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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. has produced many other stuffed animals, some of which are variations of Beanie Babies:. Suborder Cryptodira. Ty Inc. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. Like the Internet stocks of the period, this was a recent example of an economic bubble. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Estimates of the number of each Beanie Baby that would survive years into the future were much lower than the reality, however, and much like the Cabbage Patch Kid phenomenon, so many people had similar plans that very few people profited from the craze.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Ty fed the frenzy by systematically "retiring" various designs of Beanie Babies and ceasing their production. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. In a buying frenzy reminiscent of the Cabbage Patch Kid mania of the early 1980s, several speculators purchased these collectibles en masse in hopes of making a fortune years later from being able to sell rare specimens. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Starting in late 1996, a faddish craze of collecting Beanie Babies began. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. The bear model was frequently used for commemorative purposes, and special bears such as a Fourth of July model and even a Diana, Princess of Wales commemorative were created.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). One popular "series" within the Beanie Baby menagerie was the use of teddy bear-shaped Beanies, the basic pattern of which was repeatedly re-used, but with different colors and names. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). As the years went on hundreds of different Beanie Babies were created, often resorting to more obscure animals such as aardvarks or chameleons in the process. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. Beanie Babies are a kitsch cubicle decoration, especially for women. Their exact ancestry is disputed. Intended as upscale children's toys, they became a popular adult gift item.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. The condition of the hang tag is one of the main factors in determining a Beanie Baby's value, and hard plastic covers molded in a heart shape are available for its protection. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. This information was all contained on a red, heart-shaped hang tag usually affixed to the animal's ear. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. For example, the poem of Bongo the monkey went:. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Each Baby came with his or her own name, a birthday date, and a simple poem describing their personality.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. The official Beanie Babies were mostly in the shape of animals, such as dogs, cats, pigs, hippos, and others and were all brightly colored and stylized. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Ty claimed rightful ownership of the name and of all of the designs of their various "beanies." There have been imitations by other companies that jumped onto the idea of creating beanbag-like stuffed animals, however, including one imitator who even produced a tie-dyed bear (reminiscent of Ty's "Garcia"), as well as parodies such as the "Meanie Babies". Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. The original Beanie Babies were made by Ty Warner through his company Ty Inc. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. A Beanie Baby is thus a form of bean bag.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. A Beanie Baby is a stuffed animal filled with plastic pellets, or "beans," rather than stuffing (see PVC). Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. They are smaller versions of holiday-themed Beanie Babies, similar to the Teenie Beanies but of better quality. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Jingle Beanies / Basket Beanies / Halloweenie Beanies: a seasonal product, sold during Christmas, Easter, and Halloween. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Teenie Beanies: smaller versions of Beanie Babies that were used as free giveaways in McDonald's Happy Meals on three different occasions.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. Punkies: extremely fuzzy animals. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Pluffies: stuffing-filled animals, with a terrycloth-like fur. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Pinkys: pink stuffed animals. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. (These are not a type of Beanie Baby, although due to the word "Classic," some people may incorrectly believe that the name refers to the "original 9" Beanie Babies).

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Classic: stuffing-filled animals. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Beanie Buddies: larger versions of Beanie Babies, filled with stuffing. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Baby Ty: various baby animals and humans in cute-little baby clothes. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. . Some species of turtles are highly endangered. About 300 species are alive today.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The term is sometimes used (esp. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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