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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. The most popular of these include the minature-based games Battlefleet Gothic, Epic Armageddon, Inquistor and Necromunda, all of which are available as "Specialist Games" from the Games Workshop website, and the video games Dawn of War and Fire Warrior. Suborder Cryptodira. Warhammer 40,000 has, over the years, inspired many spin-off games. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. The list below contains a selection of the greatest characters. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Some of these characters are more important to the universe and game than others.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. The Warhammer 40,000 universe and game are made up of many different characters, each important in some way. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. The playable armies in the game are the Chaos Space Marines, Daemonhunters, Dark Eldar, Eldar, Imperial Guard, Necrons, Orks, Space Marines, Tau, Tyranids and Witch Hunters. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. The Warhammer 40,000 game, and consequentially the fictional universe, is made up of many races and species. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Chaos and the Warp are still more complicated, considering there exist many other minor Chaos entities, some of which are worshipped in place of the four major powers of the warp.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Nurgle (decay is entropic and is associated with an negative increase in free energy) and Tzeentch (potential energy and complexity by definition oppose entropy) represent opposing forces (and both draw power from their psychological effects); Khorne and Slaanesh are more subtle – the actions of a Khornate devotee affect a victim, the actions of a Slaaneshi devotee affect the devotee (the victim is merely an instrument). All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). The Chaos gods have a dynamic, antagonistic relationship; Khorne rivals Slaanesh, while Nurgle rivals Tzeentch. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. Indeed, the gods of Chaos actually are either core aspects of the human psyche or natural forces with profound impact thereupon. Their exact ancestry is disputed. The strongest of these entities are the Chaos Gods, Khorne (a god of rage and wrath), Nurgle (a god of life, death and decay), Tzeentch (a god of change, accumulating power, and magic) and Slaanesh (a god of desire and depravity).

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. As this is a realm of thought, a coalescence yields the often sinister warp entity. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. The Warp is described as a realm of energy, where thought can take physical form, and with currents and eddies that make traveling vast interstellar distances difficult, yet possible. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. A dynamic, galaxy-spanning story line is possible because of a separate plane of existence, the Immaterium or "Warp.". These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Much of this is controlled by the The Imperium of Man, though he is not the only galactic denizen.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. The physical setting of this story is the Materium, with all action here in the Milky Way Galaxy. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. The only reason it can maintain any semblance of control of its population is because being worked to the bone night and day in total, oppressive adoration of the Emperor is better than being worked to the bone night and day in total, oppressive adoration of the Gods of Chaos, only to end existence as a sacrifice for a god hungry for souls. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. For example, The Imperium of Man, is generally thought of as the "good side", and while it may be true that there are many good people within it, as a whole it is an oppressive, xenophobic, corrupt mess of an organization. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Giger), and popular depictions of historical settings (such as the World Wars, Victorian Britain, Imperial Rome, The Inquisitions, Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia) leads to a wholly unique fictional universe, in which every side is to some extent evil – though some are slightly less evil than others.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. R. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. These and other sources of inspiration, such as medieval, baroque and surrealist art (especially the works of H. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Heinlein (Heinlein's novel Starship Troopers inspired many elements such as elite marines in powered armor, and drop pods in which encased Space Marines and equipment are fired from orbiting ships down to the battlefield). Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Tolkien and Robert A.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. R. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. R. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Lovecraft, Michael Moorcock, J. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The eclectic mix of inspirational sources for the Warhammer 40,000 universe include classic and contemporary sci-fi, horror and fantasy movies and television series and the works of renowned genre authors such as Isaac Asimov, Frank Herbert, H.P.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Since it originally was created as a sci-fi spin-off of the Warhammer Fantasy Battle game, the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld contains many elements of the fantasy genre, for example the concept of magic and adapted versions of classic fantasy races. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. The central and most popular elements of the Warhammer 40,000 universe are the Space Marines, futuristic versions of fantasy knights and the finest warriors of the Imperium of Mankind, a dystopian and degenerate galaxy-spanning civilization. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. The Warhammer 40,000 game world is most readily characterized as a gothic science-fantasy setting. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Common household items like soft drink cans, coffee cups, styrofoam packing pieces, and pill bottles can be transformed into ruined cathedrals, alien habitats, or terrain with the addition of plasticard, putty, and a bit of patience and skill.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. Although Games Workshop has terrain kits available, many hobbyists prefer to make their own elaborate and unique set pieces. . Terrain is a very important part of play. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. These conversions are often entered into contests at sponsored tournaments and similar gaming events. About 300 species are alive today. They are also encouraged to further modify their figures and vehicles using parts from other kits and models (known as "bitz" to players), or scratch-made from plasticard, modelling putty, or whatever the modeller can scrounge up.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Since the models are hand-painted and assembled by the player, players are encouraged to design their own paint schemes as well as using the pre-designed ones displayed in the various books. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. This is the only way to get certain factions (for example, Eldar Harlequins), which have been discontinued. The term is sometimes used (esp. These are models that have been used for earlier versions of the game. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. In addition to the current line of units, Games Workshop makes available past model lines as a part of their mail-order-only "Classic" series.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. [2]. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. A typical blister pack with one to three models will cost from £4 to £12, with the cost of boxed sets varying widely (£18 to £75), depending on the contents. Superfamily Chelonioidea. As of February 2006, new players wishing to start playing should expect to spend upwards of £100 to £160 for a reasonably sized army, including costs for rulebooks, codexes and paints.[1] Players must purchase units; which are available individually, in squads or in boxed sets. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. The latest of these global campaigns was the Eye of Terror Campaign.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. These results are collated, and together affect the storyline of the game, which is then and is accounted for in the next rulebook and fiction releases. Superfamily Testudinoidea. Every few years, a global campaign is held in which people submit the results of their games to Games Workshop. These campaigns may feature their own special rules, and are tied together by a storyline, which might alter according to the results of each scenario when it is played. Some players organize a series of scenarios, called a campaign, where two or more players fight against each other in a number of battles.

The simplest of these is a basic "cleanse" mission, which ends after six turns, the victor being declared based on who controls the four quarters of the battlefield; more complex goals can include night fights, take-and-hold missions, and various others. Each battle, at the onset, is assigned a set of additional rules and a goal (collectively called a "scenario") specific to it. Play is divided into turns, with each player choosing specific actions for all of his units on his turn, and using dice to determine the results of those actions. The games generally run from half an hour to several hours depending on the size of the armies.

Common game sizes are usually between 500 and 2000 points, but can be much larger. Before a game the players agree on how many points will be used as the maximum army size and each assemble an army up to that maximum limit. The size of the army is determined by "points", with each unit having an associated cost proportionate to its potential worth on the battlefield. These armies are constrained by rules contained within the Warhammer 40,000 rulebook, as well as in several army-specific Codexes.

Each player assembles an army, consisting of pewter and plastic minature figurines - each, usually, representing a military unit from one of the official lists. For materials done under the previous iteration of the rules, there exist errata and FAQ files, to ensure potential rules conflicts between editions are resolved universally. A supplement covering the Taros campaign (Imperial Armour Volume 3: The Taros Campaign), including additional units and models available from the Forge World subsidiary of Games Workshop, is also available. The next codex to be released will be the Tau Empire, containing the new Vespid mercenaries and several other Tau updates.

As of January 2006 the Space Marines and Tyranid codexes have been updated to fourth edition and the new Black Templars codex was released in early November 2005. As with prior versions, the main rules are included in the rule book with supplementary details being available for each army in the form of Codex books, each detailing either one army, a part of an army or sometimes extra rules for a specific form of battle (such as Cityfight). The new rulebook is published in hardcover, and a truncated version of the same rules is available as part of an introductory boxed set, Battle For Macragge, featuring the Space Marines and Tyranids. This edition is not as major a change as prior editions were as it did not break gamers' old army lists or codexes.

The fourth edition of the game was released in 2004. The rulebook was available alone, or as a boxset with minatures featuring the Space Marines and the newly introduced Dark Eldar. The third edition was released in 1998, and again concentrated on streamlining the rules for larger battles. An expansion pack titled Dark Millennium was later released.

This version relied greatly on cards, and came as a boxset including Space Marine and Ork miniatures, scenery and dice, as well as the main rules. This and later developments of the game are the work of editor Andy Chambers. The second edition was published in late 1993, aimed at making it easier to fight larger battles. Laserburn was turned into the computer game Laser Squad that subsequently evolved into the X-COM computer games.

The influence of these can also be seen in the prototype Necromunda game mechanics. A few elements of the setting (bolters, Dreadnought armour) can be seen in a set of earlier wargaming rules called Laserburn produced by Tabletop Games. Much of the composition of units was determined randomly, by rolling dice. This original version came as a very detailed rulebook, making it most suitable for fighting small skirmishes.

Game designer Rick Priestley was responsible for creating the original rules set and the Warhammer 40,000 gameworld. The first edition of the game, Warhammer 40,000: Rogue Trader, was published in 1987. . It allows for less regimental, formation-based movement, and deals with more advanced weaponry.

Warhammer 40,000 is the science fiction companion to Warhammer Fantasy. The game requires a combination of tactics and luck. Play centres around 28mm scale (approximately 1:65) miniature figurines produced by Citadel Miniatures, which represent soldiers, creatures and vehicles of war. Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K or just 40K) is a science fiction tabletop miniature wargame, produced by the British gaming company Games Workshop.

Games Workshop Space Marines Store Page. Games Workshop Starting Out Store Page. Eldrad Ulthran (now deceased). Ghazghkull Mag Uruk Thraka.

Cypher. Creed, Lord Castellan of Cadia. Ursarkar E. Abaddon the Despoiler.

The four Chaos Gods (Khorne, Slaanesh, Nurgle, and Tzeentch). Horus. The Emperor.

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