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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. However the 1990s saw its return to the catwalk, and it was soon to regain its place as a popular fashion item, particularly in America and on the Continent. Suborder Cryptodira. By the 1980s it was largely out of fashion, though continued to be regarded as a staple item. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. The tightness of the garments may also be seen as sexual bondage. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Wearers of skin-tight spandex garments can appear naked or coated in a shiny substance like paint.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. As explained in the spandex fetishism article, another reason why spandex and other tight fabrics may be fetishised is that the garment forms a "second skin," acting as a fetishistic surrogate for the wearer's own skin. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. However, the poloneck in all its forms soon became a standard wardrobe item for both sexes during this period. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. The poloneck was generally seen as a unisex and classless garment and wearing one remained a political statement in many circles. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. This trend continued into the 1960s and 1970s, with the white poloneck being briefly adopted as a corresponding item for mainstream feminists.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). In contrast, France saw the black poloneck adopted by left wing bohemians and intellectuals, and by the late 1950s their counterparts in the United States and Britain had also adopted the fashion. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). The look would filter through to Britain and Europe in a watered down version. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. This would become an important aspect of the polonecks image in America. Their exact ancestry is disputed. By the late 1950s the "tight poloneck" had been adopted as part of the preppie style amongst students, a style emphasising neatness, tidiness and grooming.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. It was not long before Hollywood was also exploiting this image as part of the sweater girl look. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. Later its increasing acceptability as women's wear saw it become a fad amongst teenage girls, especially in a lightweight form that emphasised aspects of their figures. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. Absorbed into mainstream American fashion by the mid 20th century, the poloneck came to be viewed as an anti-tie, a smart form of dress for those who rejected formal wear. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Again, it was the feminists who turned these into a unisex item.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. Their adoption by Noel Coward in the 1920s turned them into a brief middle class fashion trend. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. It was in this stage that a range of light polonecks in a variety of colours began to be designed. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Over time polonecks would become acceptable casual wear, though still usually for men only. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. It was probably at this time that its unisex status as sportswear was exploited by early feminists, who would wear their Hockey sweaters as day wear.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. The latter use at sea also led to its adoption by Royal Navy. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Polonecks crossed over from sportswear to work wear at the turn of the century, mostly amongst menial workers and seamen. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. This use as sports wear would continue into the early 20th Century. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Its use by women was also extended into field sports like hockey soon after this.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. These lighter polonecks would become popular for golf amongst both sexes by 1895. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Originally a thick woollen garment, lighter versions were designed for those who found coarser wool uncomfortable against their skin. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). It was also used in some equestrian activities, though no evidence exists for its use in polo, which might otherwise have explained its name. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. It had a varied application but was most often used for the more static players in field sports (a use preserved for the soccer goalkeeper as late as the 1950s in the UK).

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. The poloneck sweater, like most sweaters, first emerged in the 1890s as an article of sportswear. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. . Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well.
. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. It can also refer to the style of collar itself, or be used as an adjective ("polo-necked").

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. A polo neck (UK) (or turtle neck in the US) is a garment—usually a sweater—with a close-fitting, round, and high collar that folds over and covers the neck. . Tennis shirt. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Preppy. About 300 species are alive today. Polo Ralph Lauren.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Lacoste. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Spandex fetishism. The term is sometimes used (esp. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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