's loss to Roosevelt in 1936. This strategy is in contrast with that of GM, which has postponed development of a new rear wheel drive passenger car platform (called "Zeta" internally) to free up resources for the next generation of their light truck and SUV lines, this in the stated belief that their core market for such vehicles is sufficiently prosperous as to be insensitive to fuel price increases (and implicitly, to low resale values). In the 1984 election, Mondale was defeated in a massive landslide, winning only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota, thus securing only 13 electoral votes to Reagan's 525. To make good profits across their product line will require that they reduce the costs of development and production while introducing compelling products. In 1986, Reagan did sign into law a bill that raised taxes for corporations, but at the same time cut taxes further for individual taxpayers. The current strategy of Ford in response to the circumstances that lead to the bond downgrade is to reduce the company's reliance on a limited portion of their products for profit. I just did." Although he intended this to demonstrate that he was honest while Reagan was hypocritical, it was widely remembered as simply a campaign pledge to raise taxes, and it hurt him in the end. For owners who frequently trade in and for those who lease their vehicles the resale values are reflected in substantial cost differences with domestic vehicles costing more in overall costs.

He won't tell you. These perceptions are reflected in the used car market by higher values for these foreign models. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. As far as the other non-truck models, most of these (with the notable exception of the 2005 Mustang) are disadvantaged in the marketplace owing to a perception by buyers that foreign manufactures (especially Toyota and Honda) deliver better value in terms of fuel economy, reliability, and build quality. Mr. For various reasons including fuel economy, ride comfort, handling, and performance, these have proven to be popular in the market, while Ford had not developed such vehicles (with the exception of the Escape light SUV). When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Foreign manufactures, not having the truck manufacturing capabilities to form a platform base for similar vehicles have instead introduced so called "crossover" SUV's — vehicles built on an automobile or minivan platform rather than a truck chassis.

He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits. Owing to higher fuel prices there has been a decrease in the profits on these vehicles owing to "incentives" (in the form of rebates or low interest financing), required due to declining sales. Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). These downgrades were a recognition of high health care costs for an aging workforce and of the dependence of the company on profits from the sales of sport utility vehicles. Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party. In May 2005, several bond rating agencies downgraded the bonds of Ford Motor Company to below investment grade (so called "junk bonds"), at the same time they downgraded the bonds of General Motors. Geraldine A. As with General Motor's Hummer H2 SUV, the Excursion is so large that its poor milage does not count toward the manufacture's Corporate Average Fuel Economy ("CAFE") milage.

Rep. The Excursion is soon to be discontinued and replaced by an extended wheelbase version of the Ford Expedition. He chose U.S. In this period Ford also introduced the "Excursion", a SUV larger than the Chevrolet Suburban. After a brief return to the practice of law, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1984 election. Note however, that FMC has made no significant progress toward the 2005 goal as of early 2005 (and in 2003 announced that it would not try to achieve this goal), has terminated its electric vehicle program, recovering most vehicles for recycling via crushing and shredding (rather than putting the components or vehicles on the market), and has instead delivered ICE vehicles to the post office, despite obtaining various subsidies for EV development. presidential election, 1980.). Many Ford vehicles now sport an emblem - a green leaf springing from a curving road-like twig, symbolic of the new "green" commitment to preserve the environment and reduce resource consumption while delivering safe, economical, and effective products to the motoring public.

presidential election, 1976, U.S. Postal Service for delivery of a large number of electric postal vans based on the Ranger EV platform. (See U.S. S. Bush. Ford was also one of the first top industry executives to make regular use of an battery electric vehicle, a Ford Ranger EV, while the company contracted with the U. W. Mr.

Reagan and George H. Ford personally) stunned the industry and pleased environmentalists with an announcement of a planned 25 percent improvement in the average mileage of its light truck fleet - including its popular Sport Utility Vehicles - to be completed by the 2005 calendar year. Carter and Mondale were renominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, but lost to Ronald W. Under the leadership of the current chairman, William Clay Ford, Jr., the company (and Mr. He was the first vice president to reside at the official vice presidential residence, Number One Observatory Circle. Ford's market presence in the Middle East has traditionally been even smaller, partly due to the Arab boycott of companies dealing with Israel, although US Fords are now sold in Saudi Arabia. Mondale was inaugurated as vice president on 20 January 1977. The Falcon model from Australia was also sold in South Africa, but was dropped in 2003.

When Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination for president in 1976, he chose Mondale as his running mate. Ford now sells a local sedan version of the Fiesta (also built in India and Mexico), and the Focus and Mondeo Europe. Many people came away from the experience with the belief that Mondale was on a witch-hunt. Ford bought a 45 per cent stake in Samcor following the demise of apartheid in 1994, and this later became, once again, a wholly owned subsidiary, the Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa. His ultimate goal was that this money should be directed into social services. Samcor began to assemble Mazdas as well, which affected its product line-up, which saw the European Fords like the Escort and Sierra replaced by the Mazda-based Laser and Telstar. He attempted to show that NASA was dangerous and a waste of taxpayer money. Following international condemnation of apartheid, Ford divested from South Africa in 1988, and sold its stake in Samcor, although it licensed the use of its brand name to the company.

Mondale gained public notice for his role in the Apollo 1 investigation. In the mid-1980s Ford merged with a rival company, owned by Anglo American, to form the South African Motor Corporation (Samcor). Mondale was elected to the seat in 1966 and re-elected in 1972. Later Ford sourced its models from the UK and Australia, with local versions of the Ford Cortina including the XR6, with a 3.0 V6 engine, and a Cortina 'bakkie' or pick-up, which was exported to the UK. Humphrey II was elected vice president in 1964, Mondale was appointed to Humphrey's seat in the Senate. Ford in South Africa began by importing kits from Canada to be assembled at its Port Elizabeth facility. When Hubert H. In Africa and the Middle East, Ford's market presence has traditionally been strongest in South Africa and neighbouring countries, with only trucks being sold elsewhere on the continent.

He spent two terms as attorney general. Ford in Brazil produces a pick-up version of the Fiesta, which is also produced in South Africa, in right hand drive as the Ford Bantam. Orville Freeman, who in return in 1960 appointed Mondale the state's attorney general. Models like the Ford Mondeo from Europe could now be imported completely built up. He managed the re-election campaign of Gov. Consequently, the Ford Fiesta is only built in Brazil, and the Ford Focus only built in Argentina, with each plant exporting in large volumes to the neighbouring country. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956 and began to practice law in Minneapolis. Autolatina was dissolved in the 1990s, and with the advent of Mercosur, the regional common market, Ford was able to rationalise its product line-ups in those countries.

Army during the Korean War. In the 1980s, Ford merged its operations in Brazil and Argentina with those of Volkswagen to form a company called Autolatina, with which it shared models. He then served two years at Fort Knox, in the U.S. For example, the Corcel and Del Rey in Brazil were originally based on Renaults. Paul and the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. In some cases, it based its models on those of other manufacturers whose plants it had taken over. He was educated at Macalester College in St. In South America, Ford has had to face protectionist government measures in each country, with the result that it built different models in different countries, with no rationalisation or economies of scale.

His half-brother was the Unitarian minister Lester Mondale. Ford came to India in 1998 with its Ford Escort model, which was later replaced by locally produced Ford Ikon in 2001. Mondale was born in Ceylon, Minnesota, the son of a Methodist minister. Ford also has a joint venture with Lio Ho in Taiwan, which assembled Ford models locally since the 1970s. . Ironically, Hyundai also manufactured the Ford Cortina until the 1980s. Reagan, who was reelected in a landslide when Mondale carried only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia. Through its relationship with Mazda, Ford also acquired a stake in South Korean manufacturer Kia, which later built the Ford Aspire for export to the US, but later sold the company to Hyundai.

He was also a two-term US Senator from Minnesota and the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1984 against the incumbent, Republican Ronald W. The smaller Mazda 121 was also sold in the US and Asia as a Ford Festiva. He was the 42nd US Vice President (1977-1981) under President Jimmy Carter. The Laser was also built in Mexico and sold in the US as the Mercury Tracer, while the 1989 US Ford Escort was based on the Laser/Mazda 323. Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. The Laser was one of the most successful models sold by Ford in Australia, and outsold the Mazda 323, despite being almost identical to it. Ford's presence in Asia has traditionally been much smaller, but with the acquisition of a stake in Japanese manufacturer Mazda, in 1979, Ford began selling Mazda's Familia and Capella (also known as the 323 and 626) as the Ford Laser and Telstar.

In both Australia and New Zealand the Commodore and Falcon outsell all other cars, and in Australia they comprise over 40% of the new car market. A pick-up version is also available with a similar range of drive trains. High performance variants of the Falcon running American Mustang V8 engines produce up to 390bhp. Like its General Motors rival the Holden Commodore, the 4.0 liter Falcon retains rear wheel drive.

Between 1960 and 1972 the Falcon was based on a US Ford of that name, but since then has been entirely locally designed and manufactured. In Australia and New Zealand, the popular Ford Falcon is considered the typical (if not particularly economical) family car, though it is considerably larger than the Mondeo sold in Europe. Another joint venture plant near Setubal in Portugal set up in collaboration with Volkswagen assembles the Galaxy people carrier as well as its sister ship the VW Sharan. This new production facility was set up near Kocaeli in 2002, and its opening marked the end of Transit assembly in Genk.

Ford-Otosan, established in the 1970s, manufactures the Transit Connect compact panel van as well as the "Jumbo" and long wheelbase versions of the full-size Transit. Ford also owns a joint venture production plant in Turkey. The Saarlouis and Cologne plants in Germany take responsibility for European assembly of the Focus. Elsewhere in Continental Europe, Ford assembles the Mondeo range in its Belgian facility in Genk (where a Transit production line was also maintained until 2003), while Fiesta/Ka assembly takes place in the Valencia plant in Spain.

Ford's Halewood Assembly Plant was converted to Jaguar production. It owns the Jaguar, Land Rover and Aston Martin car plants in Britain which are still operational. Ford also produced the Thames range of commercial vehicles although the use of this brand name was discontinued circa 1965. Development of European Ford is broadly split between Dunton in Essex (Powertrain, Fiesta/Ka and commercial vehicles) and Cologne (Body, Chassis, Electrical, Focus, Mondeo) in Germany.

In 2001, Ford ended car production in the UK and it was the first time in more than 80 years that Ford cars had not been made in Britain, although production of the Transit van continues at the company's Southampton facility, engines at Bridgend and Dagenham and transmissions at Halewood. The Focus has been one exception to this, which has become America's best selling compact car since its launch in 2000. Increasingly, Ford Motor Company has looked to Ford of Europe for its 'world cars', such as the Mondeo, Focus, and Fiesta, although sales of European-sourced Fords in the US have been disappointing, and in Asia, models from Europe are not as competitively priced as Japanese-built rivals, nor are they perceived as reliable. The Ford Sierra replaced the Taunus and Cortina in 1982, drawing criticism for its radical aerodynamic styling, which was soon given nicknames such as "Jellymould" and "The Salesman's Spaceship".

Rationalisation of model ranges meant that production of many models in the UK switched to elsewhere in Europe, including Belgium and Spain as well as Germany. Later on, the Ford Taunus and Ford Cortina became identical, produced in left hand drive and right hand drive respectively. Initially, Ford in Germany and the United Kingdom built different models from one another until the late 1960s, with the Ford Escort and then the Ford Capri being common to both companies. The Focus has been one exception, which has sold strongly on both sides of the Atlantic, despite its European design.

The Mondeo was dropped by Ford Australia, because the segment of the market in which it competes had been in steady decline, with buyers preferring the larger local model, the Falcon. The small European model Ka, a hit in its home market, did not catch on in Japan, as it was not available as an automatic. The divergence in product tastes is such that European models like the Ford Mondeo have fared poorly in the US, while US models such as the Ford Taurus have fared poorly in Japan and Australia, even produced in right hand drive. Initially, Ford models sold outside the US were essentially versions of those sold on the home market, but later on there were vast differences between those sold in the US and those sold in Europe.

Ford's non-manufacturing operations include organizations in the financial services (Ford Credit) and automobile rental (Hertz) businesses. Its prestige brands, with the exception of Lincoln, are managed through its Premier Automotive Group. It has spun off its parts division under the name Visteon. In recent years Ford has acquired Aston Martin, Daimler, Jaguar, Volvo Cars, and Land Rover, as well as a controlling share of Mazda, with which it operates an American joint venture plant called Auto Alliance.

Ford also has a cooperative agreement with GAZ. It also has a joint venture with Mahindra in India. Ford has major manufacturing operations in Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Australia, and several other countries, including South Africa, where following divestment during apartheid, it once again has a wholly-owned subsidiary. Later, in 1985, the Merkur brand was released, but met a similar fate in 1989.

In 1958, Ford introduced a new marque, the Edsel, but poor sales led to its discontinuation in 1960. Today, Ford Motor Company manufactures automobiles under the highly-recognized Lincoln and Mercury brand names. Henry Ford's great-grandson Bill Ford is presently chairman and CEO. Ford became a publicly traded corporation in 1956; however, the Ford family still maintains a controlling interest in the company.

(See: Strategic bombing survey) Similar charges have been made against other American firms which had European operations at the outbreak of hostilities. The Ford Motor Company has denied allegations that they profited by the use of forced labor to produce tanks for the Nazis during the war, saying that Ford had lost control of the German division by that point in the war and was not responsible for its activities. Ford's plants in Germany and Vichy France, Fordwerke, produced many of the cars and trucks used by the Nazis in World War II. Ford's former manufacturing plant at Richmond, California, located near San Francisco, is under development by the National Parks Service as the Rosie the Riveter / World War II Home Front National Historical Park.

These women became symbolized by the famous poster image of Rosie the Riveter. During the War, thousands of women found employment in manufacturing at Ford, many for the first time. Willow Run, located near Ypsilanti, Michigan, still operates as an airfield today; today, Ford rival General Motors owns part of the facility, where manufacturing continues. The Willow Run plant was a massive facility, and held the distinction at the time of being the world's largest enclosed "room"; at its peak, the plant was able to produce as many as one B-24 aircraft per hour of production.

Nearby to its Detroit-area headquarters, Ford developed the Willow Run plant and its associated airfield, where the B-24 Liberator aircraft was produced. Wartime production at Ford also included aircraft construction. Of the companies contracted to produce the famous World War II "jeep" or general-purpose vehicle, Ford produced the most (the other companies included Willys-Overland, which later adopted the name Jeep.). Ford Motor Company was responsible for major contributions to the Allies' war effort.

domestic automotive production ceased for the duration of the conflict, as the nation's industries were redirected to war production. After the outbreak of World War II, U.S. Only eight of 35 US plants were in production in 1933 and it took until 1939 before sales returned to their 1929 levels. Henry Ford fortified his home and the factory.

The following year, five Ford workers were killed as unemployed workers marched to demand jobs. Ford maintained production for nearly two years after the start of the Great Depression, however the slump in sales led to Ford closing the Model A assembly line on August 1, 1931, with the loss of 60,000 jobs. Due to market constraints, however, the company finally gave in and followed its competitors' lead when on December 2, 1927 Ford unveiled the redesigned Ford Model A and retired the Model T. Ford resisted following suit, insisting that such credit would hurt the consumer and the economy.

They also extended credit so consumers could buy these more expensive automobiles. General Motors and other competitors began offering automobiles in more colors, with more features and luxuries. To keep prices low, Ford (at the behest of its owner, Henry Ford) offered few features. The company's goal was to produce an inexpensive automobile that any worker could afford.

The Ford company lost market share during the 1920s due to the rise of consumer credit. On January 1, 1919, Edsel Ford succeeded his father as president of the company, although Henry Ford still kept a hand in management. Referring to the Model T, Henry Ford is reported to have said that "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black." This was because black paint was quickest to dry; earlier models had been available in a variety of colors. By the end of 1913, Ford was producing 50% of all cars in the United States, and by 1918 half of all cars in the country were Model Ts.

However these innovations were not popular, and in order to stop the staff deserting the monotonous jobs, on January 5, 1914, Ford took the radical step of doubling pay to $5 a day, and cut shifts from nine hours to an eight hour day [2] - moves that were not popular with rival companies, although seeing the increase in Ford's productivity, most soon followed suit. Ford introduced the world's first moving assembly line on December 1 that year, which reduced chassis assembly time from 12½ hours in October to 2 hours, 40 minutes. The company was forced to move production to the much larger Highland Park Plant to keep up with the demand for the Model T, and by 1913 had developed all of the basic techniques of the assembly line and mass production. The first Model T's were built at the Piquette Plant.

In 1908, the Ford company released the Ford Model T. Groups of two or three men worked on each car from components made to order by other companies. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at the Ford factory on Mack Avenue in Detroit. Ford was launched from a converted wagon factory, with $28,000 cash from 12 investors.

.
. The headquarters of Ford Motor Company is located in Dearborn, Michigan. As the individual work tasks became simple and repetitive this allowed the use of unskilled laborers who could be quickly trained for a single task but this also removed most of the satisfaction that a worker performing multiple tasks may enjoy.

The use of a chain driven track to move the vehicles to the workers was unique in the industry and quickly became the preferred method for volume production. Ford implemented the ideas of Eli Whitney, who developed the first assembly line using interchangeable parts, which made it possible to put the cars together at a much lower cost and with greater reliability and repeatability. Ford radically reformed the methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars, and large-scale management of an industrial workforce. Ford remains one of the world's ten largest corporations by revenue.

For many years before that Ford was global number two behind General Motors. According to Fortune magazine, DaimlerChrysler and Toyota Motor replaced Ford as the world's number two and three automobile manufacturers by revenue in 2004. The Ford Motor Company (often referred to simply as Ford; sometimes nicknamed Ford's or FoMoCo, NYSE: F is an automobile maker founded by Henry Ford in Detroit, Michigan, and incorporated on June 16, 1903. Firestone vs Ford Motor Company controversy.

EPA 2004 fuel economy report (Ford). List of Ford VIN codes. List of Ford platforms. List of Ford engines.

List of Ford factories. List of Ford vehicles. Coleman Young, later mayor of Detroit. Alexander James Trotman, chairman and CEO in the mid 1990s.

Tex Thornton, one of the "Whiz Kids" and later founder of Litton Industries. Sorensen, head of manufacturing in the 1930s and early 1940s. Charles E. Larry Shinoda, noted designer.

Bob Seger, rock and roll singer. Sir Nicholas Scheele, president 2001-2005. "Marvelous Marv" Runyon, manufacturing executive, later chief of Nissan in the U.S., chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and United States Postmaster General. Jack Roush, engineer, later founded a performance engineering company specializing in modification of Ford products and successful NHRA and NASCAR racing teams.

"Red" Poling (president and later chairman in the early 1990s. Don Peterson, chairman in the late 1980s. Jim Padilla, president effective February 1 2005. Malcolm X (assembly line worker).

MacPherson (engineer; inventor of the MacPherson strut). Earl S. William Mayo (chief power engineer). Jacques Nasser (president and CEO in the late 1990s, forced to resign).

Robert Lutz (later of Chrysler Corporation and General Motors). Senator from California). George Murphy (later movie actor and ultimately U.S. Secretary of Defense).

Robert McNamara (finance executive and eventually Ford president; later U.S. J Mays (controversial automobile designer and current Chief Creative Officer). Martin, head of manufacturing at the Highland Park Plant. Peter E.

Edward Lundy, legendary financial executive within company. J. Lee Iacocca (engineer, sales executive, and eventually Ford president). Berry Gordy, songwriter/record producer, founder of Motown Records.

Bill Ford (Chairman and CEO, great grandson of Henry Ford). Phillip Caldwell, successor to Iacocca as president and later the first non-family leader of the company upon Henry Ford II's retirement. Maurice Buckmaster (France; later of the French Resistance during WWII). Clarence Avery, one of the developers of the assembly line.

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