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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Later that year, he was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team. Suborder Cryptodira. In 1999, he ranked number 2 on The Sporting News' list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players, making him then the highest-ranking living player, the highest-ranking player to have spent the majority of his career in the National League, and the highest-ranking center fielder. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. They share a close bond, and when Bonds tied Mays at third on the all time home run list, Mays greeted him warmly and presented him with a diamond-studded Olympic torch given to Mays for his part in carrying the Olympic Torch on its tour through the US. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Mays is the godfather of baseball star Barry Bonds.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Their home ballpark, SBC Park, is located at 24 Willie Mays Plaza with a larger-than-life statue of Mays in front of the main entrance, surrounded by 24 palm trees, and the right-field wall is 24-feet high, all in honor of Mays. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Mays' number 24 is retired by the San Francisco Giants. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. Having returned to Atherton, Mays is presently employed as Special Assistant to the Giants and appears often at baseball memorabilia shows. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Despite public outcry, the suspension would not be lifted till 1985 by Kuhn's successor, Peter Ueberroth.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Commissioner Bowie Kuhn immediately suspended Mays from involvement in organised baseball. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Shortly after, he took a job as a greeter in a casino in Atlantic City, New Jersey. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. On January 23, 1979, he was elected to the Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, appearing on 409 of the 432 ballots cast (roughly 95 percent). Their exact ancestry is disputed. He also served as a guest host of The Dick Cavett Show.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Mays was a coach for the New York Mets and also acted in a PR role for the club until 1979. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. Mays is the only MLB player to have a 4-home run game and a 3-triple game in a career. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. The Mets made the World Series in Mays' final year, only to lose in seven games to the A's. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. He played with the Mets until his retirement after the 1973 season.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. This was quite important to Mays as he had made some unwise investments and was not as wealthy as commonly believed. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. The Giants were losing money and owner Horace Stoneham could not guarantee him an income after retirement, where the Mets offered him the option to be hired as a coach after his playing days were over. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. The primary motivation for Mays' trade to the Mets was financial. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. He continued to play with that franchise until partway through the 1972 season, when he joined the New York Mets.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. Willie also put himself at the center of the year's greatest controversy, acting as a peacemaker during Giant pitcher Juan Marichal's notorious attack on John Roseboro and helping the bleeding Dodger catcher from the field, an act that gained him considerable respect from the Los Angeles fans. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. "Same pitch, too.". The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. "It was exactly the same feeling," Mays replied. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. "Was it anything like the same feeling?" asked Spahn.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. Warren Spahn, who had given up the very first, was then with San Francisco and greeted Mays as he returned to the dugout. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. One of those home runs, hit on September 13, off Don Nottebart, was the 500th of his career. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Mays won his second of two MVP awards in 1965, hitting a career high 52 long balls. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. In the '63 and '64 seasons he again scored and drove in over 100 runs, and hit a total of 85 homers, but the Giants finished 2nd and 3rd in the league, even with the young Willie McCovey playing almost as well as Willie in 1963.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. As he aged, Mays continued to play brilliantly. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. It was his last Series appearance as a Giant. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Mays hit .286, with only one extra base hit. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. In the Series, the Giants again lost to the Yankees, this time in seven games.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. Playing in 162 games, he hit .304, and led the Giants in runs scored (130), RBI (141), doubles, triples, homers (with 49), stolen bases, on base percentage and slugging percentage as his play down the stretch enabled the Giants to catch the Dodgers. . Over the season, Mays was clearly the star. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. In the deciding third game, as in 1951, the Giants again scored four times in the ninth inning, to take the win and the series. About 300 species are alive today. In the first game Mays hit two home runs.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Nevertheless, under Dark, the Giants made the World Series in 1962, defeating the Los Angeles Dodgers in a three game play off series. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. After one such incident, Mays managed to defuse a potential strike among the black and Puerto Rican players, but did not speak to Dark again outside the dugout. The term is sometimes used (esp. Dark was a Southern Baptist from Alabama, and given to making statements in the press about the unsuitability of black players for leadership roles. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The relationship was not a happy one, however.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. His replacement for 1961 was Alvin Dark, formerly Mays's team-mate, who immediately made Mays captain. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. The Giants were a little better in '58, '59 and '60, winning 242 games and losing 220, and Rigney was fired half way throughout the 1960 season. Superfamily Chelonioidea. He was better loved in the rest of the country; fans turned out just to see him play as the uncompetitive Giants led the league in road attendance every year Mays was with them. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Seemingly symbolic of the Giants New York past, he was initially frostily received by the San Francisco fans.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. When Mays moved along with the Giants to San Francisco for the 1958 season, and bought a palatial home in nearby Atherton. Superfamily Testudinoidea. After 1955's third place finish, Durocher was replaced by Bill Rigney, under whom they finished in sixth place in '56 and '57. Over the next three seasons Willie continued to play brilliantly, but was frequently the only good player on a poor Giants team. After the Giants' victory, Mays was announced as winner of the National League Most Valuable Player Award and the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year.

The play, now known simply as "The Catch", which kept the scores tied. In Game 1 of the series Mays made one of the greatest defensive plays of all time, a brilliant over-the-shoulder catch of a long drive by Vic Wertz, deep in centre field of the spacious Polo Grounds. He returned in 1954, hit .354 with 41 home runs, and helped carry the Giants to a 97-57 record, the National League pennant and a four-game sweep of the Cleveland Indians in the World Series. He missed part of the 1952 season and all of the 1953 season, as the Giants finished 2nd and 5th in the National League.

Army during the Korean War, but did not see action overseas. Mays served in the U.S. Playing a bit part for the Yankees was DiMaggio's heir apparent, and the player most comparable to Mays over their long careers, the 19 year old Mickey Mantle. Mays performed poorly in the 1951 World Series, as the Giants were beaten 4-2 by the New York Yankees, but the series marked the only time that Mays and the aging Joe DiMaggio would play on the same field.

Nevertheless, he won the 1951 Rookie of the Year Award, and ended the regular season as a somewhat nervous on-deck batter when Bobby Thomson's famous three run homer won the pennant for the Giants. From then on, his hitting steadily improved, although his .274 average, 68 RBI and 20 homers (in 121 games) would be among the worst of his career. The next day, Mays got his major league first hit, a home run off Warren Spahn of the Boston Braves. Durocher, who would be one of Mays's greatest admirers and defenders throughout his career, refused, telling Mays he was the Giants center fielder as long as Durocher was manager.

Worried, he asked manager Leo Durocher to send him back to the Millers. With the Giants, Mays immediately entered a slump, starting his career by getting no hits in his first 13 at bats. Hitting .477 after 35 games, he was called up to the major leagues in May, 1951, after Giants owner Horace Stoneham took out a full page advertisement in several Minneapolis newspapers, apologising for taking him away from the Millers. With the Millers, Mays was immediately a fan favorite with his stellar offense and defensive play.

After hitting .353 in Trenton, he began 1951 playing for the AAA Minneapolis Millers of the minor league American Association. He was scouted by a number of major league teams, but in 1950 the New York Giants signed him, and sent him to their Class-B affiliate Trenton, New Jersey. Wisely, he eschewed signing a contract with the Barons. Rejecting both, he began to play professionally as soon as he left school, playing briefly with the Chattanooga Choo-choos before returning to his home town to join the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro American League in 1947.

At high school he played quarterback on the football team, and was offered college scholarships in both football and basketball. Mays' athleticism was evident from an early age. In 21 seasons (excluding one lost partially to military service), he played 150 or more games, and more than 100 an additional five times. Mays was averse to drinking or smoking, which probably contributed to his great longevity as a player.

. The epitome of the five-tool player, he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility, in 1979. He is regarded as one of the finest players ever to have played the game and is often mentioned as the greatest living baseball player. Mays, nicknamed The Say Hey Kid, played center field throughout nearly all his career.

Willie Howard Mays, Jr. (born May 6, 1931 in Westfield, Alabama) is a former star of Major League Baseball.

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