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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. The Jeep name still survives. Suborder Cryptodira. It was phased out by American Motors, which was itself discontinued by Chrysler. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. Later models were not produced with the Willys name. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. DaimlerChrysler still produces Jeep vehicles at the Toledo Complex.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987 after the CJ had been replaced with the Jeep Wrangler, which had little in common with the CJ series other than outward appearance. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Renault purchased a major stake in AMC in 1980 and took over operation of the company, producing the CJ series until 1986. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. After the sale, AMC used engines it had developed for its other cars in the Jeep products to improve performance and standardize production and servicing. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. The company was sold to American Motors Corporation (AMC) in 1970 when Kaiser Industries decided to leave the automobile business.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). The use of the Willys name was discontinued in 1965. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). (Ironically, DaimlerChrysler would appropriate the Overland nameplate as a trim package with the 2002-present Jeep Grand Cherokee.) The company changed name again in 1963 to Kaiser-Jeep Corporation. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. In 1953 Kaiser Motors purchased Willys-Overland and changed the name to Willys Motor Company. Their exact ancestry is disputed. Army, and continued the CJ series of civilian Jeeps.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Willys later produced the M38 Jeep for the U.S. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. In 1948, the Wagon was available in four wheel drive, making it the ancestor of all Sport Utility Vehicles. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. The next year came a "Jeep" Utility Truck with four wheel drive. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. In 1946, a year after the introduction of the CJ-2A, Willys produced the Willys "Jeep" Utility Wagon based on the same engine and transmission, with clear styling influence from the CJ-2A Jeep.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. It gained popularity among farmers, ranchers, hunters, and others who needed a lightweight vehicle for use on unimproved roads and trails. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. However, the CJ-2A was among the first vehicles of any kind to be equipped with four wheel drive from the factory. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Despite this, sales of the "agri-Jeep" never took off, mainly because it was too light to provide adequate draft. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Tractors were in short supply having been out of production during the war.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Willys struggled to find a market for the unusual vehicle, and made an effort to sell it as an alternative to the farm tractor. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. The CJ-2A was an MB stripped of obviously military features, particularly the blackout lighting, and with the addition of a tailgate. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Willys switched production to a civilian version, called a CJ-2A, at the end of the war. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Whatever the source, the name stuck and, after the war, Willys filed a trademark claim for the name.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. It was also the name of a small tractor made by Modine before WW2. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The first documented use of the word "Jeep" was as the name of a charcter in the Popeye cartoon, known for his supernatural abilities (e.g., to walk up walls). The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Some people believe "Jeep" is a phonetic pronunciation of the abbreviation GP, from "General Purpose", that was used as part of the official Army nomenclature. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The origin of the name "Jeep" has been debated for many years.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Production of the Willys MB began in 1941 with 8,598 units produced that year, and 359,851 units were produced before production stopped at the conclusion of World War II. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. It was one of several bidders when the Department of the Army sought an automaker who could begin rapid production of a lightweight truck based on a prototype designed by American Bantam. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. In the 1920s and 1930s, Willys was an unremarkable automaker based in Toledo, Ohio, one of dozens in the U.S. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. In 1936 Willis-Overland Motor Company was reorganized as Willys-Overland Motors.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. This became the holding company for Willys-Overland and in 1919, acquired Duesenberg Motors Corporation. . The Electric Auto-Lite Company was acquired by John Willys in 1914 and he changed its name to the Willys Corporation in 1917. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. From 1912 to 1918 Willys was the second largest producer of automobiles in the United States behind only Ford Motor Company. About 300 species are alive today. In 1908, John North Willys bought the Overland Automotive Division of Standard Wheel Company and in 1912 renamed it Willys-Overland Motor Company.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. . in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Willys (pronounced "WILL-iss") was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps, during the last century. The term is sometimes used (esp. Rural Jeep (1958-1967) (Brazil). The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Willys Jeep CJ5 later Jeep CJ5 (1954 - 1983) 600,000 are produced.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Willys CJ3B (1952 - 1968) 155,000 are produced. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Willys M38 (1951 - 1971). Superfamily Chelonioidea. Willys Jeepster (1948 - 1950) 19,000 are produced. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Willys Jeep Truck (1947 - 1965) 200,000 are produced..

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Willys CJ3A (1946 - 1953) 132,000 are produced. Superfamily Testudinoidea. Willys Jeep Wagon (1946 - 1965) 300,000 produced. Willys CJ2A (1946-1953). Willys MB (1941-1946).

Willys-Overland Crossley (United Kingdom). Willys Executive limousine (Brazil). (Brazil). 1500 produced.

Willys Interlagos (1962-1967), licensed from Renault. Willys Itamaraty (Brazil). Willys Gordini (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil). Willys Dauphine (1959-1968), licensed from Renault (Brazil).

Aero-Willys 2600 (1960-1972) or Ford Aero (1955-1975) (Brazil). Aero-Willys Eagle (1952-1954). Aero-Willys Falcon (1953). Aero-Willys Ace (1952 -1954).

Aero-Willys Lark (1952-1954). Aero-Willys Scout (1953). Aero-Willys Wing (1952). Aero-Willys JT (1951).

also many early cars with model numbers. Overland 39. Overland 93. Overland Six.

Overland Four. Overland Whippet (1926-1931). also many early cars with model numbers. Willys Americar.

Willys Knight (1914-1933). Willys Eight. Willys Six. Willys Four.

Willys 77 (1933-1936). Willys Bermuda (at least in 1955).

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