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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Westwood accepted a DBE in the 2006 New Year's Honours List "for services to fashion", and has twice earned the award for British Designer of the Year. Suborder Cryptodira. Her Autumn/Winter 2005/06 collection draws inspiration from her archive, reinterpreting designs using Wolford’s exclusive knitting technology, who she has worked in close collaboration with since 2003. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. The sale of the £50 T-shirts raised funds for the organisation. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. We can only take democracy for granted if we insist on our liberty", she said.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. The hatred of arbitrary arrest by the lettres de cachet of the French monarchy caused the storming of the Bastille. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. He spoke with pride of civilisation and democracy. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. The first thing he explained to us was the fundamental rule of law embodied in habeas corpus. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Scott, began to take classes in civic affairs.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). "When I was a schoolgirl my history teacher, Mr. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Westwood said she was supporting the campaign and defending habeas corpus. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. In September 2005, Westwood joined forces with the British civil rights group Liberty and launched exclusive limited design T-shirts and baby wear bearing the slogan I AM NOT A TERRORIST, please don't arrest me. Their exact ancestry is disputed. The retrospective is still currently touring the world and is set to continue until 2008.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. They range from early Punk garments to glamorous 'historical' evening gowns. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. The exhibition is made up of around 145 complete outfits, grouped into the themes which have dominated her work from the early 1970s to the present day and were drawn from her own personal archive and the V&A's extensive collection. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. Her first major retrospective of her work was shown in 2004-2005 at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, and the National Gallery of Australia. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. In December 2003, she and the Wedgwood pottery company launched a series of tea sets featuring her designs.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. The historical influence also, was always shown in her work. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Other influences in Westwood's work have included ethnic Peruvian influence, feminine figure, and velvet and knitwear. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. This collection was all about 'gold and treasure, adventure and exploration'. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Westwood worked historical factors into her collection by using historical 17th-18th century original cutting principles and modernising them.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Her design style had evolved so that her main interests included not only the youth and street culture but also tradition and technique. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Westwood's first runway show was the Pirate collection in London, in March 1981. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Together, Westwood and McLaren revolutionised fashion, and the impact is still felt today. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The inclusion of more traditional elements of British design, such as tartan fabric, amongst the more uncommon elements of her style only served to make the overall effect her designs more shocking.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. The 'punk style' included BDSM fashion, bondage gear, safety pins, razor blades, bicycle or lavatory chains on clothing and spiked dog collars that were used as jewellery as well as the outrageous make-up and hair. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The punk style began to gain notoriety when the Sex Pistols wore clothes from Westwood and McLaren's shop at their first gig. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). During this period, Westwood, McLaren, and artist Jamie Reid were influenced by the Situationists. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The two had a son named Joseph, and Westwood continued to teach until 1971, when Malcolm decided to open a shop, Sex, and this is where Vivienne began to sell her outrageous designs.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Their marriage lasted three years before she met Malcolm McLaren, later known for being the manager for punk band The Sex Pistols. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Vivienne's first husband was Derek Westwood with whom she had a child named Ben. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. There, Vivienne went to a teacher training college and then taught at a primary school in North London. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. When she was seventeen, her parents bought a post office and moved to the south of England, down to Harrow, Middlesex.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. She is linked with the Sex Pistols via Malcolm McLaren and their 'SEX/Seditionaries' boutique on King's Road, in London during the 1970s. . April 8, 1941) was christened Vivienne Isabel Swire in Tintwhistle, Cheshire, is an English fashion designer largely responsible for modern punk and new wave fashions. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Dame Vivienne Westwood DBE (b. About 300 species are alive today.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The term is sometimes used (esp. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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