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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. New Unimogs can be purchased on all major continents, however North American models are officially limited to the UGN series sold through Freightliner dealerships. Suborder Cryptodira. All other Unimog models are driven by a diesel powerplant varying from 80 horsepower to upwards of 280 horsepower (205 kW). Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. One of the more popular Unimog models with the largest single design production run is the Unimog 404, produced in troop carrier and radio box variants and powered by a 2 liter waterproofed Mercedes-Benz petrol engine that produced as much as 80 horsepower (60 kW) in the most common versions of this model. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. They are also used extensively by the South African National Defence Force and the New Zealand Army.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Unimogs have been used by many different militaries, including the German and Swiss armies. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Unimogs also feature a flexible frame that allows the tires a wide range of vertical movement to allow the truck to comfortably drive over extremely uneven terrain, even meter-high boulders. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. They feature very high ground clearance — greater than the Humvee — made possible by portal gears that allow the axles and transmission to be higher than the tires' centers. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. The Unimog (from the German "UNIversal-MOtor-Gerät", meaning "universal motor machine/equipment") is a series of trucks from Daimler-Benz designed shortly after WWII, originally to be used as slow-moving tractors for Germany's turnip harvest.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). reverse: 14.569/10.101/6.660/4.900/3.330/2.309/1.522/1.120. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). forward: 9.570/6.635/4.375/3.219/2.188/1.517/1.000/0.736. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. transmission gearing

    . Their exact ancestry is disputed. Electronic Speed governor.

    The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. engine: 4.8 litre straight 4 Turbocharged OM924LA 218 HP (160 kW)

      . Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. average fuel consumption (diesel): not published. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. descent: not published. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. climb: not published.

      Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. departure: 53 degrees. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. approach: 44 degrees. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. on a side slope: not published. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. traverse angle: not published

        .

        Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. 1200 mm (optional equipment). Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. fording 800 mm (standard)

          . The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. ground clearance: 476 mm (varies with tyre). Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. fuel: 145 litres.

          The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. tires: 365/85 R 20.5. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. gross weight: 11,800 kg. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). empty weight: 4,300 kg. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. turning radius: 14.5 m.

          Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. wheelbase: 2336 mm. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. height: 2740 mm. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. length: 5410 mm. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. track width: 1920 mm.

          All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. width: 2474 mm. . discontinued: In Production. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. introduced: 2002. About 300 species are alive today. reverse: 20.12/11.09.

          The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. forward: 14.93/8.23/4.47/2.46/1.52/1.0. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. transmission gearing

            . The term is sometimes used (esp. 2 Barrel Zenith NDIX-32 Carbeurator. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Shielded Distributor Ignition, 24 Volt Electrical System.

            Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. engine: 2.2 litre straight 6 SOHC (Mercedes Benz M180) 80 HP (60 kW)

              . Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. average fuel consumption (gasoline): 10–14 mpg (US) (24–17 L/100 km). Superfamily Chelonioidea. descent: 90% grade. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. climb: 70% grade.

              Superfamily Trionychoidea. departure: 46 degrees. Superfamily Testudinoidea. approach: 45 degrees. on a side slope: 42 degrees. traverse angle

                .

                fording (w/o equipment): 800 mm (31.5 in). ground clearance: 400 mm (15.7 in). fuel: 2 x 60 litre (15.9 US gal). tires: 10.5 x 20 (DOT).

                gross weight: 4400 kg (9700 lb). empty weight: 2900 kg (6390 lb). turning radius: 13 m (42.6 ft). wheelbase: 2900 mm (114 in).

                cargo bed: 3000 by 2000 mm (118 by 78 in), 2130 by 2080 mm (84 by 82 in) with double-cab. height: 2190 mm (86 in), cab height: 1600 mm (63 in). length: 4900 mm. width: 2130 mm (84 in).

                discontinued: 1980. introduced: 1955.

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