This page will contain additional articles about Venus Williams, as they become available.
|Residence:||Palm Beach, Florida, USA|
|Height:||6'1" (185 cm)|
|Weight:||160 lbs. (72.5 kg)|
|Turned pro:||October 1994|
|Highest singles ranking:||1 (February 25, 2002)|
|Career Prize Money:||$14,815,188|
|Grand Slam Record
|Australian Open||F (2003)|
|French Open||F (2002)|
|Wimbledon||W (2000, '01)|
|U.S. Open||W (2000, '01)|
Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980) is an former World No. 1 tennis champion who was born in Lynwood, California, United States. She is the daughter of Richard and Oracene Williams and the sister of another tennis champion, Serena Williams.
When the Williams sisters (who are five in total) were young, they were moved to Compton, California. There, they sometimes had to dodge bullets while practicing tennis at local public courts. Their father Richard used to take all five of his daughters to the courts in hopes that someday at least one of them would reach sporting glory and move them into a better place.
Venus as a young girl became one of California's top young tennis players, and she and her sister Serena shared the top seed as California's best young players for a long time.
Venus turned professional in the 1990s and went on to have a very lucrative tennis career. She has garnered many important championships, including two Gold medals at the Sydney Summer Olympics in 2000, the Fed Cup, the 1999 French Open doubles (with sister Serena as her partner) and 5 other doubles and 2 mixed doubles grand slams, the Oklahoma City Tennis championship, the Italian Open, and the Hamburg Open. In 2000 she won the Wimbledon championship and the U.S. Open in singles and defended both titles in 2001. In 2002 and 2003 Venus achieved five singles major finals but lost all of them to her sister Serena.
When Venus and Serena won the 1999 French Open doubles title, they became the first pair of sisters to win a doubles title in the 20th century.
In 2003, Williams played at the 2003 Wimbledon finals despite suffering an abdominal injury. She lost to her sister Serena, 6-4, 4-6, 2-6.
Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was killed by gunshots in the Compton area as she and a male driver passed by inside a car, on the morning of September 14, 2003.
Recently, Willams' results have steadily declined. After finishing an injury plagued 2003 season ranked 11, Williams rebounded into the top 10 for a year end #9 ranking in 2004, but for the first time since 1997, she failed to qualify for the WTA Tour's annual Year Ending Championships in Los Angeles. In 2005, Williams' ranking has fallen to #16.
Grand slam events in boldface.
Grand slam events in boldface. Doubles partner sister Serena Williams.
Doubles partner sister Serena Williams.. A regularly recurring issue in California politics is whether the state should continue to aggressively expand its freeway network or concentrate on improving mass transit networks in urban areas. Grand slam events in boldface. The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks. Grand slam events in boldface.. Both Greyhound and Amtrak provide intercity bus service. In 2005, Williams' ranking has fallen to #16. Nearly all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own bus and light rail lines as well.
After finishing an injury plagued 2003 season ranked 11, Williams rebounded into the top 10 for a year end #9 ranking in 2004, but for the first time since 1997, she failed to qualify for the WTA Tour's annual Year Ending Championships in Los Angeles. San Diego has Trolley light rail and Coaster commuter rail services. Recently, Willams' results have steadily declined. Altamont Commuter Express (ACE) connects Tracy, Livermore and other edge cities with Silicon Valley. Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was killed by gunshots in the Compton area as she and a male driver passed by inside a car, on the morning of September 14, 2003. Metrolink commuter rail serves much of Southern California, and Caltrain commuter rail connects San Jose to San Francisco. She lost to her sister Serena, 6-4, 4-6, 2-6. San Jose and Sacramento have only light rail.
In 2003, Williams played at the 2003 Wimbledon finals despite suffering an abdominal injury. San Francisco and Los Angeles both have rapid rail/subway networks, in addition to light rail. When Venus and Serena won the 1999 French Open doubles title, they became the first pair of sisters to win a doubles title in the 20th century. Intercity rail travel is provided by Amtrak. In 2002 and 2003 Venus achieved five singles major finals but lost all of them to her sister Serena. The Port of Oakland handles most of the ocean containers passing through Northern California. Open in singles and defended both titles in 2001. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States.
In 2000 she won the Wimbledon championship and the U.S. California also has several excellent seaports. She has garnered many important championships, including two Gold medals at the Sydney Summer Olympics in 2000, the Fed Cup, the 1999 French Open doubles (with sister Serena as her partner) and 5 other doubles and 2 mixed doubles grand slams, the Oklahoma City Tennis championship, the Italian Open, and the Hamburg Open. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state's 58 counties. Venus turned professional in the 1990s and went on to have a very lucrative tennis career. As for air travel, San Francisco International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. Venus as a young girl became one of California's top young tennis players, and she and her sister Serena shared the top seed as California's best young players for a long time. only by New York City for severe traffic congestion.
Their father Richard used to take all five of his daughters to the courts in hopes that someday at least one of them would reach sporting glory and move them into a better place. Most Californians usually resort to the roads for their commutes, errands, and vacations, which is why California's cities have a reputation equalled in the U.S. There, they sometimes had to dodge bullets while practicing tennis at local public courts. California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of freeways, expressways, and highways, all maintained by Caltrans and patrolled by the California Highway Patrol. When the Williams sisters (who are five in total) were young, they were moved to Compton, California. One thing they all have in common is a state mandate to teach fourth grade students about the history of California, including the role of the early missions; most schools implement this by requiring students complete a multiple medium project. She is the daughter of Richard and Oracene Williams and the sister of another tennis champion, Serena Williams. In poor regions, literacy rates may fall below 70%.
1 tennis champion who was born in Lynwood, California, United States. In some regions, administrative costs divert a significant amount of educational monies from instructional purposes. Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980) is an former World No. The quality of the local schools depends strongly on the local tax base, and the size of the local administration. 2003: Australian Open. The primary schools are of varying effectiveness. 2002: Wimbledon. Mandatory full-time instruction begins at age 6.
2001: Australian Open. Elementary schools teach pure skills, history and social studies, with optional half-day kindergartens beginning at age 5. 2000: Summer Olympics-Sydney. In many districts, junior high schools or middle schools teach electives with a strong skills-based curriculum, for ages from 11 to 13. 2000: Wimbledon. They accept students from roughly age 14 to 18, with mandatory education ceasing at age 16. Open. Secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students.
1999: U.S. Near Los Angeles, there are numerous art and film institutes, including the prestigious Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and the CalArts Institute. 1999: French Open. For example, Southern California, with one of the highest densities of post-secondary institutions in the world, has a very large base of classically trained vocalists that compete in large choir festivals. 1999: Hannover. This leads to many unique entertainment and educational opportunities for residents. 1998: Zurich. California has hundreds of private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.
1998: Oklahoma City. Preeminent private institutions include Stanford University, the University of Southern California (USC), and the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) (which administers the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA). The system serves a student population of over 2.9 million. It is composed of 109 colleges organized into 72 districts. It also provides lower division general-education courses, whose credit units are transferable to the CSU and UC systems.
It awards certificates and associate degrees. The California Community Colleges system provides vocational education, remedial education, and continuing education programs. Lower-division course credits are frequently transferable to the University of California. It is intended to accept most college-bound high-school students, while carrying out some research, especially in applied sciences.
With over 400,000 students, the CSU system is the largest university system in the United States. The California State University system provides education for teachers, the trades, agriculture and industry. The University of California also administers federal laboratories for the Federal Department of Energy: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. An eleventh campus, in Merced, is scheduled to open in 2005. (http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/campuses/welcome.html) The UC system is intended to accept students from the top 12.5% of college-bound students, and provide most graduate studies and research.
A tenth campus, in San Francisco, teaches only law. A ninth campus, in San Francisco, teaches only graduate health-sciences students. The eight general campuses are in Berkeley, Los Angeles, Davis, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Irvine, Riverside, and San Diego. The preeminent state university is the 9-campus University of California, which employs more Nobel Prize winners than any other institution in the world and is considered one of the finest public higher-education systems in the country.
California's educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires 40% of state revenues to be
spent on education. Main article: List of colleges and universities in California. 1 Belvedere, California - Marin County - $113,595
Thanks to the state's powerful economy, certain California cities are among the wealthiest on the planet, as evidenced by large numbers of extravagant mansions, sports cars, and beautiful people. The state of California has many cities, and the majority of them are within one of the large metropolitan areas below. The three largest Protestant denominations in California are: Baptist (30% of total state population), Methodist (10%), and Lutheran (6%). The religious affiliations of the people of California are as follows:.
Religion. Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, California ranks:. Rankings. California has the second-largest Asian population (percentage-wise) of any state, Hawaii having the largest.
Because of high levels of immigration from Latin America, especially Mexico, and higher birth rates among the Hispanic population, Hispanics are predicted to become a majority around 2040. Hispanics make up almost one-third of the population; in order, other groups are Asian Americans, African Americans and American Indian. It is the third minority-majority state, after Hawaii and New Mexico. Non-Hispanic Whites are still the largest group, but are no longer a majority of the population due to high levels of immigration in recent years. California lacks a majority ethnic group.
California's population is:. Race and Sex. California is the most populous state in the U.S., and contains about 12% of the U.S.'s population. Census Bureau reports California's 2000 population as 33,871,648, and estimates its 2003 population as 35,484,453.
The U.S. Population. See also: California unemployment statistics. Recent (Spring 2005) economic data (http://uclaforecast.com) indicates that economic growth has resumed in California, although still slightly below the national annualized forecast of 3.9%.
The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, are currently emerging from economic depression caused by the dot.com bust, which caused the loss of over 250,000 jobs in Northern California alone. While some coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the U.S., notably San Francisco and Marin County, the non-agricultural central counties have some of the highest poverty rates in the U.S. Most farm managers are highly educated, most with at least master's degrees. The Central Valley has the most extreme contrasts of income, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage, contrasted with farmers who frequently manage multimillion-dollar farms.
Per capita income varies widely by geographic region and profession. Per capita personal income is $33,415 as of 2003, ranking 12th in the nation. This is followed by aerospace; entertainment, primarily television by dollar volume, although many movies are still made in California; and light manufacturing including computer hardware and software, and the mining of borax. The predominant industry, more than twice as large as the next largest, is agriculture, (including fruit, vegetables, dairy, and wine).
If California was considered as an independent self-sufficient economy, it would be ranked the 6th, ahead of France. state, and every country in the world (by Purchasing Power Parity) save for the other combined 49 United States, China, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The state's GDP, which at $1.4 trillion USD (as of 2003), is greater than that of every other U.S. California is responsible for 14% of the United States' gross domestic product (GDP).
Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat. California's great abundance of species of California lilac (Ceanothus) is an example of adaptive radiation. Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions. California endemics include relict species that have died out elsewhere, including the redwoods and the Catalina Ironwood (Lyonothamnus floribundus).
California has a rather high percentage of endemic species. The state of California is part of the Nearctic ecozone, and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and is perhaps the most ecologically diverse state in the United States. California's diverse geography, geology, soils and climate have generated a tremendous diversity of plant and animal life. Ecologically, California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities.
Main article: Ecology of California. The low deserts east of the southern California mountains, including the Imperial and Coachella valleys and the lower Colorado River, are part of the Sonoran Desert, with hot summers and mild winters; the higher elevation deserts of eastern California, including the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and the Modoc Plateau, are part of the Great Basin region, with hot summers and cold winters. California's desert climate regions lie east of the high Sierra Nevada and southern California's Transverse Ranges and Peninsular Ranges. On the east side of the mountains is a drier "rain shadow".
The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have a mountain climate with snow in winter and moderate heat in summer. The Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate, but with greater temperature extremes than the coastal areas; parts of the valley are often filled with thick fog, similar to that found in the coastal valleys. Northwestern California has a temperate climate with rainfall of 15-40 inches (38-102 cm) per year. Westerly winds from the ocean also bring moisture, and the northern parts of the state generally receive higher rainfall than the south. California's mountain ranges influence the climate as well; moisture-laden air from the west cools as it ascends the mountains, dropping moisture; some of the rainiest parts of the state are west-facing mountain slopes.
As one moves away from the coast, the climate becomes more continental, with hotter summers and colder winters. The influence of the ocean generally moderates temperature extremes, creating cooler summers and warmer winters, and the cold oceanic California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast. Most of the state has a Mediterranean climate, with rainy winters and dry summers. Different regions of California have very different climates, depending on their latitude, elevation, and proximity to the coast.
Other volcanoes include Lassen Peak, which erupted from 1914 and 1921, and Mount Shasta. California is also home to several volcanoes, some active such as Mammoth Mountain. Notable movies in which the possible destruction of much of California by an earthquake includes the titles Earthquake, A View to a Kill, Escape from L.A. and Superman. The fact that this scenario is completely implausible from a geologic standpoint does not lessen its acceptance in public conventional wisdom, or its exploitation by the producers of science fiction and fantasy media.
Popular legend has it that, eventually, a huge earthquake will result in the splitting of coastal California from the continent, either to sink into the ocean or form a new landmass. While more powerful earthquakes in the United States have occurred in Alaska and along the Mississippi River, California earthquakes are notable in their frequency and location in highly populated areas. California is famous for its earthquakes due partly to the presence of the San Andreas Fault. To the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest, hottest point in North America.
The south-central desert is called the Mojave. In the south lie the Transverse Ranges and a large salt lake, the Salton Sea. To the west is Clear Lake, California's largest freshwater lake by area. To the east of the Sierra are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential seabird habitat.
Also located in the Sierra are the world famous Yosemite National Park and a deep freshwater lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by volume. In the center and east of the state are the Sierra Nevada, containing the highest peak in the continental U.S., Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet (4421 m). With dredging, several of these rivers have become sufficiently large and deep that several inland cities, notably Stockton, California, are seaports. Mountain-fed rivers, dams, and canals provide water to irrigate the Central Valley.
Down the center of the state lies the Central Valley, a huge, fertile valley bounded by the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the granite Sierra Nevada to the east, the volcanic Cascade Range in the north and the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. California has extremely varied geography. However, the capital, Sacramento is in the Central Valley. Most major cities cling to the cool, pleasant seacoast along the Pacific, notably San Francisco, San Jose, Los Angeles, Santa Ana/Orange County, and San Diego.
With an area of 410,000 km² it is the third largest state in the U.S. The state has striking natural features, including an expansive central valley, high mountains, and hot dry deserts. California borders the Pacific Ocean, Oregon, Nevada, Arizona, and the Mexican state of Baja California. Main article: Geography of California.
House of Representatives. 33 Democrats and 20 Republicans represent the state in the U.S. Senators from California are Democrats Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. The two U.S.
California has the most Congressmen and Presidential Electors of any state. Electoral College. It has 55 electoral votes in the U.S. At the national level, California is represented by two senators and 53 representatives.
California's legal system is explicitly based on English common law but carries a few features from Spanish civil law. California judges are always appointed by the Governor but must be regularly reconfirmed by the electorate. California's giant judiciary is supervised by the seven Justices of the Supreme Court of California. The capital moved to Sacramento for good on February 25, 1854, except for a four-month temporary move in 1862 to San Francisco due to severe flooding in Sacramento.
The capital moved to Sacramento temporarily in 1852 when construction on a State House could not be completed in time in Vallejo. In California's early history, the capital was located in Monterey (1775-1849), San Jose (1849-1851), Vallejo (1852-1853), Benicia (1853-1854), and San Francisco (1862). The state's capital is Sacramento. Schwarzenegger replaced Governor Gray Davis (1999-2003) who was removed from office by the October 2003 California recall election.
Frazier). Schwarzenegger was only the second person in the history of the United States to be put into office by a recall of a sitting Governor (the first was the 1921 recall of North Dakota Governor Lynn J. The current Governor is the Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger, whose current term lasts through January 2007. In the Senate, there are 25 Democrats and 15 Republicans.
For the 2005-2006 session, there are 48 Democrats and 32 Republicans in the Assembly. The Senators from the even-numbered districts are elected in the intervening even-numbered years, in the gubernatorial election cycle. The Senators representing the odd-numbered districts are elected in years evenly divisible by four, i.e., presidential election years. The terms of the Senators are staggered so that half the membership is elected every two years.
Senators serve four year terms and Assembly members two. The California State Legislature consists of a 40 member Senate and 80 member Assembly. The Governor of California and the other state constitutional officers serve four-year terms and may be reelected only once. The State also allows direct participation of the electorate by referendum, recall, and ratification.
California is governed as a republic, with three branches of government, the executive branch consisting of the Governor of California and the other elected constitutional officers, the legislative branch consisting of the Assembly and Senate, and the judicial branch consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. Main article: California government and politics. The state is liberal-leaning, technologically and culturally savvy, and a world center of engineering businesses, the film and television industry and, as mentioned above, American agricultural production. From 1965 to the present, this population completely changed and became one of the most diverse in the world.
In the period from 1900 to 1965 the population grew from fewer than one million to become the most populous state in the Union, sending the most electors to the Electoral College to elect the President. Citrus, oranges in particular, were widely grown, and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production of today. Out West, residents were discovering that California was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. The connection of the far Pacific West to the eastern population centers came in 1869 with the completion of the first transcontinental railroad.
During the American Civil War, popular support was divided 70% for the South and 30% for the North, and although California officially entered on the side of the North, many troops went east to fight with the Confederacy. In 1850, the state was admitted to the Union. But after gold was discovered, the population burgeoned with Americans and a few Europeans in the great California gold rush. In 1848, the Spanish-speaking population of distant upper California numbered around 4,000.
portion, Alta (upper) California, was to become the state of California. The western part of the U.S. The Mexican portion, Baja (lower) California was later divided into the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur. Following the Mexican-American War, the region was divided between Mexico and the United States.
Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into San Francisco Bay and claimed California for the United States. The Republic came to a sudden end when Commodore John D. In 1846, at the outset of the Mexican-American War, a California Republic was founded and the Bear Flag was flown that featured a golden bear and a star. Upon Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government, and they were quickly dissolved and abandoned.
Beginning in the late 1700s, Spanish missionaries set up tiny settlements on enormous grants of land in the vast territory north of Baja California. The first to explore the entire coast and claim possession of it was Francis Drake in 1579. The first European to explore parts of the coast was the Portuguese Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo in 1542. Main article: History of California.
(For further discussion, see: Origin of the name California.). The name comes from Las sergas de Espladián (Adventures of Spladian), a 16th century novel, by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo, where there is an island paradise called California. In these early times, the boundaries of the Sea of Cortez and the Pacific coast were only partially explored and California was shown on early maps as an island. The entire region originally known as California was composed of the Mexican peninsula now known as Baja California and the land in the current states of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona and Wyoming, known as Alta California.
The vast majority of the population lives within 50 miles (80 km) of the Pacific Ocean. California dominates American culture and economy, contributing significant advances in technology and legal reform, in addition to paying significantly more to the federal system than it receives in benefits. Southern California is highly populated, while the larger northern California is less densely populated. postal abbreviation is CA, and its Associated Press abbreviation is Calif.. California's U.S.
The state's official nickname of "The Golden State" is often thought to be a reference to California’s 1849 gold rush but is in fact reference to the native grasses that turn a golden color during the dry season. California is both physically and demographically diverse. It is the most populous and third largest state in the U.S., has a population roughly the size of Canada and it is the sixth largest economy in the world. California is a state located in the western United States, bordering the Pacific Ocean.
Walnut Creek (San Francisco Bay Area). Ventura (Greater Los Angeles). Torrance (Greater Los Angeles). Thousand Oaks (Greater Los Angeles).
Temecula (equidistant between Inland Empire and San Diego Area). Sunnyvale (Silicon Valley). Simi Valley (Greater Los Angeles). Santa Clarita (Greater Los Angeles).
Santa Clara (Silicon Valley). Santa Ana (Orange County). Pasadena (Greater Los Angeles). Palo Alto (Silicon Valley).
Ontario (Inland Empire). Newport Beach (Orange County). Irvine (Orange County). Huntington Beach (Orange County).
Glendale (Greater Los Angeles). Fremont (San Francisco Bay Area). Concord (San Francisco Bay Area). Chula Vista (San Diego Area).
Burbank (Greater Los Angeles). Berkeley (San Francisco Bay Area). Anaheim (Orange County). Important suburbs (within or near the above urbanized areas)
Palmdale/Lancaster. Bakersfield. Population greater than 500,000 (urbanized area)
San Jose (Silicon Valley). San Francisco/Oakland (San Francisco Bay Area). San Diego. Sacramento.
Riverside/San Bernardino/Ontario (Inland Empire). Santa Ana/Anaheim/Irvine(Orange County Area). Population greater than 1,000,000 (urbanized area)
Population greater than 10,000,000 (urbanized area)
. 20% Roman Catholic
18th in its percentage of Native Americans
48th in its percentage of Whites
1.0% American Indian