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Venus Williams

Country: United States
Residence: Palm Beach, Florida, USA
Height: 6'1" (185 cm)
Weight: 160 lbs. (72.5 kg)
Plays: Right
Turned pro: October 1994
Highest singles ranking: 1 (February 25, 2002)
Singles titles: 32
Career Prize Money: $14,815,188
Grand Slam Record
Titles: 4
Australian Open F (2003)
French Open F (2002)
Wimbledon W (2000, '01)
U.S. Open W (2000, '01)

Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980) is an former World No. 1 tennis champion who was born in Lynwood, California, United States. She is the daughter of Richard and Oracene Williams and the sister of another tennis champion, Serena Williams.

Early life

When the Williams sisters (who are five in total) were young, they were moved to Compton, California. There, they sometimes had to dodge bullets while practicing tennis at local public courts. Their father Richard used to take all five of his daughters to the courts in hopes that someday at least one of them would reach sporting glory and move them into a better place.

Venus as a young girl became one of California's top young tennis players, and she and her sister Serena shared the top seed as California's best young players for a long time.

Tennis career

Venus turned professional in the 1990s and went on to have a very lucrative tennis career. She has garnered many important championships, including two Gold medals at the Sydney Summer Olympics in 2000, the Fed Cup, the 1999 French Open doubles (with sister Serena as her partner) and 5 other doubles and 2 mixed doubles grand slams, the Oklahoma City Tennis championship, the Italian Open, and the Hamburg Open. In 2000 she won the Wimbledon championship and the U.S. Open in singles and defended both titles in 2001. In 2002 and 2003 Venus achieved five singles major finals but lost all of them to her sister Serena.

When Venus and Serena won the 1999 French Open doubles title, they became the first pair of sisters to win a doubles title in the 20th century.

In 2003, Williams played at the 2003 Wimbledon finals despite suffering an abdominal injury. She lost to her sister Serena, 6-4, 4-6, 2-6.

Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was killed by gunshots in the Compton area as she and a male driver passed by inside a car, on the morning of September 14, 2003.

Recently, Willams' results have steadily declined. After finishing an injury plagued 2003 season ranked 11, Williams rebounded into the top 10 for a year end #9 ranking in 2004, but for the first time since 1997, she failed to qualify for the WTA Tour's annual Year Ending Championships in Los Angeles. In 2005, Williams' ranking has fallen to #16.

Titles (41)

Singles (32)

Singles Finalist (20)

Grand slam events in boldface.

Doubles (10)

Grand slam events in boldface. Doubles partner sister Serena Williams.


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Doubles partner sister Serena Williams.. The issue has often been a source of friction in situations where correct naming conventions are mandated, as people frequently disagree over which spelling is correct or incorrect, and where it is correctly or incorrectly applied. Grand slam events in boldface. The nuances in the Hawaiian language debate are often not obvious or well-appreciated outside Hawai‘i. Grand slam events in boldface.. While in local Hawaiian society the spelling and pronunciation of Hawai‘i is preferred in nearly all cases, even by standard English speakers, the federal spelling is used for purposes of interpolitical relations between other states and foreign governments. In 2005, Williams' ranking has fallen to #16. Private entities, including local mass media, also have shown a preference for the use of the ‘okina.

After finishing an injury plagued 2003 season ranked 11, Williams rebounded into the top 10 for a year end #9 ranking in 2004, but for the first time since 1997, she failed to qualify for the WTA Tour's annual Year Ending Championships in Los Angeles. Official government publications, as well as department and office titles, use the traditional Hawaiian spelling. Recently, Willams' results have steadily declined. However, many state and municipal entities and officials have recognized Hawai‘i to be the correct state name. Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was killed by gunshots in the Compton area as she and a male driver passed by inside a car, on the morning of September 14, 2003. As prescribed in the Admission Act of 1959 that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognizes Hawaii to be the official state name. She lost to her sister Serena, 6-4, 4-6, 2-6. A somewhat divisive political issue that has arisen since the Constitution of Hawai‘i adopted Hawaiian as an official state language is the exact spelling of the state's name.

In 2003, Williams played at the 2003 Wimbledon finals despite suffering an abdominal injury. Laborer emigrants from different countries — China, Japan, Korea, Philippines, Portugal — began composing their own words and phrases based on their own language traditions merged with Hawaiian and Hawaiian English. When Venus and Serena won the 1999 French Open doubles title, they became the first pair of sisters to win a doubles title in the 20th century. Hawaiian Pidgin finds its origins in the sugarcane and pineapple plantations as laborers from different cultures were forced to find their own ways of communicating and understanding each other. In 2002 and 2003 Venus achieved five singles major finals but lost all of them to her sister Serena. Over the course of Hawaiian history, a third language was developed that is in common use throughout the state today. Originally considered a mere dialect of Hawaiian English, cultural anthropologists have recently reached consensus that Hawaiian Pidgin is a distinct language on its own. Open in singles and defended both titles in 2001. Municipal codes were altered in favor of Hawaiian place and street names for new civic developments.

In 2000 she won the Wimbledon championship and the U.S. Also, the University of Hawai‘i System developed the only Hawaiian language graduate studies program in the world. She has garnered many important championships, including two Gold medals at the Sydney Summer Olympics in 2000, the Fed Cup, the 1999 French Open doubles (with sister Serena as her partner) and 5 other doubles and 2 mixed doubles grand slams, the Oklahoma City Tennis championship, the Italian Open, and the Hamburg Open. With the help of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, also created by the 1978 constitutional convention, specially designated Hawaiian language immersion schools were established where students would be taught in all subjects using Hawaiian. Venus turned professional in the 1990s and went on to have a very lucrative tennis career. Public and independent schools throughout the state began teaching Hawaiian language standards as part of the regular curricula, beginning with preschool. Venus as a young girl became one of California's top young tennis players, and she and her sister Serena shared the top seed as California's best young players for a long time. As a result of the constitutional provision, interest in the Hawaiian language was revived in the late 20th century.

Their father Richard used to take all five of his daughters to the courts in hopes that someday at least one of them would reach sporting glory and move them into a better place. For these reasons, careful writers use the modern Hawaiian orthography. There, they sometimes had to dodge bullets while practicing tennis at local public courts. This can be a problem in interpreting 19th century Hawaiian texts recorded in the older orthography. When the Williams sisters (who are five in total) were young, they were moved to Compton, California. However, when spelled as lānai it means veranda while Lāna‘i refers to an island. She is the daughter of Richard and Oracene Williams and the sister of another tennis champion, Serena Williams. For example, the word lanai means stiff-necked.

1 tennis champion who was born in Lynwood, California, United States. Omission of the ‘okina and kahakō in printed texts can even obscure the meaning of the word. Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980) is an former World No. When a Hawaiian word is spelled without any necessary ‘okina and kahakō, it is impossible for someone who does not already know the word to guess at the proper pronunciation. 2003: Australian Open. The ‘okina indicates a glottal stop while the macron called kahakō signifies a long vowel sound. 2002: Wimbledon. Later, additional characters were added to clarify pronunciation.

2001: Australian Open. The missionaries assigned letters from the English alphabet that roughly correspond to the Hawaiian sounds. 2000: Summer Olympics-Sydney. The first written form of Hawaiian was developed by American Protestant missionaries in Hawai‘i during the early 19th century. 2000: Wimbledon. Before the arrival of Captain James Cook, the Hawaiian language was purely a spoken language. Open. Hawaiian is legally acceptable in all legal documents, from depositions to legislative bills.

1999: U.S. Standard Hawaiian English, a subset of American English, is also commonly used for other formal business. 1999: French Open. Article XV, Section 4 requires the use of Hawaiian in official state business such as public acts, documents, laws and transactions. 1999: Hannover. The state of Hawai‘i has two official languages as prescribed by the Constitution of Hawai‘i adopted at the 1978 constitutional convention: Hawaiian and English. 1998: Zurich. Main article: Hawaiian language.

1998: Oklahoma City. The resolution was passed by Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton. The movement's most prominent success was the passage of the Apology Resolution of 1993 that made redress for American actions leading to the overthrow of the kingdom. Regrets over the demise of the Hawaiian monarchy produced several political organizations that are collectively known as the Hawaiian sovereignty movement. Prevalent in post-statehood Hawai‘i was an increase in combative attitudes by some native Hawaiians towards the federal government, which is seen by some as an occupying power.

In addition, they sought to promote native control over Hawaiian issues by creating the Office of Hawaiian Affairs. Its delegates created programs that sought to revive the indigenous Hawaiian language and culture. The Hawai‘i State Constitutional Convention of 1978 heralded what some called a Hawaiian renaissance. The state also worked toward restoring the native Hawaiian culture that was suppressed after the overthrow.

In its place, the Hawai‘i Democratic Party dominated state politics for forty years. The Hawai‘i Republican Party, which was strongly supported by the plantation owners, was voted out of office. After statehood, Hawai‘i quickly became a modern state with a construction boom and rapidly growing economy. On March 18, 1959, President Dwight Eisenhower signed the Admission Act which made Hawai‘i the 50th state of the Union, a law that became effective on August 21, 1959.

Expecting to gain full voting rights, they actively campaigned for statehood for the Hawaiian Islands. Because they were born in a United States territory, they were legal American citizens. The power of the plantation owners was finally broken by activist descendants of original immigrant laborers. Plantation owners, like those that comprised the so-called Big Five, found territorial status convenient, enabling them to continue importing cheap foreign labor; such immigration was prohibited in various other states of the Union.

Though several attempts were made to achieve statehood, Hawai‘i remained a territory for sixty years. In 1900, it was granted self-governance and retained Iolani Palace as the territorial capitol building. The Newlands Resolution was passed on July 7, 1898, formally annexing Hawai‘i as a United States territory. Main article: Territory of Hawai‘i.


. During the kingdom era and subsequent republican regime, Iolani Palace — the only official royal residence in the United States today — served as the capitol building. His sister, Lili'uokalani, succeeded him to the throne and ruled until her dethronement in 1893, a coup d'état orchestrated by American plantation owners with the help of an armed militia and the United States Marine Corps. Governance was again passed, this time into the hands of a provisional government and then to an independent Republic of Hawaii. King Kalākaua reigned until his death in 1891.

Among other things, it stripped the king of his administrative authorities and deprived native Hawaiians of the right to vote in elections. However, American interests effectively rendered the monarchy powerless by enacting the Bayonet Constitution. After him, governance was passed on to the House of Kalākaua. The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V who did not name an heir resulted in the election of King Lunalilo.

That led to the Edict of Toleration that established religious freedom in the Hawaiian Islands. One of the most important events during those years was the suppression of the Hawaii Catholic Church. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled over the kingdom until 1872. After a series of battles that ended in 1795 and peaceful cession of the island of Kaua‘i in 1810, the Hawaiian Islands were united for the first time under a single ruler who would become known as King Kamehameha the Great.

Main article: Kingdom of Hawai‘i. Cook named his discovery the Sandwich Islands in honor of one of his sponsors, John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Historians credited Cook with the discovery after he was the first to plot and publish the geographical coordinates of the Hawaiian Islands. Vague reports by various European explorers suggest that Hawai‘i was visited by foreigners well before the 1778 arrival of British explorer Captain James Cook.

The general trend was towards chiefdoms of increasing size, even encompassing whole islands. Warfare was endemic. Local chiefs called ali‘i ruled their settlements and fought to extend their sway and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Relations with other Polynesian groups were sporadic during the early migratory periods, and Hawai‘i grew from small settlements to a complex society in near isolation.

These first peoples preserved memories of the early migrations orally through genealogies and folk tales, like the stories of Hawai‘iloa and Pa‘ao. Anthropologists believe that Polynesians from the Marquesas and Society Islands first populated the Hawaiian Islands approximately 1500 years ago. Main article: Ancient Hawai‘i, Hawaiian mythology, Polynesian mythology.
.

Other large cities and towns include Hilo, Kahului and Līhu‘e. The largest city, Honolulu, was the one chosen by King Kamehameha III as the capital of his kingdom due to the natural harbor there, the present-day Honolulu Harbor. The movement of the Hawaiian royal family from the Island of Hawai‘i to Maui and subsequently to O‘ahu explains why certain population centers exist where they do today. Those conditions created made Mount Wai‘ale‘ale the wettest place on earth; it averages 11.7 m (460 in) of rain annually.

The volcanic activity and subsequent erosion created impressive geological features. The isolation of the Hawaiian Islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean and the wide range of environments to be found on high islands located in and near the tropics has resulted in a vast array of endemic flora and fauna. The newest volcano to form is Lo‘ihi, deep below the waters off the south coast of the Island of Hawai‘i. The last volcanic eruption outside the Island of Hawai‘i happened at Haleakala on Maui in the late 18th century.

This explains why only volcanoes on the the southern half of the Island of Hawai‘i are presently active. All of the Hawaiian Islands were formed by volcanoes arising from the sea floor through a vent described in geological theory as a hotspot. The theory maintains that as the tectonic plate beneath much the Pacific Ocean moves in a northwesterly direction, the hot spot remains stationary, slowly creating new volcanoes. These islands are, in order from the northwest to southeast, Ni‘ihau, Kaua‘i, O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, Lāna‘i, Kaho‘olawe, Maui and the Island of Hawai‘i. The main islands are the eight high islands at the southeastern end of the island chain.

Nineteen islands and atolls extending across a distance of 2,400 km (1,500 mi) comprise the Hawaiian Archipelago. Main article: Hawaiian Islands.
. Hawai‘i Aloha is the unofficial state song, often sung in official state events.

The state song is Hawai‘i pono‘i, written by King Kalākaua and composed by Henri Berger. Hawaiian Pidgin is an unofficial language. The official languages are Hawaiian and Hawaiian English. The constitution declares the state motto to be Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono, a pronouncement of King Kamehameha III meaning, "The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness." It was also the motto of the kingdom, republic and territory.

The primary symbol is the state flag, Ka Hae Hawai‘i, influenced by the Union Jack and features eight horizontal stripes representing the eight major Hawaiian Islands. Included are the two statues representing Hawai‘i in the United States Capitol. These include a state bird, state fish, state flower, state gem, state mammal and state tree. The state constitution and various other measures of the Hawai‘i State Legislature established official symbols meant to embody the distinctive culture and heritage of Hawai‘i.

Hawaii is also the namesake and backdrop of a popular 1959 novel by James Michener and its 1966 movie adaptation. Ethnically, it is the only state that does not have a white majority (and one of only three in which non-Hispanic whites do not form a majority) and has the largest percentage of Asian Americans. Ecologically and agriculturally, it is the endangered species capital of the world and is the only industrial producer of coffee in the nation. As one of two states outside the contiguous United States (the other being Alaska), it is the only one without territory on the mainland of any continent and is the only state that continues to grow due to active lava flows, most notably from Kīlauea. In addition to possessing the southernmost point in the United States, it is the only state that lies completely in the tropics.

This state most recently admitted into the Union has many distinctions. Honolulu is the largest city and the state capital. Census had a population of 1,211,537 people. Hawaii constitutes the 50th state of the United States, and as of the 2000 U.S.

Hawaii (Hawaiian/Hawaiian English: Hawai‘i, with the ‘okina) is the archipelago of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean.

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