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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Typically, one neighbour cannot alter the common wall if it is likely to affect the building or property on the other side. Suborder Cryptodira. Special laws often govern walls shared by neighbouring properties. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. A dike is one type of retaining wall, as is a levee. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. The ground surface or water on one side of a retaining wall will be noticeably higher than on the other side.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Retaining walls are a special type of wall, that may be either external to a building or part of a building, that serves to provide a barrier to the movement of earth, stone or water. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. In areas of rocky soils around the world, farmers (and their slaves, as in the United States before slavery was abolished) have often pulled large quantities of stone out of their fields to make farming easier, and have stacked those stones to make walls that either mark the field boundary, or the property boundary, or both. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Extreme examples of boundary walls include the Great Wall of China and Hadrian's Wall. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Since they are no longer relevant for defense, the cities have grown beyond their walls, and many of the walls have been torn down.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). In fact, the English word "wall" is derived from Latin "vallum, which was a type of fortification wall. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Before the invention of artillery, many European cities had protective walls. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. the Berlin Wall or the Israeli West Bank barrier. Their exact ancestry is disputed. A common term for both is barrier, convenient if it is partly a wall and partly a fence, e.g.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. More to the point, if an exterior structure is made of wood or wire, it is generally referred to as a fence, while if it is made of masonry, it is considered a wall. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. These intergrade into fences; the conventional differentiation is that a fence is of minimal thickness and often is open in nature, while a wall is usually more than a nominal thickness and is completely closed, or opaque. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. Boundary walls include privacy walls, boundary-marking walls, and city walls. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. On a ship, the walls separating compartments are termed ' Bulkheads', whilst the thinner walls separating cabins are termed 'Partitions'.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. Building walls frequently become works of art, such as when murals are painted on them. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Electrical outlets are usually mounted in walls. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. In addition, the wall may house various types of electrical wiring or plumbing. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. In today's construction, a building wall will usually have the structural elements (such as 2×4 studs in a house wall), insulation, and finish elements, or surface (such as drywall or panelling).

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Such walls most often have three or more separate components. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Building walls have two main purposes: to support roofs and ceilings, and to divide space, providing security against intrusion and weather. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. There are three principal types of structural walls: building walls, exterior boundary walls, and retaining walls. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Most commonly, a wall separates space in buildings into rooms, or protects or delineates a space in the open air.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. . Some species of turtles are highly endangered. About 300 species are alive today.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The term is sometimes used (esp. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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