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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Victoria's Secret has a flag-ship store in New York City's Herald Square. Suborder Cryptodira. The company gained notoriety in the 1990s after it began to use supermodels in their advertising and fashion shows; prominent supermodels featured by Victoria's Secret include Alessandra Ambrosio, Tyra Banks, Ana Beatriz Barros, Gisele B√ľndchen, Naomi Campbell, Laetitia Casta, Eva Herzigova, Adriana Lima, Karolina Kurkova, Petra Nemcova, Frederique van der Wal, Heidi Klum and Tricia Helfer. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. Victoria's Secret products are also available through the catalogue business, Victoria's Secret Direct, with sales of approximately US$870 million. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. All stores of Limited Brands are corporately owned.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Victoria's Secret had sales of more than US$ 2.4 billion through their 900 retail stores in the United States in 2005. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Raymond eventually committed suicide in 1993, jumping off the Golden Gate Bridge. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Since the takeover the company has been based in Columbus, Ohio though it has at times sought to foster an image of being British. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. The company was founded in San Francisco, California, USA in 1977 by Roy Raymond, who sold it in 1982 to The Limited Inc., and it is now owned by the successor Limited Brands company.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Victoria's Secret is a retail marketer of women's clothing and beauty products, but is most recognizable as a marketer of lingerie. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. Their exact ancestry is disputed.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. . Some species of turtles are highly endangered. About 300 species are alive today.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The term is sometimes used (esp. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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