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Turtle

For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation).
Families
Testudines, Chelonia

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The term is sometimes used (esp. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. About 300 species are alive today. Some species of turtles are highly endangered.

Description

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise).

Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years.

Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male.

Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills.

Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color.

Evolution

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles.

Order Testudines - Turtles

Gulf Coast Box Turtle, Terrapene carolina major (Emydidae) A slider of genus Trachemys A Leatherback Sea Turtle. Photo credit: NOAA

Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)

Suborder Cryptodira

Suborder Pleurodira


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Suborder Pleurodira. Catherines Wine Tasting of 2005, and many others. Suborder Cryptodira. The importance of blind tasting is demonstrated in the historic Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, the Ottawa Wine Tasting of 1981, the St. Suborder Paracryptodira (extinct)
. This is done because knowing the identity of a wine easily prejudices tasters for or against it because of its geographic origin, price, reputation, or other considerations. While the issue is far from resolved, most scientists now lean towards a Diapsid origin for turtles. Blind tasting of wine involves tasting and evaluating wines without any knowledge of their identities.

Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa were broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. The quantity of sulfites in a glass of wine is the same as a serving of dried apricots. All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria. Many consumers who have adverse reactions to wine, such as headaches or hangovers, blame added sulfites but are probably reacting instead to naturally-occurring histamines. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. In the USA nearly all commercially produced wine, including that with no added sulfites, is required to state on the label "contains sulfites." In other countries they do not have to be declared on the label, leading to a common mistaken belief that only wine from the USA contains sulfites. However, it was recently suggested that the Anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to convergent evolution rather than to anapsid descent. They can trigger a severe and life-threatening allergic reaction in a small percentage of consumers, primarily asthmatics.

Most anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, except procolophonoids and possibly the precursors of the testudines (turtles). Sulfites (or sulphites) are chemicals that occur naturally in grapes and also are added to wine as a preservative. All Anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygoid arch). Trace amounts of resveratrol exist in grapes, white wine and peanuts. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. Sinclair of Harvard University and others claim that resveratrol is the active molecule responsible for the significant difference in lowering cancer risks and that the required amounts are only found in red wine. Their exact ancestry is disputed. Dr.

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the era of the dinosaurs, 200 million years ago. However, recent studies show that only red wine reduces the risk of contracting several types of cancer where beer and other alcoholic beverages show no change. Turtles have a gelatinous substance in their upper and lower shell, called calipash and calipee respectively, the calipash being of a dull greenish and the calipee of a light yellow color. Other studies have shown that similar beneficial effects on the heart can be obtained from drinking beer, and distilled spirits. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water through these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills. With excessive consumption, however, any health benefits are offset by the increased rate of various alcohol-related diseases, primarily cancers of mouth, upper respiratory tract, and ultimately, cirrhosis of liver. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. Red wine also contains a significant amount of flavonoids and red anthocyanin pigments that act as antioxidants.

Some species have large cloacal cavities lined with many finger-like projections. One particularly interesting polyphenol found in red wine is resveratrol, to which numerous beneficial effects have been attributed. However, aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Compounds, known as polyphenols, are found in larger amounts in red wine, and there is some evidence that these are especially beneficial. Although they spend large proportions of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. Originally, the effect was observed with red wine. In some species, temperature of the egg during development determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. It now seems clear that regular consumption of up to 1-2 drinks a day (1 standard drink is approximately equal to 5 oz, or 125 ml, of 13% wine) does reduce mortality, due to 10%–40% lower risk of coronary heart disease, for those over the age of 35 or so (see Alcohol consumption and health).

Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In the USA, a boom in red wine consumption was touched off in the 1990s by '60 Minutes', and other news reports on the French paradox. Their albumen is white and will not coagulate when cooked because of the protein it contains which is different to that of bird eggs. The health effects of wine (and alcohol in general) are the subject of considerable ongoing debate and study. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. 9:20-21) Wine remains an essential part of the Eucharistic rites in the Orthodox, Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican denominations of Christianity. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches. (Gen.

The oldest tortoise on record is Tui Malila, known to have lived at least 188 years. The New Testament even states that Jesus' very first miracle was to turn water into wine (John 2:1-11), and the Old Testament states that the fermentation of grapes was first discovered by Noah after the great flood described in Genesis. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Wine is also used in religious ceremonies in many cultures and the wine trade is of historical importance for many regions. The sizes of turtles vary from a few centimetres (forest and jungle species) to two metres (the leatherback turtle and the Galapagos tortoise). If in doubt, it is better to err on the side of too little aeration than too much. Pond turtles (terrapins) are usually much smaller, while some land terrapins (tortoises) are as large as sea turtles. As a general rule, younger white wines normally require no more than 15-30 minutes of aeration while younger red wines should be no more than 30-60 minutes.

Sea turtles grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of Earth. It should then be tasted every 15 minutes until the wine is, according to individual preference, ready to drink. Reference the Rheodytes leukops species. In general, wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it may be aerated, if at all. Some are known to be able to breathe through their rectums as well. Breathing, however, does not benefit all wines, and should not therefore be taken to the extreme. The top part of the shell is called the carapace, the bottom is called the plastron, and the two are connected by a bridge. Wines that are older generally fade (lose their character and flavor intensity) with extended aeration.

All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavours and makes them taste slightly smooth and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. . "Older", on the other hand, refers to the last one third of their lives. Some species of turtles are highly endangered. For most white wines, "younger" means up to one to two years, while for red wines, they could mean as little as a few months, for a Beaujolais Nouveau, up to ten years for a hearty Barossa Shiraz. About 300 species are alive today. The word, "younger", refers to the first one third of a wine’s life, which varies from wine type to wine type and from wine to wine.

The order of Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. Generally, younger wines benefit from some aeration, while older wines do not. in North America) to refer to all members of the order, including tortoises, which are predominantly land-based. 'Breathing' means allowing a wine to aerate before drinking. The term is sometimes used (esp. to "breathe"), while other wines are recommended to be drunk as soon as they are opened. The term turtle is usually used for the aquatic species, though aquatic fresh water turtles are also called terrapins. The labels on certain bottles of wine suggest that they need to be set aside for an hour before drinking (ie.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilagenous shell developed from their ribs. Although there are many classes of dinner wines, they can be categorized under six specific classes as follows:. Superfamily Pelomedusoidea. The apéritif and dessert wines contain 14-20% alcohol, and are fortified to make them richer and sweeter than the light wines. Superfamily Chelonioidea. Red, white and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are also known as light wines, because they only contain approximately 10-14% alcohol. Superfamily Kinosternoidea. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex.

Superfamily Trionychoidea. Use of the term Meritage is protected by licensing agreements by The Meritage Association. Superfamily Testudinoidea. For example, Meritage is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Some blended wine names are marketing terms, and the use of these names is governed by trademark or copyright law, rather than a specific wine law or a patent on the actual varietal blend or process used to achieve it. Thus, the finest sparkling wines from California will be labeled "sparkling wine", while some less expensive sparkling wines from California as well as states, such as Ohio and New York, may bear the name "Champagne".

For example, makers of American sparkling wines now generally find it to be of no advantage in the marketplace to use the name "Champagne" because the quality of their products is widely recognized. Generally only less expensive, mass-produced wines (or vin ordinaire) make use of these place names as semi-generic wine names. Some European producers protest the practice for fear that it causes loss of sales, although only the most unsophisticated consumer would be confused or mislead by the practice. winemakers to apply these terms to their wines even though the product does not come from these specific places.

While most countries restrict the use of these place names, there exists a legal definition called semi-generic in the United States that enables U.S. All of these are names of specific regions in Europe. However, in the United States (except Oregon), the following European appellations are allowed to be used as generic wine names: Asti, Burgundy, Chablis, Champagne, Chianti, Madeira, Marsala, and Moselle. For example, in most of the world, wine labeled Champagne must be made from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France and fermented using a certain method, based on the international trademark agreements included in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.

The inconsistent application of historical European designations can be confusing. New World wines are known primarily by their varietal content, and not by their region. The AVA designations do not restrict the type of grape used. The appellation system is strongest in the European Union, but a related system, the American Viticultural Area, restricts the use of certain regional labels in America, such as Napa Valley, Santa Barbara and Willamette Valley.

These naming conventions or "appellations" (as they are known in France) dictate not only where the grapes in a wine were grown, but also which grapes went into the wine and how they were vinified. Historically, wines have been known by names reflecting their origin, and sometimes style: Bordeaux, Rioja, Mosel and Chianti are all legally defined names, reflecting the traditional wines produced in the named region. The taste of a wine depends not only on the grape species and varietal blend, but also on the ground and climate (known as terroir) where it is cultivated. To accommodate market demands, an increasing number of French wine makers are labeling their bottles with the variety or varieties of grapes included, as permitted by law.

Within Europe, a major exception to the no-grape rule is with German wines, for which it is not uncommon to find this information on the front label. This is understandable; the many systems of geographic nomenclature with their precise meanings and implications are highly complex.[4]. For example, 72% of French adults report that they have difficulty understanding wine labels. However, to the typical or even to the well informed wine consumer, the system can be confusing if not impenetrable.

This is not the case with most European wines because tradition and legal restrictions enable a well trained connoisseur or other expert to know what variety of grape is in the bottle. Examples of recognized locales include:Napa Valley, Russian River Valley, Willamette Valley, Sonoma, Walla Walla, etc., Still, though, the grape variety is almost invariably present on the label. More and more, however, market recognition of particular regions and wineries is leading to their increased prominence on New World wine labels. New World wines (those from everywhere except Europe) are generally named for the grape variety.

Generally speaking, Old World (European) wines are named for the place of production, with the grapes used often not appearing on the label. Wines are usually named either by their grape variety or by their place of production. Instead of labels, the bottles (red, as well as white) had printing in gold on them, as seen in the illustration. An example is the Mildara Rhine Riesling produced in 1973 to mark the opening of the Sydney Opera House.

Some wines, produced to mark significant events in a country or region, can also become collectible because of labelling design. False labeling is another dishonest practice commonly used. Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing. Wine fraud scams often work by charging excessively high prices for the wine, while representing that it is a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.

Also investment in fine wine has attracted a number of fraudsters who have played on fine wine's exclusive image, and their clients' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. Many wine writers have decried the trend, as it has pushed up prices to the point that few people will consider drinking such valuable commodities, and consequently they are kept in bottles undrunk where they eventually deteriorate into a substance very much like red wine vinegar in taste (and desirability). The most common wines purchased for investment are Bordeaux and Port. Secondary markets for these wines have consequently developed, as well as specialised facilities for post-purchase storage for people to "invest" in wine.

Exclusive wines come from all the best winemaking regions of the world. Some high-end wines are veblen goods (for conspicuous consumption). For restaurateurs, serving old vintages is a risk that is compensated through elevated prices. This is for a reason: diners will often return wines that have spoilt and not bear the expense.

Restaurants will often charge between two to five times the price of what a wine merchant may ask for an exceptional vintage. Part of the expense associated with high-end wine comes from the number of bottles which must be discarded in order to produce a drinkable wine. On the other hand, they may spoil after such long storage periods, unbeknownst to the drinker about to open the bottle. Such wines are often at their best years, or sometimes decades, after bottling.

Red wines, at least partly because of their ability to form more complex subtleties, are typically the most expensive. At the highest end, rare, super-premium wines are amongst the most expensive of all foodstuffs, and outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. It can sometimes profit from aging 2-3 years and some Prestige Cuvées even much longer. French Champagne is often non-vintage, but still expensive.

There are exceptions though. Conversely, wines such as White Zinfandel, which don't age well, are made to be drunk immediately and may not be labeled with a vintage year. Some vintage wines are only made in better-than-average years. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages.

Whilst vintage wines are generally made in a single batch so that each and every bottle will have a similar taste, climatic factors can have a dramatic impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. They are therefore more expensive than non-vintage wines. For most types of wine, the best-quality grapes and the most care in wine-making are employed on vintage wines. These wines often improve in flavor as they age, and wine enthusiasts will occasionally save bottles of a favorite vintage wine for future consumption.

"Vintage wines" are made from grapes of a single year's harvest, and are accordingly dated. Wines may be classified by the year in which the grapes are harvested, known as the "vintage". Specific flavors may also be sensed, at least by an experienced taster, due to the highly complex mix of organic molecules, such as esters, that a fully vinted wine contains. Dry wine, for example, has only a tiny amount of residual sugar.

The sweetness of wines can be measured in brix, at harvest, but is in actuality determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation. Wines may be described as 'dry' (meaning they are without sugar), off-dry, fruity, or sweet, for example. Different grape varieties are associated with the aromas and tastes of different compounds. They are made up of chemical compounds which are similar to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices.

Wines may be also classified by their primary impression on the drinker's palate. Grappa is a dry colorless brandy, distilled from fermented grape pomace, the pulpy residue of grapes, stems and seeds that were pressed for the winemaking process. Brandy is a distilled wine. Fortified wines are often sweeter, always more alcoholic wines that have had their fermentation process stopped by the addition of a spirit, such as brandy.

In most countries except the United States, champagne is legally defined as sparkling wine originating from a region in France. Other international denominations of sparkling wine include Sekt or Schaumwein (Germany), Cava (Spain), Spumante or Prosecco (Italy). In France, wines that gain their carbonation from the traditional method of bottle fermentation are called Méthode Traditionnelle. To have this effect, the wine is fermented twice, once in an open container to allow the carbon dioxide to escape into the air, and a second time in a sealed container, where the gas is caught and remains in the wine.

They vary from just a slight bubbliness to the classic Champagne. Sparkling wines, such as champagne, are those with carbon dioxide, either from fermentation or added later. Another form of Rosé is called Blanc de Noir where the juice of red grapes are allowed contact with the skins for a very short time (usually only a couple of hours). Rosé wines are a compromise between reds and whites: a small amount of red wine is blended with a white wine.

A white wine made from a very dark grape may appear pink or 'blush'. White wine can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes, but its red colour is bestowed by the skin being left in contact with the juice during fermentation. Grapes with colored juice are known as teinturiers, such as alicante bouchet.

The colour of wine is not determined by the juice of the grape, which is almost always clear, but rather by the presence or absence of the grape skin during fermentation. These include classifications such as sparkling, still, fortified, rosé, and blush. Wines may be classified by vinification methods. Their producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes, hide any hint of often-unremarkable "terroirs", or climatically under-performing harvest years, by:.

However, flavor differences are not necessarily a desirable quality for large producers of table wine or more affordable wines, where consistency is more important for mass-market wine brands. Many small producers use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. The variety of grape(s), aspect (direction of slope), elevation, and topography of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, the climate and seasonal conditions under which grapes are grown, the local yeast cultures altogether form the concept of "terroir." The range of possibilities lead to great variety among wine products, which is extended by the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the World except for Chile, which has yet to be exposed to the bug.

This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. Hybrids are not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Although generally prohibited by law in traditional wine regions, hybrids are planted in substantial numbers in cool-climate viticultural areas.

Concord wine (Vitis labrusca species). Vitis labrusca, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis muscadinia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes, usually grown for eating in fruit form or made into grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine, eg. Wine can also be made from other species or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Blended wines are in no way inferior to varietal wines; indeed, some of the world's most valued and expensive wines from the Bordeaux, Rioja or Tuscany regions, are a blend of several grape varieties of the same vintage.

When one of these varieties, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, or Merlot, for example, is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75 or 85%) the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended wine. Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species, Vitis vinifera. In 2000, Great Britain imported more wine from Australia than from France for the first time in history. The leaders in export volume by market share in 2003 were:.

The vineyards of Algeria used to produce many fine wines, especially during and immediately after the era of French colonization, but civil strife since the 1970s has greatly reduced this industry. In the United States, California accounts for the largest share of wine producers, including Napa Valley, Sonoma Valley, Monterey, Paso Robles, and Santa Ynez. The 13 largest export nations (2005 dates) – Italy, France, Spain, Australia, Chile, the United States of America, Germany, South Africa, Portugal, Moldova, Hungary, Croatia and Argentina. Grapevines prefer a relatively long growing season of 100 days or more with warm daytime temperatures (no greater than 95°F/35°C) and cool nights (a difference of 40°F/23°C or more).

The world's most southerly vineyards are in the South Island of New Zealand near the 45th parallel. Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the Equator. The advent of wine in Europe was the work of the Greeks who spread the art of grape-growing and winemaking in Ancient Greek and Roman times. By the end of the Old Kingdom, five wines, all probably produced in the Delta, constitute a canonical set of provisions, or fixed "menu," for the afterlife.

Winemaking scenes on tomb walls, and the offering lists that accompanied them, included wine that was definitely produced at the deltaic vineyards. The industry was most likely the result of trade between Egypt and Canaan during the Early Bronze Age, commencing from at least the Third Dynasty (2650 – 2575 BC), the beginning of the Old Kingdom period (2650 – 2152 BC). 3000 BC. A thriving royal winemaking industry was established in the Nile Delta following the introduction of grape cultivation from the Levant to Egypt c.

In Ancient Egypt, wine played an important part in ceremonial life. None of these areas can be singled out, despite persistent suggestions that Georgia is the birthplace of wine[3]. Wild grapes grow in the northern Levant, coastal and southeastern Turkey, the Caspian coast of Iran, Armenia, and Georgia. However, the first large-scale production of wine must have been in the region where grapes were first domesticated, the Near East.

It could have been anywhere in the vast region, stretching from Spain to Central Asia, where wild grapes grow. Exactly where wine was first made will probably never be known. The identifications have not yet been replicated in other laboratories. These identifications are regarded with caution by some biochemists because of the risk of false positives, particularly where complex mixtures of organic materials, and degradation products, may be present.

The identifications are based on the identification of tartaric acid and tartrate salts using a form of infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Records include jars from the Pottery Neolithic (5400-5000 BC) site of Hajji Firuz Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of present-day Iran and from Late Uruk (3500-3100 BC) occupation at the site of Uruk, in Mesopotamia[2]. Wine residue has been identified by Patrick McGovern's team at the University Museum, Pennsylvania, in ancient pottery jars. There is scanty evidence for earlier domestication of grape, in the form of grape pips from Chalcolithic Tell Shuna in Jordan, but this evidence remains unpublished.

Grapes were, of course, also an important food. There is also increasingly abundant evidence for wine making in Sumeria and Egypt in the third millennium BC. Domesticated grapes were abundant in the Near East from the beginning of the Early Bronze Age, starting in 3200 BC. It is unlikely they could have been the basis of a wine industry.

However, wild grapes are small and sour, and relatively rare at archaeological sites. This would have been easier following the development of pottery vessels in the later Neolithic of the Near East, about 9000 years ago. It is plausible that early foragers and farmers made alcoholic beverages from wild fruits, including wild grapes (Vitis sylvestris). Little is known of the prehistory of wine.

[1]. Some believe this word was derived from the Georgian ghvino. The word wine comes from the Old English win, which derives from the Proto-Germanic *winam which was an early borrowing from the Latin vinum (related to Greek οἶνος), which can mean either the "wine" or the "vine" . .

The English word wine and its equivalents in other languages are protected by law in many jurisdictions. However, in such cases a qualifier is often legally required (e.g., "elderberry wine"). Wine-like beverages can be produced by the fermentation of other fruits and flowers (fruit or country wines), barley (barley wine), rice (sake), honey (mead), and even herbs (Chinese wine). Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes and grape juice.

The series was very popular and a wine named Falcon Crest even went on the market. Falcon Crest, USA 1981-1990: A CBS primetime soap opera about the fictional Falcon Crest winery and the family who owned it, set in the fictional Tuscany Valley of California. In search of themselves., in which wine, particularly Pinot Noir, plays a central role. In search of women.

Sideways, 2004: A comedy/drama film, directed by Alexander Payne, with the tagline: In search of wine. Mondovino, USA/France 2004: A documentary film directed by American film maker, Jonathan Nossiter, explaining the impact of globalization on the various wine-producing regions. Often referred to as a winemaker. Oenologist: A wine scientist.

Winemaker: A person that makes wine. Sommelier: A waiter in a restaurant who specializes in wine. Vintner: A wine merchant or producer. Négociant: A wine merchant who assembles the produce of smaller growers and winemakers, and sells them under his own name.

Cooper: Someone who makes wooden barrels, casks, and other similar wooden objects. Wine stopper: An accessory, used to close leftover wine bottles because it is hard to put the original cork back into the bottleneck. Wine-press: A device, comprising two vats or receptacles, one for trodding and bruising grapes, and the other for collecting the juice. Wine label: The label on a wine bottle that must provide at least the minimum amount of information prescribed by law.

Wine glass: Glasses used to drink wine from. Wine cooler: An accessory, such as an ice bucket, for cooling wine. Wine collar: This accoutrement slips over the neck of a wine bottle and absorbs any drips that may run down the bottle after pouring - preventing stains to table cloths, counter tops or other surfaces. Wine bottle: A small container, with a neck that is narrower than the body, that allows long-term aging of wine when combined with a high-quality stopper, such as a cork.

Also called a "Stelvin". Screwcap: An alternative to cork for sealing wine bottles, comprising a metal cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a bottle. Napkin is used around a bottleneck to stop drops running on bottle surface after pouring wine to glasses. But unlike wine collars it is elastic and can accommodate many sizes of bottles.

Drip dickey: Like a wine collar this accoutrement slips over the neck of a wine bottle and absorbs any drips that may run down the bottle after pouring - preventing stains to table cloths, counter tops or other surfaces. Corkscrew: A tool, comprising a pointed metallic helix attached to a handle, for drawing stopping corks from bottles. Cork (material): Tissue material, harvested from the Cork oak tree, and very suitable as a material for bottle stoppers. Butt: An old English unit of wine casks, equivalent to about 477 litres (126 US gallons/105 imperial gallons).

Barrel: A hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wood staves, used for fermenting and aging wine. Amphora: A type of ceramic vase, used for transporting and storing wine. Aging barrel: A barrel used to age wine or distilled spirits. Non-alcoholic wine.

Rebujito: A mixture of manzanilla wine, mixed with a soft drink like Sprite or 7 Up. Zurracapote: A popular Spanish alcoholic drink comprising mainly of red wine, spirit, fruit juice, sugar and cinnamon. Wine cooler: An alcoholic beverage made from wine and fruit juice, often in combination with a carbonated beverage and sugar. Spritzer: A tall, chilled drink, usually made of white wine and soda water.

Sangria Spanish: A wine punch, comprising red wine, chopped fruits, sugar, and a small amount of brandy or other spirits. Mulled wine (known in Scandinavia as Glögg and in Germany as Glühwein): A red wine, combined with spices, and usually served hot. Calimocho: A cheap alcoholic drink, comprising 50% red wine and 50% cola drink. Brandy: A general term for distilled wine.

List of cocktails with wine. (Note, however, that most cooking authorities advise against cooking with any wine one would find unacceptable to drink.). Cooking wines: Typically containing a significant quantity of salt, cooking wine is wine of such poor quality that it is unpalatable and intended for use only in cooking. Among these are port wine, sweet sherry, Tokay, and muscatel.

Dessert wines: Ranging from medium-sweet to sweet, these wines are classified under dessert wines only because they are sometimes served with desserts. As such, unless a wine has more than 14 % alcohol, or it has bubbles, it is a table wine or a light wine. In Europe, light wine must be within 8.5 % and 14 % alcohol by volume. standards of identity, table wines may have an alcohol content that is no higher than 14 %.

According to U.S. Table wine: Table wine is not bubbly, although some have a very slight carbonation, the amount of which is not enough to disqualify them as table wines. The most common sparkling wines are Champagne (white) and sparkling Burgundy (red). Sparkling wines: Usually served at any meal with any course, these wines are most frequently served at banquets, formal dinners and weddings.

They include Rhine wines, Chablis, sauterne, and wine made from different grape varieties such as Chardonnay and White Riesling. White dinner wines: Usually either very dry or rather sweet, these wines should be served chilled, and go well with white meats, seafood, and fowl. Pink dinner wines (also called "rose wines"), a special class of red wines, can be served with almost any dish, but are considered best with cold meats, pork, and curries. The most popular red dinner wines are claret, Burgundy, Chianti, and Cabernet Sauvignon.

They should be served at a cool room temperature to bring out their aroma. Red dinner wines: These wines are usually dry and go extremely well with such main-course dishes as red meats, spaghetti, and highly-seasoned foods. Apéritif (or better known as "appetizer wines"): include dry sherry, Madeira, Vermouth, and other flavored wines, made to be consumed before eating a meal. using flavor additives.

pasteurizing the grape juice in order to kill indigenous yeasts (to be replaced with "choice" cultivated yeasts); and. blending harvests of various years and vineyards;. Germany 4%. Portugal 4%.

United States, 5%. Chile, 6%. Australia, 8%. Spain, 16%.

Italy, 20%. France, 22%.

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