This page will contain additional articles about Venus Williams, as they become available.
|Residence:||Palm Beach, Florida, USA|
|Height:||6'1" (185 cm)|
|Weight:||160 lbs. (72.5 kg)|
|Turned pro:||October 1994|
|Highest singles ranking:||1 (February 25, 2002)|
|Career Prize Money:||$14,815,188|
|Grand Slam Record
|Australian Open||F (2003)|
|French Open||F (2002)|
|Wimbledon||W (2000, '01)|
|U.S. Open||W (2000, '01)|
Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980) is an former World No. 1 tennis champion who was born in Lynwood, California, United States. She is the daughter of Richard and Oracene Williams and the sister of another tennis champion, Serena Williams.
When the Williams sisters (who are five in total) were young, they were moved to Compton, California. There, they sometimes had to dodge bullets while practicing tennis at local public courts. Their father Richard used to take all five of his daughters to the courts in hopes that someday at least one of them would reach sporting glory and move them into a better place.
Venus as a young girl became one of California's top young tennis players, and she and her sister Serena shared the top seed as California's best young players for a long time.
Venus turned professional in the 1990s and went on to have a very lucrative tennis career. She has garnered many important championships, including two Gold medals at the Sydney Summer Olympics in 2000, the Fed Cup, the 1999 French Open doubles (with sister Serena as her partner) and 5 other doubles and 2 mixed doubles grand slams, the Oklahoma City Tennis championship, the Italian Open, and the Hamburg Open. In 2000 she won the Wimbledon championship and the U.S. Open in singles and defended both titles in 2001. In 2002 and 2003 Venus achieved five singles major finals but lost all of them to her sister Serena.
When Venus and Serena won the 1999 French Open doubles title, they became the first pair of sisters to win a doubles title in the 20th century.
In 2003, Williams played at the 2003 Wimbledon finals despite suffering an abdominal injury. She lost to her sister Serena, 6-4, 4-6, 2-6.
Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was killed by gunshots in the Compton area as she and a male driver passed by inside a car, on the morning of September 14, 2003.
Recently, Willams' results have steadily declined. After finishing an injury plagued 2003 season ranked 11, Williams rebounded into the top 10 for a year end #9 ranking in 2004, but for the first time since 1997, she failed to qualify for the WTA Tour's annual Year Ending Championships in Los Angeles. In 2005, Williams' ranking has fallen to #16.
Grand slam events in boldface.
Grand slam events in boldface. Doubles partner sister Serena Williams.
Doubles partner sister Serena Williams.. Main article: Culture of Iraq. Grand slam events in boldface. Demographic information from the 2004 edition of the CIA's The World Factbook:. Grand slam events in boldface.. Most Kurds are Sunni Muslims. In 2005, Williams' ranking has fallen to #16. Small communities of Christians, Baha'is, Mandaeans, Shabaks, and Yezidis also exist.
After finishing an injury plagued 2003 season ranked 11, Williams rebounded into the top 10 for a year end #9 ranking in 2004, but for the first time since 1997, she failed to qualify for the WTA Tour's annual Year Ending Championships in Los Angeles. There are more Arab Iraqi Muslims members of the Shiite sect than there are Arab Iraqi Muslims of the Sunni sect, but there is a large Sunni population as well, made up of mostly Arabs, Kurds, and Turkomans, (Shiite 60% of total population). Recently, Willams' results have steadily declined. East Aramaic is also used by the country's Assyrian population. Williams' older sister, Yetunde Price, was killed by gunshots in the Compton area as she and a male driver passed by inside a car, on the morning of September 14, 2003. Arabic and Kurdish are official languages and English is the most commonly spoken Western language. She lost to her sister Serena, 6-4, 4-6, 2-6. About 2,500 Jews and 20,000 - 50,000 Marsh Arabs live in Iraq.
In 2003, Williams played at the 2003 Wimbledon finals despite suffering an abdominal injury. Other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, Armenians (3%) and Yezidis (possible descendants of the ancient Mesopotamian culture). When Venus and Serena won the 1999 French Open doubles title, they became the first pair of sisters to win a doubles title in the 20th century. The Kurds differ from Arabs in many ways including culture, history, clothing, and language. In 2002 and 2003 Venus achieved five singles major finals but lost all of them to her sister Serena. Almost 72% of Iraq's population consists of Arabic speakers (mainly Iraqi but some Hejazi); the other major ethnic group are the Kurds (25%), who live in the north and north-east of the country. Open in singles and defended both titles in 2001. Main article: Demographics of Iraq.
In 2000 she won the Wimbledon championship and the U.S. The Iraqi ministry of Finance control and regulation of inflation (now down to 20%) has contributed to this slow economic recovery in the midst of an insurgency. She has garnered many important championships, including two Gold medals at the Sydney Summer Olympics in 2000, the Fed Cup, the 1999 French Open doubles (with sister Serena as her partner) and 5 other doubles and 2 mixed doubles grand slams, the Oklahoma City Tennis championship, the Italian Open, and the Hamburg Open. However, since the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and subsequent transformation of the political and economic landscape, the economy of Iraq has been growing at a rate of 53% GDP every year albeit from a low base. Venus turned professional in the 1990s and went on to have a very lucrative tennis career. The following day the interim Iraqi National Assembly issued a strongly worded resolution rejecting the Paris Club's terms and declaring that the debt was odious. Venus as a young girl became one of California's top young tennis players, and she and her sister Serena shared the top seed as California's best young players for a long time. This deal, with the Paris Club cartel of creditors including the US and Britain, was signed on 20 November 2004.
Their father Richard used to take all five of his daughters to the courts in hopes that someday at least one of them would reach sporting glory and move them into a better place. The creditors however only offered a partial reduction and rescheduling of their claims in return for an Iraqi commitment to implement an International Monetary Fund economic program. There, they sometimes had to dodge bullets while practicing tennis at local public courts. The Jubilee Iraq campaign argued that these debts were odious (or illegitimate) given that they came from loans to a dictator fighting a war which caused the Iraqi people a great deal of harm, and should therefore be written off unconditionally. When the Williams sisters (who are five in total) were young, they were moved to Compton, California. The creditors who financed the Iran-Iraq war had presented post-Saddam Iraq with a bill of nearly US$130 billion of debt and past-due-interest, which had not been serviced during the 13 years of sanctions. She is the daughter of Richard and Oracene Williams and the sister of another tennis champion, Serena Williams. The second attempt to liberalize Iraq's economy is linked to the Iran-Iraq war debt.
1 tennis champion who was born in Lynwood, California, United States. Opposition from senior Iraqi officials together with the poor security situation meant that Bremer's privatization plan was not implemented during his reign, though his Orders remain in place. Venus Ebone Starr Williams (born June 17, 1980) is an former World No. Other orders established a flat tax of 15% and permitted foreign corporations to repatriate 100% of profits earned in Iraq. 2003: Australian Open. Order 39 laid out the framework for the privatization of everything in Iraq aside from the "primary extraction and initial processing" of the oil reserves themselves, and permitted 100% foreign ownership of Iraqi assets. 2002: Wimbledon. During his year as the supreme authority in Iraq, Ambassador Paul Bremer issued a series of orders designed to restructure Iraq's broadly socialist economy in line with neo-liberal thinking.
2001: Australian Open. Following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the economy has to a great extent shut down and attempts are underway to revive it from the damages of the war and rampant crime. 2000: Summer Olympics-Sydney. The drop in GDP in 2001 was largely the result of the global economic slowdown and lower oil prices. 2000: Wimbledon. However, 28% of Iraq's export revenues under the program are deducted to meet UN Compensation Fund and UN administrative expenses. Open. Oil exports were more than three-quarters of the pre-war level.
1999: U.S. Iraq changed its oil reserve currency from US dollar to euro in 2000. 1999: French Open. In December 1999, the UN Security Council authorised Iraq to export under the program as much oil as required to meet humanitarian needs. 1999: Hannover. Subsequent investigation of the program has revealed significant corruption, with highly placed U.N. officials being bribed, Ba'ath Party officials receiving lucrative kickbacks, and much of the money from oil sales being redirected into weapons research and acquisition by the Iraqi military. 1998: Zurich. For the first six, six-month phases of the program, Iraq was allowed to export limited amounts of oil in exchange for food, medicine, and some infrastructure spare parts.
1998: Oklahoma City. Although government policies supporting large military and internal security forces and allocating resources to key supporters of the Ba`ath Party government have hurt the economy, implementation of the United Nations' oil-for-food program started in December 1996 was to have improved conditions for the average Iraqi citizen. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, subsequent international economic sanctions, and damage from military action by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically reduced economic activity. A combination of low oil prices, onerous repayment of the war debts (at around US$3 billion a year) and the costs of reconstruction resulted in a serious financial crisis which was the main short term motivation for the invasion of Kuwait. After hostilities ended in 1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities.
In the 1980s financial problems caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran led the government to implement austerity measures, borrow heavily, and later reschedule foreign debt payments; Iraq suffered economic losses from the war of at least US$100 billion. Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Main article: Economy of Iraq. Iraq is considered to be one of the fifteen lands that comprise the so-called "Cradle of Humanity".
Other major cities include Basra in the south and Mosul in the north. The capital Baghdad is situated in the centre of the country, on the banks of the Tigris. The northern mountainous regions experience cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding. The local climate is mostly a desert clime with mild to cool winters and dry, hot, cloudless summers.
Iraq has a small coastline with the Persian Gulf. Close to the coast and along the Shatt al-Arab there used to be marshlands, but many of these were drained in the 1990s. The north of the country is largely mountainous, with the highest point being Haji Ibrahim at 3,600 m. Large parts of Iraq consist of desert, but the area between the two major rivers Euphrates and Tigris is fertile, with the rivers carrying about 60 million cubic meters of silt annually to the delta. Main article: Geography of Iraq.
The constitutionally recognized Kurdistan Autonomous Region includes parts of a number of northern provinces, and is largely self-governing in internal affairs. Particularly in Iraqi government documents the term governorate is preferred:. Iraq is divided into 18 governorates or provinces (Arabic: muhafazat, singular - muhafadhah, Kurdish: پاریزگه Pārizgah). Main article: Governorates of Iraq.
The first is to attempt to reign in the insurgency which has blighted the country in recent months, and the second is to re-engage in the writing of a new Iraqi constitution, as outlined above, to replace the Iraqi transitional constitution of 2004. The new Government has two major tasks ahead of them. Most power will be invested in him. Ibrahim al-Jaafari a Shiite, whose United Iraq Alliance Party won the largest share of the vote, has been appointed the new Prime Minister of Iraq.
It also appointed Adel Abdul Mehdi, a Shiite Arab, and Ghazi al-Yawar, the former Interim President and a Sunni Arab, as Vice Presidents. On 5 April, the Iraqi National Assembly appointed Jalal Talabani, a prominent Kurdish leader, President. However, these rules will be set aside once the Transitional National Assembly is seated. Since Iraqi forces are currently considered ill-equipped to police and secure the country, it is expected that coalition troops will remain in the country for many years to come.
Furthermore, since the coalition forces are currently an official occupying power under the United Nations, coalition troops can remain in control of the country indefinitely despite the transfer of sovereignty. Controversially, however, it states that all laws that were in effect on the transfer date cannot be repealed. constitution. The constitution also includes basic freedoms like freedom of religion, speech, and assembly, and in many ways has been hailed as more liberal than the U.S.
The election system for the council effectively ensures that all three of Iraq's major ethnic groups are represented. Under the Iraqi transitional constitution, signed March 2004, the country's executive branch is now led by a three-person presidential council. The Assembly will:. On January 30, 2005, the Iraqi people voted in an election conducted by their transitional government which elected a 275-member Transitional National Assembly.
The interim president was Sheikh Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer, and the interim prime minister Iyad Allawi. The actual transfer of sovereignty occurred on 28 June 2004. In November 2003, the US-managed Coalition Provisional Authority announced plans to turn over sovereignty to an Iraqi Interim Government by mid-2004. No non-Ba'ath candidates were allowed to run.
The unicameral Iraqi parliament, the National Assembly or Majlis al-Watani, had 250 seats and its members were elected for 4-year terms. From 1979 to 2003, Iraq was under Ba'ath Party rule, under the leadership of President Saddam Hussein. Main article: Politics of Iraq. The current situation remains volatile while the new government attempts to re-establish security in the country.
A coalition of Kurds and Shi'ites came to power (both groups were repressed by Saddam's government), although the Sunnis are now under-represented due to the fact that Sunni leaders encouraged them not to vote. On January 30, 2005, Iraq held new legislative elections, changing the political face of Iraq, which had been mostly dominated by its Sunni minority since its foundation. The American-led 2003 invasion of Iraq removed Saddam Hussein's Government from power, replacing it with an interim American-backed Provisional Authority, and then an interim government. Saddam's absolute and particularly bloody rule lasted throughout the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988), which ended in stalemate; the al-Anfal campaign of the late 1980s, which led to the alleged gassing of thousands of Kurds in northern Iraq, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 resulting in the Gulf War and the United Nations-imposed economic sanctions and no-fly zones which followed.
The Ba'ath's key figure became Saddam Hussein who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), Iraq's supreme executive decision making body, in July 1979, killing off many of his opponents in the process. The British installed Hashemite monarchy lasted until 1958, when it was overthrown by one of a series of coups, the last of which in 1968 brought the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party to power. It was formed out of three former Ottoman Willayats (regions): Mosul, Baghdad and Basra. Modern Iraq became a British mandate (the British League of Nations Trust Territory of Iraq) at the end of World War I (the, and was granted independence from British control in 1932.
Main article: History of Iraq. 3 October 1932 from the British. A new transitional government was elected in January 2005, following the March 2003 invasion led by British and American forces which drove the former leader Saddam Hussein and his Ba'ath Party from power. It has a very narrow section of coastline at Umm Qasr on the Persian Gulf.
It shares borders with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the west, Syria to the north-west, Turkey to the north, and Iran to the east. The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and also including the southern Kurdistan. Others: Postage stamps and postal history of Iraq. History: List of Kings of Iraq, List of Presidents of Iraq, List of Prime Ministers of Iraq, British Mandate of Iraq.
Politics: New Iraqi Army, Foreign relations of Iraq, Human rights violations in Iraq, Iraqi insurgency. Geography: List of places in Iraq, Communications of Iraq, Transportation in Iraq, Arab Tribes in Iraq. Events: 2005 in Iraq, 2004 in Iraq, 2003 Invasion of Iraq, Post-invasion Iraq, 2003-2005. Economy: Iraq Stock Exchange.
Music of Iraq. Religions: Muslim 93-95% (Shi'ite 60%, Sunni 40%), Christian,Yezidi or other 5-7%. Ethnic groups: Arab 70%-75%, Kurdish 20%-25%, Turkoman, Assyrian or other 5%. Wasit Shiite.
Salah ad Din Sunni. Ninawa Sunni. Maysan Shiite. Diyala Sunni.
Dhi Qar Shiite. Dahuk Kurdish. Baghdad Shiite, Sunni. Babil Shiite and Sunni.
At Ta'mim Kurdish. As Sulaymaniyah Kurdish. Arbil Kurdish. An Najaf Shiite.
Al Qadisyah Shiite. Al Muthanna Shiite. Al Karbala Shiite. Al Basrah Shiite.
Al Anbar Sunni. Under the new constitution, Iraq will elect a permanent government in December 2005. Draft Iraq's new constitution, which will be presented to the Iraqi people for their approval in a national referendum in October 2005. It has named a Presidency Council, consisting of a President and two Vice Presidents. (By unanimous agreement, the Presidency Council will appoint a Prime Minister and, on his recommendation, cabinet ministers.).
Serve as Iraq's national legislature.