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Walter Mondale

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Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. He was the 42nd US Vice President (1977-1981) under President Jimmy Carter. He was also a two-term US Senator from Minnesota and the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1984 against the incumbent, Republican Ronald W. Reagan, who was reelected in a landslide when Mondale carried only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia.

Early life

Mondale was born in Ceylon, Minnesota, the son of a Methodist minister. His half-brother was the Unitarian minister Lester Mondale. He was educated at Macalester College in St. Paul and the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. He then served two years at Fort Knox, in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956 and began to practice law in Minneapolis.

Entry into politics and U.S. Senator

He managed the re-election campaign of Gov. Orville Freeman, who in return in 1960 appointed Mondale the state's attorney general. He spent two terms as attorney general. When Hubert H. Humphrey II was elected vice president in 1964, Mondale was appointed to Humphrey's seat in the Senate. Mondale was elected to the seat in 1966 and re-elected in 1972.

Mondale gained public notice for his role in the Apollo 1 investigation. He attempted to show that NASA was dangerous and a waste of taxpayer money. His ultimate goal was that this money should be directed into social services. Many people came away from the experience with the belief that Mondale was on a witch-hunt.

42nd Vice President

When Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination for president in 1976, he chose Mondale as his running mate. Mondale was inaugurated as vice president on 20 January 1977. He was the first vice president to reside at the official vice presidential residence, Number One Observatory Circle. Carter and Mondale were renominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, but lost to Ronald W. Reagan and George H. W. Bush. (See U.S. presidential election, 1976, U.S. presidential election, 1980.)

Presidential nominee of 1984

After a brief return to the practice of law, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1984 election. He chose U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party. Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits.

Mondale shakes hands with Ronald Reagan before a debate in 1984.

When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won't tell you. I just did." Although he intended this to demonstrate that he was honest while Reagan was hypocritical, it was widely remembered as simply a campaign pledge to raise taxes, and it hurt him in the end. In 1986, Reagan did sign into law a bill that raised taxes for corporations, but at the same time cut taxes further for individual taxpayers.

In the 1984 election, Mondale was defeated in a massive landslide, winning only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota, thus securing only 13 electoral votes to Reagan's 525. Mondale's defeat was the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in history, and the worst for any major-party candidate since Alf Landon's loss to Roosevelt in 1936.

Private citizen and ambassador

Following the election, Mondale returned again to private law practice, with Dorsey & Whitney in Minnesota in 1987. From 1986 to 1993, Mondale was chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.

Under the presidency of Bill Clinton, he was ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, chaired a bipartisan group to study campaign finance reform, and was Clinton's representative in Indonesia in 1998.

2002 election

Mondale talks during a debate with Norm Coleman in 2002.

In 2002, Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, who was running for re-election, died in a plane crash just 11 days before the Nov. 5 election. Mondale, at age 74, replaced Wellstone on the ballot, but narrowly lost the election to the conservative Republican opponent Norm Coleman. Upon conceding the election, Mondale said, "At the end of what will be my last campaign, I want to say to Minnesota, you always treated me well, you always listened to me". Mondale finished with 1,067,246 votes (47.34%) to Coleman's 1,116,697 (49.53%) out of 2,254,639 votes cast. Mondale set a political record of sorts as a result of this loss, becoming the only major party candidate in U.S. history to lose statewide elections in all 50 states (having won only Minnesota in the 1984 election).

Norwegian ancestry

Mondale has always maintained strong ties to his ancestral Norway. Coincidentally, when he entered the Senate in 1964 he took over the seat of vice president Hubert Humphrey, another Norwegian-American. In later years Mondale has served on the executive committee of the Peace Prize Forum, an annual conference co-sponsored by the Norwegian Nobel Institute and five Midwestern colleges of Norwegian heritage. In connection with Norway's Centennial Celebration in 2005, he chairs the committee to promote and develop cultural activities between Norway and Norwegian-American organizations. During the 1984 Presidential election he was even nicknamed "Norwegian wood", a play on the Beatles song, his ancestory and his appearance.

Mondale's 45 year old daughter, Eleanor, is a television personality, who is currently battling brain cancer.


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Mondale's 45 year old daughter, Eleanor, is a television personality, who is currently battling brain cancer. ExxonMobil does offer DP benefits in countries where same-sex marriage is legal. During the 1984 Presidential election he was even nicknamed "Norwegian wood", a play on the Beatles song, his ancestory and his appearance. Mobil employees who already had DP benefits were allowed to keep them, but no other employees could join after the merger. In connection with Norway's Centennial Celebration in 2005, he chairs the committee to promote and develop cultural activities between Norway and Norwegian-American organizations. Domestic partner benefits were ended following Mobil's merger with Exxon. In later years Mondale has served on the executive committee of the Peace Prize Forum, an annual conference co-sponsored by the Norwegian Nobel Institute and five Midwestern colleges of Norwegian heritage. However, ExxonMobil contends in other publications that the non-discrimination policy does apply to sexual orientation, even though it is not written expressly in the policy.

Coincidentally, when he entered the Senate in 1964 he took over the seat of vice president Hubert Humphrey, another Norwegian-American. Sexual orientation was taken out of the ExxonMobil non-discrimination policy following Mobil's merger with Exxon. Mondale has always maintained strong ties to his ancestral Norway. The company had previously lost points because it took action against the equal rights of LGBT people at the time of the merger. history to lose statewide elections in all 50 states (having won only Minnesota in the 1984 election). ExxonMobil received a 14% rating from the Human Rights Campaign's Corporate Equality Index in 2004. Mondale set a political record of sorts as a result of this loss, becoming the only major party candidate in U.S. Kelloggs sued Exxon because the Tiger mascot looked like Tony the Tiger.

Mondale finished with 1,067,246 votes (47.34%) to Coleman's 1,116,697 (49.53%) out of 2,254,639 votes cast. As soon as Bush was elected, they argue, the USA - the world's biggest polluter - withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol, the international measure to cut down on global warming. Upon conceding the election, Mondale said, "At the end of what will be my last campaign, I want to say to Minnesota, you always treated me well, you always listened to me". They also claim that Esso has flatly refused to believe that the burning of fossil fuels has any negative effect on the environment or climate change as a whole, despite its being accepted by the scientific community. Mondale, at age 74, replaced Wellstone on the ballot, but narrowly lost the election to the conservative Republican opponent Norm Coleman. Greenpeace have been campaigning against ESSO for many years and their main reasons for doing so include their position on the issue of climate change. 5 election. Unlike other major oil companies such as Shell Oil and British Petroleum, Exxon is one of the few that has actively fought the Kyoto Protocol and disputed scientific opinion on global climate change.

In 2002, Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, who was running for re-election, died in a plane crash just 11 days before the Nov. These organisations commonly parody the company's brandname as "E$$O", an example of alternative political spelling, to indicate their belief that the company is only interested in short-term profit, and is willing to use its financial power to buy influence. Under the presidency of Bill Clinton, he was ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, chaired a bipartisan group to study campaign finance reform, and was Clinton's representative in Indonesia in 1998. The company has been a target for a number of political campaigns, including the Stop Esso campaign, held by Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and People and Planet, and aimed at boycotting Esso. From 1986 to 1993, Mondale was chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. Exxon Mobil is regarded by many environmental activists as an example of disregard for environmental concerns by US-based corporations. Following the election, Mondale returned again to private law practice, with Dorsey & Whitney in Minnesota in 1987. In 2003, the Office of Foreign Assets Control reported that ExxonMobil engaged in illegal trade with Sudan and along with dozens of other companies had to settle with the United States government for US$50,000 [4].

Mondale's defeat was the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in history, and the worst for any major-party candidate since Alf Landon's loss to Roosevelt in 1936. [3]. In the 1984 election, Mondale was defeated in a massive landslide, winning only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota, thus securing only 13 electoral votes to Reagan's 525. [2] Questions have been raised about ExxonMobil's actions in securing these concessions—Forbes Magazine alleging that "ExxonMobil handed hundreds of millions of dollars to the corrupt regime of President José Eduardo dos Santos in the late 1990s". In 1986, Reagan did sign into law a bill that raised taxes for corporations, but at the same time cut taxes further for individual taxpayers. ExxonMobil controls concessions covering 11 million acres (44,500 km²) off the coast of Angola that hold an estimated 7.5 billion barrels (1.2 km³) of crude. I just did." Although he intended this to demonstrate that he was honest while Reagan was hypocritical, it was widely remembered as simply a campaign pledge to raise taxes, and it hurt him in the end. [1].

He won't tell you. State Department filed an opinion in the case in July 2002, requesting that the suit, brought by the International Labor Rights Fund, be dismissed on national security grounds. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. The U.S. Mr. The company denies these accusations and filed a motion to dismiss the suit, which is still pending as of 2005. When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Human rights complaints involving ExxonMobil's relationship with the Indonesian military first arose in 1992; numerous inquiries have found evidence of human rights violations on ExxonMobil property and/or committed by Indonesian troops guarding ExxonMobil facilities.

He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits. The suit alleged that the company knowingly assisted human rights violations, including torture, murder and rape, by employing and providing material support to Indonesian military forces, who committed the alleged offenses in Aceh. Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). In June 2001, ExxonMobil became the target of a lawsuit in the Federal District Court of the District of Columbia, under the Alien Tort Claims Act. Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party. ExxonMobil's activities in the Indonesian territory of Aceh, where the company extracts and exports natural gas, have attracted scrutiny. Geraldine A. ExxonMobil now has the most assets in the world, and generated 246.7 billion dollars in total revenue for 2003.

Rep. Exxon's long-time mascot is a tiger; Mobil's mascot is a flying horse which dates back to the late 19th century and is one of the oldest marketing symbols still in use. He chose U.S. In 2005, its stock price surged in parallel with rising oil prices, surpassing General Electric as the largest corporation in the world in terms of market capitalization. After a brief return to the practice of law, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1984 election. They continue to operate over 700 Mobil branded outlets in the state. presidential election, 1980.). In 2000, ExxonMobil sold a California refinery and 340 Exxon-branded stations to Valero Energy Corporation, as part of a divestiture of California assets.

presidential election, 1976, U.S. After shareholder and regulatory approvals, the merger was completed November 30, 1999 (the deal was announced the next day). (See U.S. In 1998, Exxon and Mobil signed a US$73.7 billion definitive agreement to merge and form a new company called Exxon Mobil Corporation, the largest company on the planet. Bush. Virtually all Valdez compensatory damages were paid in full within one year of the accident, and the trial court commended Exxon for coming forward "with its people and its pocketbook and doing what had to be done under difficult circumstances." However, Exxon has yet to pay up for the largest ruling against it, making no payments on $4.5 billion in punitive damages and perpetually appealing each successive judgment for the past 16 years. W. Exxon also has paid $1 billion in settlements with the state and federal governments.

Reagan and George H. Coast Guard declared the cleanup complete. Carter and Mondale were renominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, but lost to Ronald W. In addition, the company paid $2.2 billion on the cleanup of Prince William Sound, staying with the cleanup from 1989 to 1992, when the State of Alaska and the U.S. He was the first vice president to reside at the official vice presidential residence, Number One Observatory Circle. At the time of the spill, Exxon paid $300 million immediately and voluntarily to more than 11,000 Alaskans and businesses affected by the Valdez spill. Mondale was inaugurated as vice president on 20 January 1977. Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

When Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination for president in 1976, he chose Mondale as his running mate. history, and in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez incident U.S. Many people came away from the experience with the belief that Mondale was on a witch-hunt. The spill was the largest in U.S. His ultimate goal was that this money should be directed into social services. On March 24, 1989, shortly after midnight, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling more than 11 million gallons (42,000 m³) of crude oil. He attempted to show that NASA was dangerous and a waste of taxpayer money. In other parts of the world, Exxon and its affiliated companies continued to use its Esso trademark.

Mondale gained public notice for his role in the Apollo 1 investigation. Jersey Standard changed its name to Exxon Corporation in 1972 and established Exxon as a trademark throughout the United States. Mondale was elected to the seat in 1966 and re-elected in 1972. A decade later, the newly incorporated Mobil Corporation absorbed Mobil Oil as a wholly owned subsidiary. Humphrey II was elected vice president in 1964, Mondale was appointed to Humphrey's seat in the Senate. and in 1966 simply Mobil Oil Corp. When Hubert H. In 1955 Socony-Vacuum became Socony Mobil Oil Co.

He spent two terms as attorney general. The company was an industry leader in metallocene catalyst technology to make unique polymers with improved performance. Orville Freeman, who in return in 1960 appointed Mondale the state's attorney general. Exxon Chemical Company became a worldwide organization in 1965 and in 1999 was a major producer and marketer of olefins, aromatics, polyethylene and polypropylene along with specialty lines such as elastomers, plasticizers, solvents, process fluids, oxo alcohols and adhesive resins. He managed the re-election campaign of Gov. The company produced synthetic lubricant base stocks as well as lubricant additives, propylene packaging films and catalysts. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956 and began to practice law in Minneapolis. As of 1999 its principal products included basic olefins and aromatics, ethylene glycol and polyethylene.

Army during the Korean War. Mobil Chemical Company was established in 1960. He then served two years at Fort Knox, in the U.S. Standard-Vacuum Oil Co., or "Stanvac," operated in 50 countries, from East Africa to New Zealand, before it was dissolved in 1962. Paul and the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. In 1933, Jersey Standard and Socony-Vacuum merged their interests in the region into a 50-50 joint venture. He was educated at Macalester College in St. Socony-Vacuum had Asian marketing outlets supplied remotely from California.

His half-brother was the Unitarian minister Lester Mondale. In the Asia-Pacific region, Jersey Standard had oil production and refineries in Indonesia but no marketing network. Mondale was born in Ceylon, Minnesota, the son of a Methodist minister. In 1931, Socony merged with Vacuum Oil Co., an industry pioneer dating back to 1866 and a growing Standard Oil spin-off in its own right. . Socony purchased a 45 percent interest in Magnolia Petroleum Co., a major refiner, marketer and pipeline transporter. Reagan, who was reelected in a landslide when Mondale carried only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia. Jersey Standard acquired a 50 percent interest in Humble Oil & Refining Co., a Texas oil producer.

He was also a two-term US Senator from Minnesota and the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1984 against the incumbent, Republican Ronald W. Over the next decade, both companies grew significantly. He was the 42nd US Vice President (1977-1981) under President Jimmy Carter. The growing automotive market inspired the product trademark Mobiloil, registered by Socony in 1920. Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. In the same year, the nation's kerosene output was eclipsed for the first time by gasoline. Two of these companies were Jersey Standard, which eventually became Exxon, and Socony ("Standard Oil Company of New York"), which eventually became Mobil.

In 1911, after a United States Supreme Court ruling which upheld a federal court order to dissolve it, the Standard Oil Trust was split into 34 companies. Rockefeller monopoly, Standard Oil. Both Exxon and Mobil were descendants of the old John D. The rectangular Exxon logo with the blue strip at the bottom and red lettering with the two "X's" interlinked together was designed by noted industrial stylist Raymond Loewy.

Other Standard Oil descendants, such as BP and Chevron, do however maintain a few stations with the Standard Oil brand in specific states in order to retain their trademarks and prevent others from using them. Esso is the only widely used Standard Oil brand left in existence. However, the unrestricted international use of the popular brand Esso prompted the company to continue using Esso outside of the USA. cities.

stations under the latter title in the summer and fall of 1972 following the successful test marketing of the Exxon brand and logo in late 1971 and early 1972 at rebranded Enco/Esso stations in certain U.S. At first, consideration was given to simply rebranding all stations as "Enco" but that was shelved when it was learned that the Japanese translation of "Enco" was "stalled car." In order to create a unified brand, the company changed its corporate name from Jersey Standard to Exxon, rebranding all its U.S. Humble officials realized by the late 1960s that the time had come to swallow its pride by developing a new brand name that could be used nationwide throughout the U.S. Despite the success of the "Put A Tiger In Your Tank" advertising campaign introduced by Humble in 1964 to promote its Enco/Esso Extra gasolines, the similar logotypes, use of the Humble name in all Esso/Enco ads and the uniformity in design and products of Humble stations nationwide, the company still had difficulties promoting itself as a nationwide gasoline marketer competing against truly national brands such as Texaco - then a 50-state marketer and the only company selling products under one brand name in each state.

By 1967, stations in each of those states were rebranded as Enco. In 1966, the Justice Department ordered Humble to "cease and desist" from using the Esso brand at stations in several Southeastern states following protests from Standard Oil of Kentucky (a Standard Oil of California subsidary by that time). Meanwhile, Humble gradually built up new and rebranded service stations in California and other western states under the Enco brand and purchased a large number of stations from Signal Oil Company in 1967, followed by the opening of a new refinery near Monterey in 1969. However, the Justice Department put the kibosh to Humble's plan to purchase Tidewater's west coast operations, which were later sold to Phillips Petroleum in 1966.

In 1963, Humble was approached by Tidewater Oil Company - a major gasoline marketer along the eastern and western seaboards - to purchase the firm's refining and marketing operations on the west coast, a move that would have given Humble a large number of existing stations and a refinery in California - which was then the fastest growing gasoline market. By that time, Jersey had expanded the Enco brand to stations in the Midwest and Northwest that had been operated by various subsidaries such as Carter, Pate and Oklahoma among others. In 1961, Humble stations in Oklahoma, New Mexico and Arizona were rebranded as Enco and the Enco brand appeared on gasoline and lubricant products at Humble stations in Texas that same year with service stations there changed to Enco in 1962. After the Enco brand was discontinued in Ohio, it was moved to other non-Esso states.

At that point, the stations in Ohio would be rebranded Humble until the name change to Exxon in 1972. The Enco brand was introduced by Humble in 1960 at stations in Ohio but was soon blackballed after Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) protested that Enco (Humble's acronym for "ENergy COmpany) sounded and looked too much like Esso as it shared the same oval logo with blue border and red letters with the two middle letters the only difference. In 1960, Jersey Standard gained full control of Humble Oil and Refining Co., and through a reorganization of the company, restructured Humble into Jersey's domestic marketing and refining division to sell and market gasoline nationwide under the Esso, Enco and Humble brands. The Humble brand was used at Texas stations for decades as those operations were under the direction of Jersey Standard affiliate, Humble Oil, and in the mid-to-late 1950s expanded to other Southwestern states including New Mexico, Arizona and Oklahoma.

In states where the Esso brand was blackballed, the company marketed its gasoline under the Humble or Enco brands. Hence, the company was restricted from using Esso in the USA except in those states awarded to it in the 1911 Standard Oil antitrust settlement. The name Esso, which sounds like S-O, attracted protests from other Standard Oil spinoffs because of its similarity to the name of the parent company, Standard Oil. Exxon formally replaced the Esso, Enco, and Humble brands on January 1, 1973 in the USA.

. The current CEO of ExxonMobil is Lee Raymond. Of the four largest oil companies in the world (Exxon-Mobil, Shell, BP, and Total), Exxon-Mobil is the largest of them all. The current Exxon-Mobil is the parent of Exxon, Mobil, and Esso companies around the world.

Rockefeller's Standard Oil trust. The merger of Exxon and Mobil is symbolic in American history because it once again consolidated the two largest companies (Standard Oil Company of New Jersey/Exxon and Standard Oil Company of New York/Mobil) of John D. Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil NYSE: XOM, headquartered in Irving, Texas, is the largest oil producer and distributor in the world, and it was formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil.

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