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Walter Mondale

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Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. He was the 42nd US Vice President (1977-1981) under President Jimmy Carter. He was also a two-term US Senator from Minnesota and the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1984 against the incumbent, Republican Ronald W. Reagan, who was reelected in a landslide when Mondale carried only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia.

Early life

Mondale was born in Ceylon, Minnesota, the son of a Methodist minister. His half-brother was the Unitarian minister Lester Mondale. He was educated at Macalester College in St. Paul and the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. He then served two years at Fort Knox, in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956 and began to practice law in Minneapolis.

Entry into politics and U.S. Senator

He managed the re-election campaign of Gov. Orville Freeman, who in return in 1960 appointed Mondale the state's attorney general. He spent two terms as attorney general. When Hubert H. Humphrey II was elected vice president in 1964, Mondale was appointed to Humphrey's seat in the Senate. Mondale was elected to the seat in 1966 and re-elected in 1972.

Mondale gained public notice for his role in the Apollo 1 investigation. He attempted to show that NASA was dangerous and a waste of taxpayer money. His ultimate goal was that this money should be directed into social services. Many people came away from the experience with the belief that Mondale was on a witch-hunt.

42nd Vice President

When Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination for president in 1976, he chose Mondale as his running mate. Mondale was inaugurated as vice president on 20 January 1977. He was the first vice president to reside at the official vice presidential residence, Number One Observatory Circle. Carter and Mondale were renominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, but lost to Ronald W. Reagan and George H. W. Bush. (See U.S. presidential election, 1976, U.S. presidential election, 1980.)

Presidential nominee of 1984

After a brief return to the practice of law, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1984 election. He chose U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party. Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits.

Mondale shakes hands with Ronald Reagan before a debate in 1984.

When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. Mr. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. He won't tell you. I just did." Although he intended this to demonstrate that he was honest while Reagan was hypocritical, it was widely remembered as simply a campaign pledge to raise taxes, and it hurt him in the end. In 1986, Reagan did sign into law a bill that raised taxes for corporations, but at the same time cut taxes further for individual taxpayers.

In the 1984 election, Mondale was defeated in a massive landslide, winning only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota, thus securing only 13 electoral votes to Reagan's 525. Mondale's defeat was the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in history, and the worst for any major-party candidate since Alf Landon's loss to Roosevelt in 1936.

Private citizen and ambassador

Following the election, Mondale returned again to private law practice, with Dorsey & Whitney in Minnesota in 1987. From 1986 to 1993, Mondale was chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.

Under the presidency of Bill Clinton, he was ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, chaired a bipartisan group to study campaign finance reform, and was Clinton's representative in Indonesia in 1998.

2002 election

Mondale talks during a debate with Norm Coleman in 2002.

In 2002, Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, who was running for re-election, died in a plane crash just 11 days before the Nov. 5 election. Mondale, at age 74, replaced Wellstone on the ballot, but narrowly lost the election to the conservative Republican opponent Norm Coleman. Upon conceding the election, Mondale said, "At the end of what will be my last campaign, I want to say to Minnesota, you always treated me well, you always listened to me". Mondale finished with 1,067,246 votes (47.34%) to Coleman's 1,116,697 (49.53%) out of 2,254,639 votes cast. Mondale set a political record of sorts as a result of this loss, becoming the only major party candidate in U.S. history to lose statewide elections in all 50 states (having won only Minnesota in the 1984 election).

Norwegian ancestry

Mondale has always maintained strong ties to his ancestral Norway. Coincidentally, when he entered the Senate in 1964 he took over the seat of vice president Hubert Humphrey, another Norwegian-American. In later years Mondale has served on the executive committee of the Peace Prize Forum, an annual conference co-sponsored by the Norwegian Nobel Institute and five Midwestern colleges of Norwegian heritage. In connection with Norway's Centennial Celebration in 2005, he chairs the committee to promote and develop cultural activities between Norway and Norwegian-American organizations. During the 1984 Presidential election he was even nicknamed "Norwegian wood", a play on the Beatles song, his ancestory and his appearance.

Mondale's 45 year old daughter, Eleanor, is a television personality, who is currently battling brain cancer.


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Mondale's 45 year old daughter, Eleanor, is a television personality, who is currently battling brain cancer. Recently, Bombardier have faced pressure from the media and their own shareholders over their involvement with the People's Republic of China government on projects including the controversial Qingzang Railway line into Tibet, to which they are providing passenger carriages. During the 1984 Presidential election he was even nicknamed "Norwegian wood", a play on the Beatles song, his ancestory and his appearance. federal government to deny funding for a US$400 million extension of the system, which finally reopened on December 24, 2004. In connection with Norway's Centennial Celebration in 2005, he chairs the committee to promote and develop cultural activities between Norway and Norwegian-American organizations. These problems led the U.S. In later years Mondale has served on the executive committee of the Peace Prize Forum, an annual conference co-sponsored by the Norwegian Nobel Institute and five Midwestern colleges of Norwegian heritage. It had been hoped that the privately-funded system would be a first by being the only public transit system in the United States to operate without a deficit, but it reportedly lost US$85,000 per day while closed.

Coincidentally, when he entered the Senate in 1964 he took over the seat of vice president Hubert Humphrey, another Norwegian-American. The system opened late, and after only a month of operation it was shut down for another four months due to mechanical problems. Mondale has always maintained strong ties to his ancestral Norway. Bombardier's reputation may have been tarnished in the western United States by their association with the financially ambitious Las Vegas Monorail system. history to lose statewide elections in all 50 states (having won only Minnesota in the 1984 election). The government of Canada provided a large interest rate subsidy for the financing that made possible Bombardier's sale of metro trains to the New York City Subway. Mondale set a political record of sorts as a result of this loss, becoming the only major party candidate in U.S. To give a few examples: It obtained tremendous sums in indirect ways from the United Kingdom when it acquired Short Brothers of Belfast, and modest but important incentives from the state of Vermont when it opened an assembly plant there.

Mondale finished with 1,067,246 votes (47.34%) to Coleman's 1,116,697 (49.53%) out of 2,254,639 votes cast. As is the practice with all aerospace companies, Bombardier's management aggressively seek out state support in every country in which they have plants, and often obtain it, in the form of direct subsidies, tax cuts, free land, previous debt erasure, or other forms. Upon conceding the election, Mondale said, "At the end of what will be my last campaign, I want to say to Minnesota, you always treated me well, you always listened to me". Recently Bombardier opened a engineering design agreement with an Indian company which, critics say, goes against the whole concept of Canadian taxpayers supporting local businesses. Mondale, at age 74, replaced Wellstone on the ballot, but narrowly lost the election to the conservative Republican opponent Norm Coleman. Some business analysts believe that Bombardier's subsidies should be made conditional upon the company eliminating a share structure which they say gives the founder's family a disproportionate amount of control given their financial holdings. 5 election. Some Canadians object to such amounts of money being given to a private for-profit company, but the government argues that they create many jobs and that Bombardier would never have become an integral part of the Canadian economy without subsidies.

In 2002, Democratic US Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, who was running for re-election, died in a plane crash just 11 days before the Nov. They have been described as corporate welfare and accused of violating free trade agreements, especially by Brazil, which has complained internationally about them; Canada and Bombardier have countered by denouncing Brazil's direct and indirect subsidies to Embraer, their own major aircraft manufacturer and one of Bombardier's principal competitors in the regional jet market. Under the presidency of Bill Clinton, he was ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, chaired a bipartisan group to study campaign finance reform, and was Clinton's representative in Indonesia in 1998. Bombardier has been criticised in Canada and abroad over the subsidies it receives from various levels of government. From 1986 to 1993, Mondale was chairman of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. Depending on how one defines industrial activities, it is sometimes considered the largest in the world in this category. Following the election, Mondale returned again to private law practice, with Dorsey & Whitney in Minnesota in 1987. In 2001 Bombardier Transportation acquired Adtranz, making it the second largest manufacturer of railway rolling stock in the world.

Mondale's defeat was the worst for any Democratic Party candidate in history, and the worst for any major-party candidate since Alf Landon's loss to Roosevelt in 1936. The actual conversion is carried out by Raytheon. In the 1984 election, Mondale was defeated in a massive landslide, winning only the District of Columbia and his home state of Minnesota, thus securing only 13 electoral votes to Reagan's 525. However it continues to participate in military contracts in other countries, such as in the United Kingdom, with the ASTOR (Airborne Stand-Off Radar) conversion of the long range Challenger Global Express jet. In 1986, Reagan did sign into law a bill that raised taxes for corporations, but at the same time cut taxes further for individual taxpayers. With the latest restructuring the company sold off nearly all of its military related work in Canada. I just did." Although he intended this to demonstrate that he was honest while Reagan was hypocritical, it was widely remembered as simply a campaign pledge to raise taxes, and it hurt him in the end. They were, until recently, a major Canadian defence contractor.

He won't tell you. Bombardier also provided seller-arranged financing to allow Amtrak to lease the trainsets rather than purchasing them outright as the railroad had previously done. Reagan will raise taxes, and so will I. rail car assembly facility in Barre, Vermont. Mr. government "Buy American" regulations, final assembly of these trains was performed at Bombardier's U.S. When he made his acceptance speech at the Democratic Convention, Mondale said: "Let's tell the truth. To meet U.S.

He spoke against what he considered to be unfairness in Reagan's economic policies and the need to reduce federal budget deficits. This is the first high-speed rail line in North America, running at a top speed of 240 km/h (150 mi/h). Mondale ran a liberal campaign, supporting a nuclear freeze and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). Bombardier provided carbody design and tilting mechanisms from its LRC ("Light Rapid Comfortable") line of passenger trainsets, and integrated a variant of Alstom's TGV propulsion system. Ferraro of New York as his running mate, making her the first woman nominated for that position by a major party. The train runs between Boston, New York City and Washington, DC. Geraldine A. Bombardier Transportation also leads the development and production of the Acela Express train in a 75%–25% arrangement with Alstom.

Rep. Bombardier is a UK Notified Body, under The Railways (Interoperability) (Notified Bodies) Regulations 2000, in one TSI area: rolling stock. He chose U.S. They were part of a major consortium in the construction of the Eurotunnel railway cars, and also built new metro trains for a wide range of customers including the Toronto Transit Commission, the Commission de transport de la Communauté urbaine de Montréal, and the New York City Transit Authority (R62A, R142), and developed the Las Vegas Monorail system. After a brief return to the practice of law, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1984 election. They are one of the companies which took over British Rail's R&D facilities after privatisation (the remainder largely being absorbed into AEA Technology and Alstom). presidential election, 1980.). They also built the Croydon Tramlink and Nottingham Express Transit trams and parts of Alstom's Eurostar trains.

presidential election, 1976, U.S. They built the Class 170 Turbostar and Class 357/375/376/377 Electrostar trains which are widely used throughout Britain. (See U.S. Bombardier acquired the assets and designs of American Locomotive Company/Montreal Locomotive Works, who continued in the locomotive business until 1985. Bush. This section started to grow important in the mid-1990s in the renaissance of tramways or 'light-rail transit'. W. In 1970, Bombardier acquired the Viennese company Lohner-Rotax, a manufacturer of snowmobile engines and tramways, and thus became involved in rail business.

Reagan and George H. In 2003 it spun off as a separate company the Bombardier Recreational Products division, whose snowcats and snowmobiles had been the origin of the company. Carter and Mondale were renominated at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, but lost to Ronald W. The aerospace arm, Bombardier Aerospace, accounts for over half of the company's revenue and is reportedly the third-largest aircraft manufacturer in the world behind the giants Boeing and Airbus. He was the first vice president to reside at the official vice presidential residence, Number One Observatory Circle. Besides the Challenger and Global business jets, in 1990 Bombardier acquired the Learjet Company of Wichita, Kansas, builder of the Learjet business aircraft. Mondale was inaugurated as vice president on 20 January 1977. Bombardier became a leading manufacturer of business jets, regional aircraft, and trains.

When Jimmy Carter won the Democratic nomination for president in 1976, he chose Mondale as his running mate. Under the management of Laurent Beaudoin, Bombardier's son-in-law, the company took over the Canadian government-owned Canadair aircraft manufacturing company in Montreal that had recorded the largest corporate loss in Canadian business history. Many people came away from the experience with the belief that Mondale was on a witch-hunt. He was able to overcome these obstacles through sheer determination and inventiveness. His ultimate goal was that this money should be directed into social services. During his lifetime the province of Québec had been economically dominated by the top anglophone businessmen and socially by the Catholic Church, with very limited opportunities for francophone businesspeople. He attempted to show that NASA was dangerous and a waste of taxpayer money. By the time of his death sales of the company had reached C$20 million, which is the equivalent of C$160 million in 2004 dollars.

Mondale gained public notice for his role in the Apollo 1 investigation. He had a unique ability for an inventor which was to parlay his inventions into a successful business. Mondale was elected to the seat in 1966 and re-elected in 1972. Joseph had the ability to overcome great odds in his life to develop a company that laid a solid foundation for the creation of a transportation giant. Humphrey II was elected vice president in 1964, Mondale was appointed to Humphrey's seat in the Senate. Distribution networks were improved and increased, and an incentive program was developed for sales staff. When Hubert H. The company adopted the latest technological innovation—the computer—to handle inventory, accounts, and billing.

He spent two terms as attorney general. The young team reorganized and decentralized the company, adopting modern business tactics. Orville Freeman, who in return in 1960 appointed Mondale the state's attorney general. Now the younger generation took over and was led by Armand's sons and sons-in-law. He managed the re-election campaign of Gov. He controlled the small research department, making all the drawings himself. He graduated with a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956 and began to practice law in Minneapolis. Armand dominated his company, overseeing all areas of operation.

Army during the Korean War. He left behind a thriving business, but also one that had been focused on one person. He then served two years at Fort Knox, in the U.S. Armand Bombardier died of cancer at age 56. Paul and the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1951. On February 18, 1964, J. He was educated at Macalester College in St. Armand slowed down promotion of Ski-Doo to prevent it from dominating the other products.

His half-brother was the Unitarian minister Lester Mondale. He vividly remembered his earlier business setbacks that forced him to diversify. Mondale was born in Ceylon, Minnesota, the son of a Methodist minister. But Armand was reluctant to focus too much on the Ski-Doo and move resources away from his all-terrain vehicles. . In the first year, Bombardier sold 225 Ski-Doos; four years later, 8,210 are sold. Reagan, who was reelected in a landslide when Mondale carried only his home state of Minnesota and the District of Columbia. Suddenly a new winter sport was born, centred in Quebec.

He was also a two-term US Senator from Minnesota and the Democratic Party nominee for president in 1984 against the incumbent, Republican Ronald W. But the public soon discovered the speedy vehicles that can zoom over snow were a lot of fun. He was the 42nd US Vice President (1977-1981) under President Jimmy Carter. The Ski-Doo was originally called the Ski-Dog because Bombardier meant it to be a practical vehicle to replace the dogsled for hunters and trappers. Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. Armand Bombardier. The Ski-Doo became an instant hit but not for the reasons imagined by J.

Armand and Germain developed several prototypes of the lightweight snowmobile and finally the first Ski-Doo went on sale in 1959. He worked alongside his eldest son Germain, who shared his father's mechanical talents. Armand resumed his efforts to build a 'miniature' snowmobile. But by the end of the decade, smaller, more efficient engines had been developed and were starting to come on the market.

In the early 1950s, Armand set aside his dream to focus on developing his company's other tracked vehicles. He worked tirelessly on his idea but always found the engine too heavy for the vehicle. But Armand was not satisfied with the status quo and dreamt of developing a fast, lightweight snowmobile (the Ski-Doo) that could carry one or two people. By the late 1940s, the quiet French Canadian had survived several setbacks and had a modestly successful small business centred in Québec.

Bombardier was an inventor who never rested. Armand decided to diversify his business and make all-terrain vehicles for the mining, oil, and forestry industries. In 1948 the Quebec government passed a law requiring all highways and local roads to be cleared of snow; Bombardier's sales fell by nearly half in one year. After the war, Armand experienced another setback in his snowmobile business.

To keep his business going, Armand switched gears and developed vehicles for the military. Suddenly, Bombardier customers had to prove that snowmobiles were essential to their livelihood in order to buy one. Then a major setback hit the growing business: the Second World War was well underway and the Canadian government issued wartime rationing regulations. In 1941, Armand opened a large new factory in Valcourt.

His invention served a very real necessity and soon business was booming. Snowmobiles are used in rural Quebec to take children to school, to carry freight, to deliver mail, and as ambulances. The first snowmobiles were large, multi-passenger vehicles designed to help people get around during the long winter months. Armand Bombardier never intended his snowmobile invention to be fun.

J. In 1937, Armand sold 12 snowmobiles—named the B7—and opened the company l'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée five years later. His big breakthrough came in the mid-1930s when he developed a drive system that would revolutionise travel in snow and swamp. Undeterred, Armand kept working on his idea while he earned a living as an auto mechanic.

He and his brother drove the noisy contraption through Valcourt before their father ordered them to stop. At 15, Armand designed and built his first snow vehicle which was basically a large sleigh powered by a Ford Model T engine with a wooden airplane propeller at the back. As he grew older, Armand dreamt of building a vehicle that could glide over snow—a fitting goal for a boy growing up in rural Valcourt. He was only 10 years old when he took a cigar box and a broken alarm clock and made a working model of a tractor.

Born in 1907, Joseph-Armand Bombardier showed a genius for tinkering early in life. Bombardier changed the way we travel over snow and he established a Canadian manufacturing giant along the way. Over the years, Bombardier continued to perfect his dream and found that winter-bound Canadians were eager to come along for the ride. In 1937, the first snowmobile rolled out of his small repair shop in Valcourt, Quebec.

Joseph-Armand Bombardier was a shy, determined mechanic who dreamed of building a vehicle that could 'float on snow'. . Number of employees (as at January 31, 2004). Fields of Activity.

Corporate Headquarters. Its headquarters are in Montréal, Québec, Canada. It is a large manufacturer of regional aircraft, business jets, and railway cars. See International Phonetic Alphabet." class="IPA" style="white-space: nowrap; font-family:'Code2000', 'Chrysanthi Unicode', 'Doulos SIL', 'Gentium', 'GentiumAlt', 'TITUS Cyberbit Basic', 'Bitstream Vera', 'Bitstream Cyberbit', 'Arial Unicode MS', 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Hiragino Kaku Gothic Pro'; font-family /**/:inherit; text-decoration: none">/bɑmˈbɑrdi.eɪ/) (TSX: BBD.SV.B) (TSX: BBD.MV.A), a Canadian company, was founded by Joseph-Armand Bombardier as L'Auto-Neige Bombardier Limitée in 1942, at Valcourt in the Eastern Townships, Québec.

(pronounced