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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. As a result, the wearing of wrist-watches has become less common among mobile phone users, who are now the majority of the population. Suborder Cryptodira. As these phones typically display the time on their screens when not in use, it has become common to rely on them for time-keeping, effectively making the mobile phone serve the function of a pocket watch. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. In the early 2000s, the carrying of mobile telephones has become ubiquitous in many affluent countries. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Wrist_PDA, although many digital watches come with extremely sophisticated data management software built in.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. As of 2005, the only programmable computer watches to have made it to market are the Seiko Ruputer, the Matsucom onHand, and the Fossil, Inc. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Several companies have however attempted to develop a computer contained in a WristWatch (see also wearable computer). More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Now with the ubiquity of the mobile phone in many countries, which have bigger screens, buttons, and batteries, interest in incorporating extra functionality in watches seems to have declined. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Such watches have also had the reputation as ugly and thus mainly geek toys.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). As well as awkward user interfaces due to the tiny screens and buttons possible in a wearable package, and in some cases short battery life, the functionality available has not generally proven sufficiently compelling to attract buyers. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). These watches have not had sustained long-term sales success. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. In the early 2000s, a self-contained wristwatch television receiver came on the market, with a strong enough power source to provide one hour of viewing. Their exact ancestry is disputed. In the early 1980s Seiko marketed a watch with a television receiver in it, although at the time television receivers were too bulky to fit in a wristwatch, and the actual receiver and its power source were in a book-sized box with a cable that ran to the wristwatch.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. As miniaturized electronics become cheaper, watches have been developed containing calculators, video games, digital cameras, keydrives, GPS receivers and cellular phones. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. A number of functionalities non directly related to time have also been inserted into watches. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. In 2005 for example, a company has put into market an alarm wristwatch with an accelerometer inside that monitors the user's sleep and rings during one of his almost-awake phases. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Other technological enhancements to wristwatches have been explored but most of them remained unnoticed.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. Suunto is the only company offering a reasonable-sized watch integrating GPS. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Early examples are the Casio PRO TREK GPS Satellite Navi and the Garmin Forerunner 201. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. As GPS receivers are significantly more complex, very few wrist-watches integrating GPS are available and most of which are very large compared to regular watches. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Similarly watches with GPS time synchronisation use the satellite networks time signals.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In recent years, mass production has meant that atomic watches have become as cheap as quartz watches, though market share still remains small as interest from big manufacturers is limited. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Similar signals are broadcast from Rugby (MSF time signal), England and Frankfurt, Germany. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. It will also reset itself when daylight saving time changes. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. This radio signal tells the wristwatch exactly what time it is, in theory precise to a fraction of a nanosecond.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. These wristwatches normally receive a radio signal from one of the national atomic clock facilities around the world, for example the National Institute of Standards and Technology located in Colorado in the United States. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. In 1990 radio controlled wristwatches or as they are sometimes called "atomic watches" reached the market. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). This is often used as a case study in design schools to demonstrate the commercial potential of industrial and graphic design. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. They founded the Swiss Watch company (Swatch) and called graphic designers to redesign a new annual collection.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. In fact it was so cheap that if a watch broke it would be cheaper to throw it away and buy a new one than to repair it. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. The result was that they could considerably reduce the pieces and production time of an analog watch. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. They joined forces with designers from many countries to reinvent the Swiss watch. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. At the end of the 20th century, Swiss watch makers were seeing their sales go down as analog clocks were considered obsolete.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. For others, analog watches are just easier to read. . In fact, because digital watches are so cheap, analog watches are often worn as status symbols. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Digital watches have not replaced analog watches, despite their greater reliability and lower cost. About 300 species are alive today. In addition to the function of a timepiece, digital watches can have additional functions like a chronograph, calculator, video game, etc.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. The first LCD watch with a six-digit LCD was the 1973 Seiko 06LC, although various forms of early LCD watches with a four-digit display were marketed as early as 1972 including the 1972 Gruen Teletime LCD Watch [3], [4]. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. LED displays were soon superseded by liquid crystal displays (LCDs), which used less battery power. The term is sometimes used (esp. It had a red light-emitting diode (LED) display. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. A retail version of the Pulsar was put on sale in 1972.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The first digital watch, a Pulsar prototype in 1970, was developed jointly by Hamilton Watch Company and Electro-Data. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Douglas Adams, in the introduction of his novel The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, would say that humans were 'so amazingly primitive that they still think digital watches are a pretty neat idea'. Superfamily Chelonioidea. They were seen as the great new thing. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Cheaper electronics permitted the popularization of the digital watch (an electronic watch with a numerical, rather than analog, display) in the second half of the 20th century.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Watch batteries come in many forms, the most common of which are silver oxide and lithium. Superfamily Testudinoidea. The most common power source is the battery. A seldom used power source is temperature difference between the wearer's arm and the surrounding environment (as applied in the Citizen Eco Drive Thermo). Kinetic powered quartz watches make use of the motion of the wearer's arm turning a rotating weight, which in turn, turns a generator to supply power.

Solar powered quartz watches are powered by available light. There are solar powered, kinetically powered, battery powered and other less common power sources. There are also several variations of the quartz watch as to what actually powers the movement. The first quartz watch to enter production was the Seiko 35 SQ Astron, which appeared in 1969.

The first prototypes were made by the CEH research laboratory in Switzerland in 1962. The quartz analog watch is an electronic watch that uses a piezoelectric quartz crystal as its timing element, coupled to a mechanical movement that drives the hands. The first battery-powered watch, the Hamilton Electric 500, was released in 1957 by the Hamilton Watch Company of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The first use of electrical power in watches was as a source of energy to replace the mainspring, and therefore to remove the need for winding.

The concepts are different but not mutually exclusive; a watch can be a chronograph, a chronometer, both, or neither. A chronograph is a type of complication, as explained under the heading "Complicated Watch." A chronometer is a watch or clock whose movement has been tested and certified to operate within a certain standard of accuracy by the COSC (Contrôle Officiel Suisse des Chronomètres). The similar-sounding terms chronograph and chronometer are often confused, although they mean altogether different things. Among watch enthusiasts, complicated watches are especially collectible.

Two popular complications are the chronograph complication, which is the ability of the watch movement to function as a stopwatch, and the moonphase complication, which is a display of the lunar phase. A complicated watch has one or more functionalities beyond basic time-keeping capabilities; such a functionality is called a complication. Today, many Westerners wear watches on their wrist, a direct result of the First World War. When the war ended, demobilized European and American officers were allowed to keep their wristwatches, helping to popularize the items amongst middle-class Western civilian culture.

Army contractors began to issue reliable, cheap, mass-produced wristwatches which were ideal for these purposes. As the scale of battles increased, artillery and infantry officers were required to synchronize watches in order to conduct attacks at precise moments, whilst artillery officers were in need of a large number of accurate timekeepers for rangefinding and gunnery. In addition, as increasing numbers of officers were killed in the early stages of the war, NCOs promoted to replace them often did not have pocket watches (traditionally a middle-class item out of the reach of ordinary working-class soldiers), and so relied on the army to provide them with timekeepers. During the First World War, officers in all armies soon discovered that in battlefield situations, quickly glancing at a watch on their wrist was far more convenient than fumbling in their jacket pockets for an old-fashioned pocket watch.

Being a popular figure in Paris, Cartier was soon able to sell these watches to other men. Cartier gave him a leather-band wristwatch from which Dumont never separated. It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that the Brazilian inventor Alberto Santos-Dumont, who had difficulty checking the time while in his first aircraft (Dumont was working on the invention of the aeroplane), asked his friend Louis Cartier for a watch he could use more easily. It was however considered a woman's accessory.

The wristwatch was invented by Patek Philippe at the end of the 19th century. Aaron Lufkin Dennison founded Waltham Watch Company in 1850, which was the pioneer of the industrial manufacturing by interchangeable parts, the American System of Watch Manufacturing. Eventually, miniaturization of these spring-based designs allowed for accurate portable timepieces which worked well even at sea. However, these watches only had an hour hand - a minute hand would have been useless considering the inaccuracy of the watch mechanism.

It is rumoured that Henry VIII (the portrait of Henry VIII at this link shows the medallion thought to be the back of his watch) had a pocket clock which he kept on a chain around his neck. In 1524, Peter Henlein created the first pocket watch[1][2]. In Tudor England, the development of "pocket-clockes" was enabled through the development of reliable springs and escapement mechanisms, which allowed clockmakers to compress a timekeeping device into a small, portable compartment. The invention of a spring mechanism was crucial for portable clocks.

The first reasonably accurate mechanical clocks measured time with weighted pendulums, which are useless at sea or in watches. For that reason, most maps from the 15th century to c.1800 have precise latitudes but distorted longitudes. However, the process was notoriously unreliable until the introduction of John Harrison's chronometer. The latitude could be measured by looking at the stars, but the only way a ship could measure its longitude was by comparing timezones; by comparing the midday time of the local longitude to a European meridian (usually Paris or Greenwich), a sailor could know how far he was from home.

The earliest need for portability in time keeping was navigation and mapping in the 15th century. . Watches may be collectible; they are often made of precious metals, and can be considered an article of jewelry. The back-and-forth motion of the winding rotor couples to a ratchet to automatically wind the watch.

The invention of "Automatic" or "Self-Winding" watches allowed for a constant winding without special action from the wearer: it works by an eccentric weight, called a winding rotor, that rotates to the movement of the wearer's body. a stem winder. Mechanical timepieces are still used, usually powered by a spring wound regularly by the user, e.g. Current watches are often digital watches, using a piezoelectric crystal, usually quartz, as an oscillator (see quartz clock).

leather (often synthetic), metal, or nylon), although before the 20th century most were pocket watches, which had covers and were carried separately, often in a pocket, and hooked to a watch chain. In modern times they are usually wrist-watches, worn on the wrist with a watch-strap (made of e.g. A watch is a small portable clock that displays the time and sometimes the day, date, month and year.

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