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TurtleFor other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.
All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.
Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).
Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.
Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.
Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.
Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.
The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).
However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.
Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
Suborder Pleurodira. Articles:. Suborder Cryptodira. Books:. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. The story is sometimes still falsely attributed to Lord Byron. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Polidori was the personal physician of Lord Byron and the vampire of the story, Lord Ruthven, is based partly on him — making the character the first of our now familiar romantic vampires. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. John Polidori authored the first "true" vampire story called The Vampyre. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. These include the combination of horror and lust that the vampire feels and the concept of the undead passing its inheritance to the living.
Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Lord Byron introduced many common elements of the vampire theme to Western literature in his epic poem The Giaour (1813). All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). It wasn't long before vampire bats were adapted into fictional tales, and they have become one of the more important vampire associations in popular culture. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records the folkloric use in English from 1734 and the zoological not until 1774. Their exact ancestry is disputed. During the 16th century the Spanish conquistadors first came into contact with vampire bats and recognized the similarity between the feeding habits of the bats and those of their mythical vampires.
The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. It is therefore extremely unlikely that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the bat. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. The three species of actual vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. In South America, Camazotz was a bat god of the caves living in the Bathouse of the Underworld. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. In English heraldic tradition, a bat means "Awareness of the powers of darkness and chaos".
Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. On the other hand, the gypsies thought them lucky and wore charms made of bat bones. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. In Europe, bats and owls were long associated with the supernatural, mainly because they were night creatures. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Bats have become an integral part of the vampire myth only recently, although many cultures have myths about them. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Natural processes of decomposition, absent embalming, tend to darken the skin of a corpse — hence the black, blue, or red complexion of the folkloric vampire.
Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. During decomposition blood can often be seen emanating from nose and mouth, which could give the impression that the corpse was a vampire who had been drinking blood. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and blood tries to escape the body. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. In the past, people were often malnourished and therefore thin in life, which could account for the pale skin often referred to. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches.  Folkloric accounts almost universally represent the alleged vampire as having ruddy or dark skin, not the pale skin of vampires in literature and film.
The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. It is a well known phenomenon that after death the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Another reason to believe that a body is a vampire that has fed on the living is the strange illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown . The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). When the coffin of an alleged vampire was opened, people sometimes found the cadaver in a relatively undecomposed state, which could have been interpreted as the corpse being the equivalent of a well-fed vampire. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. Some psychologists in modern times recognize a disorder called clinical vampirism (or Renfield Syndrome, from Dracula's insect-eating henchman, Renfield, in the novel by Bram Stoker) in which the victim is obsessed with drinking blood, either from animals or humans.
Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Legends that Erzsébet Báthory, a medieval Hungarian aristocrat, murdered hundreds of women in bizarre rituals involving blood, helped mold contemporary vampire legends. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Serial killers Peter Kurten and Richard Trenton Chase were both called "vampires" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered, for example. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. There have been a number of murderers who performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. However, like porphyria, there is little evidence to prove any links between vampires and rabies.
All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. This froth could sometimes look like blood, being red in colour. . Others argue that there is a relationship between vampirism and rabies, since people suffering from this disease would avoid sunlight and looking into mirrors and would froth at the mouth. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. . About 300 species are alive today. There is very little evidence to suggest that porphyria had anything to do with the development of the original folklore.
The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. However, the hypotheses that porphyria sufferers crave the heme in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a severe misunderstanding of the disease. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Certain forms of porphyria are also associated with neurological symptoms, which can create psychiatric disorders. The term is sometimes used (esp. People with extreme but rare cases of this hereditary disease can be so sensitive to sunlight that they can get a sunburn through heavy cloud cover, causing them to avoid sunlight — although it should be noted that the idea that vampires are harmed by sunlight is largely from modern fiction and not the original beliefs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The disease disrupts the production of heme.
Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Some people argue that vampire stories might have been influenced by a rare illness called porphyria. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. The chupacabra is also believed to be an alien. Superfamily Chelonioidea. The "chupacabras hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economical and political crisis, particularily during the middle of the 90`s decade. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. In the modern folklore of Puerto Rico and Mexico, the chupacabra (goat-sucker) is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals, leading some to consider it vampiric.
Superfamily Trionychoidea. However, local police stated that no such crimes had been reported to them, and this case appears to be an urban legend.. Superfamily Testudinoidea. In January 2005, it was reported that an attacker had bitten a number of people in Birmingham, England, fueling concerns about a vampire roaming the streets. In Romania, several relatives of Toma Petre dug up his body, tore out his heart, burned the organ and drank its ashes in water in February of 2004, thinking that he had become a vampire.. Mobs stoned one individual to death and attacked at least four others, including Governor Eric Chiwaya, due to a belief that the government was colluding with vampires..
During late 2002 and early 2003, hysteria about alleged attacks of vampires swept through the African country of Malawi. Belief in vampires still persists across the globe. By then, though, many knew about vampires, and soon authors would adopt and adapt the concept of vampire, making it known to the general public. This was the end of the vampire epidemics.
He concluded that vampires do not exist, and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies. Eventually, Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician to investigate. This had considerable influence on other scholars at the time. Nonetheless, Dom Augustine Calmet, a well-respected French theologian and scholar, put together a carefully thought out treatise in 1746 in which he claimed vampires did exist.
Many scholars said vampires did not exist, and attributed reports to premature burial, or rabies. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed vampire attacks, with locals digging up bodies. The controversy raged for a generation. Government officials examined the cases and the bodies, wrote them up in reports, and books were published afterwards of the Paole case and distributed around Europe.
These two incidents were extremely well documented. After his death, people began to die, and it was believed by everyone that Paole had returned to prey on the neighbours. In the other famous case, Arnold Paole, an ex-soldier turned farmer who had allegedly been attacked by a vampire years before, died while haying. Soon Plogojowitz returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.
When the son refused, he was found dead the next day. As the story goes, Plogojowitz died at the age of 62, but came back a couple of times after his death asking his son for food. Two famous cases involved Peter Plogojowitz and Arnold Paole. It all started with an outbreak of alleged vampire attacks in East Prussia in 1721 and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire from 1725 to 1734.
The word vampire only came into the English language in 1732 via an English translation of a German report of the much-publicized Arnold Paole vampire staking in Serbia. Even government officials frequently got dragged into the hunting and staking of vampires. During the 18th century there was a major vampire scare in Eastern Europe. An account of this incident was found among the papers of Bram Stoker and the story closely resembles the events in his classic novel, Dracula.
Her heart was cut out then burnt to ashes. Her father, assisited by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death. The most well known case is that of nineteen year old Mercy Brown who died in Exeter, Rhode Island in 1892. In this region there are several well-documeted cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and misfortune in the family.
During the 18th and 19th centuries the belief in vampires was widespread in parts of New England, particularly in Rhode Island and Eastern Connecticut.
However, they could be seen "by a twin brother and sister born on a Saturday who wear their drawers and shirts inside out." Likewise, a settlement could be protected from a vampire "by finding a twin brother and sister born on a Saturday and making them wear their shirts and drawers inside out (cf previous section). According to the late Serbian ethnologist Tatomir Vukanović, Roma people in Kosovo believed that vampires were invisible to most people. Further measures included driving stakes into the grave, pouring boiling water over it, decapitating the corpse, or burning it. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs.
To ward off vampires, gypsies drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial. To get rid of a vampire people would hire a Dhampir (the son of a vampire and his widow) or a Moroi  to detect the vampire. (See the article on vampire watermelons.). Pumpkins or melons kept in the house too long would start to move, make noises or show blood.
Plants or dogs, cats, or even agricultural tools could become vampires. If a person died unseen, he would become a vampire; likewise if a corpse swelled before burial. Anyone who had a hideous appearance, was missing a finger, or had animal appendages, etc., was believed to be a vampire. Female vampires could return, lead a normal life and even marry but would exhaust the husband.
This vampire is believed to return and do malicious things and/or suck the blood of a person (usually a relative who had caused their death, or hadn't properly observed the burial ceremonies, or who kept the deceased's possessions instead of destroying them as was proper). One form of vampire in Romani myth is called a mullo (one who is dead). Some refer to their Black Goddess as "Black Cally" or "Black Kali". They still hold a ceremony each May 24 in the French village where this is supposed to have occurred.
Gypsies have a belief that the three Marys from the New Testament went to France and baptised a gypsy called Sara. Sara, or the Black Goddess, is the form in which Kali survived among gypsies. Kali drank all his blood so none was spilled, thereby winning the battle and killing Raktabija. She and the goddess Durga battled the demon Raktabija who could reproduce himself from each drop of blood spilled.
Her temples are near the cremation grounds. The most famous Indian deity associated with blood drinking is Kali, who has fangs, wears a garland of corpses or skulls and has four arms. This kind of reincarnation does not arise out of birth from a womb, etc, but is achieved directly, and such evil spirits' fate is pre-determined as to how they shall achieve liberation from that yoni, and re-enter the world of mortal flesh through next incarnation. Since Hinduism believes in reincarnation of the soul after death, it is supposed that upon leading an unholy or immoral life, sin or suicide, the soul reincarnates into such kinds of evil spirits.
Vetala and pishacha are some other creatures who resemble vampires in some form. In northern India could be found the BrahmarākŞhasa, a vampire-like creature with a head encircled by intestines and a skull from which it drank blood. It wanders around animating dead bodies at night and attacks the living like a ghoul. The Bhut or Prét is the soul of a man who died an untimely death.
The ancient home of the Roma, India, has many mythical vampire figures. The Roma myths of the living dead added to and enriched the vampire myths of Hungary, Romania, and Slavic lands. The soul stays around the body and sometimes wants to come back. Traditional Romani beliefs include the idea that the dead soul enters a world similar to ours except that there is no death.
Even today, Roma frequently feature in vampire fiction and film, no doubt influenced by Bram Stoker's book, Dracula, in which the Szgany Roma served Dracula, carrying his boxes of earth and guarding him. For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and given to family members as a cure. By the 19th century people were shooting a bullet through the coffin. To destroy a vampire, a stake was driven through the body followed by decapitation and placing garlic in the mouth.
Measures to prevent a person becoming a vampire included, removing the caul from a newborn and destroying it before the baby could eat any of it, careful preparation of dead bodies, including preventing animals from passing over the corpse, placing a thorny branch of wild rose in the grave, and placing garlic on windows and rubbing it on cattle, especially on St George's & St Andrew's days. Graves were often opened three years after death of a child, five years after the death of a young person, or seven years after the death of an adult to check for vampirism. Living vampires were found by distributing garlic in church and seeing who did not eat it. A vampire in the grave could be told by holes in the earth, an undecomposed corpse with a red face, or having one foot in the corner of the coffin.
St George's Day is still celebrated in Europe. Vampires, along with witches, were believed to be most active on the Eve of St George's Day (April 22 Julian, May 4 Gregorian calendar), the night when all forms of evil were supposed to be abroad. The vampire was usually first noticed when it attacked family and livestock, or threw things around in the house. The person afflicted with lycanthropy could turn into a dog, pig, or wolf.
The Vârcolac which is sometimes mentioned in folklore was more closely related to a mythological wolf that could devour the sun and moon (similar to Fenris in Norse mythology), and later became connected with werewolves rather than vampires. Moreover, being bitten by vampire, meant certain condemnation to a vampiric existence after death. A person born with a caul, tail, born out of wedlock, or one who died an unnatural death, or died before baptism, was doomed to become a vampire, as was the seventh child of the same sex in a family, the child of a pregnant woman who did not eat salt or who was looked at by a vampire, or a witch. Other types of vampires in Romanian folklore include Moroi and Pricolici.
The Strigoi morţi are the reanimated bodies which return to suck the blood of family, livestock, and neighbours. They can send out their soul at night to meet with other witches or with Strigoi morţi who are dead vampires. Strigoi vii are live witches who will become vampires after death. There are different types of Strigoi.
They are called Strigoi based on the ancient Greek term strix for screech owl, which also came to mean demon or witch. Romania is surrounded by Slavic countries, so it is not surprising that Romanian vampires are similar to the Slavic vampire. Tales of vampiric entities were also found among the ancient Romans and among the Romanized inhabitants of eastern Europe, Romanians (known as Vlachs in historical context). Vampires could be destroyed by staking, decapitation (the Kashubs placed the head between the feet), burning, repeating the funeral service, holy water on the grave or exorcism.
Evidence that a vampire was at work in the neighbourhood included death of cattle, sheep, relatives, neighbours, exhumed bodies being in a lifelike state with new growth of the fingernails or hair, or if the body was swelled up like a drum, or there was blood on the mouth and if the corpse had a ruddy complexion. Certain people would bury their potential vampires with scythes above their necks, so the dead would decapitate themselves as they rose. In the case of stakes, the general idea was to pierce through the vampire and into the ground below, pinning them. Preventative measures included: placing a crucifix in the coffin, or blocks under the chin to prevent the body from eating the shroud, nailing clothes to coffin walls for the same reason, or piercing the body with thorns or stakes.
Causes of vampirism included being born with a caul, teeth, or tail, being conceived on certain days, irregular death, excommunication, improper burial rituals etc. It must still be observed that Vampire beliefs were common in (Catholic) Poland, and that there is little indication they were less common in Croatia than among the Serbs. This split caused a big difference in the development of vampire lore - the Orthodox church believed incorrupt bodies were vampires, while the Roman church believed they were saints. They formally broke in 1054 AD, with the Bulgarians, Russians, and Serbians staying Orthodox, while the Poles, Czechs, and Croatians went Roman.
However, through the 9th and 10th centuries, the Eastern Orthodox Church and the western Roman Catholic Church were struggling with each other for supremacy. Christianisation began almost as soon as they arrived in their new homelands. Prior to 8th century AD they migrated north and west to where they are now. The Slavs came from north of the Black Sea and were closely associated with the Balts.
The Slavic people including most east Europeans from Russia to Serbia to Poland, have the richest vampire folklore and legends in the world. Most of the European vampire myths have Slavic and/or Romanian origins. In other cases, however, a victim of a cruel, untimely, or violent death was susceptible to becoming a vampire. They were usually believed to rise from the bodies of suicide victims, criminals, or evil sorcerers, though in some cases an initial vampire thus "born of sin" could pass his vampirism onto his innocent victims.
It seems that until the 19th century, vampires in Europe were thought to be hideous monsters rather than the debonair, aristocratic vampire made popular by later fictional treatments. Many vampire legends also bear similarities to legends regarding succubi or incubi. Medieval historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded the earliest English stories of vampires in the 12th century. In early Slavic folklore, a vampire drank blood, was afraid of (but could not be killed by) silver and could be destroyed by cutting off its head and putting it between the corpse's legs or by putting a wooden stake into its heart.
The Roman strix is the source of the Romanian vampire, the Strigoi and the Albanian Shtriga, which also show Slavic influence . Roman tales describe the strix, a nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood. In Homer's Odyssey, the shades that Odysseus meets on his journey to the underworld are lured to the blood of freshly sacrificed rams, a fact that Odysseus uses to his advantage to summon the shade of Tiresias. The Ancient Egyptian goddess Sekhmet in one myth became full of blood lust after slaughtering humans and was only sated after drinking alcohol colored as blood.
For further information, see the article on Lilith. Lilitu/Lilith is sometimes called the mother of all vampires. One of these demons, named Lilitu, was later adapted into Jewish demonology as Lilith. These female demons were said to roam during the hours of darkness, hunting and killing newborn babies and pregnant women.
Vampire-like spirits called the Lilu are mentioned in early Babylonian demonology, and the bloodsucking Akhkharu even earlier in the Sumerian mythology. Tales of the dead craving blood are ancient in nearly every culture around the world. Evidence suggests that an Upir was originally just a sort of psychopomp, a spirit which accompanies the soul of a dead person from the grave to the afterlife . The word Upir as a term for vampire is found for the first time in written form in 1047 in a letter to a Novgorodian prince referring to him as 'Upir Lichyj' (Wicked Vampire).
The Slavic word, like its cognate netopyr' ("bat"), comes from the PIE root for "to fly". English vampire comes from German Vampir, in turn from early Old Polish *vąper' (where ą is a nasal a, and both p and r' are palatalized), in turn from Old Slavic *oper (with a nasal o) or Old Church Slavonic opiri. . This term also applies to mythic animals of the same nature, including the chupacabra.
In zoology, the term vampirism is used to refer to leeches, mosquitos, mistletoe, vampire bats, and other organisms that prey upon the bodily fluids of other creatures. The consumption of another's blood (and/or flesh) has been used as a tactic of psychological warfare intended to terrorize the enemy, and it can be used to reflect various spiritual beliefs. The historical practice of vampirism can generally be considered a more specific and less commonly occurring form of cannibalism. In folklore and popular culture, the term generally refers to a belief that one can gain supernatural powers by drinking human blood.
Vampires are said to mainly bite the victim's neck, extracting the blood from a main artery. Vampirism is the practice of drinking blood from a person/animal. Vampires are often described as having a variety of additional powers and character traits, extremely variable in different traditions, and are a frequent subject of folklore, cinema, and contemporary fiction. Some cultures have myths of non-human vampires, such as demons or animals like bats, dogs, and spiders.
Vampires are mythical or folkloric creatures, typically held to be the re-animated corpses of human beings and said to subsist on human and/or animal blood (hematophagy), often having unnatural powers, heightened bodily functions, and/or the ability to physically transform. For treatments of the vampire legend in fiction, see Vampire fiction.. ^ "Do hair and nails continue to grow after death?", SDSTAFF Hawk (pseudonym), The Straight Dope, August 9, 2001, accessed online December 15, 2005. ^ "The Vampire", Henry Steel Olcott, The Theosophist, Vol XII, 1891, accessed online December 15, 2005.
^ "Reality Bites", Stuart Jeffries, The Guardian, January 18, 2005, accessed online August 17, 2005. ^ "Romanian villagers decry police investigation into vampire slaying", Matthew Schofield, Knight Ridder Newspapers, March 24, 2004. ^ "'Vampires' strike Malawi villages", Raphael Tenthani, BBC News, December 23, 2002. ISBN: 0-571-16792-6.
1991. Frayling, Christopher: "Vampyres, Lord Byron to Count Dracula". 1914 (available in various reprints). Wright, Dudley: The Book of Vampires.
ISBN 0070456712. McGraw Hill, 1983. McNally, Raymond T.: Dracula Was a Woman. ISBN 0517881004.
Crown Trade Paperbacks, 1993. Bunson, Matthew: The Vampire Encyclopedia. ISBN 0786708999. Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2001.
Bell, Michael E.: Food for the Dead: On the Trail of New England's Vampires. ISBN 0300048599. Yale University Press.1988. Barber, Paul : Vampires, Burial and Death : Folklore and Reality .
Aside from the Muppet character of Count von Count on television's Sesame Street, this characteristic seems to have largely disappeared from popular culture. Chinese myths about vampires also state that if a vampire comes across a sack of rice, s/he will have to count all of the grains. Millet or poppy seeds were placed on the ground at the gravesite of a presumed vampire, in order to keep the vampire occupied all night counting. Old folklore from Eastern Europe suggests that many vampires suffered from a form of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, being fascinated with counting.
This includes other means of death that effectively removes a vampire's head, such as incinerating the body completely. There are three main ways to destroy a typical European vampire: a consecrated bullet, a wooden stake through the heart where two roads meet, or decapitation. In Eastern vampiric myths, vampires are often similarly warded by holy devices such as Shintō seals. Holy water and other holy symbols depend upon the culture.
In myths of other regions, other plants of holy or mythical properties sometimes have similar effects. Garlic is confined mostly to European vampire legends. This weakness on the part of the vampire varies depending on the tale. Apotropaics, or objects intended to ward off vampires, include garlic, a branch of wild rose, and all things sacred (e.g., holy water, a crucifix, a rosary, or sacred objects from other faiths).
Werewolves are sometimes held to become vampires after death, and vampires are frequently held to have the ability to transform themselves into wolves. In most cases they sustain themselves by sucking living people's blood or life force ; this seems to be a requirement for their continued existence regardless of whether they are able to absorb other food and drink, or gain anything from such. However, most tales of the undead feature vampires that cannot eat (or at least cannot gain nourishment from) normal human food. Vampires in some tales have very specific dietary requirements while others do not.
Others place native soil in their coffins, especially if they have relocated. Some tales maintain that vampires must return to their native soil before sunrise to take their rest safely. Vampires may be reluctant to enter or cross bodies of water, particularly running water. In some cases sunlight may burn or kill vampires, or they may be comatose during the day.
Vampire powers are often limited during the day or in daylight. Generally, however, a vampire can come and go at will after being invited once. This concept has been referenced throughout the history of vampire fiction (from Samuel Taylor Coleridge's poem Christabel, through Bram Stoker's novel Dracula to Stephen King's novel Salem's Lot, and even Buffy the Vampire Slayer). Some tradititions hold that a vampire cannot enter a house unless he or she is invited in.
In modern fiction, this may extend to the idea that vampires cannot be photographed. This mythical power is largely confined to European vampiric myths and may be tied to folklore regarding the vampire's lack of a soul. Vampires typically cast no shadow and have no reflection. straw, dust, smoke) and then create winds as a means of propulsion.
Sometimes this power is supernatural, other times it is connected to the vampire's ability to turn into flying creatures (e.g., bats, owls, flies) or into lightweight forms (e.g. Some vampires can fly. Vampires are sometimes considered to be shape-shifters, though this feature is more commonly present in fiction than in the original folklore. They often have a pale (for vampires from literature and cinema) or ruddy (for those from folklore) appearance, and are cool to the touch from the perspective of humans.
Vampires, being already dead, do not need most normal things required for human life, such as oxygen. The Pontianak was a female vampire that sucked the blood of newborn babies and sometimes that of young children or pregnant women. In Malaysian folklore, the Penanggalan was a vampire whose head could separate from its body, with its entrails dangling from the base of its neck. She lived in a house, could marry and have children, and was a seemingly normal human during the daylight hours.
The Aswang was believed to always be a female of considerable beauty by day and, by night, a fearsome flying fiend. She sucked the blood of fetuses. In Philippine folklore, the Manananggal was a female vampire whose entire upper body could separate from her lower body and who could fly using wings. The Chinese vampire, the hopping corpse (jiāng shī), has more in common with Western ideas of corporeal zombies or ghouls but is still depicted as draining the victim of blood.
There are also tales of kamaitachi, a phenomenon where it was said that evil gods would thirst for human blood. Oni myths also have similarities with Western vampire legends. Kitsune may be either maleficent or benevolent, or both; kitsune are said to drain the life-force of its victims after charming them or becoming their lover, in similar fashion as succubi or incubi. In Japan, the kitsune is a vampiric shapeshifting fox-spirit that takes its origins from both Chinese and Indian mythology.
A book Aithihyamala (a garland of folklores) by Kottarathil Sankunni, have lots of stories regarding these Vampires of Kerala. The Yakshi in Kerala is quite different from the one depicted in the topic Yakshi at Wikipedia. The Yakshi could be also brought into control by various was including rituals, and also by driving an iron nail onto her head. The Yakshi would kill the man, and eat him up (except for the nails and hair).
As soon as the victim reaches the house, the Yakshi would reveal her trueself, and the victim would realise that he actually sitting on top of a tall tree (known in the local language as Pana). She would then lure them into a palatial house. These folklores essentially portray Yakshi's as beautiful women (generally in traditional Kerala attire), who would attract lone travellers in the night. There are a lot of folklores about a category of vampires known as Yakshi's, in the state of Kerala, South India.
India is home to beliefs in a spirit called the vetala, a wraithly vampire that can leave its host body to feed. They could also be killed by rubbing salt into their discarded skin, which would burn them upon returning to it before morning. The vampire would feel compelled to pick up every grain. They were said to be notoriously obsessive-compulsive, and could be thwarted by sprinkling salt or rice at entrances, crossroads and near beds.
In the Caribbean, vampires known as Soucoyah in Trinidad and Tobago, Ol' Higue in Jamaica, and Lagaroo in Grenada, take the form of old women during the day, and at night shed their skin to become flying balls of flame who seek blood. In Aztec mythology, the Civatateo was a sort of vampire, created when a noblewoman died in childbirth. Medieval and later Greek folklore features the vrykolakas, (which is now considered synonymous with "vampire"). In Ancient Greece and Medieval Bulgaria the Lamia had the upper body of a woman, the lower body of a winged serpent and craved blood (especially the blood of women).