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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira.
. Suborder Cryptodira.
. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. The group business areas are supported by a number of business units:. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. The Volvo Group is organised into the following business areas:.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. There is also a Volvo Baltic Race. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. One of the main promotional activities for the trademark is the sailing contest Volvo Ocean Race, formerly the Whitbread Around the World Cup. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. The Volvo™ trademark is now jointly owned (50/50) by Volvo and Ford. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. Instead Volvo acquired the commercial vehicles division of French Renault and the American truck manufacturer Mack.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Volvo used the funds from the sale of the automobile division to finance the purchase of Scania, another leading Swedish truck manufacturer, but the deal was stopped for competition reasons by the European Union. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). In the following year acquisition was completed at a price of $6.45 billion USD. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. The buyout of Volvo Cars was announced on January 28, 1998. Their exact ancestry is disputed. The strategy was instead to grow as a truck manufacturer where it had a stronger market position.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Among the reasons why Volvo took the initiative to sell the automobile manufacturing was the increasing development costs for new car models, coupled with the fact that it was a relatively small producer. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. . The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. Renault owns 20% of the Volvo Group. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The Volvo Group's net sales 2004 amounted to €22 billion.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. The group provides complete solutions for financing and service. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. The Volvo Group today has more than 81,000 employees, with manufacturing in 25 countries and sales in more than 185 markets. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Volvo is Latin for "I roll", and although fitting well to their products, vehicles, it was originally a name for a ball bearing being developed by the company SKF, which provided funding to a few employees to set up the car-manufacturing business. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Volvo Cars, the automobile manufacturer, has since 1999 been owned by the Ford Motor Company.

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. It was founded in April 14, 1927 in the city of Gothenburg, as a spin-off from roller ball bearing maker SKF. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. AB Volvo (or Aktiebolaget Volvo) is a world-leading Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles, buses and construction equipment, drive systems for marine and industrial applications, aerospace components and services. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Volvo Cars. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. Celero Support.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. Volvo Business Services. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Volvo Technology Transfer. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). Volvo Logistics. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. Volvo Information Technology.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Volvo Technology. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. Volvo Parts. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Volvo Powertrain. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Volvo 3P.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. Volvo Marine. . Volvo Financial Services. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. Volvo Aero. About 300 species are alive today. Volvo Penta.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Volvo Construction Equipment. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. Volvo Buses. The term is sometimes used (esp. Renault Trucks. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. Mack Trucks.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Volvo Trucks. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Superfamily Kinosternoidea.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Superfamily Testudinoidea.

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