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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. During his tenure at the University of Miami, Jarrett wore his father's number, 34. Suborder Cryptodira. His son, Jarrett, is currently an NFL running back, trying to carry on his father's legacy. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. Payton was survived by his wife Connie, son Jarrett, and daughter Brittany. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. After breaking Payton's career rushing record in 2002, Emmitt Smith tearfully paid tribute to Walter, saying that Payton had taught him how to conduct himself on and off the field.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Unable to receive a liver transplant because of bile duct cancer, Payton died in his home in South Barrington, Illinois, on November 1, 1999. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. He didn't let his illness slow him down as he conducted many motivational speeches and appeared on TV encouraging organ donation. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Living with unbearable pain, Walter continued to live his life the way he wanted to live it. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. In February 1999, Payton announced that he had a rare liver disease called primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). He also opened a restaurant and brewery in Aurora, Illinois called Walter Payton's Roundhouse Complex, which also contains a museum dedicated to Walter and his football career. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). A college preparatory high school in Chicago is named after him. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. This effort, however, proved unsuccessful; the NFL instead awarded expansion franchises to Jacksonville, Florida and Charlotte, North Carolina in 1995. Their exact ancestry is disputed. Louis.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. After retirement, Payton dabbled in auto racing and was part of a group of investors that sought to bring an NFL team back to St. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. This tactic was considered to be an advantage to his team, perhaps gaining a few precious inches which would add up over the course of a game. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. At the end of every carry, Payton would extend the ball as far forward as possible with his arms. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. A few times, he leaped straight over a defender who was standing straight up for a touchdown.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. He was perhaps the most adept player at the "goal line leap" into the endzone. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. He could often be seen with his hand on the facemask on a pursuing tackler, a tactic which would surely draw a penalty today. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. His large leg muscles led to an unusual stiff-legged running gait, and he was not content to gain yards and run out of bounds. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. At 5'-10", Payton wasn't a large man, nor was he a "breakaway" runner, but at a concrete-like 200 pounds, Payton's forte was power and quickness.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Walter Payton's style of play was distinctive and memorable. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Coincidentally, Walter Payton's former teammate, Jeff Fisher, is the Titans' head coach. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. His son Jarrett Payton, now a running back with the Tennessee Titans, gave his induction speech. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. On July 31, 1993, Payton was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. While Payton only began playing football in his junior year of high school, Walter Payton retired with 16,726 yards, a total surpassed by the Dallas Cowboys' Emmitt Smith in 2002. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Payton was visibly upset on the sideline about not being allowed to contribute more. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Some Bears fans believed that Mike Ditka insulted Payton by putting rookie phenomenon William "The Refrigerator" Perry, normally a defensive tackle, in at running back on a goal line play and giving him the ball. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. However sweet the victory was for the Chicago Bears and their fans, it turned out to be anything but sweet for Walter Payton, who rushed for only 61 yards in the game.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. The Bears bounced back and finished strongly, then, augmented by a song Bears members recorded called The Super Bowl Shuffle, steamrolled through the NFC playoffs, shutting out both the New York Giants and the Los Angeles Rams, and finally defeating the New England Patriots 46-10 in Super Bowl XX where they limited the Patriots to 7 yards rushing, a Super Bowl record. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. In 1985, the Bears had an incredible season, going 15-1 in the regular season (with their only blemish being an embarrassing loss to the Miami Dolphins on Monday Night Football in the 13th week). Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Former Bears tight end Mike Ditka had returned to the team in 1982 as its head coach and began rebuilding it. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. That changed in 1985.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. Although Walter Payton was a legitimate superstar and an icon in the city of Chicago, he played on some awful Bears teams. . This consistency and toughness Walter exhibited was later chronicled in his autobiography, Never Die Easy. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. But perhaps more important to Walter than missing that game was the fact that he wanted to serve as an example to younger football players, and that he never took a play off and went all out every play. About 300 species are alive today. Walter insisted that he could have played.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Known as a figure of resilience, Payton only missed one game in his 13 year career with the Bears which took place during the 1975-76 season, Payton's rookie season, because the Bears trainer wouldn't allow Payton to play. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. In one game against the Vikings on October 21, 1979, he ran for, passed for, and caught a touchdown, a feat that has only been done by six other players, most recently LaDainian Tomlinson of the San Diego Chargers. The term is sometimes used (esp. In addition to being a Hall of Fame-caliber running back, Payton was assigned many plays as a receiver and blocker, and, later in his career, was also an emergency quarterback and punter. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Payton also scored 125 career touchdowns, seventh on the all-time scoring list.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. He was the NFL's Player of the Year and its Most Valuable Player in 1977. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. The 275 yards was an NFL single-game record until it was broken by Corey Dillon of the Cincinnati Bengals in 2001. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Against the Minnesota Vikings on November 20, 1977, Walter Payton rushed for 275 yards on 40 carries while fighting a severe case of influenza. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. His career rushing record would stand for 18 years until surpassed by Dallas Cowboys running back Emmitt Smith in 2002.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. He also broke another Jim Brown record in this game with his 59th career 100-yard performance. Superfamily Testudinoidea. He earned numerous accomplishments, including his crowning achievement: breaking Jim Brown's NFL career rushing record against the New Orleans Saints at Soldier Field in Chicago on October 7, 1984. Nicknamed "Sweetness," Payton was quiet, humble, and generous off the field, but a relentless, hard-nosed competitor on it. The Bears drafted him in the first round (fourth overall) of the 1975 draft out of Jackson State University, where he was fourth in the voting for the Heisman Trophy (which was won that year by Ohio State University running back Archie Griffin, who would win it again the following year).

Payton spent his entire 13-year career (1975-1987) with the Chicago Bears. . Walter Jerry Payton (July 25, 1954- November 1, 1999) was an American football running back and is a member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio.

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